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# Course Outline

## UEE 2092 Theory of Electricity

B.Sc. Engineering Degree
Semester 2/3 2011
Credits: 2
Lecturer: Prof. J. Rohan Lucas
Lectures: 2 hours per week.
Duration: 14 weeks
Assignments/Tests: In-class
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Web site
Department
http://www.elect.mrt.ac.lk
Notes
http://www.elect.mrt.ac.lk/pdf_notes.htm
Past Question Papers & Answers
http://www.elect.mrt.ac.lk/pdf_qpapers.htm
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Learning Objectives
To develop electrical analysis tools.
To provide a foundation in electrical
fundamentals through network theorems.
To apply dc and ac principles to solve circuits.
To apply matrix analysis to solve circuits
To analyse circuits and waveforms.
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Outline Syllabus
1. Fundamentals (6 hrs)
Review of electric circuits.
Circuit Transient Analysis
Differential equation solution
Review of AC theory.
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2. Coupled circuits & Dependent sources (4 hrs)
Series and parallel resonance.
Electromagnetic coupling in circuits
Mutual inductance
Analysis of coupled circuits
Transformer as a coupled circuit.
Dependent sources
solving circuits with dependent sources.
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3. Network theorems (4 hrs)
Superposition theorem,
Thevenin's theorem,
Norton's theorem,
Millmans theorem,
Reciprocity theorem,
Maximum power transfer theorem,
Nodal-mesh transformation theorem
Compensation theorem.
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4. Matrix Analysis (4 hrs)
Network topology
Nodal and mesh analysis.
Two-port theory
Impedance parameters,
admittance parameters,
hybrid parameters
ABCD parameters.
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5. Three-phase Analysis (6 hrs)
Introduction to Three Phase
Analysis of three phase balanced circuits.
Single line equivalent circuits.
Analysis of three phase unbalanced circuits.
Symmetrical component Analysis.
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6. Non-sinusoidal waveforms (4 hrs)
Periodic Waveforms
Waveform parameters: mean, rms, peak,
rectified average etc.
Power, power factor
Harmonics, Fourier analysis.
Non-Periodic Waveforms
Laplace transform
Transient analysis using Laplace transform.
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Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module you should be able to
1. solve coupled circuits involving mutual impedance
2. solve circuits with dependant sources
3. analyse the resonance of circuits
4. solve circuits using network theorems
5. apply matrix analysis to solve large circuits
6. solve three phase circuits: balanced and unbalanced
7. analyse periodic waveforms: harmonics content
8. analyse circuits with non-sinusoidal sources
9. obtain Laplace transforms and analyse transients.
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Continuous Assessment
30% of overall mark for module
At least 35% of allocated mark required to be
considered for a grade point
Components of Continuous Assessment
unannounced in-class tests (around 7)
attendance at lectures
tutorials/assignments may be given
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End of Semester Assessment
70% of overall mark for module
at least 40% of allocated marks required to be
considered for a grade point
closed book examination of duration 2 hours
all questions must be answered
will usually consist of 5 questions
questions not necessarily of equal weightage
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Recommended Texts
Electric Circuits, E.A.Edminster, Schaum
Outline Series, McGraw Hill
Theory and Problems of Basic Electrical
Engineering, D P Kothari, I J Kothari, Prentice
Hall of India, New Delhi
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals, Vincent
Del Toro, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi
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1. Fundamentals
1.1. Review of electric circuits
Resistance (unit: ohm, ; letter symbol: R, r)
v = R i, i = G v
p(t) = v(t) . i(t) = R . i
2
(t) = G . v
2
(t)
w(t) = v(t) . i(t).dt = R . i
2
(t). dt = G. v
2
(t).dt
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R R
Figure 1 Circuit symbols for
Resistance
(a)
(b
)
(c)
i(t)
v(t)
Inductance (unit: henry, H;letter symbol: L , l )
v = Lp i, i = v/Lp
Current through inductor cannot change suddenly.
p(t) = v(t) . i(t)
w(t) = v(t).i(t).dt =

dt i
dt
di
L
= L.i.di = L.i
2
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L
L
Figure 2 Circuit symbols for
Inductance
(a)
(b
)
(c)
i(t)
v(t)
Capacitance (unit: farad, F; letter symbol: C , c )
v = (1/Cp) i, i = Cp v
Voltage across capacitor cannot change suddenly.
p(t) = v(t) . i(t)
w(t)=v(t).i(t).dt =

