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# Analysis a potential distribution curve of

## a cylindrical junction for diode

by

SU, HEN-ZU ( 蘇 漢 儒 )

April 13 2009
The potential distribution curve at the cylindrical junction of a diode is mention
as follows. When a planar diffusion is performed with a rectangular diffusion window,
a cylindrical junction is formed at the straight edges of the diffusion window and
a spherical junction is formed at each of the corners.

## The maximum electric field occurs at the metallurgical junction ( rj ) :

qN A ⎛ rd − rj ⎞
2 2

Em ( rj ) =  ⎜ ⎟
2ЄS ⎜⎝ rj ⎟⎠
rd = the radius of depletion layer edge.
rj = the metallugical junction (the cylindrical junction depth).
N A = acceptor concentration.
ЄS = silicon permittivity.

## integration of the maximum electric field ( Em ( rj ) ) distribution :

qN A ⎛ rd − rj ⎞
2 2

V ( r ) = ∫ Em ( rj ) = ∫
r

r j 2Є ⎜
⎜ ⎟⎟ drj
S ⎝ r j ⎠
qN A r ⎛ rd − rj ⎞ qN A ⎡ r ⎛ rd2 ⎞ ⎤
2 2

⎢ ⎜ ⎟ j ∫ ( j j )⎥
r

## 2ЄS ∫rj ⎜⎝ rj ⎟⎠ 2ЄS ⎢⎣ ∫rj ⎜⎝ rj ⎟⎠

= ⎜ ⎟ j
dr = dr − r dr
rj
⎥⎦

qN A ⎡ 2 r ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 2 ⎤
2ЄS ⎢⎣ ∫rj ⎜⎝ rj
= ⎢ rd ⎜ ⎟⎟ drj − rj
r
rj ⎥
⎠ 2 ⎥⎦
⎡ 2 1 2 2 ⎤
=
qN A
2ЄS
r
(
⎢ rd ln ( rj ) rj − 2 r − rj ⎥ )
⎣ ⎦
qN A ⎡ 2 1 2 2 ⎤
=
2ЄS ⎢⎣
rd ( ln r − ln r j ) −
2
(
r − rj ⎥

)

2
qN A ⎡ 2 ⎛r ⎞ 1 2 1 2⎤
= ⎢ rd ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − r + rj ⎥
2ЄS ⎢⎣ ⎝ rj ⎠ 2 2 ⎥⎦

qN A ⎡1 2 1 2 2 ⎛ r ⎞⎤
= ⎢ rj − r + rd ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥
2ЄS ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎝ rj ⎠ ⎥⎦
qN A ⎡⎛ rj2 − r 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ r ⎞⎤
= ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + rd ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥
2ЄS ⎣⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ rj ⎠ ⎦⎥

## A figure of the cylindrical junction is showed as follows :

3
Using MATLAB Version 6.0 to simulate the potential distribution curve at the
cylindrical junction with the depletion region boundary is showed as follows.

## (1) The MATLAB Version 6.0 simulation program.

rj0= 0 , rj1= 0.05 , rj2 = 0.1 , rj3 = 0.2 , rj4 = 0.3 , rj5 = 0.4 ,
rj6 = 0.5 ; % The metallurgical junction , ( unit is micron ).

## rj = [ rj0 , rj1 , rj2 , rj3 , rj4 , rj5 , rj6 ] ;

r0= 0 , r1= 0.1 , r2 = 0.2 , r3 = 0.4 , r4 = 0.6 , r5 = 0.8 , r6 = 1 ;
% A radius vector r extending into the depletion region , ( unit is micron ).
r = [ r0 , r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 , r5 , r6 ] ;
rd = 2 ; % The depletion boundary , ( unit is micron ).

## Na1 = 10^13 , Na2 = 10^14 , Na3 = 10^15 , Na4 = 10^16 ; % Doping

concentration , ( acceptor impurity density ).
Na = [ Na1 , Na2 , Na3 , Na4 ] ;

## q = 1.6*(10^-19) ; % Electronic Charge ( Unit: Coulomb )

epsilon = 1.04*(10^-12) ; % Silicon Permittivity ( Unit: Farad/cm )

Vr0 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ;
% The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;
Vr4 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na1)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

## Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '-^b' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

4
Vr0 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ; %
The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;
Vr4 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na2)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

## Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '-vr' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

Vr0 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ;
% The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;
Vr4 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na3)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

## Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '-<g' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

Vr0 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj0^2-r0^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r0/rj0)]*10^-4 ;
% The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction , ( unit is Volt/cm ).
Vr1 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj1^2-r1^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r1/rj1)]*10^-4 ;
Vr2 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj2^2-r2^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r2/rj2)]*10^-4 ;
Vr3 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj3^2-r3^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r3/rj3)]*10^-4 ;

5
Vr4 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj4^2-r4^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r4/rj4)]*10^-4 ;
Vr5 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj5^2-r5^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r5/rj5)]*10^-4 ;
Vr6 = [(q*Na4)/(2*epsilon)]*[((rj6^2-r6^2)/2)+(rd^2)*log(r6/rj6)]*10^-4 ;

## Vr = [ Vr0 Vr1 Vr2 Vr3 Vr4 Vr5 Vr6 ];

semilogy ( r , Vr , '->k' ) ; % Plot the maximum electric field for the parallel-plane
junction with the depletion region boundary.

hold on ;

## set ( gca , 'fontsize' , 14 , 'fontname' , 'times new roman' , 'linewidth' , 2 ) ;

legend ( ' Na1 = 10^1^3 cm^-^3 ' , ' Na2 = 10^1^4 cm^-^3 ' , ' Na3 = 10^1^5
cm^-^3 ' , ' Na4 = 10^1^6 cm^-^3 ' , ' rd = 2 microns ' ) ;

xlabel (' A radius vector r extending into the depletion region ( microns )' ,
'fontsize' , 14 , 'fontname','times new roman') ;
ylabel (' The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction ( Volt - cm
^-^1 ) ' , 'fontsize' , 14 , 'fontname' , 'times new roman') ;
title (' The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction with the depletion
region boundary ','fontsize' , 16 , 'fontname' , 'times new roman') ;

set ( gcf , 'Color' , ' w ' ) ; % The statement to define a background color for
white color.

6
(2) The potential distribution curve at the cylindrical junction.

The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction with the depletion region boundary
The potential distribution at the cylindrical junction ( Volt - cm )
-1

13 -3
5 Na1 = 10 cm
10 14
Na2 = 10 cm
-3
15 -3
Na3 = 10 cm
16 -3
Na4 = 10 cm
rd = 2 microns

4
10

3
10

2
10
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
A radius vector r extending into the depletion region ( microns )

## 1. 健行工專，電子工程科 (二專) 畢業。

2. 清雲科技大學，電機工程學系，工學學士。

3. 交通大學，管理學院科技管理研究所，碩士學分班結業。

4. 中原大學，電資學院電子工程研究所，工學碩士。

5. 台灣美商通用電子公司技術員。

## 6. 台灣美商 RCA 電子公司技術員。

7. 新竹科學園區大王電子公司半導體研發工程師。

7
8. 中山科學研究院資訊通信研究所技術員。

9. 行政院公共工程委員會，公共工程評審委員。

10. 行政院勞工委員會，職業訓練局桃園職業訓練中心，外聘講師。

## SU, HEN-ZU (蘇漢儒) with his wife ZUN, WUAN-LON (宗煥瑢)

E-mail：henzusu@ms57.hinet.net

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