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Primary Sources

Andrew Johnson, Half-length Portrait, Seated, Facing Left. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. By Jesse H. Whitehurst. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Andrew Johnson at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Democratic Party page. Breckinridge, Hon. John C. Senator from Ky. General in CSA, Sec of War Confederate Cabinet. 1865-1880. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of John Breckinridge at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Democratic Party page. Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. Republican National Platform. Chicago: Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum, 1860.Republican Party National Platform, 1860. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. This is a digital copy of the platform which was written at the Republican convention in Chicago in 1860, where Lincoln was nominated. This image can be seen on my Republican Party page. Commager, Henry Steele, and Erik A. Bruun, eds. The Civil War Archive: The History of the Civil War in Documents. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2000. Print. This is an extensive compilation of primary source documents, all in one large book. It includes documents pertinent to the election of 1860 and the Souths decision to secede. I only used a small portion of this book. Grand National Union Banner for 1860. The Candidates and Their Platform. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This print shows a campaign banner for Constitutional Union party presidential and vice presidential candidates Bell and Everett. The two men stand before a large curtain, their hands resting on the Constitution. Behind the Constitution, the curtains part to show a rising sun. Above, a large eagle stands on a shield holding a banderole with the motto, "Liberty and Union Now and Forever One and Inseperable [sic]. No North, No South, No East, No West, Nothing but the Union." Currier & Ives. "Letting the Cat out of the Bag!!" Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a political cartoon of the Republican Party. William H. Seward of New York watches as Charles Sumner, the radical antislavery senator from Massachusetts releases a snarling cat, the "Spirit of Discord," from a "Republican Bag." The cat bolts toward New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley and Lincoln, who wields a rail in his defense. Greeley exclaims, "What are you doing Sumner! you'll spoil all! she aint to be let out until after Lincoln is elected.

Currier & Ives. "The Rail Candidate." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon shows Abraham Lincoln uncomfortably straddling a rail. It references both the Republican anti-slavery platform and to Lincoln's adolescent work as a rail splitter. A black man and abolitionist editor of the New York Tribune Horace Greeley carries him. I used this image on the Home page and as the first image in my banner, at the top of each page. Currier & Ives. "Taking the Stump or Stephen in Search of His Mother." Cartoon.LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon makes fun of Douglas campaign in New York in July 1860. From left to right are Bell, Virginia Governor Henry Wise, Douglas, President Buchanan, Breckinridge, and Lincoln. Douglas & Johnson. Democratic Ticket. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. This primary source image is an Ohio campaign ticket for the northern Democratic nominees for president and vice president, Stephen A. Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson, respectively. "Dividing the National Map." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon shows all four candidates tugging at and ripping a map of the country. It is a non-partisan cartoon, and suggests that the election was dividing the country too much. Edward Bates. 1855-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Edward Bates at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Republican Party page. For President, Abram [sic] Lincoln. For Vice President, Hannibal Hamlin. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. This print shows a large campaign banner Lincoln and running mate Hannibal Hamlin. Lincoln's first name is misspelled here as "Abram." The banner consists of a thirty-three-star American flag pattern printed on cloth. In one corner, a bust portrait of Lincoln, without beard, encircled by stars, appears on a blue field. For President John Bell. For Vice President Edward Everett. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. For President John Bell. For Vice President Edward Everett. By H.C. Howard. LOC.gov. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a print showing a campaign flag for Constitutional Union party presidential candidate John Bell and his running mate, Edward Everett. The banner consists of a printed, thirty-three-star American flag pattern with an oval bust portrait of Bell encircled by stars on a blue field. I used this image on the Parties page.

Holzer, Harold, and Joshua Wolf. Shenk, eds. In Lincoln's Hand: His Original Manuscripts. New York: Bantam Dell, 2009. Print. This is a compilation of a large amount of primary source material. It includes many letters written by and for Lincoln and many primary source images. I am using excerpts from the text about the election on my website. Holzer, Harold, comp. Abraham Lincoln, The Writer: A Treasury of His Greatest Speeches and Letters. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills, 2000. Print. This is a compilation of lots of primary source letters and speeches by Lincoln. It also has commentary by Holzer throughout the book. Hon. Daniel S. Dickinson of N.Y. 1855-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Daniel Dickinson at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Democratic Party page. Hon. John Bell of Tenn. 1855-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of John Bell at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Constitutional Union Party page. Hon. Joseph Lane of Oregon. 1855-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Joseph Lane at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Democratic Party page. "Honest Old Abe on the Stump. Springfield 1858. Honest Old Abe on the Stump, at the Ratification Meeting of Presidential Nominations. Springfield 1860." Cartoon.LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon demonstrates the difference between Lincoln in 1858, when he said he was not a good enough candidate to run for president, and in 1860, when he was confident, and eager to run at the Illinois state ratifying convention. John McLean, 1785-1861, Head-and-shoulders Portrait, Facing Right. 1785-1861. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of John McLean at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Republican Party page. J. Sage & Sons. "Lincoln & Douglas in a Presidential Footrace." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon shows Lincoln much larger than his opponent Douglas, demonstration his advantage in the election. The two are racing toward the Capitol Building, with a rail fence, referencing Lincoln as a rail-splitter.

