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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources Audio

-1 YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 9 Feb.


2013.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chXPybOnP9w&feature=youtube_gdata_playe r>. "The East is Red" is the traditional song of Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution. The lyrics of this song mean that the rising of the sun signifies a new day, in which Mao Zedong spreads new light upon China with his Communist ideas. I used the audio from this video on the Home page of my website.

Anthologies Mao, Tse-tung. Mao Tse-tung: An Anthology of His Writings. Ed. Anne Fremantle. New York: International, 1956. Print. Excerpt from Philosophical, Strategic, and Political Writings. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Mao Tse-tung: An Anthology of His Writings was very detailed and important because it led me to find many other sources. It stated where Mao developed his ideas from and his background as a child. Also, it told about the books Mao read, how he was influenced by them, and would use them in his development of Maoism.

Books Mao, Tse-Tung. The Poems of Mao Tse-Tung. New York: Harper, 1972. Print.

The Poems of Mao Tse-Tung gives the original poem in traditional Chinese writing and the translation next to it. Most of these poems are from Mao's younger years as a student. In addition, the subjects of these poems range from political to everyday accounts of his life.

Mao, Tse-tung. Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung. Peking: Foreign Languages, 1966. Print. The Little Red Book contains many of the quotations of Chairman Mao on a wide variety of subjects. I used these quotations in my project to explain how Mao thought he revolutionized China according to his own words. The bibliography also led me to many other sources, such as the Red Star over China by Edgar Snow.

Wong, Jan. Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now. Toronto: Doubleday/Anchor, 1996. Print. Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now gives a firsthand account of the life of a Maoist. At first, Jan Wong strongly supports Maoism, but after a while she starts to realize what Mao was really trying to do. This is beneficial to my project because it showed how Mao significantly changed people's thought process, which is a turning point.

Cartography "Historical Map of China 1934-1936: The Long March." Map. Emerson Kent. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. <http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/china_long_march.htm>.

The map of the Long March was helpful in my project to show the route that the Chinese Communist Party used to claim territory. This map is also very detailed as it shows where the Communists were eliminated by the May 4th Movement.

Stuart, Kirby. "Map of the Important Industrial Projects in Our Nation under the First Five Year Plan." Chinese Posters. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://chineseposters.net/images/e15-778.jpg>. The map shown portrays where the important industrial projects were located in China during the Great Leap Forward. In addition, it shows where steel, electricity, and coal were produced. I used this in my website on the Industrialization page.

Illustrations "CCP Flag." Asian Security Blog. WordPress, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://asiansecurityblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/clip_image004_thumb.png?w=24 4&h=164>. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is a red flag with a yellow Communist symbol in the upper left hand corner. It is the official flag of the CCP. I used this in my project in the page titled Rising Ideas which was about Communism in China.

Family under Protection of Chairman Mao. James' Info Matrix. Blogspot, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://jamesmys.blogspot.com/2010/03/when-chinese-god-died-mao-zedongand_10.html>.

Family under Protection of Chairman Mao is from a Mao Zedong propaganda poster. It portrayed a family at a table under the portrait of Mao. The caption said "The happy life that Chairman Mao gives us." This poster helped me to analyze the influence of Mao Zedong and how Communism rose in China.

"The Great Leap Forward Propaganda." The Whited Sepulchre. Blogger, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://4.bp.blogspot.com/Opkh3W_awNc/T58tLfKm98I/AAAAAAAAFrk/kGIAiJJmZbY/s640/great+leap+forwa rd+1.jpg>. The Great Leap Forward Propaganda shows Mao and many of his supporters. His supporters are various people including Red Guards and intellectuals. I used this in my project as a link to the Five Year Plan page.

"Hold High the Great Red Banner of Mao Zedong Thought." Chinese Posters. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://chineseposters.net/images/e13-764.jpg>. Hold High the Great Red Banner of Mao Zedong Thought is the caption to this propaganda poster. It shows four Red Guards in uniform with signs that support Mao Zedong. I used this in my project as a visual representation of the Red Guards.

