PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University 2006

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PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University 2006

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A DISSERTATION Submitted to Michigan State University in partial fulllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Electrical and Computer Engineering 2006

ABSTRACT

NUMERICAL S-PARAMETER EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INHOMOGENEOUSLY FILLED WAVEGUIDES By Pedro Barba

A numerical tool based on the nite element method (FEM) is developed in order to assess the parameter uncertainty vulnerability in a novel inversion algorithm to extract the electromagnetic constitutive parameters from a material sample. This inversion algorithm relies heavily on the assumption, when having the cross-section of the testing waveguide partially lled, that the material sample has to be perfectly centered. In the present work, the eect of having the material sample displaced from the center is measured by comparing its extracted constitutive parameters ( , ) with the values corresponding to the perfectly centered case. The nite element method formulation presented here, can also be used to provide the theoretical data (that otherwise would have to be obtained via traditional mode matching techniques or the hybrid mode decomposition), required for the inversion algorithms corresponding to non-regular samples. The results of this work identify some of the cases in which errors are originated from the sample preparation or from the measurement technique utilized. This information is used to identify the band of frequencies in which the error in the inversion algorithm can be minimized. The numerical method is further extended to investigate the behavior of waveguides loaded with layered as well as anisotropic materials.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my appreciation and gratitude to my academic advisor, Dr. Leo Kempel, for providing me with the opportunity to work under his guidance and making me part of his research team. To Dr. Shanker Balasubramaniam, for helping me write my computer codes faster and more eciently. To Dr. Edward Rothwell, for always having the time and willingness to answer all my questions. Also, Dr. Gregory Kobidze, for his friendship and help during our time at the Computational Electromagnetics Lab at MSU. A very special Thank You to Dr. Barbara OKelly and Dr. Percy Pierre for providing me with the opportunity to come to this wonderful institution where I have spent the happiest years of my life. My eternal gratitude for my parents Irma and Sergio, for always being there unconditionally for me. My grandfather, Isauro Medina Hinojos, for always being an inspiration in all my endeavors. To Edith, my lovely girlfriend, for spending all this time with me and be willing to work with me no matter a what time, no matter for how long. I love you! This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under grant ECS-0134236 and the Air Force Oce of Scientic Research under grant FA9550-061-0023. I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the Michigan State University High Performance Computing Center (HPCC) for providing computational resources for this project.

iv

Wenn die Tugend geschlafen hat, wird sie frischer aufstehen. Menschliches, Allzumenschliches Friedrich Nietzsche

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KEY TO SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2 Preliminary Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 The Thru-Reect-Line Calibration Technique . . . . . 2.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Scattering and Transmission Parameters . . . . 2.1.3 Derivation of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3.1 The Thru Measurement . . . . . . . . 2.1.3.2 The Line Measurement . . . . . . . . 2.1.3.3 The Reect Measurement . . . . . . . 2.1.3.4 Postprocessing of Measured Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii ix xiii 1 3 3 3 3 5 7 8 11 13 18 28 32 32 39 39 41 41 41 42 50 56 70 71 74

Derivation of the Reection and Transmission Coecients for a FullyFilled Rectangular Waveguide. TE10 Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Inversion Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hybrid Modes and the Transverse Resonance 2.4.1 Hybrid Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 The Transverse Resonance Method . 2.4.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 3 The Finite Element Method Formulation for Inhomogeneous Waveguides . . . 3.1 Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Domain Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Interpolation Basis Functions . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Formulation of the System of Equations Using 3.1.3.1 Solution of Integrals . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Solution of the System of Equations . . . . . . 3.1.5 Numerical S-Parameter Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Ritz Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2

Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

CHAPTER 4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Error 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Generated by Cross-Sections Shifted from Center Low-Contrast Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-Contrast Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magneto-Dielectric Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79 79 81 81 82 83 83 85 85

4.2

Layered Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Perpendicular in the Direction of Propagation . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Parallel to the Direction of Propagation. Horizontal and Vertical Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anisotropic Formulation: A Ferrite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3

vii

LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 4.1 e within each tetrahedron. . Denition for each volume-function i Denition for each edge on a tetrahedral element. . . . . . . . . . 46 47

Denition for each edge on a triangular element with its constitutive nodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 t within each triangular element. 63 Denition for each area-function i Parameters for the four-point triangular surface Gaussian integration rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Dimensions for a rectangular waveguide for the frequency bands used to conduct the numerical simulations and inversion operations [27]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

viii

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 A two-port linear network with input and output signals. . . . . . A two-port network with connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Thru standard connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Line standard connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Reect standard connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal ow graph for the Reect standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular homogeneous source-free waveguide. . . . . . . . . . Sideview of a fully-lled cross-section waveguide propagating the TE10 mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extracted relative permittivity and permeability for an acrylic sample using the algorithm in [10] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6 7 8 12 13 18 22 30 31 33 36 37 38 41 42 45 47 49 60

Figure 2.10 Extracted relative permittivity and permeability for an alumina sample using the algorithm in [10] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2.11 Vertically loaded waveguide to illustrate the LSE and LSM mode decomposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2.12 Vertically loaded waveguide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2.13 Horizontally loaded waveguide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2.14 Suspended sample rod loaded waveguide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Tetrahedron element for waveguide mesh discretization. . . . . . . Mesh for the waveguide cross-section with material sample inside. Tetrahedron element showing its vertices and the interior point p. Denition for a tetrahedron. Showing its nodes, edges and edge directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular waveguide with obstacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-D Element for t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison between the FEM and theoretical closed-form solution in a fully-lled d/a = 1 rectangular waveguide. Acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1), sample length = 5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison between the FEM and mode-matching solution in a partially-lled d/a = 0.5 rectangular waveguide. Acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1), sample length = 7.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison between the FEM and mode-matching solution in a partially-lled d/a = 0.25 rectangular waveguide. Acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1), sample length = 7.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

75

Figure 3.8

76

Figure 3.9

77

Figure 3.10 Comparison between the FEM and theoretical closed-form solution in a fully-lled d/a = 1 rectangular waveguide. Alumina ( = 9.0 j 0.0027, = 1), sample length = 3 mm. . . . . . . . . . . Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Vertically loaded waveguide with material sample shifted from the center by a distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (magnitude) for acrylic when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm in ten steps. ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (phase) for acrylic when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm in ten steps. ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent error on the S-parameter magnitude resulting from shifting the center of the acrylic material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. Percent error on the S-parameter phase resulting from shifting the center of the acrylic material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. . . (a)Extracted relative permittivity for an acrylic sample when the parameter is increased from = 0 to = 5 mm, (b) error. . . . Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (magnitude) for alumina when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (phase) for alumina when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm. . . .

78 80

87

Figure 4.3

88 89 90 91

92 93

Percent error on the S-parameter magnitude resulting from shifting the center of the alumina material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. 94 95 96 97 98 99

Figure 4.10 Percent error on the S-parameter phase resulting from shifting the center of the alumina material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. . Figure 4.11 (a) Extracted relative permittivity for an alumina sample when the parameter is increased from = 0 to = 3.5 mm, (b) error. Figure 4.12 S-parameters for a lossy-magneto-dielectric material (magRAM) sample (a)magnitude and (b) phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 4.13 Waveguide with a layered material in the direction of propagation of the incident eld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 4.14 S-Parameters (magnitude) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 1, = 1). .

Figure 4.15 S-Parameters (phase) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 1, = 1). . . 100

Figure 4.16 Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material perpendicular in the direction of propagation. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 1, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Figure 4.17 S-Parameters (magnitude) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 1, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . 102 Figure 4.18 S-Parameters (phase) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 1, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . 103 Figure 4.19 Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material perpendicular in the direction of propagation. Material A: ( = 1, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Figure 4.20 Extracted relative permittivities for a layered material perpendicular to the direction of propagation and the asymptotic permittivity for a homogenized material. The plot on top shows the result when Material A has a higher permittivity, the plot on the bottom Material A with a lower permittivity: ( = 1, = 1), ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Figure 4.21 Waveguide with a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Horizontal layering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Figure 4.22 Waveguide with a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Vertical layering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Figure 4.23 S-Parameters (magnitude) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). . 108 Figure 4.24 S-Parameters (phase) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . . . 109 Figure 4.25 Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Horizontal layering. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . . . . 110 Figure 4.26 S-Parameters (magnitude) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . 111 Figure 4.27 S-Parameters (phase) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . . . . 112 Figure 4.28 Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Horizontal layering. Material A:( = 2.5, = 1), Material B:( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Figure 4.29 S-Parameters (magnitude) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . 114 Figure 4.30 S-Parameters (phase) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . . . . 115

xi

Figure 4.31 Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Vertical layering. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). . . . . . . . . . 116 Figure 4.32 S-Parameters (magnitude) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1) . . . 117 Figure 4.33 S-Parameters (phase) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . . . . . 118 Figure 4.34 Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Vertical layering. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Figure 4.35 Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 100 Oe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Figure 4.36 Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 300 Oe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Figure 4.37 Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 500 Oe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Figure 4.38 Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 800 Oe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

xii

FEM: Finite Element Method LSE: Longitudinal Section Electric LSM: Longitudinal Section Magnetic MagRAM: Magnetic Radar Absorbing Material MUT: Material Under Test NRW: Nicolson-Ross-Weir TE: Transverse Electric TM: Transverse Magnetic TRL: Thru-Reect-Line TRM: Transverse Resonance Method VNA: Vector Network Analizer

xiii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Typically, a material may be described by its bulk electromagnetic constitutive parameters: electric permittivity and magnetic permeability . In general these quantities are complex valued (in a time-harmonic scheme) and can either be scalar or tensor functions. The extraction of these parameters by an indirect measurement such as the amount of electromagnetic energy that they reect and transmit, is known as electromagnetic material characterization. Traditional methods for material characterization often use rectangular metallic waveguides because of the simplicity of the geometry to produce suitable material samples and the nearly universality of these components available in microwave laboratories. The mathematical models that describe the behavior of the electromagnetic elds in a rectangular waveguide are also simpler that those for many other geometries. One of the most popular methods to characterize materials is the Nicholson-RossWier (NRW) technique [2, 3]. The biggest advantage of this technique is that once the scattering parameters of the material sample are known (from experimentation), the permittivity and permeability for the test sample are then provided in closed form. Certain conditions, however, must be met by the material sample to be characterized properly. One of these conditions is that the sample has to ll the entire cross-section of the waveguide. If the material is lossy or highly reective, a poor transmission coecient will be obtained, yielding to poor results in the extracted constitutive parameters. Other conditions for the material sample is that it must be linear, homogeneous and isotropic. Also, the geometry of the sample must have parallel front and rear faces, perpendicular to the waveguide walls [7].

An alternative method uses a two-dimensional root-search algorithm in lieu of the NRW approach. This alternative method, for example, was used in [10] for solving the case of a partially lled waveguide. When implementing this inversion method, a word of caution is in order. The material sample being tested has to be perfectly centered in the waveguide cross-section. The objective of this practice is to simplify the mathematical analysis by exploiting the symmetry of the problem. In this thesis a simulation tool is developed to assess the robustness of the inversion algorithm mentioned above when perturbations are present on the experimental setup, specially when the test sample is misplaced inside the waveguide (e. g. laterally shifted from the cross-section center.) since this violates a major assumption during the inversion algorithm. Other perturbations to the experimental setup, that need to be numerically simulated, include the frontal and rear faces of the sample not being parallel to each other or not being perpendicular to the waveguide walls. Chipping of the material sample during its manufacturing process or during handling in the laboratory could also be a contribution for error when extracting its constitutive parameters. It will be shown in the present work how dierent methods, mainly the longitudinal-section electric (LSE) and the longitudinal-section magnetic (LSM) [11] decompositions or the transverse resonance method (TRM) [22] fail to be practical in modeling this inhomogeneous waveguide problem, especially when the material under test consists of an increasingly number of layers or the material exhibits anisotropic properties. Since the nite element method (FEM) treats each element as a homogeneous entity and the discretization of the computational domain can, for all intents and purposes, conform to any shape, the nite element method is a powerful tool for uncertainty analysis.

