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Original Title: Assignment 1 (Recovered)

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Assignment 1 (Recovered)

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NOTE:

Due date: submitted in class on Tuesday 9 April before lecture starts.

Question 1: FeS2 is roasted to Fe3O4 and SO2 in a flash roaster. FeS2 occurs in a pyrite ore, which in

this case analyses 48%S. If the air supply is controlled at 10kg air/kg ore, calculate the expected exit

gas analysis.

Pyrite ore

Air

Waste Gas

Fe3O4

Mass of sulfur in 1 kg ore: 48%1kg=480g

m=Mn

480= 32.065n

n= 14.9696 moles

FeS2= 7.4848 moles

3FeS2 + 8O2

x

O2 in 10kg air:

10000g=2330g

N2 in 10kg air:

10000g =7670g

Waste Gas:

SO2: 959.03g

Fe3O4+6SO2

y

9.29% SO2

O2: 2330g-638.72g=1691.28g

16.39% O2

O2: x=19.96 moles162=638.72g

Total: 7670+1691.28+959.03=10320.31g

_________________________________________________________________________________

Question 2: 100 tons of hard lead (98%Pb, 2%Sb) are melted in a steel kettle and then treated with 2

tons of PbO. The products are (1) a slag consisting of PbO and Sb2O3, analyzing 20%Sb, (2) a Pb- Sb

alloy of lowered Sb content and negligible oxygen content. Calculate the % Sb in the final alloy. The

reaction involved is:

3PbO + 2Sb(in Pb) = Sb2O3 +3Pb

Hard lead

Process

1

PbO

Pb-Sb alloy

Percentage of Sb is

Mass of Sb in W2:

Mass of Pb in W2:

in W2

For Sb:

((

For Pb:

((

+

g

Mass of O:

- :

=143.369kg

- :

Check:

Mass of O in 2tons PbO:

Mass of Pb in 2tons PbO:

2106g =

2106g =

2106g=143.369kg

2106g=1856.651kg

x

y

=y

x= 5973.7 moles Sb

y=2986.86 moles Sb2O3

Mass of Sb: 5973.7mol 121.76

But,

=727.358kg

, hence some PbO does take place in the reaction.

Mass of Sb in product 1:

2

Wp2= WHL+WPbO- WP1=100+2-1.526=100.4739 tons

Sb Balance: 0.02 WHL=0.2 WP1+% Wp2

2000kg=0.21526.121kg + %100.4739 tons

=1.68678%

The alloy contains 1.69% Sb, 98.31%Pb.

____________________________________________________________________________________

Question 3: Thermal stress developed in continuously cast ingots: The thermal stress developed in

the centre of a continuously cast cooling ingot is a function of its shape and the following independent

variables:

Using Buckinghams theorem, or otherwise, show by dimensional analysis what form the unknown

physical equation relating to the pertinent variables must take.

In an industrial process, a 6-inch diameter steel ingot was found to develop an acceptable maximum

stress after 4 min. What process variables would you adjust to ensure that this stress would not be

exceeded in a similar steel, whose thermal conductivity was 9/10 times that of the steel investigated? In

particular, what diameter must the mould have, and at which time will maximum thermal stress be

developed?

1) n=11;

thermal stress

E

modulus of elasticity

initial temperature difference between cooling medium and melting point of metal

L

characteristic linear dimension of ingot

h

heat transfer coefficient of cooling medium at surface of ingot

k

thermal conductivity of ingot

C

thermal capacity of ingot

density of metal

t

time from start of cooling (i.e. distance from mould/downward velocity of ingot)

LH

Latent heat of metal

2) Choose primary quantities: M, L, T, , Q;

m= 5

Number of group p= n-m= 11-5= 6

ML-1T-2

ML-1T-2

-1

L

-2 -1 -1

QL T

QL-1T-1-1

QL-3-1

ML-3

T

QM-1

3) Two subsets

Basis:

