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Chapter-I

INTRODUCTION
Sports means a physical activity which involves a challenge and normally, it takes the forms of a contest; one may find these two qualifying elements in the intent of an English Channel swimmer or of a lone rock climber or mountaineer. A sport bears a feeling of a reasonable chance of success on the mind of a player and simultaneously generates a mood of uncertainly and tension around the goal-achievement in him as if something is at stake. Organized sport is a distinctively human affair, which takes place in the form of a complex rule-bound activity within prescribed limits of time and space, and after a fixed schedule. Sport involves no special psychophysical process or social codes, which are not found else where in human life as it is. Premised in a frame of mans biological history and socio-cultural heritage. Different forms of sport express different patterns of movement by utilizing a few human capabilities like (i) exercise of skill (ii) prompt psycho-motor coordination, (iii) team work and loyalty and (iv) sublimation of aggressive impulses. Sport refers to diversion or disporting human energy by some physical activity. Organized sports, of our interest; are not suddenly created games or contest; rather they constitute calculated, rationally planned activity to invest psychophysical energy through skeletal muscular system. Each recognized item of competitive sports bears a formally recorded history and a cultural tradition. It stresses upon physical exertion through competition governed by formal rules and specific responsibilities to discharge by a player in a particular role or position. A sports person has to remember always-own

affiliation with a social organization and the cherished goal to achieve by approved method and procedure. Sports provide a service to the individual by preparing him or her t meet the challenges of life and career. The said preparation includes an overall fitness, wholesome personality and competency to live in a democratic society. It is only organized sports that the participants can accurately be termed as athlete, whose behavior manifests intense seriousness of purpose while his movements in the arena of sport competition remain dependent on several external controls. Singer (1972), with reference to coaching, described an athlete as any person competing in an organized sports team under the guidance of a coach. An athlete is the product of a learning process, which is always well-planned, known as coaching. An individuals with potentialities to become athlete being put in that process earns best benefit out of that. An athlete in some case may engage himself or herself in the sport for others enjoyment by taxing own limits stamina and welfare.1 Sports are a socio-cultural activity. Human interest in sports is found in all societies of the world. Maximum country shares a common interest in sports competition. Improvement of performance in sports some psychological principle are applied. At present without development of psychological characteristic body can achieve the highest performance in sports.

In modern competitive sports, psychological preparation of team is as much important as technique of the different skills of the game on specific lines; in modern competitive sports the teams are prepared not only to play the game but also to win the game. And for winning the game it is not only the proficiency in the skill, which brings victory, but more important is the mental preparation the spirit and the attitude of the
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Charles A. Bucher and others, Foundation of Physical Education and Sports. 1992, p.38-42.

players with which they play and perform the best in the competition. Psychology as a behavioral Science has made its contribution in this regard. It has helped coaches to coach more efficiently and enhance sportsmans performance more proficiently.2

There are numerous factors which may adversely or favorably affect human performance especially sports performance. Despite a prolonged, methodical coaching or training the physical and psychological goals are achieved or in order words to overcome the physiological and psychological barriers the means have not yet reached their absoluteness. A dominance and emphasis up on physical preparation only during training and coaching has resulted in serious neglect of the various psychological factors needs a careful consideration one of those important factors which may influence sports performance is anxiety. Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling characterized by fear, persistence, dread, apprehension and uncertainty. Anxiety may emerge from all sports of conflicts between the individuals. The sufferer may be unaware of any cause and often believes that the causes are purely physical, but despite different physical signs, it is a disorder of the emotions. Participation in all types of physical activities and sports events has various physiological and psychological effects on athletes. As the player performs some motor skills, his whole physiological mechanism goes in to a state of activation, which is known as arousal condition of the body. The stress supplied by the competitive situation in sports is a necessary and sufficient cause to arouse the body, to action. A measure of
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K.C. kocher and V. Pratap, Anxiety level and Yogic Practice, Yog Mimamsa, (15th April, 1972):11

anxiety has been considered as an index of arousal level in sports. Anxiety is a phenomenon with all athletes. Coaches are interested to know the athletes optimal level of arousal, which may facilitate performance.

Anxiety may be positive motivation force or it may interfere with successful athletic performances. As a positive motivating force it can be instrumental in motivation the athlete to work harder to find new and better ways to improve performances and to help set goals. The athletic skills and his self-confidence as a negative motivator anxiety may interfere with productive as well as constructive thinking. Athletes may attempt to handle anxiety by denying the need to work hard. This can lead to development of poor work habits or athletic technique. These often lead to failure and, in turn, lack of confidence and increased anxiety.3

The study of the effect of anxiety on sports performance has become a major topic of interest to sports psychologists in recent year. Sometimes, anxiety may be helpful in task that require strength or power, but in some other events, a high level of anxiety may be detrimental, several researchers including Singer (1972) and Tutko (1977) have found supporting evidence for the inverted U-hypothesis, measuring the effect of anxiety on the performance of athlete.

