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A truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units constructed with straight slender members w hose ends are

connected at joints.

A truss consists of straight members connected at joints. Truss members are connected only at their ends.

Members are the load -carrying components of a structure. In most trusses, members are arranged in interconnected triangles. Because of this configuration, truss members carry load primarily in tension and compression

There are two common types of structural connections used in trusses pinned connections and gusset plate connections .

The pinned connection uses a single large metal pin to connect two or more members together, much like the pin in a door hinge.

In a gusset plate connection, members are joined together by one or two heavy metal gusset plates, w hich are attached to the individual members with rivets, bolts, or welds

1- Large trusses can be assembled from small members pinned together , facilitating production, transportation, and erection. 2-It is is an extremely efficient structural form. 3- It is easy to customiz e the overall shape of the truss in relation to external loads and spans. 4- A relatively light system given amount of materials involved. 5-The convenience of openings allows for duct spaces

Trusses are cl assified according to the geometri c arrangement of their chords, verticals, and diagonals.

A Pratt truss includes vertical members and diagonals that slope down towards the center

Since these members are subject to tension forces only, they can be thinner, allowing for a more economical design

The diagonal members all slant toward the closest bridge end, so they are subject to compressive forces. The diagonals are under compression under balanced loading.

It is a truss w here the members are not triangulated but form rectangular openings. It is a frame w ith fixed joints that are capable of transferring and resisting bending moments.

Ideal truss members are connected only at their ends. Ideal truss members are connected by frictionless pins (no moments) The truss structure is loaded only at the pins Weights of the members are neglected

Each truss member is idealized as a tw oforce member (members loaded only at their extremities by equal opposite and collinear forces)

1- The method of joints:

The truss is made up of single bars, which are either in compression, tension or no -load. This means of solving force inside the truss uses equilibrium equations at a joint. It does not use the moment equilibrium equat ion to solve the problem. In a two dimensional set of equations.

F = 0 x

F = 0 y

2- The method of sections: To determine the force in member BD of the truss shown, we pass a section through members BD, BE, and CE, remove these members, and use the portion ABC of the truss as a free body.

Truss bridges are grouped into three general categories, based on their deck location:

1-If the deck is located at the level of

the bottom chord, the bridge is called a through truss . 2- A pony truss looks just like a through truss, except it is not as high and has no lateral bracing between the top chords. 3- If the deck is located at the level of the top chord, t he bridge is called a deck truss