"Lincoln Elected!" The Raftsmans Journal 14 Nov. 1860: n. pag. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This Library of Congress, Chronicling America newspaper image expresses the delight of The Raftsman's Journal of Clearfield, Pennsylvania after Lincoln is elected. I used this image on the Results page. Lincoln & Hamlin. Ward No. 6. Republican Ticket ... Boston. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. By Wright & Potter Printers. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a primacy source image of a print of a Republican Party ticket in Illinois, in 1860, for Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin. I used this image on the Campaign page. "Lincoln Nominated." New-York Daily Tribune 19 May 1860: 7. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This image from the Library of Congress, Chronicling America shows an article in the New-York Daily Tribune on May 19, 1860, one day after the Republican national convention. The headline reads "LINCOLN NOMINATED." I included this picture on the "Republican Party" page after I have explained how Lincoln won the nomination at the Chicago convention. Marsh, William. Abraham Lincoln, Candidate for U.S. President, Half-length Portrait, Looking Right, May 20,1860. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. This is a photograph of Lincoln, taken in 1860, as a candidate for president. He looks much younger than he did at the end of the Civil War. Maurer, Louis. "The National Game. Three "outs" and One "run"" Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. This is a political cartoon showing Lincoln beating the other three candidates, John Bell, Stephen A. Douglas, and John C. Breckinridge, in a game of baseball. Lincoln is standing on home plate advising the others. It was the first known political baseball cartoon. Maurer, Louis. "The Political Gymnasium." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon is making fun of all of the candidates, and some other political figures. From left to right are Constitutional Union party vice presidential candidate Edward Everett, holding up John Bell, Tribune editor Horace Greeley trying to become a governor, Lincoln balanced on his partys rail platform, James Watson Webb of the New York Courier, doing a backward somersault, making fun of his partys changing views, Douglas and Breckinridge fighting, and William Seward on crutches warning Lincoln not to mess up. Maurer, Louis. "Storming the Castle. "Old Abe" on Guard." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. Political cartoon depicting Lincoln storming the castle. The candidates are trying to get into the White House. From left to right are John Bell, Stephen A. Douglas,

and John C. Breckinridge, with President James Buchanan trying to pull Breckinridge into the White House. "Democratic Nominations" The Red Wing Sentinel 27 June 1860: pag 2. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This Library of Congress, Chronicling America newspaper image shows the reporting of The Red Wing Sentinel of Red Wing, Montana after Douglas was nominated to the Democratic northern ticket. I used this image on the Democratic Party page. National Democratic Ticket. For President, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. This is a primary source image of an Ohio campaign ticket for the Southern Democratic nominees for president and vice president, John C. Breckinridge and Joseph Lane, respectively. "The Political Quadrille. Music by Dred Scott." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This political cartoon shows Dred Scott in the center, playing the violin, while the presidential candidates dance with their most likely supporters. For example, Lincoln is partnered with a black woman. Scott, in the middle, shows the importance of the question of slavery in this election. Portrait of Secretary of State William H. Seward, Officer of the United States Government. 1860-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of William Seward at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Republican Party page. Portrait of Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, Officer of the United States Government. 1860-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Salmon Chase at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Republican Party page. President, Step. A. Douglas, Vice President, H. V. Johnson. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. By S. Raynor. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a campaign image for Douglas. It is a portrait of Douglas surrounded by flags and an eagle. The text reads, President, Step. A. Douglas. Vice President, H.V. Johnson. I used this image on my Parties page. Republican National Convention, May 1860 (Lincoln's Name Proposed at Convention). 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 18 Dec. 2012.