In modern competitive sports, the anxiety in sportsman has affected their performance. As the physical load during the training of sportsman of international competition is also intensified. The sportsmen like other athletes are anxiety prone while participating in competitive sports.4
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Encyclopedia of Sports and Science and Medicine , Ed;1971, Individual Adjustment to Social Practices and Characteristics.
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Agya Jit Singh, Competitive Anxiety is Sports, Snipes Journal 5, (July,1982): 41.

The over anxious individual has a high level of cerebral and emotional activity with neuro-muscular tension that may eventually lead the individual to the exhaustion stage and perhaps to psychosomatic disorders.5

Anxiety plays a paramount role in sports. It is the challenge in sports participation, which produces anxiety. How an athlete handles the anxiety determines how successful he would performance in sports events. The degree of anxiety also varies with a number of different conditions. Anxiety is likely to be greater in higher competitive sports than in relatively non-competitive sports, because in the competitive sports, participants are expected to win a great demands are made up on them to succeed. The degree of perceived anxiety is an important variable to be considered in the performance of an individual, research has shown that anxiety is present in all of us, including athletes, in varying degree. But in the field of sports, certain competitive situations naturally produce more anxiety than others. The problem of anxiety has been considered important in all areas of human activity including sports. The study of the effect of anxiety on motor performance has become a topic of interest to sports psychologists. Nearly every concern of human endeavor is thought to be affected some how by anxiety. A number of theories exist concerning the effect of anxiety on performance without denying the interactive effect of anxiety on the performance of certain specific tasks; all theories seem to agree that maximum performance is reduced by too much anxiety. Anxiety is a complex emotional state characterized by a general fear usually accompanied by tension. It is related to apprehension of fear and is frequently associated with failure either real or anticipated. Anxiety is greater in individual sports participants
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Rajendra Singh ,Pre-Competition Anxiety and its Remedy, A Journal of Sports medicine, (LNCPE, Gwalior), Vol. III,p.50.

than those in team sports. In an individual sports, success or failure lies solely with the individual participants, where as in team games errors go unnoticed because of the general activity of the contest and more over success and failure are commonly shared.

Anxiety is a state of mind in which the individual responds with discomfort to some event that has occurred or is going to occur. The persons worries about events, their occurrences and consequences, in general are the sources of anxiety. However anxiety can be either somatic or cognitive and fears, in simple words, it is a type of emotional disturbance.6

Modern competitive sports of today demands more emphasis on the training of psychological aspect of sport. The high level performance seen in competitive sports is nothing but a perfect optimum harmonious relationship between ones psychological organisms which causes an individual to work as strine to fulfill his needs. In the field of physical education and sports, no athlete can win or even show better performance without optimum anxiety level. An athlete or a sports person develops his/her sports preference under the influence of early upbringing and milieu, by variations in physique and temperament, by exposure to specific models, and by investment of interest and vitality in particular limbs, organs or movements in a manner which, in principle, it traceable to experiences in infancy and childhood. Some of them prefer games in which the outcome depends predominantly on skill while others prefer game in which the outcome hangs very largely on chance or luck.

Bryan J. Cratty, Anxiety and performance, Movement behavior and motor learning , (Philadelphia Lea and Febeger, 1975), p.290.

Competitive sport events often make demands on the attention of the player or athlete, while the athlete or player has to maintain an optimal state of readiness by not becoming too tense or too relaxed, pending which the performance or the required exquisite co-ordination of vision and limbs become very vulnerable to disrupted is a function to he degree of difficulty, and it may vary also after the variations in the individual capabilities- a weaker spur should be used for the duller than for the brighter individual, because the former finds the task harder than the latter. It can be seen that athlete who did athlete who did athlete who did care about performance with high achievement need and anxious tended to have his performance disrupted and thus lowered because of additional stress of competition. The subjects with low achievement needs were not affected by competition. Thus they were anxious and did not care whether they won or lost. The same lack of change was seen in the subject with high anxiety level and low achievement needs, their anxiety did not apparently center on their success or failure in competition situations.7 Competitive is a situation, which is a specific modification of the trait anxiety construct developed by Spielberger (1966). Martens (1977) have expanded Spielbergers work by developing a specific test to assess the level of anxiety in participants in sports. In fact, competitive anxiety is defined as a tendency to perceive competitive situation, with falling of apprehension or tension. The competitive situation is perceived as threatening and how player and athlete respond to this threat? Anxiety in sports is produced mainly by what Spielberger calls the fear or failure. In athletic competition, athletes are not only afraid of losing a contest but also not performing, as they would expect to.

Bell f. kieth, championship thinking- The Athletes Guide to Winning Performance in All Sports (London: Hall Inc. 1983), p.152.

In addition to the degree of general and specific anxiety an individual may experience, when living and being confronted with stressful situations, numerous other dimension of anxious behaviors that have implications for the athlete and his mentor. Although there no studies of the feelings about physical harm Vs the social embarrassments due to failure in athletics, a strong case could be made that, even in highly competitive contact sports the participants anxieties are related more to the subsequent social derision or reward than to his feelings about getting injured. The degree to which anxiety levels in an individual interfere with performance, therefore, is probably related to the individuals feelings about success Vs failure and his over all need for achievement.

