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Wood The hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub. Such material when cut is used as timber or fuel

HARDWOOD - any leaf bearing tree
Hardwood trees are angiosperms, plants that produce seeds with some sort of covering. This might be a fruit, such as an apple, or a hard shell, such as an acorn. OAK, MAPLE, MAHOGANY, CHERRY, WALNUT, TEAK AND ROSEWOOD

SOFTWOOD - any cone bearing tree.

Softwoods, on the other hand, are gymnosperms. These plants let seeds fall to the ground as is, with no covering. PINE, ASH, HICKORY, BEECH, BIRCH, CEDAR, REDWOOD, HEMLOCK, FIR AND SPRUCE


Bamboo - for posts, flooring, sidings, roofing,

Molave Queen of Philippine Woods which was impervious to insects, and so hard that it didnt even float in water. Used for:
principal posts, beams and other supports of building Popular for furniture, organ cases, santos and panels for paintings

Yacal, Guijo, Ipil and Dungon slightly less hard, used also for similar important architectural functions. Narra prized for its blood-sheen, along with banaba, guijo, mangachupoy ideal for floorboards.


Air Drying


All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment). A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to wood, to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.

TYPES OF WOOD PROTECTION: Wood protection by construction design means: keeping off the causes of harm by the appropriate structural arrangements and design Wood protection by selection of materials: selection of more resistant or less sensitive materials (wood or glue type, etc., for example). Artificial wood protection: in the most general sense, treatment with chemical protective media, paints or varnishes, which are introduced into or onto the material.

Treatment of wood has been practised at the beginning of recorded history. ancient Greece during Alexander the Greats rule, where bridge wood was soaked in olive oil. The Romans also protected their wood by brushing their ship hulls with tar.

Breaf history
4000bc God tells noah to use tar in building the ark. 2000bc gilgamesh epic tar is poured over wood. 484-424bc aluminium potassium sulphate used as fire retardant. 23-79ad plinius secundus cedar oil resistant to insect & decay. statue of diana in ephesus impregnated with nard oil. Fourth century palladius preservation with salt water. 1445 franckensepiegel timber for a church is boiled in brine.

1452-1419 leonardo da vinci paintings panel & carvings are coated with mercury (ii)chloride, arsenic(iii)oxide. 1469-1524 vasco da gama ship building chared against ship worm. 1500 termites controlled with mercury (ii)chloride, arsenic(iii)oxide. 1718 hiarne awarded patent in sweden wood balm based on copper or iron sulphate. 1st commercially prepared wood preservative. 1756 use of plant tar & extractives as preservatives in england and america 1815 Thomas wade- zinc chloride as a preservative.

1832 kyan british patent for vat treatment with mercury chloride aqueous sollution. Beginning of modern wood preservation.


is the attack on man-made materials by living organisms.
Molds and Fungus Stains Molds and fungus stains are confined to a great extent to sapwood and are of various colors. The principal fungus stains are usually referred to as sap stain or blue stain. The distinction between molding and staining is made primarily on the basis of the depth of discoloration. Risk of Mold and Stain Increase wood permeability Reduce surface appearance Reduce toughness MOLD PREVENTION Health effects (spores / volatiles / contact) Factors Affecting Fungal Growth Sapwood Content Temperature Wood Moisture Content Time of year Treatments

Short log storage Kiln in within 48 hours of sawing Keep wood dry Chemical treatment

Mold Treatment and removal Bleach Borax Vinegar Ammonia Hydrogen peroxide Detergent Baking soda Tea tree oil Grapefruit seed extract

How to Kill Mold with Bleach

For killing mold with bleach use a ratio of one cup of bleach per gallon of water (i.e. about 1 part bleach to 10 parts water). Apply the solution to non-porous surfaces with mold growth either by using a spray bottle or by using a bucket and a sponge or cloth. You don't need to rinse the surface afterwards (unless it is used for food preparation or a surface which may be touched by small children or pets) as the bleach will inhibit mold growing in the future

Chemical Stains
Nonmicrobial or chemical stains are difficult to control and represent substantial loss in wood quality. These stains include a variety of discolorations in wood that are often promoted by slow drying of lumber and warm to hot temperatures. Such conditions allow naturally occurring chemicals in wood to react with air (enzymatic oxidation) to form a new chemical that is typically dark in color.