CHAPTER 2

Errors resulting from imperfections of a measurement system can be classied as either random or systematic. Systematic errors, like the ones resulting from the use of equipment not being properly calibrated, are the repeatable errors that can be measured and then mathematically removed from the measurement via calibration. The Thru-Reect-Line (TRL) calibration technique was rst introduced in 1979 by Engen and Hoer [23]. Consider Figure 2.2 in which a two-port network is formed with connectors A and B and a waveguide segment labeled here as MUT (material under test). Then, the TRL calibration technique eectively removes the error introduced into the measurement by connectors A and B when measuring the Sparameters of the network. Also, at the end of the calibration, the reference planes are at the boundaries of the MUT as shown on Figure 2.2, rather than the VNA ports. The technique requires the measurement of three standards in addition to the total measurement, which comprises of the S-parameters of the connectors A and B altogether with the MUT. These standards are: 1) the Thru, corresponding to the S-parameter measurement of a zero-length (or thru) connection between connector A and connector B; 2) the Reect, consisting of the S11 and S22 measurement of a highly reective one-port device, ; and 3) the Line which is the measurement of the S-parameters of an empty transmission line of known length. 2.1.2 Scattering and Transmission Parameters

Figure 2.2 shows a two-port linear network. The network can be completely characterized by means of the scattering parameters, which relate inward to outward waves 3

from each port, as shown in Equation (2.1). If the [S ] matrix is symmetric it means that the network is reciprocal. Also, for a lossless network [S ] is unitary [27].

Figure 2.1. A two-port linear network with input and output signals.

(2.1)

A physical interpretation to the scattering parameters is to think of them as the reection and transmission coecients of the network. These coecients are complex quantities consisting of a magnitude and a phase and are computed as follows: out v1 S11 = = R = |R| ejr in v1 in =0 v2 v out S21 = 2 = T = |T | ejt in v1 in =0 v2 with similar expressions for S22 and S12 . Another way to characterize this network is by relating the waves, ingoing and outgoing, at port 1 to those at port 2. This relationship is known as the transmission

(2.2)

(2.3)

(2.4)

If multiple networks are connected in series, it is possible to obtain one equivalent transmission matrix for the whole array by multiplying all matrices in the same order as their network position in the array [25]. By using the theory described in [34, pp.539-541], two useful relationships to convert T-parameters to S-parameters and vice versa are obtained: (2.5) 1 S12 S21 S11 S22 S11 t11 t12 [T] = = S 21 t21 t22 S22 1 (2.6)

1 t12 t11 t22 t12 t22 S11 S12 [S] = = t22 S21 S22 1 t21 2.1.3 Derivation of Equations

The derivation presented here follows that of Matthews and Song [24]. Let a MUT be connected to a vector network analyzer (VNA) by using the connectors A and B as shown in Figure 2.2. By rst measuring the total S-parameters of the network, as seen by the VNA, the eects of each network component can be de-embedded from the total measurement by means of the transmission (T) parameters as follows. The conversion from S- to T-parameters is done with the help of the formula (2.6).

[Sm ] [Tm ]

(2.7)

To VNA

A

Reference Plane A

MUT

To VNA

Reference Plane B

where

(2.8)

tm11 tm12 [ Tm ] = tm21 tm22 ta11 ta12 [ Ta ] = ta21 ta22 tmut11 tmut12 [Tmut ] = tmut21 tmut22 tb11 tb12 Tb = tb21 tb22

(2.9)

(2.10)

(2.11)

[Tm ] is the measured transmission matrix as seen by the VNA, [Ta ] is the connector A transmission matrix, [Tmut ] is the Material Under Test transmission matrix and Tb is the connector B transmission matrix. The strategy is now to accurately characterize the connectors A and B so that their contribution can be removed from the measured values of the VNA. Then, the MUT transmission matrix

can be expressed as [Tmut ] = [Ta ]1 [Tm ] Tb 1 2.1.3.1 The Thru Measurement (2.12)

The Thru standard consists on joining both of the connectors A and B as shown in Figure 2.3 and then measure its S-parameters, [St ]. With the aid of Equation (2.6)

To VNA

To VNA

the resulting measured T-matrix for the Thru standard, [Tt ], is written as [St ] [Tt ] [Tt ] = [Ta ] Tthru Tb = [Ta ] Tb where (2.14) (2.13)

tt11 tt12 [Tt ] = tt21 tt22 and the theoretical T-matrix is given by 1 0 Tthru = 0 1

(2.15)

2.1.3.2

The Line standard measurement, shown on Figure 2.4, consists of placing an empty waveguide section of length between connectors A and B. The S-parameters for this conguration are then measured, obtaining Sl Using Equation (2.6) the conversion

l

To VNA

Line

To VNA

Reference Plane A

Reference Plane B

(2.16)

(2.17)

Using equations (2.13) and (2.16) the following is obtained: Tl = [Ta ] Tline [Ta ]1 [Tt ] Now, dening

(2.19)

(2.20)

tlt11 tlt12 Tlt = Tl [Tt ]1 = tlt21 tlt22 with 1 |Tt | 1 tlt12 = |Tt | 1 tlt21 = |Tt | 1 tlt22 = |Tt |

tlt11 =

tl11 tt22 tl12 tt21 tl12 tt11 tl11 tt12 tl21 tt22 tl22 tt21 tl22 tt11 tl21 tt12

where |Tt | is the determinant of matrix [Tt ]. Then equation (2.19) can be written as Tlt [Ta ] = [Ta ] Tline or l 0 tlt11 tlt12 ta11 ta12 ta11 ta12 e = l 0 e ta21 ta22 ta21 ta22 tlt21 tlt22 (2.25)

(2.26)

Carrying out the products of each side tlt11 ta11 + tlt12 ta21 = ta11 el tlt11 ta12 + tlt12 ta22 = ta12 el tlt21 ta11 + tlt22 ta21 = ta21 el tlt21 ta12 + tlt22 ta22 = ta22 el

Taking the ratios of the equations above (the ones that share the same sign on the exponential function) the following set of quadratic equations are obtained: ta11 2 + tlt22 tlt11 ta21 ta12 2 + tlt22 tlt11 ta22 ta11 ta21 ta12 ta22

tlt11 tlt21

tlt12 = 0 tlt12 = 0

(2.31) (2.32)

These quadratic equations share the same set of solutions, namely ta11 ta21 ta12 ta22 1 2tlt21 tlt22 tlt11 2 + 4 tlt21 tlt12 (2.33)

tlt11 tlt22

The choice of roots will be made later in 2.1.3.4. Now, from Equation (2.13), solving for Tb Tb = [Ta ]1 [Tt ] or alternatively written as (2.35) 1 ta22 ta12 tt11 tt12 tb11 tb12 = | T | a tt21 tt22 tb21 tb22 ta21 ta11 (2.34)

10

Carrying out the product, each element of the connector B transmission matrix is obtained as a function of the thru measurement given in Equation (2.13) and the transmission parameters of connector A. 1 tb11 = (t t tt21 ta12 ) |Ta | t11 a22 1 tb12 = (t t tt22 ta12 ) |Ta | t12 a22 1 tb21 = (t t tt11 ta21 ) |Ta | t21 a11 1 tb22 = (t t tt12 ta21 ) |Ta | t22 a11 Taking the ratios t tt21 tt11 ta21 tb21 a11 = ta21 tb22 tt22 tt12 t a11 ta12 tt12 tt22 t tb12 a22 = ta12 tb11 tt11 tt21 t a22 the following relationship is found t tt11 tt21 ta12 a22 = ta21 tt22 tt12 t a11

(2.36)

(2.37)

(2.38)

tb11 tb21

(2.39)

The measurement of the Reect standard, Figure 2.5, consists of placing a reectometer of value at the end of either connector A or B and then measure its reection coecient as seen from the VNA. Using the signal ow graph theory presented in [27] and with the help of Figure 2.6, the reection coecient, as seen by the VNA, can be expressed as a function of the reection coecient and the intrinsic S-parameters

11

To VNA

A or B

Reflect Standard

of the connector as follows: S S Sr11 = Sa11 + a12 a21 1 Sa22 ta12 ta11 ta22 + ta22 = t 1 + ta21 a22 The following ratio is obtained ta12 ta11 1 Sr11 ta22 = ta21 ta22 1S r11 ta11

(2.40)

(2.41)

Following the same procedure on connector B using the same reection coecient , these expressions are found S S Sr22 = Sb22 + b12 b21 1 Sb11 t t tb21 + tb11 b22 b22 = tb12 1 t b22 tb21 tb11 1 Sr22 + tb22 = tb12 tb22 1+S r22 tb11 12

(2.42)

(2.43)

(2.44)

Figure 2.6. Signal ow graph for the Reect standard.

S22

ta11 ta22

tb22 tb11

(2.45)

2.1.3.4

The next step is to assign the correct root to Equation (2.33). This will be accomplished by using the value of the reection coecient from the Reect standard. By placing a metallic plate during this measurement, and by recognizing that the ratio ta12 /ta22 is the reection coecient as seen by the VNA, then it is clear that the root with the larger magnitude is assigned to the reection coecient, the ratio ta12 /ta22 . All of the three standards have been measured at this point. All what is left now is to combine the results of these measurements to express the S-parameters of the MUT from Equation (2.12). Combining Equation(2.39) with Equation (2.45) yields to t tt11 tt21 ta12 ta11 a22 = ta22 t tt22 tt12 ta21 a11 t Sr11 ta12 a22 t Sr22 + tb21 b22 13 t 1 + Sr22 tb12 b11 t 1 Sr11 ta21 a11 1 2

(2.46)

The sign of the ratio (2.46) is chosen in such a way that when using the same value of during the measurement of the Reect standard, (2.41) and (2.46) yield to the same numerical value. Also from Equation (2.39) ta12 t t t21 ta22 tb11 t11 = t tb22 tt22 tt12 ta21 a11 ta11 1 ta22

(2.47)

and by using the relation (2.5), the parameters Sa11 and Sa22 are constructed. t Sa11 = a12 ta22 (2.48)

Sa22 = =

ta11 ta22

(2.49)

From Equation (2.6) the product Sa12 Sa21 is found to be t Sa12 Sa21 = a1a 1 ta22 ta12 ta22 ta21 ta11 (2.50)

For connector B, equations (2.5) and (2.36) are used to construct its S11 and S22 parameters as tb12 tb22

Sb11 =

t tt12 tt22 ta12 a11 = ta11 tt12 tt22 t a22 t tt21 ta11 tt11 a22 Sb22 = ta11 tt22 t tt12 a22 14

(2.51)

(2.52)

Taking the determinant of [Sb ] and using the previous two results t t t t t Sb = Sb11 Sb22 Sb12 Sb21 = b21 b12 b11 + b21 b12 tb22 tb22 tb22 tb22 tb22 t Sb12 Sb21 = b11 + Sb11 Sb22 tb22 (2.53)

(2.54)

It is now necessary to separate the o-diagonal elements of [Sa ] and [Sb ]. With this objective in mind, two assumptions will be made [24]: 1) The determinants of the measured transmission matrices for the Thru and the Line standards are the same Sa12 Sa21 Sb12 Sb21

|Tt | = Tl =

(2.55)

and 2) the determinants of the connectors A and B transmission matrices are also the same. |Ta | = T b With these assumptions the ratio S Sa12 = b12 = Sa21 Sb21 St12 St21 (2.56)