Competitive anxiety can affect youngster health by disrupting normal sleeping patterns or creating gastrointestinal problems. So cognitive approach and environmental approaches are widely used in reducing anxiety.8

According to whezer et al. the sympathetic nervous system is extensively involved in anxiety reactions and it seems possible that fear involves one of the most clear-cut physiological patterns.9

Anxiety is multidimensional two different ways. Like all other emotions, anxiety has both a trait component and a state composition. The trait component is like a personality disposition. Whereas the state component is a situation- specific response. State anxiety is an immediate emotional state that is characterized by apprehension, fear, tension and an increase in physiological arousal. Conversely, trait anxiety is a
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Rajendra Singh, Pre-Competitions Anxiety and its Remedy, A Journal of sports Medicine, (Sports Medicine Division, LNCPE Gwalior), Vol.III, p.50.
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M.L.Kamlesh,Anxiety in track and field Athletes, Snipes Journal, (7 January,1984):21

predisposition to perceive certain environmental situations as threatening and to respond to these situations with increased state anxiety (Spielberger, 1971). If an athlete has a high level of competitive trait anxiety, she is likely to respond to an actual competitive situation with a high level of competitive state anxiety. Anxiety is also multidimensional in the sense that it is believed that there are both cognitive and somatic components to anxiety. Cognitive anxiety is the mental component of anxiety caused by such things as fear of negative social evaluation, fear of failure, and loss of self-esteem. Somatic anxiety is the physical component of anxiety and reflects the perception of such physiological responses as increased heart rate, respiration, and muscular tension. Both state and trait anxiety are believed to have cognitive and somatic components. In the sport psychology literature, the notion that anxiety has both cognitive and somatic components is referred as multidimensional anxiety theory (Martens et al., 1990).10 The term anxiety is derived from the Latin word anger (i.e. to strangle) and used to translate Freuds Angst on the basis of his close and sustained observation of patients with anxiety neurosis. Freud conceived of anxiety as something characterized by apprehension, anxious expectation and efferent discharge phenomena reflected in heart palpitation, nausea, respiratory disturbances, sweating, muscular tension, tremor and vertigo. For him anxiety was distinguishable from other unpleasant affective states, such as anger as and depression, by tits unique combination of phenomenological and psychological qualities, which gave it a special character of un-pleasure (Freud, 1936). Freud believed that anxiety resulted from the called Libido when libidinal energy is blocked from normal expression it accumulates and is automatically transformed in to anxiety or anxiety equivalent symptoms. Freud also differentiated between objective and

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H. Richard Cox sports psychology concept and application. p.196, 1985.

neurotic anxiety in terms of whether the source of threat was from the external world or from ones own internal impulses. For him objective anxiety is a complex internal reaction to a real external danger but one causes the neurotic anxieties own repressed sexual and aggressive impulses relating to childhood experiences. When a partial beak down in repression leads to a renewed perceptual danger from its own impulses neurotic anxiety occurs which is experienced as objectless and is thus free-floating. Essentially neurotic anxiety also indicates perception of an internal danger signal.11 Freud (1961, 1962) distinguished three types of anxiety, viz. objective anxiety, neurotic anxiety and moral anxiety or feeling of guilt. The objective anxiety is caused by an external danger or perception of danger. According to Freud, objective anxiety must be regarded as an expression of the egos instinct for self preservation. From the basic objective anxiety, according to Freud, could be observed in three forms. A general apprehensiveness (a free floating anxiety); anxiety firmly attached to certain ideas as in case of phobias; and anxiety as it occurs n hysteria in which there is no visible connection at all between the anxiety and the danger dreaded. Unlike the objective anxiety, in neurotic anxiety the source of danger is internal and this source is not consciously perceived because it has been repressed. According to Freud, neurotic anxiety is experienced by everyone to some extent, from time to time, but when manifested in pathological amounts, it defines a clinical syndrome, viz. anxiety-neurosis. Moral anxiety is fear of the conscience. The person with a well-developed super ego tends to feel quality when he does something or even thinks of doing something that is contrary to the moral code, by which he has never been brought up. The area of anxiety related to sports performance have
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S.R. Gangpadhayay Sports Psychology. p.82-83

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gradually become one of the major aspects of importance to the sports psychologist in recent year, because anxiety plays an important role in the acquisition of motor skills as well as in athletic performance. Anxiety can either enhance or inhibit performance. Whether its effect is positive or negative depends on how an individual athlete perceives the situation. Researchers prove that moderate level of anxiety seems best for the acquisition and performance of motor skills. Levels of anxiety either too high or too low tend to inhibit learning and performance.12 Since anxiety is importance in individual and team games therefore the research scholar has taken up the opportunity to compare the anxiety level between players of individual and team games.

Statement of the Problem


The purpose of this study was to compare the anxiety between individual and team games players.

Limitation
Factors which cannot be controlled for the study are as follows:1. Educational qualification 2. Socio economic status 3. His/her level of achievement 4. Climatic conditions during conducting of test. 5. Previous experience
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Sukumar Bose and Bhattacharya Nrisingha K. Sports Psychology, A text book for professionals. Das Gupta and Gupta and Co. Private Ltd. P.1-5, 1988.

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6. Daily routine life. 7. Health and daily habits.