How to Remove

1. Paint a layer of the chemical stripper along the surface of the wood stain. Allow it to set in for 5 minutes, or according to the manufacturer's label. 2. Scrub the solvent with the brush to pull the stain from deep in the wood grain. Work with the grain of the wood to make sure the solvent penetrates into the wood where stain adheres. 3. Wipe away any solvent and stain with a wet rag. Give the wood some time to dry. 4. Apply a layer of two-part bleach to the wood to remove any lingering stain deep in the wood pores. Scrub the wood once again with the brush. Let the bleach evaporate before sanding. 5. Sand the wood to create a smooth layer free from any stain. Use a fine-grit paper to prepare the wood for a new stain or paint.

Decay A wood-decay fungus is a variety of fungus that digests moist wood, causing it to rot. Some wood-decay fungi attack dead wood, such as brown rot, and some, such as Armillaria (Honey fungus), are parasitic and colonize living trees. Fungi that not only grow on wood but actually cause it to decay, are called lignicolous fungi. Various lignicolous fungi consume wood in various ways; for example, some attack the carbohydrates in wood, and some others decay lignin. Wood-decay fungi can be classified according to the type of decay that they cause. The best-known types are brown rot soft rot white rot

brown rot

white rot

Preventing wood decay

Use Logs Immediately

In order to prevent decay in wood, use the logs without delay. After the logs are cut, the bark should be removed right away too. In order to minimize the chances of fungi and insects colonizing the logs, it is best that the trees and logs be cut in the late fall or winter.

Chemical Treatment
After the logs are cut and debarked, they should be dipped in a preservative chemical and stored, preferably under a roof and off the ground to reduce the exposure to moisture from direct contact with the ground. The chemical treatment protects the logs while they dry.

Drying Logs
Following the debarking of the logs, they can be kiln-dried either completely or partially. The temperature attained during this process kills the existing fungi in the logs. This helps prevent the logs from getting wet or gathering moisture when stored later.

Fumigating the logs with toxic gases is another alternative after the logs have been debarked. This process is short-lived, however, and does not provide long-lasting protection from insects and fungi.

Preservative Treatment

Before they are handled or stored, logs can be treated with specific preservatives. This treatment includes a superficial dip in fungicides to control molds and stain fungi, dip treatment of unseasoned logs in diffusible chemicals to control insects and decay fungi, and pressure treatment of seasoned logs to control insects and decay fungi.

Designing Log Homes

Proper building design and construction techniques need to be used to protect logs from exposure to excessive water and moisture. In order to keep the logs dry, wide roof overhangs and long porches are important, especially on the side of the structure, which is most frequently exposed to wind-blown rain. Preservative chemicals are also useful in protecting log homes. Drainage needs to be properly designed so that any water that accumulates from rain runs off of the house on all sides.

Using Paints

A wood preservative containing a water-repellent should be applied to the exterior surface of logs as soon as the house is erected. The preservative should contain both a fungicide and an insecticide. The sides of the home exposed to frequent rain and moisture should be thoroughly treated. Periodic maintenance will ensure the logs' longevity.

Any of numerous pale-colored, usually soft-bodied social insects of the order Isoptera that live mostly in warm regions and many species of which feed on wood, often destroying trees and wooden structures. Also called white ant. (a) beneath buildings without basements that were erected on a concrete slab foundation or were built over a crawl space that is poorly drained and ventilated (b) in any substructure wood component close to the ground or an earth fill The principal method of protecting buildings in high termite areas is to thoroughly treat the soil adjacent to the foundation walls and piers beneath the building with a soil insecticide.

termites are attracted to wood, so remove potential termite food away from buildings - their food can include timber stacks, old stumps, building refuse, garden decoration such as sleepers and logs waste timber from construction activities is often left in place or stored under the house remove all timber formwork timber can be treated to prevent termite attack, and some timbers are naturally resistant - use treated or naturally resistant timber when it is in contact with, or close to, soil termites are attracted to water, so fix leaking water pipes, drains, showers, sinks etc, plus capture water from air conditioning units termites prefer humid conditions, so keep air under the house dry by improving sub-floor ventilation, drainage and access termites cannot chew through properly laid concrete, so ensure concrete slab is properly designed, compacted, and cured termite colonies can sometimes be located - it is possible to eliminate colonies by killing the reproductives (the queen and the king).