dt
dt
dv
C v
= C.v.dv = C.V
2
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C
C
Figure 3 Circuit symbols for
Capacitance
(a) (b)
i(t)
v(t)
Impedance and Admittance
v = Z(p) i , i = Y(p) v
where Z(p) impedance operator,
Y(p) admittance operator.
Impedances and Admittances
either linear or non-linear
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Figure (a) Linear
System
Figure (b) Non-Linear
System
Active Circuit Elements
component capable of producing energy
sources of energy (or sources)
o voltage sources
o current sources.
Producing energy
non-electrical energy electrical energy
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1.2. Natural Behaviour of R-L-C Circuits
Does not depend on the external forcing functions
Depends on internal properties of the system.
Give a pendulum an initial swing, let go
behaviour depends on natural frequency
if we push at some other rate, behaviour
would also depend on forcing frequency.
To determine the natural behaviour
forcing function must not have its own
specific frequency
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o step function, impulse function.
Unit Step Function H(t)
similar to a staircase step
H(t) = 0, t < 0
H(t) = 1, t > 0
Unit Impulse Function (t)
(t) = 0 , t < 0
(t) = , t = 0
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Unit Step

H(t)
1
t
Unit Impulse
(t
)

t
(t) = 0 , t > 0
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Some properties of Unit Impulse (t)
Area under curve is unity.

1 ) ( dt t
, which gives

0
0
1 ) ( dt t

Also

) 0 ( ) ( ) ( f dt t t f

and

) ( ) ( ) ( f dt t t f
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t=
0

Transient Analysis
Particular integral steady state solution
Complementary function transient solution
Series R-L circuit
With step excitation
e
s
(t) = E.H(t)
governing behaviour is
) ( ) ( t H E t e i R
dt
di
L
s
+
Particular integral E/R
Complementary function L p i
+ R i = 0
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R
L
e
s
(t
)
i(t)
Series R-L
circuit
Solution has the form
R
E
e A t i
t
L
R
+

. ) (
A is obtained from initial conditions
At t = 0, i = 0
R
E
A

,
_

t
L
R
e
R
E
t i 1 ) (

Unit impulse derivative of unit step
Response to unit impulse
derivative of response to unit step
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t
i(t)
Step Response
e
s
(t
)
t
E

e
s
(t
)
t
E
t
d
e
s
(t)
dt
With impulse excitation e(t) = E.(t)
Complementary function is same as before.
Particular integral is now different and equal to 0.
0 . ) ( +
t
L
R
e A t i
New A is obtained from new initial conditions.
t
L
R
e
L
E
t i

) (
Or from derivative of unit step response as
t
L
R
t
L
R
e
L
E
e
R
E
dt
d
t i

1
1
]
1

,
_

1 ) (
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Additional Problems on Circuit Transients
Example 1: Simple R C circuit supplied from
step voltage
Continuing from earlier solution,
voltage drops across each element is obtained as

,
_

t
L
R
R
e E t i R t v 1 ) ( . ) (
and
t
L
R
L
e E
dt
t i d
L t v

.
) (
. ) (
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VL(t)
time
VR(t)
time
E
E
Example 2 Simple R C circuit supplied from
step voltage (switch closed onto a battery)
Governing differential equation is
e(t) = R . i(t) +
For complementary function,
, giving p = 1/RC
No current through capacitor at steady state.
particular solution steady state solution i(t) = 0
solution is in the form
t
RC
e A t i
1
0 ) (

+

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R
C
E
) (
.
1
) ( . ) (
1
t i
p C
t i R dt t i
C
+

0
1
+
p C
R
Constant A can be obtained from initial conditions:
Voltage across a capacitor cannot change suddenly
at t=0, v
c
(t) = 0, v
R
(t) = E and i(t) = E/R
0
1

RC
e A
R
E
giving A = E/R.

t
RC
e
R
E
t i
1
) (

## Voltage drops across elements can now be obtained using

Ohms law.
Sketches of voltage and current can now be done as
earlier.
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Example 3 R C circuit supplied from a
step voltage source, but with C initially
charged to V
o
Governing differential equation
o
V dt t i
C
t i R t e + +