Delimitation
Every study which is under taken on scientific lines made to be delimited. This study was delimited on following points:1. The study was delimited to age range is form 18 to 25 years. 2. The study was delimited to only graduates and post graduates players. 3. The study was delimited to only players of university. 4. The study was delimited to only one variable i.e anxiety level.

HYPOTHESIS It was hypothesized the there would be a significance difference in the players of individual and team games from Uttar Pradesh.

DEFINITION AND EXPLANATION OF TERMS ANXIETY

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According to F.Bell (1983) Anxiety is a state of mind in which the individual responds with discomfort to some event that has occurred or going to be occur. The persons worries about, their occurrence and consequences, in general are the anxiety.13

It is an uneasiness and feeling of fore boding often found when person is about to embark on a hazardous venture. It is often accompanied by strong desire to excel.14

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study may make the following significant contributions:1. The findings of the study will help to reveal the comparison of the anxiety level of individual and team game players. 2. The results of study may provide useful information to coaches, physical education teacher and player regarding the anxiety level of sports persons and thus may be instrumental in effective psychological preparation of players. 3. In future due consideration may be given by the selector to the psychological variable which are relevant to the higher performance. 4. The study may be significant for the self assessment of individual and team game players. Result may also help the coaches, player and psychologists to provide correct guidelines to the individual and team game players.

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H. Richard Cox sports psychology concept and application,1988, p.201. Agya Jit Singh, Competitive Anxiety in Sports, Snipes Journal 5, (July, 1982): 41.

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Chapter-II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

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The research scholar has gone through related literature available which are relevant to the present study. The relevant studies from various sources, which the investigator has come across, are enumerated below.

Nelson and Langer15 examined some of the psychological variables present among athletes in competitive situation. They assessed anxiety levels of the team members by using Taylor manifest Anxiety Scale. The results showed that performance of athlete with extremely high levels of anxiety levels of the team members by using Taylor manifest Anxiety Scale. The results showed that performance of athlete with extremely high levels of anxiety was poor. Nelson and Langer also found that basketball that scored extremely low level of anxiety did not perform well.

Singh16 (1986) found significant sex differences in competitive anxiety of the Indian athletes, the female having more anxiety than the male. The competitive anxiety decreases with the increase in age in the case of male athletes but it increases in the case of female athletes. The competitive anxiety in the Indian athletes has no relationship with their experience of participation in competition both in case of male and female athletes. McGowen17 studied shooting at a basketball ring for accuracy and the speed was the complex motor skill and the IPAT self-analysis was used to measure anxiety. The high
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D.O. Nelson and Philip Langer, Getting to Really Know your players, Athletic Journal 44, (September,1963),pp. 88-92 cited by Jack H. Llewellyn and Judy, A Blucker, Psychology of Coaching: Theory and Application, (Delhi Surjeet Publication, 1982), p.82.
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A. J. Singh ,"Sports Competitive Anxiety of Indian Athletes as a function of their age, playing experience and sex", Modern Perspectives in Physical Education and Sports Science, Harnam Publications,(New Delhi, 1986):273-282.
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Kenneth McGowan, The Effect of a Competitive Situation upon the Motor Performance High-Anxious and Low-Anxious boys, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 11 , (1969):207.

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and low anxious subjects were chosen from a population of 330 boys ages 9 to 11 two groups were eventually chosen to represent the high and low anxious categories. After rotating the groups through competitive and individual testing procedures and measuring the performance the data were subjected to analysis of covariance on t ratio analysis. The high anxious groups performed better under the competitive situation and there were no other differences.

Hutchinson18 based on combined scores the social avoidance and distress scale and fear of negative evaluation scales, Female fresh (N=144) in 4 distinct state anxiety levels were chosen for study within each anxiety level. Subjects learned in 1 of 3 social environmental only the results indicated that performance was affected more by a male audience then by a female audience in addition, the presence of male experimenter tended to increase anxiety in female subjects. The amount of learning which occurred during the practice period was facilitated by the audience conditions in the high anxiety group learning scores of the 3 low anxiety groups were not affected by the audience conditions.

Dureha19 administered the Kamlesh sports achievement motivation test and Rainer Marten's sports competition anxiety test to find out achievement motivation and precompetition anxiety among Indian Inter University level male hockey players. He concluded that there was a significant difference in the level of achievement motivation

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Venn O. Hutchinson, The Effect of Audience and Anxiety level of performance and learning of complex gross motor skill by college women, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 15, (1973):62.

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D. K. Dureha ,"Relationship between achievement motivation and pre-competition anxiety Indian Inter University hockey player's", Abstract of International Conference on Health, Sports and Physical Fitness need for an integrated approach, Hissar : Haryana Agricultural University, January 16-18, (1995):37

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of high pre-competition anxiety group and low pre- competition anxiety group of Inter University level male hockey players.

Smith20 studied in 1977-78 South Dakota State University Basketball Team (n=12) were measured on State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) sports completion anxiety Test (SCAT) pre-game H.R. game filed goal % and season free throw % game free throw% subject in group one consisted of the players who attempted over 1232 field goals during the seasons, while group 2 attempted 95 field goals or less results of ANOVA indicated sig. (P<05) difference between groups. On season field goal% and SAI a significant r was found between scores on the SAI and SCAT.