Pest Management Program

A. Pre-construction Services 1. termite mound demolition 2. termite soil treatment/ soil poisoning 3. treatment on flooring 4. treatment on hollow block B. Post-Construction Services 1. slab injection 2. spot termite application 3. Baiting System (Sentricon)

Wood is prone to weathering from several different forces. Direct sunlight, exposure to water, freezing and thawing, and drying out can all cause wood to appear weathered. Signs of weathering include fading to gray, warping, splitting and cracking.

Prevention: Redwood and cedar have some natural resistance to weathering, but all woods will succumb to damage from wind, sun and water after time. If you like a natural look, let the wood weather to the desired color. On a sunny day, when the wood is dry, spray or brush a clear sealer onto it. If a natural look is not desired, paint with a good primer that will soak into the wood, let it dry and then paint the wood. Check the protective surface for wear at least once a year, and repeat every two years, regardless of appearance.

CLEANING MAY RESTORE FURNITURE NATURAL WOOD FINISHES Clean wood and restore natural grain and color. Disguise scratches and retard checking. Remove cloudiness and dullness caused by smoke, grease, dust. For Furniture Cleanser-Conditioner You Will Need: Glass container with tight-fitting lid. Gum turpentine. (Pure spirits of gum turpentine is best grade, recommended for all restoration processes.) Boiled linseed oil. (Buy commercially prepared do not attempt to boil linseed oil at home.) Mix cover tightly, shake well before using. You can store mixture indefinitely in tightly closed container.

On Woods with Natural Finish Use furniture cleanser-conditioner to clean and blend color of scratched area with natural finish. To disguise minor scratches, use broken pieces of nutmeats, such a pecan, English or black walnut, Brazil, or butternut. Rub diagonally along scratch until it darkens. To Color Scratch, Apply: Colors-in-oil (such as burnt umber) thinned with turpentine. Or varnish stain, ready-mixed in wood colors. If too concentrated, add stain to clear varnish of same brand. Or colored varnish. May be added to clear varnish of same brand. Set container in pan of hot water before applying. Or clear varnish tinted with colors-in-oil. Or commercial scratch remover.
Umber is a natural brown clay pigment that contains iron and manganese oxides.

DAMAGED FINISHES MAY BE REPAIRED Often damaged finishes can be repaired without refinishing piece. White rings or spots may be caused by moisture, heat, or alcohol. Paper sometimes adheres to a surface. Scratches or cigarette bums scar finishes. Holes, gouges, and cracks may occur through use or aging.


You May Use: Lightweight oil (such as mineral, paraffin, olive, or lemon) warmed; and 3/0 steel wool pad. To Apply: Pour enough warm oil on surface to saturate paper. Let stand. Rub lightly with steel wool. Apply more warm oil; rub. Wipe surface with oil, then with a dry cloth.


You May Use: pumice powder, or cigarette ashes. Lightweight oil. 3/0 steel wool pad. To Apply: Dust pumice or ashes over spot or ring; dip steel wool pad into oil; rub lightly with grain of wood. Apply lightly to entire surface to prevent spotting; wipe surface with soft cloth. OR USE: Salt and lightweight oil. To Apply: Dip finger into oil, then salt; rub spot with mixture. If white spot is old or very deep, much rubbing may be needed.


Repairs can be made over existing finish or during refinishing, after several coats of finish have been applied and are thoroughly dry.
Fill Cracks with Wood-Forming Plastic: Soften plastic with denatured alcohol solvent, if needed. Add colors-in-oil to blend color of plastic to finished wood. (Mix color several shades darker than you desire it dries to much lighter color.)