(2.57)

Sa12 =

Sa12 Sa21

(2.58)

(2.59)

The same process applies for the o-diagonal S-parameters for the B connector. All the information necessary to construct the elements of Tmut as expressed in equations (2.10) and (2.12) are now available. Using equations (2.6) and (2.5), and 15

using the elements of [Sa ] and [Sb ] as shown above, the T-parameters for the MUT are obtained as: t t t tm12 tb21 ta12 tm21 tb22 tm22 tb21 tmut11 = a22 m11 b22 (ta11 ta22 ta12 ta21 ) tb11 tb22 tb12 tb21 t t tm11 tb12 ta12 tm22 tb11 tm21 tb12 t tmut12 = a22 m12 b11 (ta11 ta22 ta12 ta21 ) tb11 tb22 tb12 tb21 t t t tm22 tb21 ta21 tm11 tb22 tm12 tb21 tmut21 = a11 m21 b22 (ta11 ta22 ta12 ta21 ) tb11 tb22 tb12 tb21 t t t tm21 tb12 ta21 tm12 tb11 tm11 tb12 tmut22 = a11 m22 b11 (ta11 ta22 ta12 ta21 ) tb11 tb22 tb12 tb21 Finally, the S-parameters for the MUT are given by: (2.64) Smut11 Smut12 [Smut ] = Smut21 Smut22 With each individual element given by: tmut12 tmut22 1 Smut12 = (t t tmut12 tmut21 ) tmut22 mut11 mut22 1 Smut21 = tmut22 t Smut22 = mut21 tmut22

(2.60)

(2.61)

(2.62)

(2.63)

Smut11 =

Or alternatively, expressing the results in terms of only: 1) the scattering parameters of connector A, [ Sa ], 2) the scattering parameters of connector B, [ Sb ], and 3) the total measured scattering parameters, as seen from the VNA, [ Sm ]; the nal expressions, as presented in [24], are:

16

Smut11 =

Sb11 (Sa11 Sm22 |Sm |) + (Sm11 Sa11 ) Sb Sb11 (Sm22 |Sa | Sa22 |Sm |) + (Sm11 Sa22 |Sa |) Sb Sm12 Sa21 Sb21 Sb11 (Sm22 |Sa | Sa22 |Sm |) + (Sm11 Sa22 |Sa |) Sb Sm21 Sa12 Sb12 Sb11 (Sm22 |Sa | Sa22 |Sm |) + (Sm11 Sa22 |Sa |) Sb Sb22 (Sa22 Sm11 |Sa |) + Sm22 |Sa | Sa22 |Sm | Sb11 (Sm22 |Sa | Sa22 |Sm |) + (Sm11 Sa22 |Sa |) Sb

(2.69)

(2.70) (2.71)

(2.72)

17

2.2

Derivation of the Reection and Transmission Coecients for a FullyFilled Rectangular Waveguide. TE10 Mode

^ y b

^ x

Consider the metallic waveguide cross-section shown in Figure 2.7. The structure has innite length in the z directions. Because of its solenoid nature in a source-free region, the electric ux density vector can be written as

D=0

or

D = F

E = 1

(2.73)

(2.74)

18

Ez = 0 Fx = Fy = 0 and Fz = 0

(2.75)

Hence, Equation (2.74) is written as the homogeneous scalar Helmholtz wave equation 2 F z + k 2 F z = 0

(2.76)

The vector potential Fz can be expressed as the product of three independent functions Fz (x, y, z ) = f (x) g (y ) h(z ) Substituting (2.77) into (2.76) subject to the boundary conditions (2.77)

Ey (x = 0) = Ey (x = a) = 0 Ex (y = 0) = Ex (y = b) = 0

(2.78) (2.79)

(2.80)

where 2 + k2 + k2 k 2 = 2 = kx z y 2 2 kz = k2 m n , a b

(2.81) m, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . (2.82)

19

Ex = Ey =

Hx = Hy Hz

Fz

(2.83)

From the previous relations and the solution provided in Equation (2.80), each component for the electric and magnetic elds are expressed as: ky

Ex = Ao

Ey = Ao Ez = 0 Hx = Ao

kx

Dening the constant Eo = Ao kx / , the TEz dominant mode is obtained by letting m = 1 and n = 0 on Equations (2.82) and (2.84) to (2.89), yielding 2 + k2 k 2 = 2 = kx z 2 kz 10 = 2 a

(2.90) (2.91)

as the dominant wave number. The modal elds for the mode of interest are given

20

by:

A side view of a loaded waveguide is shown in Figure 2.8. A dielectric and magnetic discontinuity exists in Region 2, dened in z1 < z < z2 , lling the entire crosssection in the xy plane. Regions 1 and 3 share the same electromagnetic properties. On Figure 2.8, the coecients A, B , C and D are the constant amplitudes of the incident and reected electric elds in each of the waveguide regions; and the functions 1,2 (x, z ) are given by: 1 (x, z ) = sin ( kx x ) exp ( jk1 z ) 1 (x, z ) = sin ( kx x ) exp ( jk1 z ) 2 (x, z ) = sin ( kx x ) exp ( jk2 z ) 2 (x, z ) = sin ( kx x ) exp ( jk2 z ) (2.98) (2.99) (2.100) (2.101)

Suppose that an incident eld coming from z < z1 hits the material discontinuity at z = z1 , partially transmitting into Region 2 and reecting back into Region 1. Then, the total electric and magnetic elds in Region 1 can be expressed as the superposition

21

of their incident and reected quantities in this way: Etot = sin(kx x) [ A exp(jk1 z ) + B exp(jk1 z ) ] y (2.102) 1 k1 Htot = sin(kx x) [ A exp(jk1 z ) + B exp(jk1 z ) ] x 1 1 kx + j cos(kx x) [ A exp(jk1 z ) + B exp(jk1 z ) ] z 1 (2.103)

Following the same procedure as in Region 1, the total electric and magnetic elds in Region 2 are given by

^ y

^ z

Region 2 1

( 2, 2 ) ( 1, )

Region 1

( 1, )

Region 3 1

Figure 2.8. Sideview of a fully-lled cross-section waveguide propagating the TE10 mode.

22

Etot = sin(kx x) [ C exp(jk2 z ) + D exp(jk2 z ) ] y (2.104) 2 k2 Htot = sin(kx x) [ C exp(jk2 z ) + D exp(jk2 z ) ] x 2 2 kx + j cos(kx x) [ C exp(jk2 z ) + D exp(jk2 z ) ] z 2 (2.105)

Assuming that no reection is produced from z > z2 ( ), then the constant F shown in Figure 2.8 is set equal to zero, producing in this way, only a transmitted wave. The total electric and magnetic elds in Region 3 are then given by Etot = E sin(kx x) exp(jk1 z ) y 3 Htot = E 3 exp(jk1 z ) 1 + j kx cos(kx x) z ] [ k1 sin(kx x) x

(2.106) (2.107)

Tangential electric and magnetic eld continuity must be maintained across each section interface. This means that at the rst waveguide discontinuity, z = z1 , the two conditions that must be satised are: tan Etan 1 (z = z1 ) = E2 (z = z1 ) A exp(jk1 z1 ) + B exp(jk1 z1 ) = C exp(jk2 z1 ) + D exp(jk2 z1 ) (2.108)

exp(jk1 z1 )

B C

exp(jk2 z2 ) D

exp(jk2 z2 ) = E

exp(jk1 z2 ) (2.111)

From (2.110) and (2.111) two of the unknowns are expressed as a function of the transmitted wave amplitude E . 1 2 1 D = 2 C = 2 k2 k1 k + 2 exp(z2 (k2 k1 )) E 1 2 k 1 1 2 exp(z2 (k1 + k2 )) E 1 k 2

(2.112) (2.113)

from (2.108) and (2.109) A and B are expressed as a function of the previous constants

24

found. k1 k 1 1 + 2 exp(z1 (k1 k2 ) C 2 k1 1 2 k1 k 1 + 1 2 exp(z1 (k1 k2 ) D 2 k1 1 2 k1 k 1 B = 1 1 + 2 exp(z1 (k1 + k2 )) C 2 k1 1 2 k1 k 1 + 1 1 2 exp(z1 (k2 k1 )) D 2 k1 1 2 A = Using Equations (2.112) and (2.113) in (2.114) the following ratio is found

(2.114)

(2.115)

(2.116)

similarly using Equations (2.112) and (2.113) in (2.115), the second ratio is expressed as k1 2 k2 2 1 2 B =j sin (k2 (z2 z1 )) exp (jk1 (z2 + z1 )) E k1 k2 2 1 2

(2.117)

From the previous two ratios found, (2.117) and (2.116), taking their product provides

25

Recognizing that the reection coecient is related to B/A and that the transmission coecient is related to E/A, the S11 parameter evaluated at the z = z1 plane is then expressed as B sin(kx x) exp(jk1 z1 ) 1 A sin(kx x) exp(jk1 z1 ) B = exp(j 2k1 z1 ) A =

S11 |z = z

26

while the S21 parameter evaluated at z = z2 is expressed as S21 |z = z E sin(kx x) exp(jk1 z2 ) 2 A sin(kx x) exp(jk1 z1 ) E = exp(jk1 (z2 z1 )) A =

27

2.3

The objective is to solve the system of simultaneous equations given by thy exp S11 (, , ) S11 ( ) = 0 thy exp S21 (, , ) S21 ( ) = 0 (2.121)

thy exp where Sij and Sij for ij = 11, 21 are the theoretical and experimental Sparameters of the material sample, assuming a symmetric S-matrix. The theoretical S-parameters are obtained by means of the mode matching technique. Equation (2.121) is solved using the iterative complex two-dimensional Newtons root search algorithm. A successful solution to (2.121) will provide the permittivity and permeability of the material sample in question. In short, the method developed in [4, 5, 6, 10] consists in: 1. Expansion of the electric and magnetic elds into orthogonal modes in each region of the waveguide. 2. Application of boundary conditions to the tangential components of the elds at each material/waveguide interface. 3. Application so symmetry properties of the incident TE10 mode and geometry of the waveguide (e.g. centering the material in the cross-section.) 4. Test the resulting equations with orthogonal modes to obtain a linear system of equations. thy thy 5. Solve the linear system to obtain S11 (, , ) and S21 (, , ). 6. Solve the system of equations (2.121) iteratively and extract the permittivity and permeability .

28

The algorithm is validated in this work by feeding the theoretical values for the Sparameters developed in (2.119) and (2.120) for two dierent non-magnetic materials. The rst case is acrylic ( = 2.5 + j 0), Figure 2.9, with a sample length of 7.5mm and the second is alumina ( = 9.0, tan = 0.003), Figure 2.10, with a sample length of 3mm. Both cases ll the entire waveguide cross-section (a = 22.86mm, b = 10.16mm) and are tested in the X-Band (8-12 GHz). The agreement throughout the whole band is consistent with the values of permittivity and permeability used to generate the theoretical S-parameters for both materials.

29

Extracted Relative Permittivity for Acrylic 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 8 epsilon, real epsilon, imaginary

10 Frequency (GHz)

(a) Relative permittivity.

11

12

Extracted Relative Permeability for Acrylic 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 8 mu, real mu, imaginary

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b) Relative permeability.

11

12

Figure 2.9. Extracted relative permittivity and permeability for an acrylic sample using the algorithm in [10]

30

(a) Relative permittivity.

11

12

Extracted Relative Permeability for Alumina 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b) Relative permeability.