Kathleen21 studied eleven women varsity basketball players, age 17-21 at Springfiled College. The trait form of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered to subjects prior to the start form of the STAI was administered 1 hour prior to and 1 hour following each contest. Analysis of the data leads to the following conclusion; there was a difference in the post game state anxiety scores was the teams losses. There was a significant difference between the three games described as high anxious and the three games described as low anxious. The significance was the result of 2 factors the caliber of competition and an emotional relation to defeat. A trait anxiety levels did not differ in the pre-season and the post-season situation.

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Betty K. Smith, The Effect of Anxiety on shooting proficiency Among College Women Basketball Players, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation, (1980):133-34.
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Connell T. Kathleen, The Influence of competition on Anxiety levels of Women Inter Collegiate Basketball Players, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 19, (1977):222.

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Kim22 studied 12 member of the mens Inter-Collegiate Volleyball team of Springfield College. All subjects completed the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) during a team meeting sub-sequent each subject completed the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) three times once 2 min before a practice session once 5 min before tournament game. It was found that trait anxiety couldnt be used to predict state anxiety. The three competitive situations of practice, regular seasons game and tournament game do not produce different states anxiety reactions, an interaction exists between trait anxiety and the three competitive situations, a positive relationship exist between trait anxiety and tournament state anxiety.

Martens23 studied the sports competition anxiety test (SCAT) was recently developed to assess competitive trait anxiety (A-Trait) this study examined the concurrent validity of SCAT by correlating coachs subjective ratings of player A-Trait with SCAT-A moderately strong relationship was hypothesized, but a very low correlation was obtained with female college Volleyball players as subjects. To determine the cause of the low correlation, a second study with female high school basketball players examined the ability of SCAT and the coachs rating to predict state anxiety (AState) just before competition. The predictive ability of Spiel Bergers general A-Trait scale was also examined of three measures SCAT was hypothesized to be best predictor of pre-competitive a state. The result showed that SCAT was considerably better predictor of pre-competitive A state.

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Hovey Kim, The relationship between Anxiety and Competition in Mens Inter Collegiate Volleyball, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 21, (1980):204.
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Rainer Martens and Julie Simon A., Comparison of three Predictors of State Anxiety is Competitive situation, Research Quarterly 47, (October, 1976):381.

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Martens24 reported that competitive A-trait (trait anxiety) is a good predictor of state anxiety, but state anxiety alone does not adequately predict motor performance. Persistent anxiety is likely to precipitate situational (state) anxiety. However, state anxiety even when measured on a sports-specific test is not significantly related to motor performance.

Lampmon25 investigated the relationship of the psychological variables anxiety on the performance of competitive swimmers 15 members of the University of Florida served as subject. An anxiety test was given to the swimmers before the session and approximately one hour before the competition. Conclusions drawn were an upward fluctuation in anxiety one hour before the competition, facilities performance and there were no significant difference in anxiety patterns between the two experienced groups. Swimmers performed better if there pre 0meet anxiety level was relatively equal to or slightly above their pre season anxiety level.

Singh26 studied 60 male and 60 female judo players who participated in national games held at Delhi during Nov. 1985 served as the subject for this study. Judo competition were held on knock out basis and those who secured 1 st, 2nd and 3rd position in the respective categories were considered as champions and those who lost in each weight categories were considered as non-champions and for selecting non-champions for each weight category a random method selection was followed. Finally 24 NonChampions male Judokas at National Level were selected as subject for study.

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R.Martens, Sports Competition Anxiety Test, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, (1977), Retrieved, 20 March, 2005 from Pubmed Data Base.
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James Joseph Lampmon, Anxiety and its effect on the performance of competitive Swimmers, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation, (1968):34.
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Rajendra Singh, Comparison of anxiety Level Champion and Non Champion male & female Judo players of National Level, National Sports Psychology Conference, (November, 1986 Souvenir), p.23.

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Similarly, 18 non-champion female judokas of national level were selected as subject for the total group of 60 1. Male champion Judokas of National level were found to have a low level of sports competition anxiety as compare to non-champion judokas. 2. Champion & non-champion female Judokas of national level did not differ on sports competition anxiety level with each other. 3. Male & female judokas of national level differ on sports competition anxiety level with each other.

Peek27 examined 32 students in a volleyball class by dividing them into two matched groups on the basis of the IPAI 8-parallel from anxiety test prior to 13 class meeting during which the French and Copper serve and repeated volleyball test were given at the beginning middle and end of the meeting. Induced anxiety was attempted by verbal and written suggestion that inadequate test performance improved significantly on the scale test but the correlation between the anxiety and test performance were not significance induced anxiety produced significant changes in anxiety but the changes were not uniformly in some direction. Boutin28 selected five NAIA Intercollegiate mens basketball team and 53 players as subject to determine the role pre-game anxiety played in basketball game performance. A review of literature revealed little factual data to indicate that high level of anxiety lead to poor performance in basketball competition Spielberg (IR) developed that State trait

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Arden Peek, Influence of Anxiety on Volleyball Skills, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 9, (1967):88-89.
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Kenneth James Boutin, Relationship of Anxiety Level and Performance in NAIA Intercollegiate Basketball games, Dissertation Abstract International 44:5, (November, 1983), p.1375.

