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Drilling

T. SADASIVA RAO

Assistant Professor Mechanical Engineering Department


NIT Warangal 506 004
Disclaimer The content presented here is not entirely my own. Some portions are taken from different sources with great regard. This content is solely for class room teaching and not for any commercial use.

Drilling
Creates a round hole in a workpart Compare to boring which can only enlarge an existing hole Drilling is most common single machining operation Drilling makes up 25% of machining Cutting tool called a drill or drill bit Machine tool: drill press
Fig.: Drilling

Through Holes vs. Blind Holes


Through holes

- drill exits opposite side of work

Blind holes

does not exit work opposite side

Figure: Two hole types: (a) through-hole, and (b) blind hole.

Drilling machines are generally used to originate through or blind straight cylindrical holes

Various types of drills and drilling operations.

Drilling Boring Reaming Tapping Counterboring Countersinking Spot-facing

Tool called a reamer

Fig.: Reaming

Fig.: Tapping

Fig.: Counterboring
Counterboring: Follows a drilling operation, or in with drilling with a custom tool. Purpose is to produce a flat bottom so that bolt head or nut is below the surface with enough clearance for a tool.

Countersinking: Similar to counterboring, but with a 60, 82, or 90 beveled bottom to accommodate flat-head screw or rivet.

Spot facing: Machine minimum depth and diameter around hole to ensure full seating of a bolt head. Used on rough stock surfaces where corrosion or fatigue requirements require full seating

Can be operated with ease any where and in any position which cannot be drilled in a standard drilling machine

Driven by high speed electric motor


The maximum size of the drill it can accommodate is not more than 12 to 18 mm. In fire hazardous areas the drill is often powered by compressed air.

Small machine, designed for drilling small holes at high speed in light jobs.

The base of the machine may be mounted on a bench or on a floor.


Capable of holding drills of size from 1.5 to 15.5 mm rotating at 20,000 rpm.

Fig. Table top sensitive drilling machine

For handling medium sized workpieces. Similar to a sensitive drilling machine but larger and heavier in size with power feed arrangement. More no. of feeds and speeds

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Bevel gear drive to spindle Spindle Overhead shaft Back stay Counter shaft cone pulley Fast and loose pulley Foot pedal Base Table elevating handle Rack on column Table elevating clamp handle Table clamp Table Column Hand wheel for quick feed Hand wheel for sensitive feed.

Intended for drilling medium to large and heavy workpieces.

Movements: Radial arm - up and down, radial motion Drill head - horizontal motion
These movements permit the drill to be located at any desired point on a large workpiece for drilling number of holes without disturbing the workpiece set up.
Fig.: Radial Drill Press

Specialized Drill Presses


Radial drilling machines: used on large workpieces, spindle mounts on radial arm, allowing drilling operations anywhere along the arm length

Number of single spindle drilling machine columns are placed side by side on a common base and have a common work table

The speeds and feeds of the spindles are controlled independently.


Specially adapted for production work. A series of operations may be performed on the work by simply shifting the work from one position to the other on the work table. Each spindle may be setup properly with different tools for different operations.

Structurally rigid column type and are more productive like gang drill by having a pentagon or hexagon turret The turret bearing a number of drills and similar tools is indexed and moved up and down to perform quickly the desired series of operations progressively. These drilling machines are available with varying degree of automation both fixed and flexible type.

Large number of drills work simultaneously on a blank through a jig specially made for the particular job.
The entire drilling head works repeatedly using the same jig for batch or lot production of a particular job. Drills are driven by a main spindle and the central gear through a number of planetary gears and the corresponding flexible shafts.

Nomenclature of a Drill

FIG.: Chisel-point drill

Nomenclature and Geometry of a Twist Drill

FIGURE : Nomenclature and geometry of conventional twist drill. Shank style depends upon the method used to hold the drill. Tangs or notches prevent slippage: (a) straight shank with tang, (b) tapered shank with tang, (c) straight shank with whistle notch, (d) straight shank with flat notch.

Steps to High Accuracy Holes with Conventional Drills

FIGURE To obtain a hole that is accurate as to size and aligned on center (located), this 4 step sequence of operations is usual.

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