11

12

Figure 2.10. Extracted relative permittivity and permeability for an alumina sample using the algorithm in [10] 31

2.4 2.4.1

In solving for the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for any of the waveguide structures shown in Figure 2.12, Figure 2.13 and Figure 2.14 by trying to decompose the electric and magnetic elds in TEz or TMz , as it was done for the empty waveguide in 2.2, will not lead to the correct imposition of boundary conditions in the air/material interface [21]. Instead, a decomposition of elds known as hybrid modes will be used [11, 21, 22]. The term hybrid arises from the fact that each decomposition that is a solution for this problem is a combination of TEz and TMz modes. Hybrid is used interchangeably with the terms LSE or LSM (longitudinal section electric/magnetic) decomposition. Modes LSEx or y mean TEx or y and similarly LSMx or y mean TMx or y . Structures exhibiting a material discontinuity in the x direction are solved in such a way that either no component of the electric eld exists in this direction, meaning it is LSEx ; or that the magnetic eld lacks the x component, meaning it is LSMx . The same principle is applied to material discontinuities in y . Take for instance the geometry of the waveguide shown in Figure 2.11, the same geometry used by the inversion algorithm [10] when the material sample is centered. Assuming the interior of the structure is free of sources

D=0

D = j h

(2.122)

the electric and magnetic elds are written as a function of the magnetic Hertzian potential as

E = j h H = h 32

(2.123) (2.124)

^ y b

x1

x2

^ x

Figure 2.11. Vertically loaded waveguide to illustrate the LSE and LSM mode decomposition.

(2.125)

The discontinuity of the material exists in the x direction. In order to obtain LSEx modes, it is necessary to dene the magnetic hertzian potential as traveling waves in the +z direction with only one component, the x -component, as follows:

h = (x, y ) exp(jkz z ) x The wave equation (2.125) then becomes 2 T (x, y ) + where 2 T = 2 k 2 kz

(2.126)

(x, y ) = 0

(2.127)

2 2 + x2 y 2 33

(2.128)

(2.129) (2.130)

2 (x, y ) xy

Applying the separation of variables technique as it was done in 2.2, solutions that satisfy the boundary conditions at the waveguide walls are obtained for (x, y ).

0 x x1 x 1 x x2 x2 x a (2.131)

ky =

m = 1, 2, 3, . . .

(2.132)

and from the separation of variables technique, the characteristic equations that relate all the wave numbers are: 2 = k2 + k2 + k2 k1 x1 y z 2 = k2 + k2 + k2 k2 x2 y z since the phase in the direction of propagation has to be preserved 2 = k2 k2 k2 kz x1 y 1 2 k2 k2 = k2 x2 y

(2.133) (2.134)

(2.135) (2.136)

34

Matching the tangential elds Ez and Hy at x = x1 and x = x2 and gives four equations for the constants A1 , A2 , B2 and A3 . Solving for these constants gives the transcendental equation: 2 tan k ( x x ) kx x2 2 1 1

tan kx1 ( a x2 )

= 0 (2.137)

For the particular case of having the test material perfectly centered in the crosssection (e. g. a = x1 + x2 ), Equation (2.137) reduces to 2 kx1 kx2 tan kx1 x1 2 tan k ( x x ) tan2 k x kx x2 2 x1 1 1 2 2 tan k ( x x ) = 0 + kx x2 2 1 1 (2.138)

( x2 x1 ) 2 k x2 ( x2 x1 ) 2

(2.139) (2.140)

Equations (2.139), (2.140) and (2.135) are solved numerically for kx1 , kx2 and kz . These values are then substituted in equations (2.123) and (2.124) to construct the elds in all three regions for all modes.

35

^ y b

o ^ y b

(a) Along the side wall.

^ x

o

(b) With o-set.

a

Figure 2.12. Vertically loaded waveguide.

^ x

36

^ y b

o ^ y b

(a) Along the bottom wall.

^ x

o

(b) With o-set.

a

Figure 2.13. Horizontally loaded waveguide.

^ x

37

^ y b

o ^ y b

(a) With rectangular cross-section.

^ x

o

(b) With arbitrary cross-section.

^ x

38

2.4.2

The cross-sections depicted on Figure 2.12, Figure 2.13 and Figure 2.14 can also be modeled as an equivalent transmission line circuit, formed with dierent sections, each having dierent impedance values. In doing so, a transcendental equation in the form of (2.137) is obtained. This approach is referred to as the transverse resonance method (TRM) [22]. For obtaining the propagation constants for the electric and magnetic elds, the TRM approach is a much more straightforward and simple solution when compared to the hybrid mode decomposition method from 2.4.1. But when it comes to reconstruct the distribution of the elds, the TRM lacks in the ability to provide with the information to do so. For this reason this approach will not be further discussed in this work. 2.4.3 Conclusion

If any of the geometries shown in Figure 2.12, Figure 2.13 or Figure 2.14 is changed by increasing the number of material discontinuities they possess (e.g. become layered), then the complexity of a solution also increases, since more boundary conditions need to be satised at each interface. A hybrid decomposition solution for this problem becomes impractical, specially if the materials in question are anisotropic in nature. Furthermore, if a material sample, like the one depicted in Figure 2.14 is considered, a solution in closed form is not possible, even if the material geometry is rectangular. For this case a variational/perturbational approach is required [11]. With this in mind, it is convenient to develop an alternate tool to assess the robustness of the inversion algorithm described in 1 and 2.3. As a requirement the simulation tool has to be able to handle eigenproblems with material inhomogeneities and dispersive materials having complex geometries. The nite element method (FEM) is particularly suitable for modeling three-

39

dimensional bodies with complex geometry features. It can also incorporate materials of any composition without the need to reformulate the problem [1, 13, 16]. The FEM formulation for three-dimensional inhomogeneous waveguides is the subject of the next chapter.

40

CHAPTER 3

THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FORMULATION FOR INHOMOGENEOUS WAVEGUIDES 3.1 3.1.1 Formulation Domain Discretization

Because of the versatility to conform to many shapes, the element chosen to discretize the waveguide space is a tetrahedron, shown in Figure 3.1. As a rst step, the

cross-section of the waveguide is drawn in two dimensions, with the material sample aligned. Then, a mesh consisting of triangles is generated. The number of triangles increases with the electrical density of the material sample. The two-dimensional mesh is extruded into depth with a nite number of layers, producing triangularprism elements which in turn are partitioned into tetrahedra. In this way the threedimensional waveguide is generated.

41

Figure 3.2. Mesh for the waveguide cross-section with material sample inside.

3.1.2

Within each tetrahedron, the unknown eld can be interpolated from each node value by using the the rst order polynomial e (x, y, z ) = ae + be x + ce y + de z

(3.1)

The value of the eld at each vertex (node) of the tetrahedron is therefore e e e e e 1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) = a + b x1 + c y1 + d z1 e e e e e 2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ) = a + b x2 + c y2 + d z2 e e e e e 3 (x3 , y3 , z3 ) = a + b x3 + c y3 + d z3 e e e e e 4 (x4 , y4 , z4 ) = a + b x4 + c y4 + d z4

42

Each coecient in Equations (3.2)-(3.5) can be expressed as a function of the coordinate values for each vertex. This coecients are then given by e e 1 2 e xe 1 x2 e ye y1 2 e ze z1 2 1 be = 1 6V e 1 e 3 xe 3 e y3 e z3 1 e 4 xe 4 e y4 e z4 1 = 1 be e + be e + be e + be e 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 e 6V (3.7)

ae =

1 6V e

1 e e e e e ae e + ae 2 2 + a3 3 + a4 4 6V e 1 1

(3.6)

e e e e 1 2 3 4 e ye ye ye y1 2 3 4 e ze ze ze z1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1

ce =

1 6V e

e e e xe 1 x2 x3 x4 e e e e 1 2 3 4 e ze ze ze z1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1

1 e e e e e ce e + ce 2 2 + c3 3 + c4 4 6V e 1 1

(3.8)

de =

1 6V e

e e e xe 1 x2 x3 x4 e ye ye ye y1 2 3 4 e e e e 1 2 3 4

1 e e e e e de e + de 2 2 + d3 3 + d4 4 6V e 1 1

(3.9)

where | | is the determinant operator. The volume for each tetrahedron is given by 1 1 1 1 (3.10)

xe xe xe xe 1 1 2 3 4 ) = 1 abs(Ae + B e + C e + De ) e V = abs( 6 6 e ye ye ye y1 2 3 4 e ze ze ze z1 2 3 4

43

Expanding each determinant on Equations (3.6) through (3.10) and grouping them, each element constant is then obtained in terms of its nodal coordinates e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe = (y3 4 4 3 2 4 2 2 4 3 2 3 3 2 4 e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe = (y4 3 3 4 1 1 4 4 1 3 3 1 1 3 4 e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe = (y2 4 4 2 1 4 1 1 4 2 1 2 2 1 4 e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe + (y e z e y e z e )xe = (y3 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e = (y3 4 2 4 2 3 2 3 4 e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e = (y4 3 1 1 4 3 3 1 4 e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e = (y2 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 4 e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e + (y e y e )z e = (y3 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 4 x3 )z2 + (x2 x4 )z3 + (x3 x2 )z4 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 3 x4 )z1 + (x4 x1 )z3 + (x1 x3 )z4 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 4 x2 )z1 + (x1 x4 )z2 + (x2 x1 )z4 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 2 x3 )z1 + (x3 x1 )z2 + (x1 x2 )z3 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 3 x4 )y2 + (x4 x2 )y3 + (x2 x3 )y4 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 4 x3 )y1 + (x1 x4 )y3 + (x3 x1 )y4 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 2 x4 )y1 + (x4 x4 )y3 + (x3 x1 )y4 e e e e e e e e = ( xe 3 x2 )y1 + (x1 x3 )y2 + (x2 x1 )y3 e e e e e e e e e = [(xe 3 x4 )y2 + (x4 x2 )y3 + (x2 x3 )y4 ]z1 e e e e e e e e e B e = [(xe 4 x3 )y1 + (x1 x4 )y3 + (x3 x1 )y4 ]z2 e e e e e e e e e C e = [(xe 2 x4 )y1 + (x4 x1 )y2 + (x1 x2 )y4 ]z3 e e e e e e e e e De = [(xe 3 x2 )y1 + (x1 x3 )y2 + (x2 x1 )y3 ]z4 ae 1 ae 2 ae 3 ae 4 be 1 be 2 be 3 be 4 ce 1 ce 2 ce 3 ce 4 de 1 de 2 de 3 de 4 Ae

(3.11) (3.12) (3.13) (3.14) (3.15) (3.16) (3.17) (3.18) (3.19) (3.20) (3.21) (3.22) (3.23) (3.24) (3.25) (3.26) (3.27) (3.28) (3.29) (3.30)

44

e (x, y, z ) =

e (x, y, z )e i i

(3.31)

e is where i is one of the four nodes of the tetrahedral element. The meaning of i e is the normalized partial better explained with the aid of Figure 3.3 shown below. 1 volume of element e dened by point p and nodes 2, 3 and 4. When point p is at node 1, the partial volume is equal to six times that of the element volume, hence e = 1. When point p is anywhere on the face opposite to node 1 (face 234), then 1 e = 0. The same principle applies to e , e and e . Table 3.1 describes the nodes 1 2 3 4 e . The vector basis function, Ne , is now dened as related to each i i

1 p 4 2

3

Figure 3.3. Tetrahedron element showing its vertices and the interior point p.