) (
1
) ( . ) (
o
V i
p C
i R + +
.
1
.
Complementary function remains
same as earlier except that the value
of constant will be different.
The particular solution would again be zero.
since voltage across capacitor cannot change suddenly
At t=0, v
c
(t) = V
o
.
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R
C
E
V
o
v
R
(t) = E V
o
and i(t) = (E V
o
)/R
0
1

RC o
e A
R
V E
giving R
V E
A
o

t
RC o
e
R
V E
t i
1
) (

voltage across
( )
t
RC
o C
e V E E t v
1
) (

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vC(t)
time
E
V
o
Example 4 R L C circuit supplied from a
step voltage

) (
.
1
) ( . . ) ( .
) (
1 ) (
) ( . ) (
t i
p C
t i p L t i R
dt t i
C t d
t i d
L t i R t e
+ +
+ +

) (
1
) ( . . ) ( . . ) ( .
2
t i
C
t i p L t i p R t e p + +
Complementary function is
R.p + L.p
2
+ 1/C = 0
Solution of equation can have real or
complex roots dependant on the values of
components.
(a) R = 480 , L = 0.4 H, C = 2.5 F, E = 120 V
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R
L
E
C
i(t)
complementary function is
0.4 p
2
+ 480 p + 410
5
= 0 or p
2
+ 1200 p + 10
6
= 0
giving
800 600 10 600 600
6 2
j p t t
Particular solution would be i(t)=0 at t=
giving a solution of the form
A.e
-600t
.e
j800t
+ B.e
-600t
.e
-j

800t
,
or C.e
-600t
.cos(800t+ )
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Using initial conditions [2 energy storing elements]
at t=0, i(t) = 0 and v
C
(t) = 0
0 = C.e
-600

0
.cos(8000+)
gives = t 90
o
as C cannot be zero [trivial solution]
giving the solution i(t) = C. e
-600t
.sin 800t
Also since i(0)=0, v
R
(0) = 0.
v
L
(0) = 120 = giving at t=0
giving C = 300/800 = 0.375
i(t) = 0.375 e
-600t
.sin 800t
A
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t d
i d
4 . 0 300
t d
i d
[ ] 300 0 800 cos 800 . 0 800 sin . 600 .
0 600 0 600
+

e e C
t d
i d
Using Ohms law,
v
R
(t) = 480 i(t) = 180 e
-600t
.sin 800t V
v
L
(t) = 0.4 p.i(t) = 90 e
-600t
.sin 800t + 120 e
-600t
.cos 800t V
v
C
(t) = 120 - 90 e
-600t
.sin 800t - 120 e
-600t
.cos 800t V
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i(t) V
c
(t)
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
(b) R = 800 , L = 0.4 H, C = 2.5 F, E = 120 V
complementary function is
0.4 p
2
+ 800 p + 410
5
= 0 or p
2
+ 2000 p + 10
6
= 0
giving (p +1000)
2
= 0 or p = 1000 (repeated roots)
In this case the solution is of the form
i(t) = A.t e
-1000t
+ 0
At t=0, i(t) = 0, [automatically satisfied]
and di(t)/dt = 300
300 . 0 1000
0 1000 0 1000

e A e A
dt
di
giving A = 300
i(t) = 300 t e
-1000t
A
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0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01

i(t)
(c) R = 1000 , L = 0.4 H, C = 2.5 F, E = 120 V
complementary function is
0.4 p
2
+1000 p +410
5
= 0 or p
2
+ 2500 p + 10
6
= 0
giving (p +500)(p+2000) = 0 or p = 500 or 2000
In this case the solution is of the form
i(t) = A e
-500t
+ B e
-2000t
At t=0, i(t) = 0 = A + B
At t=0, v
C
(t) = 0 ,
gives di(t)/dt = 300.
i.e. 500A 2000B = 300,
gives A = 0.2 = B
i(t) = 0.2 (e
-500t
e
-2000t
) A
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0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01

i(t)
1.3. Review of AC theory
Sinusoidal waveform has equation
v(t) = V
m
sin( t + )
Period is T. Angular frequency = 2/T
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v(t)
t
T
T
Mean value = 0
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Average Value (rectified)
Average of full-wave rectified waveform
average value for sinusoidal wave = (2/) A
m
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v
rect
(t)
t
T
T
Effective value
Effective value =
rms value
Rms value for sinusoidal wave = A
m
/2
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+