When wood finishes are gouged or burned, repairs may be made on existing finish. Or, during refinishing, burns, holes, and gouges may be filled after several coats of new finish have been applied and are dry.

Denatured alcohol is used as a solvent and as fuel for spirit burners and camping stoves. Because of the diversity of industrial uses for denatured alcohol, hundreds of additives and denaturing methods have been used. The main additive has traditionally been 10% methanol, giving rise to the term "methylated spirits". Other typical additives include isopropyl alcohol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and denatonium.[1]

Remove Discoloration or Char

Scrape charred spot or darkened edges of holes with a knife blade or 3/0 steel wool wrapped around an orange stick or pencil. Brush out scrapings with an old toothbrush. Sponge charred area with denatured alcohol to bleach. Repeat process, if necessary. Fill and Finish Damaged Area If damaged area is shallow, fill it with several coats of colored sealer or varnish if stained. Or use a clear sealer or varnish. If hole is deep and no larger than thumbnail, fill it with lacquer stick. If hole goes clear through, use spackling compound or woodforming plastic underneath. Fill top with lacquer stick.

To Remove Grease From Woods: In a well-ventilated area or outdoors, scrub surface with a dry cleaning solvent such as Renuzit, Laiglon, or Afta. Scrub with a brush, then with 3/0 steel wool. Allow to dry thoroughly. Repeat two or three times, allowing about a day for drying between treatments. Or: Make a paste of fuller's earth and a dry cleaning solvent. Apply to greasy surface. Leave paste on wood 24 hours. Then brush off. Repeat paste treatment if necessary. No cleaning solvents are available that effectively remove grease spots without some hazard to the user some solvents are flammable; others are toxic.

Fuller's earth is usually highly plastic, sedimentary clays or clay-like earthy material used to decolorize, filter, and purify animal, mineral, and vegetable oils and greases.

Water Damage
Water damage caused to your furniture as a result of flood or weather is not always as bad as it seems. Often the damage is quite manageable, or at least subject to partial repair.

Step 1 Drying Wood Furniture When some piece of wood furniture has been soaked in water, the very first thing to do is to let it dry. Place it in a room with warm temperature and good air circulationyou may want to turn on the heating and the fans. Alternatively, if the weather permits, you can leave the furniture to dry outside. Make sure the temperature is right. If it is too cold, the wood piece will dry too slowly and mold will form; if it is too hot, cracks will appear in the furniture. Step 2 Treat White Spots If white spots have appeared on the furniture, mix a solution of equal parts toothpaste and baking soda. Dip a wet cloth in the solution, and rub it in and around the spots. Then polish the area with a dry piece of cotton fabric. Step 3 Clean Mildew Black spots on your furniture indicate that water has seeped through the finish into the wood, leading to the formation of mildew. In this case, you will have to remove the finish, clean the mildew with a bleach solution, and, then, coat with a new layer of finish. Step 4 Take Care of Buckled Veneer The veneer of your furniture may buckle or warp as a result of contact with water. To repair the damage, you can soak the veneer with a moisturizer until it lies down flat again. Wipe it dry and clean. Fill a syringe with veneer glue and stick the needle between the veneer and the body of the furniture. Empty the syringe slowly, take it out and place a wood block on top of the veneer. Wait for the glue to dry (read the manufacturers recommendations for the waiting period) and remove the block.

Fixing a corner post on stone
The picture shows a wooden post that rested on a stone wall. It had decayed because water would sit on the stone and flow under the siding. The photo shows this post corner section resting on a flagstone wall. cut out the bottom wood under the corner post and replaced it with a new piece of wood. then paint the bad and good wood with an epoxy penetrant.

1. 2.

3. Once the post was fixed, the problem of keeping water from getting back under the siding. If we simply caulked along the siding and stone, over time this seal would break and water would seep in. Instead, purchase a lead flashing from a roofing store and used it to act as a seal behind the siding and over the stone. Lead sheeting is both attractive and easy to work with. It also can be soldered using your plumbing soldering iron


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