45

Function e 1 e 2 e 3 e 4

vertex 1

vertex 2

vertex 3

vertex 4

p p p p

2 1 1 1

3 3 2 2

4 4 4 3

Ne i = = =

e i e i

+ +

e (x, y, x) e (x, y, z ) e (x, y, z ) e (x, y, z ) i i2 i2 i1 1 e e e e i i2 i1 1 i2 e i (ai1 bi2 ai2 bi1 ) + (ci1 bi2 ci2 bi1 )y + (di1 bi2 di2 bi1 )z x (6V e )2 e i (ai1 ci2 ai2 ci1 ) + (bi1 ci2 bi2 ci1 )x + (di1 ci2 di2 ci2 )z y (6V e )2 e i (ai1 di2 ai2 di1 ) + (bi1 di2 bi2 di1 )x + (ci1 di2 ci2 di1 )y z (6V e )2 (3.33)

where the notation i1 stands for node 1 of edge i and i2 stands for node 2 of edge i, all on the element e. Figure 3.4 and Table 3.2 dene how a tetrahedron element is constituted with nodes, edges and their relationship. Equation (3.33) is a tangential vector nite element (TVFE) basis function, also called CT-LN (Continuous Tangential - Linear Normal) basis function [17]. This type of basis function was rst introduced in 1980 by Nedelec [18]; however, they were rst described by Whitney [19] about 45 years ago. The basis function Ni posses some 46

1 1 5 4 3

Figure 3.4. Denition for a tetrahedron. Showing its nodes, edges and edge directions.

3 4 6

Edge i

Node i1 1 1 1 2 4 3

Node i2 2 3 4 3 2 4

1 2 3 4 5 6

47

desirable properties. First, it has a zero divergence value, as shown in Equation (3.34). e e i Ni = (be be be be ) + (ce ce ce ce ) + (de de de de ) i i i i i i i i i i i 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 i1 (6V e ) = 0 (3.34)

Second, it exhibits a constant, non-zero curl, as it is shown in Equation(3.35). This property ensures continuity of the eld across elements sharing faces containing edge i. Ne i = e e e e e i i1 i2 i2 i1 e e = 2 e i i1 i2 2 e e e e + ( de be be de ) y i = ( ce i1 di2 di1 ci2 ) x i1 i2 i1 i2 (6V e )2 e e e + ( be i1 ci2 ci1 bi2 ) z = 0 (3.35)

With this denition of the basis (interpolation) function Ni , the electric eld inside a tetrahedron can be expressed as Ee i = 6 e Ne i (x, y, z ) Ei

48

49

3.1.3

Consider Figure 3.5, in which a rectagular waveguide is loaded with any irregular shaped obstacle (although, the obstacle shown here has a rectangular prism shape for convenience), having constitutive parameters ( , ). The waveguide is excited with the dominant TE10 mode. On surface S1 , the surface at which the incident eld is impressed, the total electric eld E(x, y, z ) can be written as the superposition of both, the incident and the reected elds in the same manner as Equation(2.102) E(x, y, z1 ) = Einc (x, y, z1 ) + Eref (x, y, z1 ) = Eo sin x exp(jkz 10 z1 ) + R Eo sin x exp(jkz 10 z1 ) y a a (3.37)

Similarly, the total eld at surface S2 is expressed as E(x, y, z2 ) = Etrans (x, y, z2 ) = T Eo sin x exp(jkz 10 z2 ) y a (3.38)

where R and T are the reection and transmission coecients, respectively. The TE10 mode guided wavenumber is given by Equation(2.91). Uniqueness require that all tangential eld components have to be specied on all of the six faces surrounding the waveguide domain. All tangential electric eld components have to vanish at the perfectly conducting walls of the waveguide. But on surfaces S1 and S2 , however, impedance boundary conditions are required [20]. Beginning on surface S1 , with the total electric eld expression written on Equation (3.37), an expression relating the tangential magnetic and electric elds on this surface

50

is written following these steps E = n z Einc + Eref = jkz 10 Einc + jkz 10 Eref = jkz 10 E 2jkz 10 Einc so that E jkz 10 E = 2jkz 10 Einc n Noting that (3.39)

(3.40)

n E = E n

(3.41)

(3.42)

which is the boundary condition at surface S1 . In a similar manner, the tangential magnetic and electric elds at surface S2 are related by the boundary condition E + (jkz 10 ) n n E = 0 n (3.43)

which implies that no energy is being reected from surface S2 , that is to say, surface S2 is a perfectly matched layer. It is important to mention that when generating the discretization mesh for Figure 3.5, the surfaces S1 and S2 are placed suciently far away from the material sample, so that higher order modes excited by the material discontinuity decay and vanish when the elds are recovered at these surfaces.

51

The boundary value problem for Figure 3.5 can be summarized as 1 2 ] E = 0 E = 0 n E + (jkz 10 ) n n E = (2jkz 10 ) Einc n E + (jkz 10 ) n n E = 0 n

(3.44) (3.45)

The nite element method calls for nding the values of the electric eld that will make the rst variation of the functional for Equation (3.44) stationary. The functional, from the generalized variational principle involving lossy media and inhomogeneous boundary conditions, is given by 1 1 1 L, L, u + , Lu , f 2 2 2

F() =

(3.46)

a, b =

a b d

(3.47)

is the domain of validity for a and b, u is a function that satises the boundary conditions (3.42) and (3.43); f is the forcing function (which for this case is zero, since all eld sources are nonexistent) for the dierential equation (3.44); and L is the 1 wave equation operator 2 . After performing these substitutions,

applying the boundary conditions above with the aid of the rst and second vector

52

[ ( U ) ( V ) U ( V ) dV = V S ( U V ) n dS (3.48)

[ V ( U ) U ( V ) ] dV = S ( U V V U ) n dS (3.49)

the functionals for the electric eld E and isotropic media Fiso (E) = 1 2 + + 1 2 ( E) ( E) ko r E E dV r jkz 10 (n E) (n E) (2jkz 10 ) E Einc dS 2 jkz 10 2 (n E) (n E) dS (3.50)

V S1 S2

and anisotropic media are then obtained. Fanis (E) = 1 2 + + 2 E [ ] E dV ( E) [ r ] ( E) ko r jkz 10 2 jkz 10 2 (n E) (n E) (2jkz 10 ) E Einc dS (n E) (n E) dS (3.51)

V S1 S2

53

and the relative-magnetic permeability tensor [ r ] is related to its inverse [ r ] in the following fashion [ r ] = 1 =[ r ]1 (3.53)

xx xy xz xx xy xz yx yy yz = yx yy yz zx zy zz zx zy zz

Substitution of the electric eld expansion (3.36) into the isotropic functional (3.50) and the anisotropic functional (3.51) leads to their discretized versions: Ntot N S + NS 1 2 e=1

1 F ( E) = 2

e ]{Ee } + 1 {Ee }T [ Ie + I 1 2 2

e {Ee }T [ Ie 3 ]{E }

(3.54)

1 F ( E) = 2

Ntot

1 e e {Ee }T [ Ie 5 + I6 ]{E } + 2

N S + NS 1 2 e=1

e {Ee }T [ Ie 3 ]{E }

(3.55)

where Ntot is the total number of tetrahedra in the waveguide mesh, NS is the 1 number of tetrahedra on surface S1 and NS is the number of tetrahedra on surface 2 54

e e e e e S2 . The matrices [ Ie 1 ], [ I2 ], [ I3 ], [ I5 ]and [ I6 ] and the vector { I4 } are given by [ Ie 1] = Ie 2 Ie 3 = = 1 e r { Ne }T { Ne } dV (3.56) (3.57) (3.58) (3.59) (3.60) (3.61)

Ve Ve S1 S2 S1

2 e T e ko r { N } { N } dV (jkz 10 ) { n t } T { n t } dS

{ Ie 4} = Ie 5 Ie 6 = =

(2jkz 10 ) { n t }T { Einc n } dS { Ne }T [ r ] { Ne } dV 2 { Ne }T [ ] { Ne } dV ko r

Ve Ve

Noting that the formal derivative of the functionals (3.54) and (3.55) is given by [1] F(E) {Ei }

F(E) =

(3.62)

and using the partial dierentiation rules for matrices and vectors as described in [16] ( C { x} ) = C {x} { x} {x}T [ A ] {x} = 2 [ A ] { x}

(3.63) (3.64)

then the rst variation of the functionals (3.54) and (3.55) after setting them equal to zero, F(E) = 0, as the Ritz procedure requires; and enforcing the boundary conditions (3.42), (3.43) and (3.45), the following linear system of equations is obtained e e e [Ie 1 + I2 + I3 ] {E} = {I4 } e e e [Ie 5 + I6 + I3 ] {E} = {I4 }

(3.65)

(3.66)

where the system (3.65) solves the isotropic problem depicted in Figure 3.5 while 55

(3.66) solves the anisotropic version of the same geometry. 3.1.3.1 Solution of Integrals

The solution of the integrals (3.56 - 3.61) is performed within each element, assuming the homogeneity of the tetrahedra. Using the result from (3.35) and taking the dot product in the integrand of (3.56) e ( Ne i ) ( Nj ) 4 i j (6V e )4 e e e e e e e ( ce i1 di2 di1 ci2 )( cj1 dj2 dj1 cj2 ) e e e e e e e + ( de i1 bi2 bi1 di2 )( dj1 bj2 bj1 dj2 ) e e e e e e e + ( be i1 ci2 ci1 bi2 )( bj1 cj2 cj1 bj2 ) i, j = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 6 (3.67)

ij = =

constant,

Since the integrand ij is always a constant, the value of (3.56) reduces to the volume of the tetrahedron multiplied by a set of constants as follows:

56

[ Ie 1 ]ij = = = = =

Ve

Ve ij dV e Ve r Ve ij e r 4 Ve i j ( ce de de ce )( ce de de ce i i i i j j j j2 ) 4 e e 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 (6V ) e e e e e e e + ( de i1 bi2 bi1 di2 )( dj1 bj2 bj1 dj2 ) e e e e e e e + ( be i1 ci2 ci1 bi2 )( bj1 cj2 cj1 bj2 ) , i, j = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 6 (3.68)

1 { Ne }T { Ne e i j } dV r ij dV e r

As for the second integrand, it involves the dot product of the vector basis functions, ij (x, y, z ). ij (x, y, z ) = = = 2 e e ko r (Ni ) (Nj ) 2 ko r e e e e e e e e e e j1 j2 j2 j1 i j i1 i2 i2 i1 e e e e e 2 e e e e ko be r i j i j i2 bj2 + ci2 cj2 + di2 dj2 1 1 e e be be + ce ce + de de i j i j i j i 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 j1 e e i be be + ce ce + de de j i j i j i 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 j2 e e e e e e e + i be (3.69) i1 bj1 + ci1 cj1 + di1 dj1 2 j2

Ve

(3.70)

and applying it to the integrand (3.69), all the elements of the integral [I2 ]ij are then obtained as follows Ie 2 11 = Ie 2 12 = Ie 2 13 = Ie 2 14 = Ie 2 15 = Ie 2 16 = Ie 2 22 = Ie 2 23 = Ie 2 24 = Ie 2 25 = Ie 2 26 = Ie 2 33 = Ie 2 34 = 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r e e 1 1 360 Ve e e 1 2 720 Ve e e 1 3 720 Ve e e 1 4 720 Ve e e 1 5 720 Ve e e 1 6 720 Ve e e 2 2 360 Ve e e 2 3 720 Ve e e 2 4 720 Ve e e 2 5 720 Ve e e 2 6 720 Ve e e 3 3 360 Ve e e 3 4 720 Ve e e e 22 12 + 11 e e e 2 e 23 21 13 + 11 e e e 2 e 24 21 14 + 11 e e e e 23 22 2 13 + 12 e e e e 22 24 12 + 2 14 e e e e 24 23 14 + 13 e e e 33 13 + 11

58

Ie 2 35 = Ie 2 36 = Ie 2 44 = Ie 2 45 = Ie 2 46 = Ie 2 55 = Ie 2 56 = Ie 2 66 =

2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r 2 ko r

e e e e 24 44 2 12 + 14 e e e e 44 34 14 + 2 13 e e e 33 23 + 22 e e e e 23 2 34 22 + 24 e e e e 34 33 2 24 + 23 e e e 22 24 + 44 e e e e 24 2 23 44 + 34 e e e 44 34 + 33

e e e Ie 2 ij = I2 ji . The integrand of I3 and I4 require the tangential component of the surface basis function on surfaces S1 and S2 . This tangential component translates directly into the face of each tetrahedron that constitutes either surface. For simplicity, the author chooses to treat each tetrahedra face lying on S1 and S2 as two-dimensional triangular basis functions, whose outward pointing normal n is always directed to the outside of the mesh (e.g. z for S1 and + z for S2 ). Following an analogous procedures as the one for the three-dimensional tetrahe-

dron, the two-dimensional triangular element is constructed as shown on Figure 3.6 and with the edge denition as given on Table 3.3.