T t
t
eff
o
o
dt t a
T
A ) (
1
2
v
2
(t)
t
T
T
rms value is always specified for ac waveforms.
Form Factor and Peak Factor
Form Factor = rms value/average value
= 1.1107 1.111 for sinusoidal
Peak Factor = peak value/rms value
= 2 = 1.4142 for sinusoidal
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Phasor Representation of Sinusoids
e
j
= cos + j sin or e
jt
= cos t + j sin t
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a(t
)
t
T
A
m
sin t
t

O
O
P
X
Sinusoidal waveform is the projection, on a particular
direction, of the complex exponential e
jt
.
A reference direction is chosen, usually horizontal.
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R
P

0
A
m
a(t
)
t
T
A
m
sin
( t+)

t

0
0
R
X
P

Rotating Phasor
diagram
R
P

0
A
m
reference
direction

0
A=A
m
2
Phasor diagram
A
y
A
x
Usual to draw Phasor diagram using rms value A,
rather than with the peak value A
m
.
The phasor A is characterised by its magnitude A
and its phase angle .
Polar co-ordinates of phasor A written as A.
Cartesian co-ordinates A
x
and A
y
of phasor A, usually
written A = A
x
+ j A
y
.
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Phase difference
Consider A
m
sin ( t+
1
) and B
m
sin ( t+
2
) as
shown
Can be represented by rotating phasors A
m
e
j(t+
1
)

and B
m
e
j (t+
2
)
with peak amplitudes A
m
and B
m
,
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1
O

2
y(t
)
t
A
m
sin
( t+
1
)
B
m
sin
( t+
2
)
T

2

1

2

1
A
m
B
m

## Or on normal phasor diagram with complex A and B

with polar co-ordinates A
1
and B
2
.
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Example 1
Find the addition and subtraction of the 2 complex
numbers given by 1030
o
and 25 48
o
.
Addition = 10 30
o
+ 25 48
o

= 10(0.8660 + j0.5000) + 25(0.6691 +
j0.7431)
= (8.660 + 16.728) + j (5.000 + 18.577)
= 25.388 + j 23.577 = 34.647 42.9
o
Subtraction = 1030
o
2548
o

= (8.660 16.728) + j (5.000 18.577)
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= 8.068 j 13.577 = 15.793239.3
o
Example 2
Find the multiplication and the division of the two
complex numbers given by 1030
o
and 25 48
o
.
Multiplication = 10 30
o
* 2548
o
= 250
78
o
Division = 10 30
o
2548
o
= 0.4 18
o
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 48 of 92
Currents and voltages in simple
circuit elements
(1) Resistor
for a sinusoid,
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R
v
(t)
i
(t)
v(t) =
R .i(t)
O
t
V
m
cos
t
I
m
cos
t
T
Let i(t) = I
m
cos (t+) or Real part of [I
m
e
(jt+)
]
v(t) = Real [R.I
m
e
(jt+)
] = Real [V
m
.
e
(jt+)
]
or v(t)= R . I
m
cos(t+) V
m
cos (t+ )
V
m
= R.I
m

and V
m
/2 = R.I
m
/2
i.e. V = R . I
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V
I
O
Phasor diagram
R
V
I
Note: V and I are rms values of voltage
and current.
no phase angle change has occurred in the
resistor.
Note also that power dissipated in resistor
R is
R . I
2
= V . I
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0
t
V
m
sin
t
I
m
cos
t
T
/2
(2) Inductor
Let i(t) = I
m
cos (t+) or Real part of [ I
m
e
(jt+)
]
v(t) = Real [L.
d
dt I
m
e
(jt+)
]
= Real [L. j. I
m
e
j(t+)
] = Real [j
V
m
e
j(t+)
]
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L
v (t)
i (t)
dt
t i d
L t v
) (
) (
or v(t) = L.I
m
cos ( t+) = L..I
m
sin
(t+)
L..I
m
cos
(t++/2)
= V
m
cos
(t++/2)
V
m
= L.I
m

and V
m
/2 = L.I
m
/2 V
rms
= L.I
rms

Voltage waveform leads current waveform by 90
o
or /2
radians
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 53 of 92
j L
V
I
dt
d
or current waveform lags voltage waveform by 90
o
for
the inductor.
V = jL.I or V = L.I90

## Impedance Z is thus defined as j L.

V = Z.I corresponds to the generalised form of Ohms Law.
Power dissipation in a pure inductor is zero.
Energy is only stored but product V . I is not zero.
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(3) Capacitor
Let i(t) = I
m
cos (t+) or Real part of [ I
m
e
j(t+)
]
v(t) = Real [

