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Analysis a potential distribution curve of

a cylindrical junction for diode

by

SU, HEN-ZU ( 蘇 漢 儒 )

April 13 2009
The potential distribution curve at the cylindrical junction of a diode is mention
as follows. When a planar diffusion is performed with a rectangular diffusion window,
a cylindrical junction is formed at the straight edges of the diffusion window and
a spherical junction is formed at each of the corners.

The maximum electric field occurs at the metallurgical junction ( rj ) :

qN A ⎛ rd − rj ⎞
2 2

Em ( rj ) =  ⎜ ⎟
2ЄS ⎜⎝ rj ⎟⎠
rd = the radius of depletion layer edge.
rj = the metallugical junction (the cylindrical junction depth).
N A = acceptor concentration.
ЄS = silicon permittivity.

The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction ( V ( r ) ) can be obtained by

integration of the maximum electric field ( Em ( rj ) ) distribution :

qN A ⎛ rd − rj ⎞
2 2

V ( r ) = ∫ Em ( rj ) = ∫
r

r j 2Є ⎜
⎜ ⎟⎟ drj
S ⎝ r j ⎠
qN A r ⎛ rd − rj ⎞ qN A ⎡ r ⎛ rd2 ⎞ ⎤
2 2

⎢ ⎜ ⎟ j ∫ ( j j )⎥
r

2ЄS ∫rj ⎜⎝ rj ⎟⎠ 2ЄS ⎢⎣ ∫rj ⎜⎝ rj ⎟⎠


= ⎜ ⎟ j
dr = dr − r dr
rj
⎥⎦

qN A ⎡ 2 r ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 2 ⎤
2ЄS ⎢⎣ ∫rj ⎜⎝ rj
= ⎢ rd ⎜ ⎟⎟ drj − rj
r
rj ⎥
⎠ 2 ⎥⎦
⎡ 2 1 2 2 ⎤
=
qN A
2ЄS
r
(
⎢ rd ln ( rj ) rj − 2 r − rj ⎥ )
⎣ ⎦
qN A ⎡ 2 1 2 2 ⎤
=
2ЄS ⎢⎣
rd ( ln r − ln r j ) −
2
(
r − rj ⎥

)

2
qN A ⎡ 2 ⎛r ⎞ 1 2 1 2⎤
= ⎢ rd ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − r + rj ⎥
2ЄS ⎢⎣ ⎝ rj ⎠ 2 2 ⎥⎦

qN A ⎡1 2 1 2 2 ⎛ r ⎞⎤
= ⎢ rj − r + rd ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥
2ЄS ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎝ rj ⎠ ⎥⎦
qN A ⎡⎛ rj2 − r 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ r ⎞⎤
= ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + rd ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥
2ЄS ⎣⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ rj ⎠ ⎦⎥

r = a radius vector r extending into the depletion region.

A figure of the cylindrical junction is showed as follows :

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Using MATLAB Version 6.0 to simulate the potential distribution curve at the
cylindrical junction with the depletion region boundary is showed as follows.

(1) The MATLAB Version 6.0 simulation program.

rj0= 0 , rj1= 0.05 , rj2 = 0.1 , rj3 = 0.2 , rj4 = 0.3 , rj5 = 0.4 ,
rj6 = 0.5 ; % The metallurgical junction , ( unit is micron ).

rj = [ rj0 , rj1 , rj2 , rj3 , rj4 , rj5 , rj6 ] ;


r0= 0 , r1= 0.1 , r2 = 0.2 , r3 = 0.4 , r4 = 0.6 , r5 = 0.8 , r6 = 1 ;
% A radius vector r extending into the depletion region , ( unit is micron ).
r = [ r0 , r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 , r5 , r6 ] ;
rd = 2 ; % The depletion boundary , ( unit is micron ).

Na1 = 10^13 , Na2 = 10^14 , Na3 = 10^15 , Na4 = 10^16 ; % Doping


concentration , ( acceptor impurity density ).
Na = [ Na1 , Na2 , Na3 , Na4 ] ;

q = 1.6*(10^-19) ; % Electronic Charge ( Unit: Coulomb )


epsilon = 1.04*(10^-12) ; % Silicon Permittivity ( Unit: Farad/cm )

Vr0 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ;
% The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;
Vr4 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '-^b' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

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Vr0 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ; %
The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;
Vr4 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '-vr' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

Vr0 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ;
% The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;
Vr4 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '-<g' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

Vr0 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ;
% The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;

5
Vr4 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '->k' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

set ( gca , 'fontsize' , 14 , 'fontname' , 'times new roman' , 'linewidth' , 2 ) ;


legend ( ' Na1 = 10^1^3 cm^-^3 ' , ' Na2 = 10^1^4 cm^-^3 ' , ' Na3 = 10^1^5
cm^-^3 ' , ' Na4 = 10^1^6 cm^-^3 ' , ' rd = 2 microns ' ) ;

xlabel (' A radius vector r extending into the depletion region ( microns )' ,
'fontsize' , 14 , 'fontname','times new roman') ;
ylabel (' The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction ( Volt - cm
^-^1 ) ' , 'fontsize' , 14 , 'fontname' , 'times new roman') ;
title (' The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction with the depletion
region boundary ','fontsize' , 16 , 'fontname' , 'times new roman') ;

set ( gcf , 'Color' , ' w ' ) ; % The statement to define a background color for
white color.

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(2) The potential distribution curve at the cylindrical junction.

The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction with the depletion region boundary
The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction ( Volt - cm )
-1

13 -3
5 Na1 = 10 cm
10 14
Na2 = 10 cm
-3
15 -3
Na3 = 10 cm
16 -3
Na4 = 10 cm
rd = 2 microns

4
10

3
10

2
10
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
A radius vector r extending into the depletion region ( microns )

作者學經歷簡介:

1. 健行工專,電子工程科 (二專) 畢業。

2. 清雲科技大學,電機工程學系,工學學士。

3. 交通大學,管理學院科技管理研究所,碩士學分班結業。

4. 中原大學,電資學院電子工程研究所,工學碩士。

5. 台灣美商通用電子公司技術員。

6. 台灣美商 RCA 電子公司技術員。

7. 新竹科學園區大王電子公司半導體研發工程師。

7
8. 中山科學研究院資訊通信研究所技術員。

9. 行政院公共工程委員會,公共工程評審委員。

10. 行政院勞工委員會,職業訓練局桃園職業訓練中心,外聘講師。

SU, HEN-ZU (蘇漢儒) with his wife ZUN, WUAN-LON (宗煥瑢)

E-mail:henzusu@ms57.hinet.net