59

^ y

3 1 (x 1, y 1)

(x 3, y 3) 3

p 1

2 (x 2, y 2)

^ x

Edge i

Node i1 1 2 3

Node i2 2 3 1

1 2 3

Table 3.3. Denition for each edge on a triangular element with its constitutive nodes.

60

Any quantity, t (x, y ), inside the triangle shown in Figure 3.6 can be readily approximated by means of the rst order polynomial t (x, y ) = et + f t x + g t y

(3.93)

evaluating this polynomial at each node, three dierent values are obtained for the interpolation function t (x , y ) = et + f t x + g t y 1 1 1 1 1 t (x , y ) = et + f t x + g t y 2 2 2 2 2 t (x , y ) = et + f t x + g t y 3 3 3 3 3

then, the value of t at any point (x, y ) inside the triangular element, can be expressed as a linear superposition of its own value at each vertex as t (x, y ) = i 3 i=1 t (x, y ) t i i

(3.97)

t is the two-dimensional triangular basis function in area coorwhere the function i dinates: t (x, y ) = i 1 tx + gty et + fi i i t 2A i = 1, 2, 3 (3.98)

To illustrate the meaning of area coordinates, suppose that the point p inside the triangular element depicted in Figure 3.6 has the coordinates (xp , yp ). Then, each

61

t is expressed as: basis function i t (x , y ) = 1 p p 1 t x + g t y = Area of triangle p23 = p23 et + f1 p 1 1 p t Area of triangle 123 123 2A (3.99) 1 t x + g t y = Area of triangle p13 = p13 et + f2 p 2 2 p Area of triangle 123 123 2At (3.100) 1 t x + g t y = Area of triangle p12 = p12 + f3 et p 3 3 p t Area of triangle 123 123 2A (3.101)

t (x , y ) = 2 p p

t (x , y ) = 3 p p

(3.102)

t = 1 at node i and t = 0 at the edge opposite It is also important to note that i i t (x, y ) in Equation (3.98) is found as a function of the to node i. Each constant for i triangular element vertex coordinates, giving t t t t et 1 = x2 y3 x3 y2 t t t t et 2 = x3 y1 x1 y3 t t t t et 3 = x1 y2 x2 y1 t = yt yt f1 2 3 t = yt yt f2 3 1 t = yt yt f3 1 2 t = xt xt g1 3 2 t = xt xt g2 1 3 t = xt xt g3 2 1 62

Function

vertex 1

vertex 2

vertex 3

t 1 t 2 t 3

p p p

2 1 1

3 3 2

t within each triangular element. Table 3.4. Denition for each area-function i

(3.112)

Similarly as it was done in 3.1.2 for the three-dimensional basis function 3.33, the Whitney vector nite element for a two-dimensional case is generated by operating t (x, y ) with the wronskian operator as follows on the function i t i = t t (x, y ) t (x, y ) t (x, y ) t (x, y ) i i1 i2 i2 i1 t t t t = t i i1 i2 i2 i1 t t t t t t f t t x i = fi i1 i2 + gi2 i1 gi1 i2 y 2 i1 2At

(3.113)

The basis function t i shares the same properties as its three-dimensional counterpart, Ne i , in the sense that it is divergence-free (see Equation(3.34)) and that it oers a nite, constant and dierent-from-zero curl (see Equation(3.35)). With these properties, the electric eld Ex, y, z1,2 on each triangle constituting the surfaces S1 or S2 , can also be written as the expansion of the two dimensional basis function t i as 63

3 i=1

(3.114)

e The integrands of [Ie 3 ] and {I4 } call for the tangential component of the basis function t t i on either surface. With this objective in mind, the new basis function, i is now dened as t t i = n i t t gt t x t t f t t y i = gi fi i i i i1 i2 t 2 1 1 2 2 i1 2A The integral (3.58) can now be re-written as as Ie 3 (jkz 10 ) { t }T { t } dS

(3.115)

S1 S2

(3.116)

S1 S2 t gt + f t f t gi i2 j1 2 j1 t gt + f t f t + gi i1 j1 1 j1

(jkz 10 )

t t t t gt gt + f t f t i i1 j2 i1 j2 i2 j1 1 j2 t t dS, i, j = 1, 2, 3 i 2 j2 (3.117)

dS =

(3.118)

64

2 Ie 3 13 =

t f t + gt gt 2 f t f t + gt gt f2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 (3.121)

t f t + gt gt + f t f t + gt gt f1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 Ie 3 22 = + Ie 3 23 = t f t + gt gt f t f t + gt gt f3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 t f t + gt gt f2 2 2 2 t f t + gt gt f t f t + gt gt f3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 t f t + gt gt f2 1 2 1 t f t + gt gt + f2 3 2 3

(3.122)

2 Ie 3 33 = +

(3.123)

t f t + gt gt f t f t + gt gt f1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 t f t + gt gt f3 3 3 3 (3.124)

65

e The basis function t i is also used for the computation of I4 { Ie 4 }i = = 3 = i=1 S1 i (2jkz 10 ) { n t }T { Einc n } dS (2jkz 10 ) { t }T { z Einc } dS t t t et i1 gi2 ei2 gi1 x sin x a dxdy

S1 S1

t gt f t gt + fi i2 i1 1 i2 3 = i=1 and each of its parameters are dened as 2kz 10 Eo 2 2 At pi I41 + qi I42

(3.125)

= j pi = qi = I41 = I42 =

exp (jkz 10 z1 ) i = 1, 2, 3 i = 1, 2, 3 S = S1 S = S1

The integrals I41 and I42 are evaluated numerically using the gaussian quadrature rule for triangles with four sampling points. The values for each parameter in this integration rule are given in Table 3.5. F (x, y ) dxdy At 4 i=1 i , i , i Wi F 1 2 3

(3.131)

66

i 1 1 3 3 5 1 5 1 5

i 2 1 3 1 5 3 5 1 5

i 3 1 3 1 5 1 5 3 5

Wi 27 48 25 48 25 48 25 48

1 2 3 4

Table 3.5. Parameters for the four-point triangular surface Gaussian integration rule.

27 I41 = At sin 48 a 1

2 3 4 (3.132)

67

e For the anisotropic case, [Ie r ] and [ r ] are decomposed 5 ] and [I6 ], the tensors for [ and the product of the integrands is carried out. For the rst anisotropic integral, e [Ie 5 ], the integrand is a constant. Like it was performed with [I1 ], the integrand is just multiplied by the volume of the tetrahedron element. Ie 5 ij = = T ] { Ne } dV { Ne r i } [ j e e e e e e e e ( ce i1 di2 di1 ci2 ) xx ( cj1 dj2 dj1 cj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( ce i1 di2 di1 ci2 ) xy ( dj1 bj2 bj1 dj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( ce i1 di2 di1 ci2 ) xz ( bj1 cj2 cj1 bj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( de i1 bi2 bi1 di2 ) yx ( cj1 dj2 dj1 cj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( de i1 bi2 bi1 di2 ) yy ( dj1 bj2 bj1 dj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( de i1 bi2 bi1 di2 ) yz ( bj1 cj2 cj1 bj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( be i1 ci2 ci1 bi2 ) zx ( cj1 dj2 dj1 cj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( be i1 ci2 ci1 bi2 ) zy ( dj1 bj2 bj1 dj2 ) e e e e e e e e + ( be i1 ci2 ci1 bi2 ) zz ( bj1 cj2 cj1 bj2 ) (3.138) For the integral [Ie 6 ], four terms involving the product of the basis functions are

Ve 4 Ve

i j e (6V )4

68

e e obtained. Just like it was done with [Ie 2 ], the integrals given by Ve im jn for i, j = 1, 2, . . . , 6 and m, n = 1, 2 are computed using the formula (3.70).

dV

Ie 6 ij = =

Ve e ij

2 { Ne }T [ ] { Ne } dV ko r i j { e e dV i e 1 j1 V bi 2 + ci 2 + di 2 e e dV i e 1 j2 V bi 2 + ci 2 + di 2 e e dV i e 2 j1 V bi 1 + ci 1 + di 1 + e e dV i e 2 j2 V bi 1 + ci 1 + di 1 xx bj2 + xy cj2 + xz dj2 yx bj2 + yy cj2 + yz dj2 zx bj2 + zy cj2 + zz dj2 xx bj1 + xy cj1 + xz dj1 yx bj1 + yy cj1 + yz dj1 zx bj1 + zy cj1 + zz dj1 xx bj2 + xy cj2 + xz dj2 yx bj2 + yy cj2 + yz dj2 zx bj2 + zy cj2 + zz dj2 xx bj1 + xy cj1 + xz dj1 yx bj1 + yy cj1 + yz dj1 zx bj1 + zy cj1 + zz dj1 }

(3.140)

69

3.1.4

The linear system (3.65) above is solved by using the biconjugate gradient method (BiCG) for antisymetric systems [33]. The BiCG method solves the system [A] {x} = {y }. The notation Aa stands for the adjoint of matrix A, the superscript for the conjugation of a complex quantity and the inner product x, y is dened as xy T .

x1 r1 w1

= = =

0 p1 = y q1 = y

For n

1, , N DO

= = = = = = =

until

rn+1 y

tolerance

70

3.1.5

The TRL calibration technique described in detail in 2.1 is applied for the computation of the S-parameters of the material under test (MUT). Refering to Figure 3.5, the region of the waveguide dened between the surface S1 at z = z1 and the frontal face of the MUT would be referred to as, what is called in 2.1, Connector A; While for the region delimited by surface S2 at z = z2 , and the rear face of the MUT as Connector B. Using the denition given in 2.1.2 Figure 2.2, Equation (2.2) and using the property of orthogonality of the waveguide modes, the scattering parameter S11 is derived as out (z = z ) v1 1 S11 |z =z = in (z = z ) 1 v1 1 E(x, y, z1 ) Einc (x, y, z1 ) sin ax y S1 = inc dxdy S1 E (x, y, z1 ) sin a x y 2 exp (jkz 10 z1 ) = E(x, y, z1 ) sin x y a b Eo a S1

dxdy

dxdy 1 (3.141)

and with Equation (2.3), the scattering parameter S21 is derived as out (z = z ) v2 2 in v1 (z = z1 ) dxdy S2 ( E(x, y, z2 ) ) sin a x y = inc dxdy S1 E (x, y, z1 ) sin a x y 2 exp (jkz 10 z1 ) E(x, y, z2 ) sin x y = a b Eo a S2

S21 |z =z = 2

dxdy (3.142)

71

Using the same principle as the two previous cases, S12 is expressed as out (z = z ) v1 1 in v2 (z = z2 ) 2 exp (jkz 10 z2 ) = a b Eo

S12 |z =z = 2

S1

E(x, y, z1 ) sin

x y a

dxdy (3.143)

S2

E(x, y, z2 ) sin

x y a

dxdy 1 (3.144)