Long Live Chairman Mao. James' Info Matrix. Blogspot, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://jamesmys.blogspot.com/2010/03/when-chinese-god-died-mao-zedongand_10.html>.

Long Live Chairman Mao is a propaganda poster with people holding the "Little Red Book" also known as the Quotations from Chairman Mao. They seem to be smiling and happily shouting. The caption says "Long live Chairman Mao! May he live ten thousand years!"

"Mao." A Lanson Boy. Blogger, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_d0LjvVfRgws/S8LpzeZf2hI/AAAAAAAABr0/kcoxrSgVsN U/s1600/xe13-549.jpg>. The propaganda poster is of Mao in front of a red sun. He is in a Red Guard uniform, which shows his support for the group. I used this in my project as a visual representation in my timeline.

"The People's Liberation Army of China Is the Main School of Mao Zedong's Thought." James' Info Matrix. Blogger, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_sGOSS_6GPUM/TUg6tlLCjZI/AAAAAAAABr8/PDzpojlx0 1k/s320/3.jpg>. The propaganda poster is of Mao and the People's Liberation Army. The caption says "The People's Liberation Army of China Is the Main School of Mao Zedong's Thought." I used this to help explain the "Four Olds."

Progress from the Cultural Revolution. James' Info Matrix. Blogspot, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://jamesmys.blogspot.com/2010/03/when-chinese-god-died-mao-zedongand_10.html>.

Progress from the Cultural Revolution is a propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. It says that "The path of the arts and literature will become victorious and progressive by following Chairman Mao's revolution." I used this to show how Mao tried to influence others into supporting Maoism.

"Melt a Lot of Good Steel and Accelerate Socialist Construction." Crestock. Crestock, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://www.crestock.com/uploads/blog/2009/china-propaganda/1959socialist-construction.jpg>. The propaganda poster shows the steel fever during the Great Leap Forward. The caption says Smell a Lot of Good Steel and Accelerate Socialist Construction. I used this in the Industrialization page of my website.

Stuart, Kirby. "Electricity is the Power Source of All Industries." Chinese Posters. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://chineseposters.net/images/e15-780.jpg>. This is a poster that shows how electricity impacted industrialization during the Great Leap Forward. One of the main things China wanted to industrialize was electricity. I used this in my project to show industrialization.

Stuart, Kirby. "Steel and Iron Industries are the Basis of All Industries." Chinese Posters. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://chineseposters.net/images/e15-779.jpg>. Steel Industry Is the Basis of All Industries is a propaganda poster from the Great Leap Forward. It shows various ways steel was used. I used this in my project to explain industrialization.

Interviews Bao, Paul. Personal interview. 2 Jan. 2013. This interview with Mr. Bao was very important as it related his personal experience during the Cultural Revolution. He also talked about how the Cultural Revolution was a turning point. I used this in the Significance & Impact page.

Chen, Wrenren. Personal interview. 5 Jan. 2013. Wrenren Chen told his personal story about when he was working in the Da He Reservoir. He worked from sunrise to sunset trying to produce steel and iron. The system they used to try to produce this product was futile. The reason the system did not work is because the furnace never reached a sufficient temperature. I used this interview in the Cultural Revolution page.

Liu, Yunshen. Personal interview. 18 Mar. 2013. In this interview, I asked Mr. Liu one main question: how did Communism impact your life? His answer was very detailed and it surprised me. He said that it was actually very beneficial to him, as it allowed him to receive his education and it also gave him the opportunity to serve in the Airforce. I used parts of this interview on the Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Rising Ideas page.

Photography "Anti-Rightist Campaign." Facts and Details. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=1153&catid=2>.

The Anti-Rightist Campaign shows hundreds of people gathered at a speech concerning Chairman Mao. All of the people attending the event are wearing the same uniform. I used this in my project in the Hundred Flowers Campaign page as a visual representation.