+
dt e I
C
v
t j
m
.
1
) (
]
= Real [
1
C j .
. I
m
e
(jt+)
] = Real [
1
j
V
m
e
(jt+)
]
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C
v
(t)
i
(t)
0
t
V
m
sin
t
I
m
cos t
T
/2

dt i
C
v .
1
or v(t) =
1
C
I t dt
m
cos( ). +

1
C.I
m
sin (t+)

1
C.I
m
cos (t+/2) =V
m
cos
(t+/2)
V
m
=
1
C
.I
m
and V
m
/2 =
1
C
.I
m
/2
i.e. V
rms
=
1
C
.I
rms
Voltage waveform lags current waveform by 90
o
or /2
radians or the current waveform leads the voltage
waveform by 90
o
for a capacitor.
Thus V =
1
j C
.I or V =
1
C
.I90

Impedance Z =
1
j C
, and V = Z . I
Power dissipation in a pure capacitor is zero, but
product V.I not zero.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 56 of 92
1
j C
V
I
V
I
O
Phasor
diagram
Impedance and Admittance in an a.c.
circuit
Impedance Z is a complex quantity.
Relates complex rms voltage to complex rms current.
V = Z . I
Admittance Y is inverse of impedance Z.
I = Y . V
In cartesian form
Z = R + j X and Y = G + j B
Real part of Z is resistive, usually denoted by R,
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 57 of 92
Z
Y
1

## Imaginary part of Z is called a reactance denoted by X.

A pure inductor and a pure capacitor has a reactance
only and not a resistive part, while a pure resistor has
only a resistive part and not a reactive part.
Z = R + j 0 for a resistor,
Z = 0 + jL for an inductor,
and Z = = 0 j for a capacitor.
Real part of Y is a conductance, denoted by G,
Imaginary part of Y is a susceptance, denoted by B.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 58 of 92
C
1
C j
1
Relationships between components of Z and of Y
G j B Y
Z R j X
R j X
R X
+
+

+
1 1
2 2

so that
G
R
R X
B
X
R X

+
2 2 2 2
, and
It must be remembered that, in a complex circuit, G
does not correspond to the inverse of the resistance R,
but its effective value is influenced by X as well.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 59 of 92

V
V
L
V
R
I
Phasor
diagram
V
L
Simple Series Circuits
R-L series circuit
Consider I as reference
V
R
= R.I, V
L
= jL.I,
and V = V
R
+ V
L
= (R + jL).I
so that total series impedance is
Z = R + jL
Phasor diagram has been drawn with
I as reference.
[i.e. I is drawn along the x-axis direction].
V
R
is in phase with I, V
L
is leading I by 90
o
.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 60 of 92
R

jL
I
V
R
V
L
V
By phasor addition, V = V
R
+
V
L
.
If V is taken as reference,
I is seen to lag voltage by the
same angle that the voltage
was leading the current earlier.
In R-L circuit, current I lags voltage
V by an angle less than 90
o
and the
circuit is said to be inductive.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 61 of 92
Phasor diagram
V
V
C
V
R
I

Phasor diagram
V
V
L
V
R
I
Note: Power dissipation can only occur in the resistive
part of the circuit and is equal to R.I

2
.
This is not equal to product V . I for the circuit.
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R-C series circuit
V
R
= R.I, V
C
=
1
j C
. I
and V = V
R
+ V
C
V = (R +
C j
1
).I
so that Z = R +
1
j C
Phasor diagram has been drawn with V as reference.
In R-C circuit, current I leads voltage V by an angle less than
90
o
and the circuit is said to be capacitive.
Power dissipation can only occur in the resistive part of the
circuit and is equal to R.I
2
, not equal to product V . I.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 63 of 92
R
1
j C
I
V
R
V
C
V