This is a photograph kept by the Library of Congress of a telegram from the Republican National Convention in 1860, noting Lincoln as a candidate for the partys nomination. R.M.T. Hunter, Half-length Portrait, Three-quarters to the Left. 1844-1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Robert Hunter at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Democratic Party page. Sec. of War Simon Cameron. 1860-1870. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Simon Cameron at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Republican Party page. "South Carolina Convention" Staunton Spectator and General Advertiser 25 Dec. 1860: pag. 2. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This Library of Congress, Chronicling America newspaper image shows a summary of South Carolinas decision to secede from the union, as seen in Staunton Spectator and General Advertiser of Staunton, Virginia. Although there is no headline in the portion of the article that I clipped out, the text provides a brief synopsis for the reader. I used this image on the South Secedes page. Stephen A. Douglas. 1855-1865. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a portrait of Stephen Douglas at the Library of Congress. I used it on the Democratic Party page. "The Undecided Political Prize Fight." Cartoon. LOC.gov. Library of Congress, 1860. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This is a pro-Breckinridge political cartoon. It shows Abraham Lincoln (right) and Democrat Stephen A. Douglas (left) boxing in a ring in front of a crowd. In the background, Breckinridge is pointing to the White House, while supporters line up to clear the path for him. Union Electoral Ticket. For President, John Bell, of Tennessee. For Vice-President, Edward Everett, of Massachusetts. 1860. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Library of Congress. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. This primary source image is an Ohio campaign ticket for the Constitutional Union Partys nominees for president and vice president, John Bell and Herschel Edward Everett, respectively. "Union is Dissolved!" Charleston Mercury 20 Dec. 1860: n. pag. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This Library of Congress newspaper image shows an article in the Charleston Mercury on December 20, the day South Carolina seceded from the Union. The headline reads "UNION IS DISSOLVED!" I used this image on the "South Secedes"

page to show what the Charleston newspaper said right after the convention in its city voted to secede from the Union. "The War Has Begun" Cleveland Morning Leader 13 Apr. 1861: pag 1. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This Library of Congress, Chronicling America newspaper image shows the report from the Cleveland Morning Leader on the Confederate attack on For Sumter, which signified the start of the Civil War. I used this image on the Significance page. "Whoop-ee! President, Abraham Lincoln. Vice President, Hannibal Hamlin." The Kansas Chief [White Cloud, Kansas] 8 Nov. 1860: pag 2. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This newspaper image from the Library of Congress, Chronicling America shows an article in The Kansas Chief on November 8, 1860, two days after Election Day in most states. The headline reads "WHOOP-EE! Abraham Lincoln. Vice President, Hannibal Hamlin." I used this image on the "Results" page to show on newspaper's response to Lincoln winning.

Secondary Sources
"1860 Lincoln v. Douglas v. Breckinridge v. Bell." HarpWeek.com. Harpers Weekly, n.d. Web. This website contains political cartoons from numerous magazines of the time, an explanation of the historical context of the election, and an overview of all the campaigns. I especially used the context for my context section of my website. "Abraham Lincoln and New York - 1860 Presidential Election."Mrlincolnandnewyork.org. The Lincoln Institute, n.d. Web. This essay by the Lincoln Institute demonstrates the electoral importance of New York to Lincolns victory. It also contains good political cartoons and an electoral map of the election. "Abraham Lincoln and the Election of 1860." AbrahamLincolnsClassroom.org. The Lincoln Institute, n.d. Web. An essay by the Lincoln Institute about the Election of 1860 told from Lincolns perspective. I used this for details about Lincolns successful campaign for the presidency. Bearss, Ed. In-person interview, April 6, 2013. I attended a tour led by Ed Bearss, the Civil War expert and former Chief Historian of the National Park Service of Ulysses S. Grants childhood home in Georgetown, Ohio. After the tour I asked him to answer the fundamental question of my project: Why was the election of 1860 a turning point? Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the Batteries of the Confederate States. 1861. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. LOC.gov. Comp. Harper's Weekly. Library of Congress. Web. 6 Apr. 2013. This is a print shown in Harpers Weekly in 1861, after the attack on Fort Sumter in 1860, which started the Civil War. I used this image on my Significance page to highlight the immediate and quick impact of the election. Blight, David. The Election of 1860 and the Secession Crisis. Yale University. 2008. Youtube. N.p., Web. 4 Feb. 2013. This video is part of a series of lectures presented by Yale American History Professor David Blight. Yale University posts many of its lectures online through its Open Yale courses program. I used a short clip of this lecture on my "Home" page to help introduce the election, with Blight explaining its importance. Burns, Ken, dir. The Civil War. Youtube. N.p., 1990. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. This is a critically-acclaimed TV miniseries made by Ken Burns on the Civil War. I only used short clips from the first episode in this series, "The Cause," about the election of 1860. These clips were helpful in chronicling the events with either the voice of the narrator or an actor portraying a historical figure, while showing primary source visuals.

Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. Print. This is a well-written book telling the story of Lincolns entire life. It includes useful information on election of 1860. "Dialogue: Harold Holtzer." Dialogue: Harold Holzer. Idaho Public Television. N.d.YouTube.com. YouTube, 01 Jan. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2013. This is an interview with Harold Holzer, found on YouTube, originally from Idaho Public Television. Holzer discusses his many books about Lincoln and Civil War era politics. I used a short clip from this video on my Results page. Egerton, Douglas S. Year of Meteors. New York: Bloomsbury, 2010. Print. This entire book is devoted to the election of 1860. Focuses on Stephen Douglas, Lincoln, other candidates, and how the election led to the Civil War. "Election of 1860." Encyclopedia of the Confederacy. Ed. Richard Nelson Current. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. This entry in the Encyclopedia of the Confederacy does a good job of explaining the motives of the Southern states when they seceded right after the election. "Election of 1860." Gale Library of Daily Life: American Civil War. Ed. Steven E. Woodworth. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 125-130. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. This is a detailed account of the parties and candidates leading up to the election, the campaigns themselves, and the significant impact of the election results. Foner, Eric, ed. Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2008. Print. This book is a series of scholarly essays, including some about Lincolns politics before he became president. Green, Michael S. Lincoln and the Election of 1860. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2011. Print. This book gives a brief but insightful account of the election of 1860 from Lincolns perspective. It includes lots of quotes by Lincoln, to show what he really thought of what was happening. It is filled with lots of anecdotes about politics leading up to the Civil War. Green, Nick, dir. America: The Story of Us. Youtube. 2010. This is a TV miniseries about the history of the development of the Unites States. I used small excerpts from the episode Division about the election of 1860. These clips provided good visuals for my website, such as the clip on the South Secedes page, which shows a map of the United States with the seceding states highlighted in gold. Holzer, Harold. Email interview, March 1, 2013.

I interviewed Harold Holzer because he is a renowned Lincoln and Civil War-era politics writer, lecturer, TV guest, and chairman of The Lincoln Bicentennial Foundation. He was appointed Co-Chairman of U.S. Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission by President Clinton in 2000 (served until 2010), awarded National Humanities Medal in 2008 by President Bush. He is currently a Hertog Fellow at The New-York Historical Society. Although he is very busy, he agreed to be interviewed by email. His answers were very insightful and useful for my project. "Map of the 1860 Presidential Election." Map. Mrlincolnandnewyork.org. Mr. Lincoln and New York, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. Map of United States showing Electoral College results. Lincoln wins big in the North and Breckinridge wins big in the South. Lincoln only had 40 percent of the popular vote, but won the Presidency by a plurality. McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Oxford UP, 1988. Print. This is an excellent one-volume history of the Civil War filled with useful information mostly about the war, but also the time before it, including the election of 1860. I only used the part pertaining to the election. Maurer, Mel. Email interview, March 2, 2013. In-person interview, April 6, 2013. Mel Maurer is very well-read on the man that he portrays, Abraham Lincoln. As a former President of the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable, he is also very knowledgeable about Civil War-era politics. He was a great interview subject and was excellent at analyzing the issues that are explored in my website. "Presidential Election of 1860." NYTimes.com. Ed. Margaret Wagner, Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman. The New York Times, 2002. Web. This is a summary article on the election by The New York Times. It includes the party platforms and links to other articles relating to this election. Root, Robert M. Charleston: Lincoln-Douglas Debate. N.d. Illinois State Historical Library. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. This is the Robert Marshall Root painting of the Charleston Lincoln-Douglas debate, done years later. I use this on my Context page. Roth, Randolph. Email interview, March 14, 2013. I emailed Randolph Roth, a professor of American History at The Ohio State University, inquiring if he would like to be interviewed in any way for my project. He replied saying that he would only be able to answer why the election was a turning point. His answer was fascinating, as it related the political situation of 1860 to that of the present day. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Election of 1860. Broomall: Mason Crest, 2003. Print. This is a book with lots of details about party platforms. Includes many images from campaign.

Wells, Mike. Email interview, March 1, 2013. In-person interview, April 6, 2013. As the current President of the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable (2012-present), Mike Wells was an excellent person to interview. He was naturally very knowledgeable about the election because it would directly lead to the war in which he is so interested. His responses helped me understand a lot of the information that I had previously read. The White House South Lawn, circa 1860. 1857-1867. The White House Museum. Http://www.whitehousemuseum.org/. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. This is an image of the south face of the White House around 1860. The White House Museum estimates that it could have been painted from the years 1857 to 1867. I used this image in my banner, at the top of each page.