"Beijing University Welcomes New Students." Sohu. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://learning.sohu.com/20090610/n264442690.shtml>. This black-and-white photograph shows new students at a train station platform. They have just arrived at Beijing University. The banner above the students says "Welcome station for new students."

"Chinese Communist Party Leaders." Chinese Communist Party. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=309>. Chinese Communist Party Leaders is a photograph that shows thirty-one men that are leaders of the party. It was taken around the 1950s. I used this in my project to show how influential the CCP was, from when there were only a few members to now, since it is the largest political party in the world.

Chinese Communist Party Meeting. Chinese Posters. N.p., 10 Oct. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://chineseposters.net/themes/liushaoqi.php>. The Chinese Communist Party Meeting shows Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping and Chen Yun in 1962. It shows the six comrades at the Seven-

Thousand Cadre Big Conference. I used this in my project to show the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.

A Communist Leader Addresses Survivors of the Long March. Socialist Party. Socialist Newspaper, 30 Sept. 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. <http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/8192/30-09-2009/1949-chinese-revolution>. A Communist Leader Addresses Survivors of the Long March is a photograph taken shortly after 1936. Many of the survivors are gathered around a leader who appears to be giving a speech. I used this in my project as a visual.

"Crowds Gathering to Read New Big Character Posters." Kasama. N.p., 19 Apr. 2010. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://mikeely.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/cultural-revolution-4.gif>. Crowds Gathering to Read New Big Character Posters shows local citizens and officials. This photograph was taken during the Cultural Revolution. On the poster, the "Four Olds" are written. I used this in my project as an image to explain the Sixteen Points.

"Deng Xiao Ping Hosts the Science and Education Meeting to Resume College Entrance." Sohu. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://learning.sohu.com/20090610/n264442690.shtml>. This photograph was taken in 1977. It depicts Deng Xiao Ping and other members of the Communist Party discussing the reform of education. This was after Mao's passing, so I used it on my Impact and Significance page.

"Family Eating." Understanding Society. N.p., 28 July 2008. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://understandingsocietyglobaledition.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/chinas-manyrevolutions/>. Family Eating shows a family of five eating a small meal. All of the people in the pictures are thin and have eaten all their food. I used this image in my project as a visual representation.

Getty Images. Mao Zedong Shakes Hands with Richard Nixon. Asia Society. Asia Society, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 6 Oct. 2012. <http://asiasociety.org/blog/asia/how-much-credit-chinasrise-goes-richard-nixon>. Mao Zedong Shakes Hands with Richard Nixon shows Mao Zedong shaking hands with Richard Nixon on Nixon's official visit to Beijing. This picture shows how Mao was effective in opening up communications with other countries. It shows how Communism positively impacted China.

"The Great Famine." Tagalong Online Pocketbook. TOP, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://tagalogonlinepocketbook.com/read/others/forwarded-messages/chinas-great-leapforward-and-the-great-sparrow-campaign>. The Great Famine is a photograph that shows survivors of the famine during the Great Leap Forward. Its purpose is to show the witnesses and survivors in order to remember this event. I used this in my project to show the effect of the Great Leap Forward.

"The Hundred Flowers." Grand Strategy: The View from Oregon. WordPress, 26 Jan. 2009. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://geopolicraticus.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/hundred_flowers_campaign.jpg?w= 460>. The Hundred Flowers is a photograph of supporters holding signs. The signs say The Hundred Flowers Campaign. I used this in my project to show how people expressed their support for Mao before they were deceived.

The Hundred Flowers Campaign." Facts and Details. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=1153&catid=2>. The Hundred Flowers Campaign shows many soldiers gathered around a large sign. Common people are also marching along the street. I used this in my project on the Hundred Flowers page.

