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Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

Assignment 1 Material Balance, Dimensionless Analysis and Similarity


NOTE:
Due date: submitted in class on Tuesday 9 April before lecture starts.

Question 1: FeS2 is roasted to Fe3O4 and SO2 in a flash roaster. FeS2 occurs in a pyrite ore, which in
this case analyses 48%S. If the air supply is controlled at 10kg air/kg ore, calculate the expected exit
gas analysis.
Pyrite ore

Air

Waste Gas

Fe3O4

Atomic mass: N: 14; O: 16; S: 32.065; Fe: 55.845;


Mass of sulfur in 1 kg ore: 48%1kg=480g
m=Mn
480= 32.065n
n= 14.9696 moles
FeS2= 7.4848 moles
3FeS2 + 8O2
x

O2 in 10kg air:

10000g=2330g

N2 in 10kg air:

10000g =7670g

Waste Gas:
SO2: 959.03g

Fe3O4+6SO2
y

9.29% SO2

O2: 2330g-638.72g=1691.28g

16.39% O2

N2: 7670g 74.32% N2


O2: x=19.96 moles162=638.72g

Total: 7670+1691.28+959.03=10320.31g

SO2: y=14.9696 moles(32.065+162)=959.03g


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Question 2: 100 tons of hard lead (98%Pb, 2%Sb) are melted in a steel kettle and then treated with 2
tons of PbO. The products are (1) a slag consisting of PbO and Sb2O3, analyzing 20%Sb, (2) a Pb- Sb
alloy of lowered Sb content and negligible oxygen content. Calculate the % Sb in the final alloy. The
reaction involved is:
3PbO + 2Sb(in Pb) = Sb2O3 +3Pb
Hard lead

Process
1

Slag PbO + Sb2O3

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

PbO

Pb-Sb alloy

Atomic mass: Pb: 207.2g/mol; Sb: 121.76 g/mol; O: 16 g/mol;


Percentage of Sb is
Mass of Sb in W2:
Mass of Pb in W2:

in W2

For Sb:

((

For Pb:

((

+
g

Mass of O:
- :

=143.369kg

- :

Check:

Number of moles of O in 2 tons PbO: 2106 (207.9+16)=8960.57 moles


Mass of O in 2tons PbO:
Mass of Pb in 2tons PbO:

2106g =
2106g =

2106g=143.369kg
2106g=1856.651kg

3PbO + 2Sb(in Pb) = Sb2O3 +3Pb


x
y
=y
x= 5973.7 moles Sb
y=2986.86 moles Sb2O3
Mass of Sb: 5973.7mol 121.76
But,

=727.358kg
, hence some PbO does take place in the reaction.

Z=1253.38moles Sb2O3 forms


Mass of Sb in product 1:
2

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

WHL+WPbO= WP1+ Wp2


Wp2= WHL+WPbO- WP1=100+2-1.526=100.4739 tons
Sb Balance: 0.02 WHL=0.2 WP1+% Wp2
2000kg=0.21526.121kg + %100.4739 tons
=1.68678%
The alloy contains 1.69% Sb, 98.31%Pb.
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Question 3: Thermal stress developed in continuously cast ingots: The thermal stress developed in
the centre of a continuously cast cooling ingot is a function of its shape and the following independent
variables:
Using Buckinghams theorem, or otherwise, show by dimensional analysis what form the unknown
physical equation relating to the pertinent variables must take.
In an industrial process, a 6-inch diameter steel ingot was found to develop an acceptable maximum
stress after 4 min. What process variables would you adjust to ensure that this stress would not be
exceeded in a similar steel, whose thermal conductivity was 9/10 times that of the steel investigated? In
particular, what diameter must the mould have, and at which time will maximum thermal stress be
developed?
1) n=11;

thermal stress
E
modulus of elasticity

coefficient of linear thermal expression

initial temperature difference between cooling medium and melting point of metal
L
characteristic linear dimension of ingot
h
heat transfer coefficient of cooling medium at surface of ingot
k
thermal conductivity of ingot
C
thermal capacity of ingot

density of metal
t
time from start of cooling (i.e. distance from mould/downward velocity of ingot)
LH
Latent heat of metal
2) Choose primary quantities: M, L, T, , Q;
m= 5
Number of group p= n-m= 11-5= 6