Using the expansion of the electric eld on the surfaces S1 and S2 given by Equation (3.114) and substituting it in all four expressions above, the discrete versions of the S-parameters for the MUT are given by 3 S11 = 1 i=1 3 S21 = 1 i=1 3 S12 = 2 i=1 3 S22 = 2 i=1 with the integrals I41 and I42 as dened in 3.1.3.1 and evaluated at the surface pi I41 + qi I42 1 (3.148) pi I41 + qi I42 (3.147) pi I41 + qi I42 (3.146) pi I41 + qi I42 1 (3.145)

72

S = S1 for S11 and S12 ; and S = S2 for S21 and S22 . 1 = 2 = pi = qi = I41 = I42 = 2 exp (jkz 10 z1 ) 2 a b Eo 2 At 2 exp (jkz 10 z2 ) 2 a b Eo 2 At t t t et i1 gi2 ei2 gi1 i , t gt f t gt fi i2 i1 i , 1 i2 sin x dxdy , a S x sin x dxdy , a S i = 1, 2, 3 i = 1, 2, 3 S = S1,2 S = S1,2 (3.149) (3.150)

73

3.2

Validation

The FEM code developed in section 3.1 is validated on X-band (8-10GHz) by comparing its results with the theoretical S-parameters formulated in section 2.2 and the mode-matching technique developed in [10]. The two compared cases are a low- and high-contrast materials. The rst example, Figure 3.7 , consists of acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1) as a material sample with length = 5 mm which lls the waveguide corss-section entirely. The

dimensions of the waveguide are a = 22.86 mm, b = 10.16 mm [27]. In the second example, Figure 3.8, the acrylic sample partially lls the waveguide cross-section by 50% (d/a = 0.5) and has a length = 7.5 mm. Finally, for the low-contrast material

case, the acrylic-to-waveguide width is d/a = 0.25 with a sample length of = 7.5 mm; the results are depicted in Figure 3.9. For the high-contrast material validation, a sample of alumina ( = 9 j 0.0027) with length = 5 mm and d/a = 1 is simulated. Figure 3.10 shows the magnitude

74

SParameters, Magnitude 0 1 2 3 dB 4 5 6 7 8 S11 Theory S21 Theory S11 FEM S21 FEM

S21s

S11s

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

SParameters, Phase 200 150 100 Degrees 50 0 50 100 150 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11 12 S21s S11s S21 Theory S11 Theory S11 FEM S21 FEM

Figure 3.7. Comparison between the FEM and theoretical closed-form solution in a fully-lled d/a = 1 rectangular waveguide. Acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1), sample length = 5 mm.

75

SParameters, Magnitude

0.8

S21s

0.6 S11s 0.4 S21, FEM S21, Mode Matching S11, FEM S11, Mode Matching

0.2

0 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

SParameters, Phase 200 150 100 Degrees 50 0 50 100 150 200 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11 12 S21s S11, FEM S11, Mode Matching S12, FEM S12, Mode Matching S11s

Figure 3.8. Comparison between the FEM and mode-matching solution in a partially-lled d/a = 0.5 rectangular waveguide. Acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1), sample length = 7.5 mm. 76

SParameters, Magnitude

0.8

S21s

0.6

0.4 S11, FEM S11, Mode Matching S21, FEM S21, Mode Matching

S11s

0.2

0 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

SParameters, Phase 200 S11s 150 100 Degrees 50 0 50 100 150 8 S21s S11, FEM S11, Mode Matching S21, FEM S21, Mode Matching

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

Figure 3.9. Comparison between the FEM and mode-matching solution in a partially-lled d/a = 0.25 rectangular waveguide. Acrylic ( = 2.5, = 1), sample length = 7.5 mm. 77

SParameters, Magnitude 0 1 2 3 dB 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) S11 Theory S21 Theory S11 FEM S21 FEM 11 12 S21s S11s

SParameters, Phase 200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 8 Frequency (GHz) 9 10 11 12

(b) Reection and transmission coecients, phase

S11s

Figure 3.10. Comparison between the FEM and theoretical closed-form solution in a fully-lled d/a = 1 rectangular waveguide. Alumina ( = 9.0 j 0.0027, = 1), sample length = 3 mm. 78

Degrees

CHAPTER 4

The error measurement is performed using the waveguide conguration shown in Figure 4.1 and the dimensions provided on Table 4.1 [27]. The length of the sample (its length in the z direction) as depicted in Figure 3.5, is set to a value between z /4 and z /2, where z is the guiding wavenumber (2/kz 10 ) [4, 5, 6]. The shifting parameter is varied from 0 mm to 5 mm, a distance that can realistically represent variations common in a laboratory environment. For each step the S-parameters of the sample are measured and then inverted using the algorithm in [10] to extract its constitutive parameter(s). From this information, the error of the extracted and

is quantized using the value entered during the forward simulation as a reference. The error is computed with the formula x xo 100% xo

error =

(4.1)

where x is the extracted constitutive parameter and xo is the reference value. Three cases will be simulated and then inverted: 1) a low-contrast lossless dielectric material (acrylic), 2) a high-contrast dielectric material with low loss (alumina) and 3) a lossy magneto-dielectric material (magRAM). Each of the previous three cases will be simulated using a constant ratio of d to a, where, as Figure 4.1 shows, d is the width of the material sample and a is the width of the waveguide. The hight of the sample is always b.

79

^ y b

a

2

^ x

Figure 4.1. Vertically loaded waveguide with material sample shifted from the center by a distance .

Band

a (mm) b (mm)

X S

22.86 72.14

10.11 34.04

Table 4.1. Dimensions for a rectangular waveguide for the frequency bands used to conduct the numerical simulations and inversion operations [27].

80

4.1.1

Low-Contrast Material

The numerical simulation is performed in X-band, with the waveguide dimensions specied on Table 4.1. The lossless low-contrast material chosen is acrylic. During the computation of the S-parameters the constitutive parameters for the acrylic material sample where = 2.5 and = 1 with d/a = 0.5 and a sample length = 5 mm.

The acrylic sample was shifted in ten equal steps from the center of the waveguide, = 0 mm, to = 5 mm. The resulting scattering parameters are depicted in Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3. The error for each parameter is shown in Figure 4.4 and Figure 4.5. The percent error plot for the extracted relative permittivity, Figure 4.6, clearly shows that its error is maximum and minimum when also the error on the magnitudes of the transmission and reection coecients are maximum and minimum. The error peaks 14.5 % at both ends of the frequency band at = 5 mm. It also shows that for each displacement of there exists a frequency, fo , for which there is no error, no matter what the displacement of the sample is. The frequency fo increases approximately from 10 GHz to about 10.6 GHz for increasing values of . Each frequency fo possesses a band for which the error is fairly small. Out of this band the error increases rapidly. 4.1.2 High-Contrast Material

The slightly lossy high-contrast material for this run of simulations is alumina, partially lling the cross-section of the waveguide by 50%. The alumina sample has a relative permittivity of length is = 9.0 and a loss tangent (tan ) of 0.0003. The sample

shifting parameter in ten steps, from = 0 mm to = 5 mm. The reection and transmissions coecients appear in Figure 4.7 (magnitude) and Figure 4.8 (phase). The percent change for the transmission and reection coecients for both, magnitude and phase, are shown in Figure 4.9 and Figure 4.10 respectively. The error on the extracted permittivity ( ) is shown in Figure 4.11. It is important to point out

81

that there exists a limit at which the displacement parameter can be increased for this material. It was found that at displacements equal to = 4 mm the inversion algorithm does not converge for a large number of frequency points, and as keeps increasing ( 4.5 mm) the algorithm does not converge at all. This is due to the fact that with such a big variation from the assumed pair ( , ) it is not expected that a root for Equation (2.121) can be found. As it was shown in the previous case, acrylic, the extracted relative permittivity error for alumina also exhibits maxima and minima throughout the whole frequency band for all the tested. The error characteristic also follows those of the percent change of the magnitude of the transmission and reection coecients. But in contrast to acrylic, alumina exhibits two frequencies, f1 8.6 GHz and f2 10.5 GHz, at which the error is zero. Each of these frequencies, f1 and f2 , have a narrow band about them for which the error is fairly small. Out of these frequency bands, the error increases rapidly. 4.1.3 Magneto-Dielectric Materials

As a third and last example a dispersive lossy magneto-dielectric material was simulated on S-band (see Table 4.1 for waveguide dimensions.) The material chosen was magnetic radar absorbing material (MagRAM) with sample- to waveguide width of d/a = 0.09 and its length = 3 mm. The sample constitutive parameters used for

the S-parameter extraction were obtained from [8]. As it can be seen on Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3, the eect of shifting the material sample from the center = 0 to = 3.5 mm is negligible. This eect can be attributed to the magnetic eld distribution in the cross section of the waveguide. As Equation (2.97) shows, the z component of the magnetic eld exhibits a null at the center of the cross-section, the position at which the sample is located. As the sample is shifted sideways, this component of the magnetic eld increases, but not as rapidly as required for it to have a signicant contribution on the measurement of the reection and transmission coecients. In order to to appreciate the eect of shifting a material sample, it would have to be 82

placed as an initial position, at either sidewall of the waveguide, where the z component of the magnetic eld is maximum and starts to decay towards the center of the waveguide. 4.2 Layered Materials

By creating composite mixtures of dierent dielectric and magnetic materials in layering structures, the overall eective dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability can be engineered to obtain a desired value for an specic frequency or throughout a whole band. One advantage of obtaining the eective constitutive parameters of a sample in this way, is to reduce its cost, since using homogenous samples might be a more expensive way to proceed [26]. In this section three cases for layering structures are studied: 1) structures layered in the direction of propagation, 2) structures layered horizontally and parallel to the direction of propagation, and 3) layered vertically and parallel to the direction of propagation. 4.2.1 Perpendicular in the Direction of Propagation is kept

The structure is shown in Figure 4.13. The length of the overall length

constant and equal to 3 mm while the number of layers is incremented progressively in odd numbers, in this way the material of the same type (material A as shown in Figure 4.13) is always on either side of the waveguide. This practice ensures the reciprocity of the sample, and the algorithm in [10] can be applied. The rst case consists of material of type-A being alumina( = 9, tan = 0.0003 and = 1) and material type-B free-space, as an approximation for foam. The number of layers is incremented from three to nineteen, and then the S-parameters are computed at a xed frequency fo = 9 GHz. The reection and transmission coecients are depicted in Figure 4.14 (magnitude) and Figure 4.15 (phase). The results are validated using the wave-matrix technique [11, 25, 26]. The transmission parameters for each layer are obtained by using the theoretical reection and transmission coecients for a 83

fully-lled rectangular waveguide by using the equations derived in 2.2, Equation (2.119) and Equation (2.120). From these two Equations, assuming the reciprocity of the materials involved, the relationship (2.6) is used to convert the previous coecients to T-parameters. This process is repeated for each layer, then each T-matrix is multiplied in the same order as the layer in the waveguide to produce a total transmission matrix. From this result and using the relationship (2.5) the S-parameters for the total structure are then obtained. tB 11 tB 12 tB 21 tB 22 tA11 tA12 tA21 tA22 (4.2) tA11 tA12 [Ttot ] = tA21 tA22 tB 11 tB 12 tB 21 tB 22

Figure 4.16 shows the extracted relative permittivity as a function of the number of layers. As the number of layers increases the material homogenizes to the approximation [26] e = A VA + B VB (4.3)

where VA is the volume fraction of material A and VB is the volume fraction for material B. When the thickness of layer A is the same as that of layer B, Equation (4.3) is written as 1 2N

e =

(N + 1) A + (N 1) B

(4.4)

where N is the total number of layers in the structure. Clearly, from Equation (4.4), the eective relative permittivity e becomes the mean average of both dielectric permittivities A and B when the number of layers is suciently large (n ). A + B e = 2 (4.5)