Li, Zhensheng. Before the April 5th Execution. The New York Times. New York Times, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/through-a-thwartedcinematographers-eye-chinas-cultural-revolution/?ref=maozedong>. Before the April 5th Execution depicts eight people about to be shot at by soldiers. The soldiers are at a ready position. This occurred on September 5, 1968 in Harbin, China. It shows how Mao treated counter revolutionists or anybody in general that disagreed with his political philosophy, which was Maoism.

Li, Zhensheng. A Counterrevolutionary, a Local Despot, and a Black Gang Element. The New York Times. New York Times, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/through-a-thwarted-cinematographers-eyechinas-cultural-revolution/?ref=maozedong>. This photograph shows how people were punished for going against the Mao Zedong thought. It shows three men in the back of a truck in Harbin, China. Around their necks, they have their name and the crime they committed. There was a counterrevolutionary, a local despot, and a black gang element.

Li, Zhensheng. Guards Hanging Posters. The New York Times. New York Times, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/through-a-thwartedcinematographers-eye-chinas-cultural-revolution/?ref=maozedong>. In this picture, there are Red Guards hanging posters on the wall of Harbin's University of Industry. The billboard said "Follow Chairman Mao's great strategy and grasp the direction of revolutionary struggle." I used this in my project to show how Mao tried to spread his ideas.

Li, Zhensheng. "Learning and Applying Mao Zedong Thought." The New York Times. New York Times, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/through-a-thwarted-cinematographers-eyechinas-cultural-revolution/?ref=maozedong>.

From this image, I can see that many people attended the "Learning and Applying Mao Zedong Thought" rally in Harbin, China on September 13, 1966. It was held in the Red Guard Square. This is a primary source that I used this as a visual.

Li, Zhensheng. Military Hospital Patients Pledge Loyalty. The New York Times. New York Times, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 6 Oct. 2012. <http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/through-a-thwarted-cinematographers-eyechinas-cultural-revolution/?ref=maozedong>. In this picture, military hospital patients are raising their red book to the portrait of Mao Zedong. The book they are raising is most likely the "Little Red Book" which is the collected quotes of Mao Zedong. This photograph was taken in Harbin on September 5, 1968.

Li, Zhensheng. Mourning Mao Zedong. The New York Times. New York Times, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/10/through-a-thwartedcinematographers-eye-chinas-cultural-revolution/?ref=maozedong>. Hundreds of thousands of people mourning Mao Zedong's death are shown in this image. It was taken in Harbin's People's Stadium on September 18, 1976. This source is beneficial because it shows the impact Mao Zedong had on many people.

"Mao Zedong." Chinese Cultural Online. Chinese Cultural Online, 2004. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://www.chinesecultureonline.org/literature.jsp?catName=contemporary&centerNam e=maozedong>.

Mao Zedong is a portrait of Mao Zedong. It shows him in black and white, wearing a collared shirt with pockets. This image is the one that is also on the Chinese dollar bill. I used this image in my project as a visual to depict him.

"Mao Zedong Declares the PRC." Ohio State Forums. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://people.cohums.ohiostate.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02chinese.html>. This photograph shows Mao giving a speech on October 1, 1949, declaring the People's Republic of China. I used this image in my website on the Hundred Flowers Campaign page.

"Mao Zedong Visits Moscow." The 18th National Congress of the CCP. N.p., 2 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.china.org.cn/china/18th_cpc_congress/201211/02/content_26748933.htm>. Mao Zedong Visits Moscow shows Chairman Mao with many other Communist leaders of other countries. They are celebrating the 40th anniversary of the October Socialist Revolution. I used this photograph on the Communism in China page on my website.

"Peasants Supporting the Great Leap Forward." The Whited Sepulchre. Blogger, 30 Apr. 2012. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://thewhitedsepulchre.blogspot.com/2012/04/great-leapforward.html>.

Peasants Supporting the Great Leap Forward shows peasants marching. Most are holding the Little Red Book and are in the Red Guard uniform. This was useful in my project as a visual.