ML-1T-2
ML-1T-2
-1

L
-2 -1 -1
QL T
QL-1T-1-1
QL-3-1
ML-3
T
QM-1

3) Two subsets
Basis:
, L, k, t
Residual: ,
h, C, , LH

4) Forming group
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

Q
3

a1
E
1
-1
-2

b1

-1

c1
L

d1
k

-1
-1
-1
1

f1
t

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

: ML-1T-2= Q0M1L-1T-2 0
a1=-1; b1=0; c1=0; d1=0; f1=0
____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a2

b2

E
1
-1
-2

c2

d2

-1
-1
-1
1

-1

f2
t

: = Q0M0L0T01
a2=0; b2=1; c2=0; d2=0 ; f2=0
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Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a3

b3

E
1
-1
-2

c3

d3

-1
-1
-1
1

-1

f3
t

h: QL-2T-1-1= Q1M0L-2T-1-1
a3=0; b3=0; c3=1; d3=-1; f3=0
____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a4
E
1
-1
-2

b4

c4
L

d4
k

-1
-1
-1
1

-1

f4
t

: QL-3-1= Q1M0L-3T0-1
a4=0; b4=0; c4=2; d4=-1; f4=-1
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a5
E
1
-1
-2

b5

-1

c5
L

d5
k

-1
-1
-1
1

f5
t

: ML-3= Q0M1L-3T00
a5=-1; b5=0; c5=2; d5=0; f5=-2
____________________________________________________________________________________________
4

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a6
E
1
-1
-2

b6

c6
L

d6
k

-1
-1
-1
1

-1

f6
t

: QM-1= Q1M-1L0T00
a6=1; b6=1; c6=0; d6=-1; f6=1
____________________________________________________________________________________________

variable

L
h
k
C

t
LH

In order to achieve, the variables (, E, , , h, C, ,


LH) need to be remain constant, by adjusting the
diameter of the mould.

=5.4 inches =0.13716m

ingot

6 inch=0.1524m
h
k
C

4min=240s
LH

mould

Dmould
h
0.9k
C

tmould
LH

=216s

Question 4: A model of a soaking pit (or reheat) furnace has been proposed so that gas flow patterns
generated in a new one-way fired pit design can be optimized for uniform convective heat flow to the
reheating ingots.
Develop an expression showing how the gas velocity at any given point within the system is related to the
length L, and width W, of the pit, the combusted gas (i.e. burnt oxygen fuel mixture) flow rate G0, and the
mean density and viscosity of these combusted gases.
In order to model the system at the one-fifth scale, it is proposed that water, rather than cold air, be used as
the fluid medium. Comment on this proposal and recommend the inlet gas and water flows and other
dimensions that would be required to simulate the following set of conditions expected for the prototype.

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

G0

T
L
W
H
h
w
N

Flow rate
density
viscosity
velocity
Temperature
Soaking pit length
Soaking pit width
Soaking pit height
Ingots height
Ingots width
Number of ingots

L3T-1
ML-3
ML-1T-1
LT-1

L
L
L
L
L
24

1) n=12;
2) Choose primary quantities: M, L, T, ;
Number of group p= n-m= 11-4= 7

3) Two subsets
Basis: L, T, , G0
Residual: , , W, H, h, w, N

m= 4

4) Forming group
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a1
L

b1
T

c1

1
-3

d1
G0
3
-1

: LT-1= M0L1T-10

a1=2 ; b1=0; c1=0 ; d1=-1


____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a2

b2

c2

d2

1
-3

G0

3
-1

: ML-1T-1= M1L-1T-10

a2=1; b2=0; c2=-1; d2=-1


____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a3

b3

c3

d3

1
-3

G0

3
-1

: L= M L T

0 1 0 0

a3=-1; b3= 0; c3=0; d3=0


____________________________________________________________________________________
6

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a4
L

b4
T

c4

1
-3

d4
G0
3
-1

H: L= M0L1T00

a4= -1; b4=0; c4=0 ; d4=0


____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a5
L

b5
T

c5

1
-3

d5
G0
3
-1

h: L= M0L1T00

a5=-1 ; b5=0 ; c5=0 ; d5=0


____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a2

b2

c2

d2

1
-3

G0

3
-1

w: L= M0L1T00

a6=-1 ; b6=0 ; c6=0 ; d6=0


____________________________________________________________________________________
Rayleigh indices
M
L
T

a6
L

b6
T

c6

1
-3

d6
G0
3
-1

N: M0L0T00

a7= 0; b7=0 ; c7=0 ; d7=0


____________________________________________________________________________________
(

Name: Encheng Huang

Student Number: z3369168

24 ingots