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CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSIENT VOLTAGES AFFECTING CUSTOMER EQUIPMENT

Presented at TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSION IN LOW VOLTAGE AC POWER SYSTEMS Workshop Santa Clara, California May 12-13, 1992

Mark McGranaghan ELECTROTEK Concepts, Inc

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 2

OBJECTIVES

Provide examples of transient voltage characteristics Identify important causes of transients in low voltage systems Identify impacts of transient voltages on equipment Describe solutions to transient voltage problems

Note: The information in this presentation was developed during case studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and Pacific Gas & Electric Company

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 3

IMPORTANT CAUSES OF TRANSIENT VOLTAGES

Transients Initiated on the Utility System


Lightning Capacitor Switching Line/Cable Switching Transformer Switching Current Limiting Fuse Operation

Transients Initiated in the Low Voltage System


Capacitance Switching Current Interruption (motors, etc.) Power Electronics Operation

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 4

LIGHTNING Lightning transients are caused by a discharge of current from the struck conductor or shield wire to ground. The lightning stroke current as a very high rate-of-rise (e.g. 1-10 microseconds). A voltage transient results from the lightning stroke current flowing through the surge impedance of the transmission line - this will generally result in a flashover or an arrester operation.

Example lightning stroke current:

0 0

20

40

Time (uSec) 60

80

100

120

140

-5

-10 Current (kA) -15 Lightning Stroke Current

-20

-25

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 5

PROBLEM:

LOW SIDE CURRENT SURGES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING TRANSIENT

SOLUTION:

LOW VOLTAGE MOV ARRESTERS AT TRANSFORMER SECONDARY AND AT CUSTOMER SERVICE ENTRANCE

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 6

CAPACITOR SWITCHING Normal capacitor energizing on a power system is characterized by a step change in the voltage followed by a transient oscillation in the range 300-1000 Hz. The magnitude of the transient should be in the range of 1.3-1.8 times the normal peak voltage. Important parameters affecting this transient include:

Capacitor Size/Location Switching Device Characteristics (Resistors, Reactors) Size/Status of Other Capacitors Short Circuit Capacity at the Substation/at the Cap Bank System Load Characteristics

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 7

Normal capacitor energizing on the distribution system:


RGE_BETA Phase A Voltage Wave Fault
1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

November 19, 1991 at 06:07:56 PQNode Local Trigger


Max 1.094 Min -1.280

Typical capacitor switching transient coupled to low voltage system: Voltage:


ETKREAL April 26, 1992 at 06:15:56 PQNode Local Phase C Voltage Trigger Impulse
150

Voltage (pu)
100 50 0 -50

Time (mSeconds)

Uncalibrated Data

Current:
ETKREAL April 26, 1992 at 06:15:56 PQNode Local Phase C Current Impulse
80 60 40 20 0

Max 78.25 Min-194.8 Volt-Seconds 912.8

V lt (%)

-20 -40

-100

t (A

-150 0 10 20 30 40 50

-60 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (mSeconds)

BMI/Electrotek

Time (mSeconds)

BMI/Electrotek

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 8

PROBLEM:

MAGNIFIED TRANSIENTS AT CUSTOMEROWNED LOW VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 9

Capacitor switching transient on the distribution system:


CAPMAG> SRCA(Type 1)
60000

40000

20000

Max: 48362.2 Min: -31823.4 Avg: 18100.3 Abs: 31823 RMS: 20232.8 CF : 1.57285 FF : 1.11781

-20000

-40000

-60000 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (mS)

Magnified transient at 480 Volt capacitor bank:


CAPMAG> MOVA(Type 1)
1000

500

Max: 768.217 Min: -596.431 Avg: 258.266 Abs: 768 RMS: 290.973 CF : 2.63942 FF : 1.12664

-500

-1000 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (mS)

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 10

These transients will often result in capacitor failures or failures of electronic equipment. Arrester energies are very high.

MOV arrester current:


CAPMAG> 480A- MOVA(Type 9)
10000

8000

6000

Max: 8138.62 Min: -4.1005 Avg: 33.5097 Abs: 8138 RMS: 449.822 CF : 18.0916 FF : 13.4237

4000

2000

-2000 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (mS)

MOV arrester energy:


CAPMAG> MOVA(Type 9)
3000

2500

2000

Max: 2638.98 Min: 0 Avg: 2153.11 Abs: 2638 RMS: 2378.25 CF : 1.10922 FF : 1.10456

1500

1000

500

0 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (mS)

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 11

SOLUTION:

LOW VOLTAGE CAPACITOR BANKS CAN BE INSTALLED AS HARMONIC FILTERS TO DETUNE THE CIRCUIT CAUSING MAGNIFICATION

3.00 1500 kVA Transformer 3000 kVAr Switched Capacitor Bank 2.50 Compensation = Capacitors Voltage (pu) 2.00

1.50

Compensation = Filters

1.00 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 480 Volt Compensation Level (kVAr)

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 12

PROBLEM:

CAPACITOR SWITCHING TRANSIENTS CAUSE NUISANCE TRIPPING OF ASDS

Transient Voltage at the 480 Volt Bus

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 13

Drive Current:

DC Link Voltage in the ASD:

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 14

SOLUTION:

INPUT CHOKES OR ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS ARE USUALLY SUFFICIENT TO PREVENT DC OVERVOLTAGES WITHIN THE ASD

1000 3000 kVAr Switched Capacitor Bank

900

dc Volts

800

Typical Trip Level

700 Normal Operating Voltage

600 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Choke Size (% on 10 kVA base)

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 15

PROBLEM:

CAPACITOR SWITCHING TRANSIENTS CAUSE FAILURE OF TAP SWITCHING VOLTAGE REGULATOR/POWER CONDITIONER

Transient at 480 Volt Service Entrance

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 16

Input to Power Conditioner

Output of Power Conditioner

SOLUTION:

SENSITIVE ELECTRONICS MUST BE PROTECTED WITH APPROPRIATE SURGE SUPPRESSION/FILTERING

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 17

PROBLEM:

CAPACITOR SWITCHING TRANSIENTS MAGNIFIED AT OUTPUT OF ISOLATION TRANSFORMER/FILTER COMBINATION

Many isolation transformer-type power conditioners include a capacitor on the output to filter high frequency transients. This capacitor can magnify capacitor switching transients in the 300-1000 Hz range.

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 18

LIPC Input Voltage Waveform:

LIPC Output Voltage Waveform:

SOLUTION:

DO NOT USE THE CAPACITOR-TYPE FILTERING WITH ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS IN CIRCUITS SUSCEPTIBLE TO CAPACITOR SWITCHING TRANSIENTS

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 19

TRANSIENTS CAUSED BY SWITCHING IN LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

Misoperation of Tap Switching Voltage Regulator

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 20

Two different transients at 480 Volt locations close to switched motor:

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 21

Transient due to power electronics equipment current interruption:

Transient caused by localized fault within customer system and fuse blowing:

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 22

Transients in a computer room that resulted in board failures:

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 23

Voltage Notching caused by Rectifier Switching:

Chokes or isolation transformers should be used in series with phase controlled rectifiers (e.g. dc drives) to isolate the notching transients from other loads.

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Characteristics of Transient Voltages Affecting Customer Equipment, page 24

Transients caused by switching operations within customer facilities are characterized by high frequency components. These transients damp out quickly in the circuit. Significant protection can be obtained by using dedicated circuits for sensitive loads. Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors can be used to protect sensitive loads being impacted by these transients.

Electrotek Concepts, Inc.