"PLA Parade." Panjab. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.panjab.org.uk/english/China60thaniv.htm>. The Peoples Liberation Army Parade shows thousands of army members marching through Tiananmen Square. They are marching on October 1, 1949, the day the Peoples Republic of China was founded. They are gathered to celebrate.

"Radical Supporters Called the Red Guards." MDNC World History. Tangient, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://mdncworldhistory.wikispaces.com/file/view/redguards.jpg/338147120/red-guards.jpg>. Radical Supporters of Mao were called the Red Guards. The Red Guards are commonly depicted wearing uniforms and carrying Mao's book of quotations. They are located in Tiananmen Square.

"Red Guard Student Riots during the Cultural Revolution." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/9883593/Chinese-pensioneron-trial-for-murdering-doctor-during-Cultural-Revolution.html>.

This is a black and white photograph that shows students who are Red Guards marching during the Cultural Revolution. The ages of the students vary from about twelve to twenty. I used this in my project on the Home page.

"Red Guard Uniform from the Cultural Revolution 1966-76." Powerhouse Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/hsc/evrev/img/00207395r.jpg>. The Red Guard outfits from the Cultural Revolution were worn during 1966 to 1976. The Red Guards were supporters of Mao Zedong. The uniform of the Red Guards are not actually red, but rather an army green. The "Red" was used to symbolize the Chinese meaning of luck and good fortune.

"Red Guards." The History of the Cold War: A Comparative Perspective. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://phobos.ramapo.edu/~theed/Cold_War/d_Brezhnev_Era/c_1968/ff_Wuhan.html>. The Red Guards shows many women in Red Guard uniforms. They are reading a small book, probably the Little Red Book which contains quotations from Chairman Mao. They are marching under a flag of Mao.

Red Guards at Tiananmen Square. James' Info Matrix. Blogspot, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://jamesmys.blogspot.com/2010/03/when-chinese-god-died-mao-zedongand_10.html>. Tens of thousands of Red Guards are waving their "Little Red Book" during a Chairman Mao's speech. Guards from all providences were in Tiananmen Square. It is said that they

worshiped Mao like a god and sometimes wore a pin with his picture on it, so they could keep him close to their heart.

"Starving Boy." Good Reads. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://www.permaculture.org.au/images/famine_china.jpg>. In this photograph, a starving boy is depicted during the Great Leap Forward. He is mostly skin and bones in the picture. I used this in my project in the Famine page to show the disastrous effect of the Great Leap Forward.

"The Worst Famine in History." China Daily Mail. WordPress, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://chinadailymail.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/16-china-faminetombstone.jpg?w=750>. The Worst Famine in History shows rice farmers in a field. Hundreds of people are working in a field plowing. I used this in my project to show how people coped with the famine.

Speeches Mao, Zedong. "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People." State Supreme Conference. 27 Feb. 1957. Marxist. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume5/mswv5_58.htm>.

On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People was a speech given by Chairman Mao. He used it to signify the end of the Hundred Flowers Campaign. It was given in the Eleventh Session of the Supreme State Conference.

Videos CCTV4. 2011-10-01 . Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6D77NE-waQ&feature=youtube_gdata_player>. This video was from October 1, 1949 when the People's Republic of China was established. I used the portion that shows Mao declaring "The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China is established today." This video is found on the Rising Ideas Page in my website.

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Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chXPybOnP9w&feature=youtube_gdata_player>. From this video, I used a clip that showed Mao meeting the Red Guards in Tiananmen Square. It was taken in 1966. I used this in my project under the Cultural Revolution page.

Secondary Sources Audio ANU Channel. Professor Ezra Vogel: The Legacy of Deng Xiaoping - ANU Public Lecture. Youtube. N.p., 19 June 2012. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_-U8ianMAE&feature=youtube_gdata_player>.

This video is of Professor Erza Vogel of Harvard talking about how new leaders opened China to the world after Mao's death. He discusses why and how they did this. I used the audio from this video in my Significance and Impact page.

