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The electrostatic precipitator utilizes electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from the gas to be cleaned. It operates approximately as follows (see Fig). The gas passes a chamber containing "curtains" of vertical steel plates. These curtains divide the chamber into a number of parallel gas passages. A frame with discharge electrodes is located within each passage. All the frames are linked to each other to form a rigid framework. The entire framework is held in place by four support insulators, which insulate it electrically from all parts which are grounded.

Supporting insulator

Rectifier circuit



Discharge electrodes spiral wires

Collecting electrodes plate curtains

A high-voltage rectifier, typically 60 110 kV negative voltage, is connected between the framework and the ground, thereby creating a strong electrical field between the wires in the framework and the steel curtains. The electrical field becomes strongest near the surface of the wire, so strong that an electrical discharge -,"the corona discharge" -develops along the wires. The gas is ionised in the corona discharge and large quantities of positive and negative ions are formed. The positive ions are immediately attracted towards the negative wires by the strength of the field. The negative ions, however, have to traverse the entire space between the electrodes to reach the nearest positive curtains. Thus, one obtains a flow of negative ions from the wires, which are also known as discharge electrodes. En route towards the steel curtains, the ions collide with and adhere to the particles in the gas. The particles thereby become electrically charged and also begin to migrate in the same direction as the ions, towards the nearest steel curtains. The electrical force on each particle becomes much greater than the gravitational force on the particle. The speed of migration towards the steel curtains is therefore much greater than the speed of sedimentation in free fall. The dust is collected in large quantities on the curtains or collecting electrodes. As a result of periodic rapping, the caked dust is loosened 'and slides, due to its weight, into a dust hopper .

The exhaust gas from Boiler is drawn by ID Fan through the ESP for removing pollutant from the gas and letting out clean gas through stack into the atmosphere. The System can be classified into the following Sub Systems from process point of view : Gas Flow Structural Electrical & Instrumentation Comprising of ESP, Fan, Damper and inter connecting ducting. Support Structure, Platforms and Staircase for ESP. Geared Motors, T/R Sets with Panel, EPIC-II controller, Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), Promo-II (optional), MCC, Instrument Panel, Illumination of ESP and instruments for Control and Monitoring of important Process parameters. AC Package Unit, GI Ducting, Air Washer System for Ventilation Fan with motors.

Ventilation & Air Conditioning of Control Room Dust Conveying

Slide Gate, Double Cone Valve, Chain Conveyors, Discharge Bin, Rotary Feeder and Dust Moistener at the bottom of ESP.

DETAILS OF DESCRIPTION Gas Flow Gas is sucked by ID Fan. The gas volume and temperature at inlet of ESP at the design condition at specified temperature. For installation of ESP and other equipment necessary support structure / brackets are required. The electrical and instrumentation scheme is to control various parameters related to the entire system so as to achieve the following : a. b. c. To clean the gas by ESP must be efficiently through EPIC-II Controller. To control the inlet temperature and pressure of ESP so as to work most efficiently. To safe guard the system in case of any abnormality that it is to stop system sequentially as and when the system demands. Ventilation with Air Washer will be provided for part of Control Room where MCC is located. Air Conditioning System will be provided for part of the Control Room where T/R Panel, PLC I/O rack etc are installed.


Electrical & Instrumentation

Ventilation & A/C of Control Room

i. ii.

Dust Conveying

While gas flow through ESP dust particle will be accumulated at the bottom of ESP. For disposal of dust Slide Gate Double Cone Valve, Chain Conveyors and Bin with Rotary Feeder provided. At last dust will be discharged in the Sinter fines return conveyor through Dust Moistener device.

CONTROL WRITE UP What has been described in Process Write-up can be achieved judicially selecting the electrical equipment and instruments and inter-connecting them in a logical way. The entire control system for basic equipment, ESP, Disposal Arrangement etc can be broken up in the following sub systems : Sub Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Monitoring of temperature at ESP inlet. Draft Control Monitoring of CO at ESP inlet Control of Transformer Rectifier Sets for effective cleaning Control of all rapping motors Control of Double Cone Valve, Conveyors, Rotary Feeders for Dust Disposal Dust Level Control at ESP Hopper and Storage Bin

Temperature Control & Temperature Monitoring ESP inlet temperature is sensed by temperature element and Transmitter and the signal is fed to Temperature Indicator at CD in ESP Control Room. In case temperature exceeds desired set point, it will trip Transformer Rectifier Set. The same signal will be retransmitted to Central Control Room via PLC I/O rack. Draft Control A Pressure Transmitter is connected to measure pressure and is fed to Indicator at CD which will indicate the pressure. This signal is also fed to customers PLC via PLC I/O rack, which will actuate the Fan Inlet Damper connected at the inlet of Fan to maintain a predetermined draft at various process conditions. Monitoring Of `CO `CO at ESP inlet is sensed by `CO Analyser. Transformer Rectifier Sets shall be tripped. In case `CO exceeds preset limit

Control Of Transformer Rectifier Sets, Rapping Motors, Dust Disposal System Cleaning inside the ESP is done electrically by Transformer Rectifier Sets along with EPIC-II. 2 Nos. T/R Set covers one field of ESP. Collecting, Emitting & GD motors dislodge dust that accumulates on electrodes. The dust is collected inside the hopper and discharged outside by Double Cone Valve and Conveyors and finally collected in Storage Bin. 2 Nos. Dust Level Switch have been envisaged for ESP hopper for sensing high and high level of dust.