V
V
C
V
R
I
L-C series circuit
V
L
= jL.I,
V
C
=
1
j C
.I = j
1
C
and V = V
L
+ V
C
V = (jL +
1
j C
).I
so that total series impedance
is Z = jL +
1
j C
= jL j
1
C
Total impedance is purely
reactive, and all voltages in the circuit are inphase but
perpendicular to current I.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 64 of 92
Phasor
diagram
V
V
C
V
L
I
or
V
C
V
L
I
V
jL
I
V
C
V
L
V
Resultant voltage corresponds to algebraic difference
of voltages V
L
and V
C
and direction could be either up
or down depending on which voltage is more.
When L =
1
C
, total impedance of circuit is zero.
Circuit current I, for a given V, would be very large
(only limited by the internal impedance of the source).
This condition is known as series resonance.
In L-C circuit, current either lags or leads the voltage
by an angle equal to 90
o
and the resultant circuit is
either purely inductive or capacitive.
No power dissipation can occur in the circuit and but the
product V . I for the circuit is non zero.
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R-L-C series circuit
V
R
= R.I, V
L
= jL.I, V
C
=
1
j C
. I
and V = V
R
+V
L
+ V
C
V = (R + jL +
1
j C
).I
so that the total series impedance is
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 66 of 92
R
jL
I
V
R
V
L
V
V
C
Z = R +jL +
1
j C
= R + j(L
1
C
)
Z R L
C
+

_
,

2
2
1

Magnitude has a minimum value at L =
1
C
This is the series resonance condition.
In an R-L-C circuit, the current can either lag or lead
the voltage, and the phase angle difference between
the current and the voltage can vary between t90
o
and resultant circuit is either inductive or capacitive.
Note that the power dissipation can only occur in the
resistance in the circuit and is equal to R . I
2
and that
this is not equal to product V . I for the circuit.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 67 of 92
Simple Parallel Circuits
R-L parallel Circuit
Consider V as reference
V = R.I
R
,
V = jL.I
L
,
and I = I
R
+ I
L

I
V
R
V
j L
+

1 1
R j L
+

## EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 68 of 92

Phasor
diagram

I
I
L
I
R
V
I
L
R

jL
I
R
V
I
L
I
R-C parallel Circuit
Consider V as reference
V = R.I
R
,
I
C
= jC.V,
and I = I
R
+ I
L

I
V
R
V j C + .
total shunt admittance =
1
R
j C +
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 69 of 92
Phasor
diagram

I
I
C
I
R
V
I
C
R
1
j C
I
R
V
I
C
I
R-L-C parallel Circuit
Consider V as reference
V = R.I
R
, V = jL.I
L
, I
C
= jC.V
and I = I
R
+ I
L
+ I
C

I
V
R
V
j L
V j C + +

.
total shunt admittance
=
1 1
R j L
j C + +

## Shunt resonance will occur when

1

L
C
giving minimum value of shunt
admittance.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 70 of 92
R
1
j C
I
R
V
I
L
I
I
C

jL
Phasor
diagram

I
I
L
+I
C
I
R
V
I
C
I
L
Power
In an a.c. circuit,
power loss occurs only in resistive parts of circuit
in general power loss is not equal to product V . I
purely inductive parts and purely capacitive parts
of a circuit do not have any power loss.
To account for this apparent discrepancy,
define product V . I as apparent power S of circuit.
Apparent power has the unit volt-ampere (VA).
watt (W) is used only for active power P of circuit.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 71 of 92
apparent power S = V . I
Since a difference exists between apparent power
and the active power, we define a new term reactive
power Q for the reactance X.
Instantaneous value of power is given by
p(t) = v(t) . i(t)
If v(t) = V
m
cos t and i(t) = I
m
cos ( t ),
where voltage has been taken as reference and the current
lags voltage by a phase angle . hen
p(t) = V
m
cos t . I
m
cos ( t )
= V
m
I
m
.. 2 cos t . cos ( t )
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 72 of 92
= V
m
I
m
[cos (2 t ) + cos ]
Waveform of power p(t) has a sinusoidally varying
component and a constant component.
Average value of power (active power) P would be
given by the constant value V
m
I
m
cos .
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 73 of 92
i(t)
current lagging voltage by angle inphase
quadrature
V
m
I
m
cos

p(t)
t
T
v(t)
t

p(t)

p(t)
P = V
m
I
m
cos
cos .
2
.
2
m m
I V
V . I cos
Power Factor
Power Factor = active power/apparent power
For sinusoidal quantities, equal to term cos .
For a resistor, = 0
o
so that P = V . I
For an inductor, = 90
o
lagging, so that P = 0
For an capacitor, = 90
o
leading, so that P = 0
For combinations of resistor, inductor and capacitor,
P lies between V. I and 0
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For inductor or capacitor, V. I exists although P = 0.
Reactive Power
Defined as product of voltage and current components
which are quadrature (90
o
out of phase).
reactive power Q = V. I sin
For L and C, 90