Books Becker, Jasper. Mao's Secret Famine. New York: Free, 1998. Print. Mao's Secret Famine was very helpful for explaining the famine that the Great Leap Forward caused. Even though the exportation rate rose, people in China were starving. I used this in my project in the Famine page to help explain it.

Diktter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-1962. N.p.: Walker & Company, 2011. Print. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-1962 was important because of the timeline it included. It gave a description of every event that happened during the rise of Communism in China. It also included other Communist actions, such as those by Khrushchev. Also, the author was very detailed in the events he was describing.

Karnow, Stanely. Mao and China: Inside China's Revolution. N.p.: Penguin, 1984. Print. Mao and China: Inside China's Revolution was very informational when explaining how Mao gathered his thoughts. Mao as a child despised the Qing Dynasty because they would not help the starving people in the countryside, so when he came into power he tried to improve it. Karnow also went into detail about the Chinese Civil War, where The

Chinese Communist Party, led by Mao, defeated the Chinese Nationalist Party. Things were easier to understand because of the use of quotations from Chairman Mao and people that were associated with him.

Mao's China and After. 3rd ed. New York: Free, 1999. Print. From the book Mao's China and After I learned about Mao's political ideologies and his objectives as the leader of China. It also helped me solidify why the Chinese Revolution was such a failure. I used this in my project to explain the consequences of this turning point.

Schram, Stuart. Chairman Mao Talks to the People: Talks and Letters 1956-1971. N.p.: Pantheon, 1974. Print. In Chairman Mao Talks to the People: Talks and Letters 1956-1971, I mainly used the first chapter which told about the Ten Great Relationships. This book quoted Mao from his address on April 25, 1956. This will be an important primary source for a quote in my project.

Charts "China and the First Five Year Plan." Map. History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/china_five_year_plan.htm>. This chart is of statistics from the First Five Year Plan. It shows the original, planned, and actual output of resources such as coal, pig-iron, steel, and cement. The output for

each varied. In some cases the output was higher than the planned, and in others it was lower.

"Global GDP, HDI, and IWI." Chart. Science Codex. N.p., 17 June 2012. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.sciencecodex.com/unuihdp_and_unep_launch_sustainability_index_that_lo oks_beyond_gdp-93443>. This chart contained the average statistics of the GDP, HDI, and IWI of 1990 to 2008. It shows the main countries in the world. China has the highest of all three categories. I used this in the impact and significance page on my website.

"Projections of GDP 2005-30." Chart. Human Rights. Wordpress, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://filipspagnoli.wordpress.com/2008/09/12/human-rights-cartoon-101-the-yellowperil/>. This chart was a comparison of the purchasing power of the US and China in trillions of dollars. It showed that the US had more power than China in 2005, but it is predicted that that China will have much more than the United States by 2030. I used this in my project in the conclusion to show how China has changed on a global scale due to the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.

Newspaper Articles Harms, William. "China's Great Leap Forward." University of Chicago Chronicle [Chicago] 14 Mar. 1996: n. pag. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/960314/china.shtml>.

The newspaper told about a firsthand account of Professor Dali Yang's parents' experience during the Great Leap Forward. It also described that Mao wanted fifteen years of industrialization to occur in less than a year. This was a failure and led to famine in the countryside. I used this source in my project as detailed information on the Great Leap Forward.

Mercer, Phil. "Former US Diplomat Warns of Intractable US-China Tensions." Voice of Asia 15 Mar. 2013: n. pag. Print. Former US Diplomat Warns of Intractable US-China Tensions was helpful in the construction of my project because of a specific quote. The quote demonstrates the importance of China on a global perspective today. It is from a former US diplomat, Kurt Campbell, who says that the need to coexist with China is extremely important.

"1949 - Chinese Revolution." Socialist 30 Sept. 2009: n. pag. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. <http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/8192/30-09-2009/1949-chinese-revolution>. From the Socialist Newspaper, I was informed about two revolutions, the Russian and Chinese. The article compared how they were both similar, both forming the basis of the country and how they were different. It told how China used Stalinism and Russia used another method.