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anxiety inventory which assessed both state and trait anxiety Reiner Martens (65-72) work served as the guiding and directing source of information. Turnovers per minute were the basketball performance indicator most consistently affected by anxiety reaching significant level in the following situation. 1. Players who participated over 20 minutes. 2. In the relationship between the lengths of time played number of personal foul and turnovers. 3. Game starter with anxiety represented by one-test items and non-starters by 7 test items. 4. All players with anxiety represented by five different test items. Investigated the relationship of psychological variable anxiety on the performance of competitive swimmers fifteen.

Elizabeth29studied the relationship between physiological measures of arousal and psychological measures were determined for female classified as high trait anxious and low trait anxious, in general the relationship between physiological and psychological measures of arousal were low. And it revealed in significance difference between high and low trait anxiety in the physiological measures. High trait anxious scored significantly higher than low anxious on the psychological measures. The result of the study supported the concept of response specifically response stereotypes and stimulusresponse specifically during a competitive situation.

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Elizabeth E. Moulds, Selected Physiological Measures of Arousal of High low trait anxiety female during competition, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 21 , (1979):148.

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Jones30 conducts the study to find the effect of anxiety and need for achievement on the performance of high school wrestlers the datas were obtained from the thematic appreciation tests. The test anxiety questionnaire, it was concluded that the personality trait of anxiety and need for achievement had a tendency to influence both the expectancy and the actual performance of these high school wrestlers. Who measured low anxiety performed better than those high in anxiety? The group scoring highest in performance was the low of anxiety and high need for achievement. The group high demonstrated the lowest level of performance in anxiety and low in need for achievement.

Singh31 administered SCAT (Marten's) to Indian athletes and hockey player and found significant difference between the two samples on sports competition anxiety. Hockey player both male and female were found to have less competition anxiety as compare to the players of individual events. Males exhibited less anxiety in competition situation as compared to the females.

Diehl32 used Taylor manifest anxiety scale to divide 200 schoolgirls into high and low anxiety groups. The galvanic skin response was used as a measure of emotional reaction to stress. An item motor performance battery was administrated first without stress and then with subjects believing that motor pictures were being taken of their motor performance for later viewing by teachers and fellow students motor performance of anxious and non anxious subjects did not differ significantly under stress.
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Earl R. Jones, The Effect of Anxiety and need for Achievement of the performance, High School Wrestlers, Completed research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 15, (1973):47.
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Agya Jit Singh, "Psychological characteristic of top level Indian Sportsman", cited by L. S. Sidhu, Sports Science Health Fitness and Performance, (Patiyala : Indian association of sports scientist and physical educationists, 1987):221-232.
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Bobbie Diehl, The Effects of Emotional Stress upon Motor Performance of Anxious and non-Anxious subjects, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 7, (1965):90

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Butki33 studied on moderately active females (N=36) were assigned to one of three exercise conditions: 10, 15 or 20 min. of trade mill running at moderate level of perceived exertion. All exercise conditions significantly reduced anxiety. There were no group differences or interactions between exercise form and groups. Exercise sessions as brief as 10 minutes are effective in reducing felling of tension and anxiety. In situations were anxiety is possible, such as very close to the start of competitions, recommending that athletes keep mildly active could be a preventing procedure for anxiety onset.

Bandura34 studied on college students (n=270) served as subjects. It was found that perceived physical self-efficacy, developed during the socialization process of training and competitions are an important attribute for understanding the variation in sports competition anxiety. He proposed that low self-efficacy is generally accompanied by poor level of performance while a high sense of self-efficacy is associated with better performance. High Physical self-efficacy found in this study was associated with lower sport competition anxiety and better sport performances.

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B.D. Butki & D.L. Rudolph, Do Short bouts of Exercise reduces anxiety? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 (5) Supplement Abstract 674, (1997) Retrieved March 20, 2005 from Pubmed Data Base.
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A. Bandura, Reflections on Self-efficacy. In S.Rachman (Ed.), Advances in Behavioral Research and Therapy (Vol.I), Oxford: Permagon press, (1978) Retrieved March 20, 2005 from Pubmed Data Base.

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Chapter-III

PROCEDURE
In this chapter selection of subject, selection of questionnaire, collection of data, scoring and statistical technique for analyzing the data have been described.

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SELECTION OF SUBJECTS 40 players of individual and team games from Hindu College Moradabad and Tmimt college of physical education were selected as subject for this study. In individual and team game players between age range from 18-25 years and who had represented the college in the session 20012-13 were selected. SELECTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE Sinha Anxiety Scale constructed and standardized by A.K.P. Sinha Retd. Professor and head department of psychology Pt. Ravi Shankar University Raipur and L.N.K. Sinha Retd. Professor and head department of psychology Patna University, Patna was used to measure the anxiety level of individual and team game players. Questionnaire consisted 90 questions and answers were given only by yes or no.

ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND COLLECTION OF DATA There were two groups of 20 each i.e. individual and team games respectively S.A.S was administered in both the group. The research scholar had distributed the questionnaire and explained the purpose to the study. SCORING

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The inventory can be scored accurately by hand and no scoring key or stencil is provided so far. For any response indicated as yes, the testee should be awarded the score of one, and zero for no. The sum of the entire positive or yes response would be the total anxiety score of the individual. STATISTICAL PROCEDURE The raw data was calculated for the analysis of scores. The results have been processed in the terms of the mean, standard deviation, andt ratio. It is a comparative study of two groups of team game and individual game for finding out differences in anxiety level. The mean differences of these groups were tested byt test and level of significance was set at 0.05 levels.

Chapter-IV
ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY ANALYSIS OF DATA

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The data was collected on 20 individual and 20 team game players, who took part in college competitions during 2012-13. t ratio was used to compare the anxiety level of individual and team game players. FINDINGS Calculation of mean, standard deviation and t-ratio of individual and team game players. Table-I CALCULATION OF MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION AND T-RATIO OF FOOTBALL AND ATHLETIC PLAYERS. Group Individual Team games N 20 20 Mean 27.65 27.15 S.D. 15.95 15.32 t-value 0.101

Tabulated value oft at the significance level of 0.05 is 2.028 i.e. t (0.05) = 2.028. The calculated value oft is 0.101. Hence, the calculated value oft ratio is less than the tabulated value.

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Figure.1 Showing statistical data.

Table-II

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MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION AND PERCENTAGE WISE BREAK UP OF INDIVIDUAL PLAYERS. Group Category of anxiety level Extremely high Individual N = 20 M = 27.65 S.D. = 15.95 anxiety High anxiety Normal anxiety Low anxiety Extremely low anxiety In table-I mean and percentage has been calculated. In individual game 50% of the players are having extremely high anxiety, 20% of the players have normal anxiety level and 30% of the players have extremely low. No. of player 10 0 4 0 6 percentage 50% 0% 20% 0% 30%

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Figure.2 Showing anxiety level of individual game players.

Table-III

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MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION AND PERCENTAGE WISE BREAK UP OF TEAM GAMES. Group Category of anxiety level Extremely high Individual N = 20 M = 27.15 S.D. = 15.32 anxiety High anxiety Normal anxiety Low anxiety Extremely low anxiety In table-II where the score of players of team game has been furnished, it can be seen that 45% of the players are extremely high in anxiety level 5% of the players have high anxiety 15% of the players have normal anxiety level, 15% of the players have low anxiety level and 20%. Players are having extremely low level of anxiety. No. of player 9 1 3 3 4 percentage 45% 5% 15% 15% 20%

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Figure.3 Showing anxiety level of team game players

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DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS In table-I comparative result of the two group individual and team game players have been shown. Mean, standard deviation andt value are also presented mean of individual players and team game players are 27.15 with standard deviation 15.95 and 15.32 respectively, t value is 0.101 which is statistically significant at 0.05 levels. This indicates that there is significant anxiety difference between both groups. It may be because of the reason that the players belong to different colleges and the training methodologies were quiet different from each other. Competition experience and age may also be the factors. Mean value is higher of individual players denotes that individual players was more anxious than the team game players. It may be due to the other psychological factors that affect level of anxiety like personality, motivation, level of aspiration and the result of the previous competition. In table-II and table-III scores of anxiety in the percentage has been calculated table-II and table-III reveals that the players of individual games have extremely high level of anxiety in compared to team games (50% and 45% respectively). The analysis of data reveals that the players of team games have high level of anxiety (5%) in compared to individual game players (0%). On the other hand the normal level of anxiety is higher in players of individual game in compared than the players of team game (20% for individual game and 15% for the team game). The low level of anxiety is higher in players of team game i.e. 15% where as the players of individualized game dont have low level of anxiety.

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Data clearly shows that extremely low level of anxiety is higher in the players of individual game (30%) than the players of team game (20%). DISCUSSIONS OF HYPOTHESIS Based upon the results of this study the hypothesis regarding significant difference between mean of anxiety level of individual and team game is accepted.

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Chapter-V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


SUMMARY The available literature on research work so far done in the field of sports psychology indicates that anxiety is more researched than any other area of the field. Researchers have studied anxiety level of different game players. They are also studied anxiety level of those participating in different events of sports. Most of the researchers found that sportsmen were more sociable, more aggressive in their approach to problems, more self confident, more critical and more extroverted than others. The purpose of this study was to compare the anxiety level of individual and team game players. 40 players (20 individual and 20 team games players) from different colleges participating in college tournaments in 2012-13 were selected as subjects for this study. The data was collected and statistically analyses by usingt ratio at 0.05 level of significance differences in anxiety level of individual and team game players at 0.05 level of confidence. CONCLUSION With the limitations of the present study the following conclusions may be drawn. 1- By the findings it was revealed that there was more extremely high anxiety in individual game player than team game players. 2- It was also concluded that high anxiety was there in team game players where as individual game players dont have high anxiety.