, L, k, t

Residual: ,

h, C, , LH

4) Forming group

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

Q

3

a1

E

1

-1

-2

b1

-1

c1

L

d1

k

-1

-1

-1

1

f1

t

: ML-1T-2= Q0M1L-1T-2 0

a1=-1; b1=0; c1=0; d1=0; f1=0

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a2

b2

E

1

-1

-2

c2

d2

-1

-1

-1

1

-1

f2

t

: = Q0M0L0T01

a2=0; b2=1; c2=0; d2=0 ; f2=0

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a3

b3

E

1

-1

-2

c3

d3

-1

-1

-1

1

-1

f3

t

h: QL-2T-1-1= Q1M0L-2T-1-1

a3=0; b3=0; c3=1; d3=-1; f3=0

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a4

E

1

-1

-2

b4

c4

L

d4

k

-1

-1

-1

1

-1

f4

t

: QL-3-1= Q1M0L-3T0-1

a4=0; b4=0; c4=2; d4=-1; f4=-1

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a5

E

1

-1

-2

b5

-1

c5

L

d5

k

-1

-1

-1

1

f5

t

: ML-3= Q0M1L-3T00

a5=-1; b5=0; c5=2; d5=0; f5=-2

____________________________________________________________________________________________

4

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a6

E

1

-1

-2

b6

c6

L

d6

k

-1

-1

-1

1

-1

f6

t

: QM-1= Q1M-1L0T00

a6=1; b6=1; c6=0; d6=-1; f6=1

____________________________________________________________________________________________

variable

L

h

k

C

t

LH

LH) need to be remain constant, by adjusting the

diameter of the mould.

ingot

6 inch=0.1524m

h

k

C

4min=240s

LH

mould

Dmould

h

0.9k

C

tmould

LH

=216s

Question 4: A model of a soaking pit (or reheat) furnace has been proposed so that gas flow patterns

generated in a new one-way fired pit design can be optimized for uniform convective heat flow to the

reheating ingots.

Develop an expression showing how the gas velocity at any given point within the system is related to the

length L, and width W, of the pit, the combusted gas (i.e. burnt oxygen fuel mixture) flow rate G0, and the

mean density and viscosity of these combusted gases.

In order to model the system at the one-fifth scale, it is proposed that water, rather than cold air, be used as

the fluid medium. Comment on this proposal and recommend the inlet gas and water flows and other

dimensions that would be required to simulate the following set of conditions expected for the prototype.

G0

T

L

W

H

h

w

N

Flow rate

density

viscosity

velocity

Temperature

Soaking pit length

Soaking pit width

Soaking pit height

Ingots height

Ingots width

Number of ingots

L3T-1

ML-3

ML-1T-1

LT-1

L

L

L

L

L

24

1) n=12;

2) Choose primary quantities: M, L, T, ;

Number of group p= n-m= 11-4= 7

3) Two subsets

Basis: L, T, , G0

Residual: , , W, H, h, w, N

m= 4

4) Forming group

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a1

L

b1

T

c1

1

-3

d1

G0

3

-1

: LT-1= M0L1T-10

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a2

b2

c2

d2

1

-3

G0

3

-1

: ML-1T-1= M1L-1T-10

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a3

b3

c3

d3

1

-3

G0

3

-1

: L= M L T

0 1 0 0

____________________________________________________________________________________

6

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a4

L

b4

T

c4

1

-3

d4

G0

3

-1

H: L= M0L1T00

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a5

L

b5

T

c5

1

-3

d5

G0

3

-1

h: L= M0L1T00

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a2

b2

c2

d2

1

-3

G0

3

-1

w: L= M0L1T00

____________________________________________________________________________________

Rayleigh indices

M

L

T

a6

L

b6

T

c6

1

-3

d6

G0

3

-1

N: M0L0T00

____________________________________________________________________________________

(

24 ingots

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