, reactive power Q = V. I
Unlike inphase, where same direction means positive,
with quadrature, there is no natural positive direction.
Usual to define
Inductive reactive power when current lagging voltage
Capacitive reactive power when current leading voltage.
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Inductive reactive power and capacitive reactive
power have opposite signs.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 76 of 92
Power factor correction
Although reactive power does not consume any
energy, it reduces the power factor below unity.
When power factor is below unity,
for same power transfer P the current
required becomes larger and the
power losses in the circuit becomes
still larger (power loss I
2
).
Thus supply authorities encourage industries to
improve their power factors to be close to unity.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 77 of 92
P
1
Q
1

1
P
1
Q
1

1
Q
c
Q
2

2
For a load
lagging power factor cos
1
active power P
1
, reactive power Q
1
If power factor is improved to a new value,
cos
2
( >cos
1
)
leading reactive power Q
c
must be added.
usually done by using capacitors.
With pure capacitors, active power is unchanged at P
1
,
assuming supply voltage remains unchanged.
Thus new reactive power Q
2
= Q
1
Q
c
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 78 of 92
What is known is P
1
, cos
1
and cos
2
.
Thus Q
1
= P
1
tan
1
and Q
2
= P
1
tan
2

so that Q
c
= Q
1
Q
2
= P
1
tan
1
P
1
tan
2
Reactive power supplied by a capacitor is dependant
on its capacitance C and the voltage across it V.
Thus Q
c
= P
1
tan
1
P
2
tan
2
= V
2
.Y = V
2
.C
The value of C can be determined.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 79 of 92
R
e
i
C
r
L
i
r
v
r
i
L
i
C
v
C
v
L
v
R
Impedance, Admittance and Transfer functions
Each element is either governed by a constant,
differentiation or integration.
Bilateral linear circuit governed by
differential equation.
written using Kirchoffs current
and voltage laws, and
Ohms Law
with differential operator
p =
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 80 of 92
dt
d
To find relationship between e(t) and i
r
(t).
e(t) = v
r
(t) + v
C
(t) v
R
(t), v
r
(t) = v
L
(t)
i(t) = i
r
(t) + i
L
(t) = i
C
(t)
v
r
(t) = r . i
r
(t), v
L
(t) = L p . i
L
(t), C p .v
C
(t) = i
c
(t)
eliminate other variables
L p . i
L
(t) = r . i
r
(t)
L p . i(t) = L p .[ i
r
(t) + i
L
(t)] = (Lp + r ). i
r
(t)
e(t) = r . i
r
(t) + v
C
(t) + R . i(t)
i.e. C p . e(t) = C p . r . i
r
(t) + i(t) + C p . R . i(t)
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L p . C p . e(t) = L p . C p . r . i
r
(t) + (1 + C p . R) . i
r
(t)
i.e. L.C.p
2
. e(t) = [L.C. p
2
.r + 1 + C p . R] . i
r
(t)
This is a differential equation involving terms up to the
second derivative of both e(t) and i
r
(t) of the form
f
1
(p). e(t) = f
2
(p). i
r
(t)
or e(t) = Z
r
(p). i
r
(t)
Z
r
(p) impedance transfer function of differential operator p
In a similar way
any current and any voltage would be related by an
admittance transfer function of differential operator p
any two voltages or any two currents would be related by
a transfer gain of the differential operator p
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 82 of 92
In the case of sinsusoidal a.c., the differential operator p will
be replaced using the relationship p = j.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 83 of 92
Example 3
Determine mean value, average
value, peak value, rms value,
form factor and peak factor.
Solution
Mean value
[This result could have been written by inspection considering areas].
Average value = 6
5
] 5 [
6
)] ) ( ( 2 [
1
3
1
2
1
3
2
2
1
E
T
T
E
T E T E
T

Peak value = 2E
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 84 of 92
2E
0 T 2T 3T
E

T T
dt
T
t
E
T
dt t f
T
0 0
).
3
2 (
1
). (
1
2
)
2
3
2 ( )
2
3
2 (
2
0
2
E
T
T
T
T
E
T
t
t
T
E
T
t

rms value=

T T
dt
T
t
E
T
dt t f
T
0
2 2
0
2
. )
3
2 (
1
). (
1
T
t
T
T
t
T
E
0
3
2
)
3
(
3
1
)
3
2 (