Reference Sources "Communism." The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. 3rd ed. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2013. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/communism>. Communism is defined as an idea created by Karl Marx where property is not individually owned, but shared. This gave me some background knowledge. I used this in my project to give a general idea about the concept of Communism. It also served as an introduction to the Rising Ideas page on my website.

Cultural Revolution. Random House Dictionary. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Dictionary.com. Web. 9 Feb. 2013. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cultural+revolution>. The Cultural Revolution was a 10 year period of time in China where Chairman Mao and the Communist Party tried to change China. Even though their plan failed, the reforms after it helped China become a powerful country. I used this dictionary definition on the Revolution page on my website.

"Great Leap Forward." Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2013. <https://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/american_english/Great%2BLeap%2BForwar d>. The definition of the Great Leap Forward was very helpful for me going into my project. I was unsure about the main purpose of it, but I learned from this definition. I used this on my Great Leap Forward page on my website.

Websites "Chinese Communist Party (CCP)." Chinese Communist Party. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=309>. From the website about the Chinese Communist Party I learned that this party is the largest in the world. In China, no independent parties are tolerated. The only parties that exist are those who are or are affiliated with the Communist Party.

"Communism: In China." Communism. Stanford University, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~eroberts/cs181/projects/communism-computingchina/china.html>. "Communism: In China" served as a general overview from a reliable source. This website was particularly useful because it told about what happened after Mao's death. In addition, it tells about modern-day China. I used this in my project to describe the effect of Communism in China today.

"The Cultural Revolution." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/cultural_revolution.htm>. From this website, I learned about how the Culture Revolution impacted education. It also went into why Mao wanted to start the revolution because he didnt want anyone to not be able to relate to the common person. The revolution ended when Liu Shao-chi, Maos main rival, was removed from office.

"From: The Chinese Revolution." Marxist. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. <http://www.marxist.com/TUT/TUT4-1.html>. The article From: The Chinese Revolution was informative about the chronology of the revolution. It explained it by using many quotes from the Chinese Communist Party and the Nationalist Party. I used this in my project as general information.

"The Great Leap Forward: Anatomy of a Central Planning Disaster." College of Art and Science: University of Washington. University of Washington, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.econ.washington.edu/user/thornj/WeiLiGreatLeapJPE.pdf>. The Great Leap Forward: Anatomy of a Central Planning Disaster was extremely helpful in understanding why the Great Famine occurred during this time period. The famine was caused mostly by human error with a slight contribution by environmental factors. In addition, there were statistics to support the claim. I used this in my website in the page titled Famine.

"The Great Leap Forward, 1958-60." Library of Congress County Studies. US Government, July 1987. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgibin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field%28DOCID+cn0039%29>. In this article there was a general view of the Great Leap Forward. It also gave statistics and told about domestic policies. In addition, it explained how the Great Leap Forward was a failure. I used this information when weighing the benefits and consequences of Mao Zedong's rule.

"History of the Cultural Revolution." Oracle ThinkQuest. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/cultural-revolution/history.html>. "History of the Cultural Revolution" is a website that provided a timeline. The timeline began in 1964 and ended in 1976. It covers the entire period of the Cultural Revolution. I used this in my project under the Timeline page.

"Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Anti-Rightist Movement." Facts and Details. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=1153&catid=2>. From this source, I learned about the Hundred Flowers Campaign. The article was extremely specific. I used this information on my website on the page the Hundred Flowers Campaign.

"Long March." History. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/long-march>. Long March gave a general overview of the Communist position. It began in 1935 and ended in 1936. The Chinese Communist Party and eight thousand people marched over four thousand miles in order to claim territory.

Office of Historian. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/ChineseRev>. From this article about the Chinese Revolution of 1949, I discovered that the revolution in China was between the Chinese Communist Party and the Nationalist Party. It commenced on October 1, 1949. I used this information in my project in order to help me

determine that I really should be focusing my project in on the Chinese Revolution of 1949 rather than the Great Leap Forward because it has a better relation to the theme.

"Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution." Peking Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.marxists.org/subject/china/peking-review/1966/PR1966-33g.htm>. Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution talks about how the revolution is going to impact the people. It lays out the people's rights and the goals for the country. I used this in my project in the Sixteen Points page.

Smith, Frank. "Communists Win China's Civil War." MacroHistory and World Report. MacroHistory and World Report, n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch24cld8.htm>. Communists Win China's Civil War was a helpful article because it gave background on the civil war. Many books do not cover this topic and this was an area I needed to learn more about. I used this in my project in order to create a timeline on the events that occurred in Chairman Mao's lifetime.

Spence, Jonathan D. "Mao Zedong." Time Apr. 1998: n. pag. Time. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988161,00.html>. Mao Zedong is a magazine article that was quite detailed, giving the life account of Chairman Mao. What set it apart from other sources is that in the introduction it

discussed about how Mao thought he was fit to be a leader. He said "Maybe you're afraid of sinking. Don't think about it. If you don't think about it, you won't sink. If you do, you will." This also applied to his leadership. He was never afraid and that led him to rule China for about twenty years. This article also led me to other sources.

Szczepanski, Kallie. "Timeline of Mao Zedong's Life: Founder of the People's Republic of China." About. About, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://asianhistory.about.com/od/timelinesmaozedong/a/maoonepage.htm>. The Timeline of Mao Zedong's Life was very helpful in order to get a grasp of the events that happened in chronological order. This timeline was very detailed and specific. This helped me in trying to decide the most important events to include in my project.

"What Was the Impact of the Cultural Revolution on China?" GCSE History. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://gcsehistory.org.uk/modernworld/maos_china/culturalrevolution_impact.htm>. What Was the Impact of the Cultural Revolution on China? explained that the main result was that there was a decline in industrial production. The Cultural Revolution changed education in China as well. Instead of focusing on work skills, the students were "enlightened" instead.

Why Did Mao Launch the Cultural Revolution? GCSE History. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://gcsehistory.org.uk/modernworld/maos_china/culturalrevolution.htm>.

From this website, I was informed on why Mao launched the Cultural Revolution. There were four main reasons and four main goals. I used this in my project to indicate the motives that Chairman Mao had for starting the revolution.

Woods, Alan. "The Chinese Revolution of 1949 Part One." In Defense of Marxism. International Marxist Tendency, 1 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.marxist.com/chinese-revolution-1949-one.htm>. The Chinese Revolution of 1949 Part One" was extremely detailed and covered the Chinese Revolution from a global perspective. The viewpoints of Russia, Japan, and China were all provided. I used this in my website as an introduction.

"Xinhai Revolution." Cultural China. Cultural China, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. <http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34History2963.html>. "Xinhai Revolution" told about the Xinhai Revolution, which Mao was influenced by when he was a child. This occurred in 1919 when citizens of China and many parts of the "New Army" overthrew the Qing Dynasty. Many of the ideas for this revolution came from Dr. Sun Yat-sen. He founded the Republic of China and abolished the feudal system.

Videos China: A Century of Revolution 1976 - 2011 Episode 3. Prod. Zeitgeist Films. Youtube. N.p., 3 Aug. 2012. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_U8ianMAE&feature=youtube_gdata_player>.

China: A Century of Innovation is a documentary about China after Mao's death. It covers how China and reformed after Mao's death. I used this in my website to support my claims.

Emory University. The Resilience of Chinese Communism: Lessons from History. Youtube. N.p., 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NhlgLxNryw&feature=youtube_gdata_player>. This video is of Professor Elizabeth Perry from Harvard University talking about Mao's unique ability of mass mobilization. Professor Perry discusses how Mao was able to manipulate the minds of millions. The common people were persuaded by Mao that there was a certain way that was correct. It was not until years after that people came to realization how wrong some of his ideas were.