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3- The normal anxiety level was more in individual game players than team game players. 4- It was revealed that the low level anxiety is more in team game players. 5- The findings stated that the extremely low level anxiety was higher in individual game players than team game players. By the findings it was clear that the overall anxiety level was high in individual game players like.

Recommendations
On the basis of findings of study, the following recommendations were made:1- A similar study could be done in other games and sports also. 2- A similar study could be done at higherlevel players like national, international or Olympic players by taking a large numbers. 3- The similar study could be done with subjects belonging to different age groups other than those employed in this study. 4- The study of similar type can be conducted on both the male and female players of related games.

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BIBILIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
Bucher A. Charles and others, Foundation of Physical Education and Sports. 1992. Cratty, Bryan J., Anxiety and Performance, Movement Behaviour and Motor Learning, Philadelphia Lea and Febeger, 1975. Gangpadhayay S.R. Sports Psychology. Marten, Renier, Sports anxiety Test, Illinois Human Kinetics, 1977, cited by Glyn C. Roberts, Kevin S. Spink and Cynthia L. Perrnberton, Learning Experiences in Sports Psychology, Champaign Illinois Human Kinetic Publisher, 1986. Nideffer, Robert M., The Relationship of Attention and Anxiety to Performance, cited by William F. Straub, Sports Psychology-An Analysis of Athlete Behaviour, Ithaca, New York. Nelson, D.O. and Langer, Philip, Getting to Really Know your Players, Athletic journal 44 (September 1963) cited by jack H. Llewellyn and Judy, A. Blucker, Psychology of coaching: Theory and Application, Delhi Surjeet Publication, 1982. Richard H. Cox sports psychology concept and application. 1985. Schafsm, France, Basketball for Women, lowa: Brown Company Publishers, 1968.

ELECTRONIC ONLINE SOURCES

Bandura, A., Reflections on self-efficacy, In S. Rachman (Ed.), Advances in Behavioral Research and Therapy (Vol.I), Oxford: Permagon Press, 1978, Retrieved March 20, 2005 from Pumbed Data Base.

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(Bibliography Contd.) Butki, B.D. and Rudolph, D.L., Do short Bouts of Exercise reduce anxiety, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 (5) supplement Abstract 674, (1997), Retrieved March 20, 2005 from Pumbed Data Base. Martens, R., Sports Competition Anxiety Test, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, (1977), Retrieved March 20, 2005 from Pumbed Data Base. Medvec, Savitsky, k., et.al., What, I worry?, Arousal, misattribution and the effect of temporal distance on confidence, Personality and social psychology bulletin, 24, 529-536, Retrieved March 20, 2005 from Pumbed Data Base.

Journals & Periodicals


Boutin, Kenneth James, Relationship of Anxiety level and Performance in NAIA Intercollegiate Basketball Games, Dissertation Abstract International, (November, 1983). Diehl, Bobbie, The effects of emotional stress upon motor performance of anxious and non-anxious subjects, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 7, (1965). Hutchinson, Venn O., The Effect of Audience and Anxiety level of Performance and Learning of Complex Gross Motor Skill by College Women, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 15,(1973). Jones, Earl R., The Effect of anxiety and need for achievement of the performance, High School Wrestlers, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 7, (1973). Kamlesh, M.L., Anxiety in Track and Field Athletes, SNIPES JOURNAL 7, (January, 1984).

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Kathleen, Connell T., The Influence of Competition on anxiety level of Women Inter Collegiate Basketball Players, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 19, (1977). Kim,Hovey, The Relationship between Anxiety and Competition in Mens Inter Collegiate volleyball, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 21, (1980). Lampmon, James Joseph,Anxiety and its Effect on the performance of Competitive Swimmers, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation , (1968). Martens, Rainer and Simon, Julie A., Comparison of three predictors of state Anxiety is Competitive Situations, Research Quarterly 47, (October 1976). McGowen, Kenneth, The Effect of a competitive Situation upon the motor Performance High-Anxious and Low anxious Boys, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 11, (1969). Moulds, Elizabeth E., Selected physiological measures of arousal of high low trait anxiety female during competition, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 21, (1979). Peek, Arden,Influence of anxiety on volleyball skills, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 9, (1967). Singh, Agya Jit, Competitive Anxiety is Sports, SNIPES JOURNAL 5, (July 1982). Singh, Rajendra Pre-Competition Anxiety and its Remedy, A Journal of Sports Medicine, (LNCPE, Gwalior). Smith, Betty K., The Effect of Anxiety on Shooting Proficiency among College Women Basketball Players, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation, (1980).

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Miscellaneous

Encyclopedia of Sports and Sciences and Medicine, 1971 Ed. Individual Adjustment to social practice and characteristics. Singh, Rajendra, Comparison of Anxiety Level Champion and Non Champion Male Female Judo Players of National Level, National Sports psychology Conference (SPAI) November, 1986 Souvenir.

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APPENDIX
Raw scores of anxiety questionnaire between individual and team games players. Individual Players 11 23 12 20 40 32 17 32 29 12 8 33 52 44 67 21 43 11 7 39 Team game players 50 36 37 42 21 35 28 34 12 49 16 16 4 15 25 35 58 18 5 7

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