E
E
] 8 1 [
9
) (
2
form factor =
2 . 1
5
6
6 / 5

E
E
peak factor =
2
2

E
E
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 85 of 92
Example 4
A certain 50 Hz, alternating
voltage source has an internal
emf of 250 V and an internal
inductance of 31.83 mH.
If the terminal voltage is to be
maintained at 230 V,
determine the value of the maximum power that can
be delivered to a load (R + jX) and the values of
R and X under these conditions.
Draw also the phasor diagram showing the voltages
and currents in the circuit under these conditions.
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 86 of 92
31.83
mH
250
V
Solution
at 50 Hz, x
s
= jL = j 25031.8310
-3
= j 10.00
Current I =
jX R j + + 10
250
, | V | = 230 V
active power P = | I |
2
R =
R
X R

+ + ] ) 10 ( [
250
2 2
2
,
voltage V = (R+jX) . I
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 87 of 92
R+jX
If we simply differentiate and obtain the condition for maximum
power,
, we can show that these give the conditions
[R
2
+ (X + 10)
2
].1 R.2R = 0 and (X + 10) = 0 or X = 10
and R = 0
Then P = , V =
This obviously is not the required solution.
| V |
2
= 230
2
= (R
2
+X
2
). | I |
2
=
] ) 10 ( [
250
) (
2 2
2
2 2
+ +
+
X R
X R
R
2
+ (X + 10)
2
= 1.185 R
2
+ 1.1815 X
2

i.e. 20 X + 10
2
= 0.1815 (R
2
+ X
2
)
or R
2
+ X
2
= 5.5104 (10
2
+ 20X)
Differentiate for maximum power keeping voltage constraint
i.e. P =
R
X

+ ] 20 10 [ 5104 . 6
250
2
2
, 0
dR
dP
gives the condition
(20X+100).1 R.20.
0
dR
dX
or X+5 = RdR
dX
also 20
dR
dX
+ 0 = 0.1815(2R + 2X
dR
dX
)
so that 20(X+5) = 0.363R
2
+0.363X(X+5)
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 88 of 92
i.e. 20X + 100 = 0.363R
2
+0.363X
2
+1.815X
0.363(R
2
+ X
2
) = 18.185X + 100
but 20 X + 100 = 0.1815 (R
2
+ X
2
) = (9.0925X+50)
i.e. 10.9075X = 50
X = 4.584
giving R = 4.983
Substitution gives
P
max
= 5750 W,
under given condition
I =
416 . 5 983 . 4
250
584 . 4 983 . 4 10
250
j j j +

+
i.e. I =
o
38 . 47 360 . 7
250
= 33.97-47.38
o
A
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 89 of 92
j10
250
V
4.983-
j4.584
I=
33.97A
-
47.38
o
42.61
o
E=25
0V
V
R
=169.
3 V
V
C
=155.
7V
V
L
=339.
7V
terminal voltage at source (load voltage)
= 33.97-47.38
o
6.771-42.61
o
= 230.0-90
o
V
voltage across resistive part of load
= 4.98333.97-47.38
o
= 169.3-47.38
o
V
voltage across capacitive part
= 4.584-90
o
33.97-47.38
o

= 155.7-137.38
o
Example 5
If the load is purely resistive, what
would be its value for power transfer at
230 V ? and what is the Power ?
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 90 of 92
31.83
mH
250 V, 50
Hz
Load
If parallel capacitance is connected with load to achieve
maximum power, what is the value of R, C and P
max
.
Solution
L = 25031.8310
-3
= 10
250 = (R
2
+ 10
2
)I, 230 = RI
230(R
2
+ 10
2
) = 250R R
2
+ 10
2
= 1.1815R
2
i.e. R = 23.47 , P = 230
2
/23.47 = 2.253 kW
The solution of example 4 can be used, except that we
need to find the parallel equivalent of the load.
G + j B =
o
j 38 . 47 360 . 7
1
584 . 4 983 . 4
1

EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 91 of 92
250 V, 50
Hz
= 0.092+j0.1000
effective value of resistance = 1/0.0920 = 10.87
parallel capacitance = B/ = 0.1000/(250) = 318.3 F
maximum power = 230
2
/10.87 = 4.867 kW
EE2092 Theory of Electricity, May 2011 J R Lucas Page 92 of 92