84

Figure 4.17, Figure 4.18 and Figure 4.19 show the results when the values of A and B are reversed. Figure 4.20 shows the extracted permittivities for both cases and the asymptotic approximation in (4.5). 4.2.2 Parallel to the Direction of Propagation. Horizontal and Vertical Layering The structures are constructed by lling the entire cross-section of the waveguide with horizonal and vertical layers, as shown in Figure 4.21 and Figure 4.22 respectively. The rst exercise consists on having a high-contrast material in the outer layers (material A) and then alternating with a low-contrast material (material B). The constitutive parameters for material A are those of alumina and for B acrylic, with the same values for and as described in previous sections. The values are then

reversed. The number of layers are increased from three to nineteen. The simulations are performed on X-band. For both cases it is seen from the scattering parameters and from the extracted relative permittivity that the material homogenizes as the number of layers increases. Figure 4.23 through Figure 4.34 show the results for the reection and transmission coecients as well as the extracted values for the relative permittivity. 4.3 Anisotropic Formulation: A Ferrite

Anisotropic materials, like ferrites, nd multiple applications in microwave circuits. These applications include directional devices such as isolators, circulators, gyrators [27], phase shifters, microwave switches, and microstrip antenna applications [28]. The simulation of a ferrite is performed using the P older model described in [27] and with the specications in [29, 30]. Figure 4.35 through Figure 4.38 show the magnitude of the reection and transmission coecients for the same ferrite at dierent applied magnetic elds. The ferrite specications are: saturation magnetization 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, anisotropy eld Ha = 200 Oe, linewidth H = 500 Oe. The applied magnetic 85

elds are Ho = 100, 300, 500 and 800 Oe, all in the y direction. The sample width is d = 4 mm and its length sidewall at x = 0. = 25 mm. The ferrite is place along the waveguide

86

Transmission Coefficient, Magnitude 0.95 5 mm 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 8 0 mm 5 mm 0 mm

10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 0.62 0.6 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.5 0.48 0.46 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

0 mm

5 mm

5 mm 11 12

Figure 4.2. Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (magnitude) for acrylic when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm in ten steps. ( = 2.5, = 1). 87

(a)

5 mm

0 mm

5 mm

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 220 210 200 Degrees 190 180 170 160 150 140 8 9 5 mm 10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

5 mm

0 mm

0 mm

11

12

Figure 4.3. Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (phase) for acrylic when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm in ten steps. ( = 2.5, = 1).

88

10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

11

12

(b)

5 mm

5 mm

0% @ 0mm

11

12

Figure 4.4. Percent error on the S-parameter magnitude resulting from shifting the center of the acrylic material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. 89

(a)

0% @ 0mm

11

12

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.5. Percent error on the S-parameter phase resulting from shifting the center of the acrylic material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. 90

2.8

2.6

2.4

(a)

11

12

% Error

15 0% error @ 0 mm 10

0 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.6. (a)Extracted relative permittivity for an acrylic sample when the parameter is increased from = 0 to = 5 mm, (b) error. 91

Transmission Coefficient, Magnitude 0.8 5 mm 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 8 5 mm 5 mm 9 10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

0 mm 0 mm

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 1 5 mm 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 8 5 mm 0 mm

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.7. Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (magnitude) for alumina when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm. 92

(a)

5 mm

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 200 0 mm 190 180 Degrees 0 mm 170 0 mm 160 150 140 8 5 mm

5 mm 9

5 mm 11 12

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

Figure 4.8. Comparison of the transmission and reection coecients (phase) for alumina when the parameter is varied from 0 to 5 mm.

93

10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

11

12

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.9. Percent error on the S-parameter magnitude resulting from shifting the center of the alumina material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. 94

(a)

5 mm

11

12

% Error

10 5 mm 5

0 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.10. Percent error on the S-parameter phase resulting from shifting the center of the alumina material sample from = 0 to = 5 mm. 95

(a)

3.5 mm 3.5 mm

11

12

(b)

3.5 mm

0% Error @ 0 mm

11

12

Figure 4.11. (a) Extracted relative permittivity for an alumina sample when the parameter is increased from = 0 to = 3.5 mm, (b) error. 96

Transmission and Reflection Coefficients, Magnitude 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

S21s

3.5 mm

0 mm S11s

3.5 mm 3.8

Transmission and Reflection Coefficients, Phase 340 320 300 Degrees 280 260 240 220 200 180 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

S21s

S11s

3.6

3.8

Figure 4.12. S-parameters for a lossy-magneto-dielectric material (magRAM) sample (a)magnitude and (b) phase. 97

b a

(a)

y x z

A B A B A

B A

(b)

Figure 4.13. Waveguide with a layered material in the direction of propagation of the incident eld.

98

Transmission Coefficient, Magnitude 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 dB 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 S21, FEM S21, Wave Matrix

10 12 14 Number of Layers

(a)

16

18

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 dB 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 S11, FEM S11, Wave Matrix

10 12 14 Number of Layers

(b)

16

18

Figure 4.14. S-Parameters (magnitude) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 1, = 1).

99

Transmission Coefficient, Phase 282 281 280 Degrees 279 278 277 276 S21, FEM S21, Wave Matrix

10 12 14 Number of Layers

(a)

16

18

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 192 191 190 Degrees 189 188 187 186 S11, FEM S11, Wave Matrix

10 12 14 Number of Layers

(b)

16

18

Figure 4.15. S-Parameters (phase) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 1, = 1).

100

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.2

8 10 12 14 Number of Layers

16

18

Figure 4.16. Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material perpendicular in the direction of propagation. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 1, = 1).

101

3.4

10 12 14 Number Of Layers

(a)

16

18

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 dB 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 4 6 8 10 12 14 Number of Layers

(b)

16

18

Figure 4.17. S-Parameters (magnitude) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 1, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

102

Transmission Coefficient, Phase 292 291 290 Degrees 289 288 287 286 285 284 4 6 8 10 12 14 Number of Layers

(a)

16

18

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 202 201 200 Degrees 199 198 197 196 195 194 4 6 8 10 12 14 Number of Layers

(b)

16

18

Figure 4.18. S-Parameters (phase) for a perpendicularly layered material. Material A: ( = 1, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). 103

Extracted Effective Relative Permittivity 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4 4 6 8 10 12 14 Number of Layers 16 18

Figure 4.19. Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material perpendicular in the direction of propagation. Material A: ( = 1, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

104

Extracted Relative Permittivity for the Two Cases 6 A : HighEpsilon B : LowEpsilon 5.5 Asymptotic Approx. for Eps. 5

Figure 4.20. Extracted relative permittivities for a layered material perpendicular to the direction of propagation and the asymptotic permittivity for a homogenized material. The plot on top shows the result when Material A has a higher permittivity, the plot on the bottom Material A with a lower permittivity: ( = 1, = 1), ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

105

Y

y x

b a

z

(a)

y b

A B A a

(b)

Figure 4.21. Waveguide with a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Horizontal layering. 106

y x

b a

y b A B

(a)

a

(b)

Figure 4.22. Waveguide with a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Vertical layering. 107

0.55 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

0.8

3 Layers 5 Layers

0.75

0.7 8

Figure 4.23. S-Parameters (magnitude) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). 108

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 205 200 195 Degrees 190 185 180 175 170 8 3 Layers 5 Layers 13 Layers

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

Figure 4.24. S-Parameters (phase) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1).

109

4 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11

13 layers 12

Figure 4.25. Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Horizontal layering. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1).

110

Transmission Coefficient, Magnitude 0.8 0.78 0.76 0.74 13 layers 0.72 0.7 0.68 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11 12 3 layers 5 layers

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 0.74 0.72 0.7 0.68 0.66 0.64 3 layers 0.62 0.6 8 5 layers 13 layers

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

Figure 4.26. S-Parameters (magnitude) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1). 111

65

Degrees

70

5 layers

75

13 layers

80

85 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

195

13 layers

190

185 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

11

12

Figure 4.27. S-Parameters (phase) for a horizontally layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

112

Extracted Relative Permittivity 3.8 3.75 3.7 3.65 3.6 3.55 3.5 3.45 3.4 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11 12 3 layers 5 layers 13 layers

Figure 4.28. Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Horizontal layering. Material A:( = 2.5, = 1), Material B:( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

113

Transmission Coefficient, Magnitude 0.65 13 layers 0.6 9 layers 0.55 7 layers 5 layers 0.5 3 layers 0.45 8 9 3 layers 10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 0.9 3 layers 5 layers 0.85 7 layers 9 layers 0.8 13 layers

0.75 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.29. S-Parameters (magnitude) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1). 114

85 Degrees layers 7

90

layers 13

95

layers 3

(a)

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 200 195 190 Degrees layers 5 185 180 175 170 8 layers 7 layers 3 layers 3 layers 13

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.30. S-Parameters (phase) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1).

115

Extracted Relative Permittivity 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6 Layers: 9 5.9 5.8 5.7 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11 Layers: 13 12 Layers: 3 Layers: 5 Layers: 7 Layers: 9 Layers: 11 Layers: 13

Layers: 11

Figure 4.31. Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Vertical layering. Material A: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1), Material B: ( = 2.5, = 1).

116

Transmission Coefficient, Magnitude 0.65 layers 13 0.6 layers 7 0.55 layers 5 0.5

0.45

layers 3

0.4 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Magnitude 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 layers 7 0.8 0.78 layers 13 0.76 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

layers 3

layers 5

11

12

Figure 4.32. S-Parameters (magnitude) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1) 117

Transmission Coefficient, Phase 75 80 85 Degrees 90 95 100 105 layers 3 110 115 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz)

(a)

layers 13

layeres 5

11

12

Reflection Coefficient, Phase 195 190 185 180 Degrees 175 170 165 160 155 150 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

layers 13

layers 5 layers 3

11

12

Figure 4.33. S-Parameters (phase) for a vertically layered material. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

118

Extracted Relative Dielectric Permittivity 9 8.5 8 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz) 11 layers 13 12 layers 7 layers 9 layers 5 layers 3

Figure 4.34. Extracted relative permittivity for a layered material parallel to the direction of propagation. Vertical layering. Material A: ( = 2.5, = 1), Material B: ( = 9 j 0.0027, = 1).

119

(a)

11

12

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.35. Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 100 Oe.

120

(a)

11

12

10

dB

15

20

25 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.36. Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 300 Oe. 121

(a)

11

12

10

15 dB 20 25 30 8

10 Frequency (GHz)

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.37. Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 500 Oe. 122

(a)

11

12

(b)

11

12

Figure 4.38. Transmission and Reection Coecients (magnitude) for a magnetized ferrite. 4 Ms = 5000 Gauss, H = 500 Oe, Ha = 200 Oe, Ho = 800 Oe.

123

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK In the present work, the FEM was used to assess the error originated from misplacing a material sample within a waveguide and whose constitutive parameters are being extracted by using the algorithm described in [10]. It was found that for low-contrast materials the repercussions of shifting the sample are tolerable if displacements are present. A maximum error of 22% was found at 5 mm. For a high-contrast material, however, errors of nearly 80% were found for displacements of 3.5 mm. The inversion algorithm did not converge when greater displacement were simulated. It was also found that no matter how far the sample is placed from the center of the waveguide, there is always at least a frequency at which the error in non-existent. The shape of the frequency characteristic of the error distribution for the extracted relative permittivity is heavily determined by the percent change of the magnitude of its reection and transmission coecients. When dealing with a magneto-dielectric material (MagRAM), there is no signicant change of its S-parameters when the sample is shifted from the center of the waveguide. The numerical tool developed proved to be very eective in measuring the reection and transmission coecients of ferrite samples as well as layered materials. Additional cases that represent important sources of error for [10] remain to be simulated. This sources include the geometry of the material sample not being perfectly rectangular, or the material being dented or chipped.

124

BIBLIOGRAPHY

125

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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