Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

Temitayo Odesanmi

EEGR 215

Materials and Devices

Project #1
04/12/2009

Instructor: Dr.
Michel Reece
michel.reece@morgan.edu
Office: SEB – 345

1
% MATLAB code
%
k = 8.617e-5;% JK-1
T = 275:10:375; % temperature range
niforSi = (9.15e19).*(T./300).^2.* exp(-0.5928./(8.617e-5.*T))
niforGe = (1.76e16).* T.^(3/2).* exp(-0.392./(8.617e-5.*T));
%
figure
semilogy(T,niforSi)
grid on
title('ni versus T curve for Silicon')
%
figure
semilogy(T,niforGe)
grid on
title('ni versus T curve for Germanium')

15
ni versus T curve for Germanium ans Silicon
10  
niforGe
niforSi
14
10

13
10
log(ni)

12
10

11
10

10
10

9
10  
260 280 300 320 340 360 380
Temperature (K)

2
MATLAB CODE
%
Eg = 1.12;
k = 1.381*10^(-23); % J/K *9.11*10^(-31)
T = 300:10:700; % K
h = 6.626*10^(-34); % Js
Mn_T = ((1.028+(6.11.*(10.^(-4))).*T-(3.09.*(10.^(-7))).*T.^2));
Mp_T = ((0.610+(7.83.*10.^((-4))).*T-(4.46.*(10.^(-7))).*T.^2));
%
Nc_300 = 2.*((2.*pi.*9.11.*10.^(-31).*Mn_T.*k.*T)./(h.^2)).^(3./2);% per meter
%
Nv_300 = 2.*((2.*pi.*9.11.*10.^(-31).*Mp_T.*k.*T)./(h.^2)).^(3./2);% per meter
%
% ni_300 = sqrt(Nc_300.*Nv_300).* exp(-1.*Eg./(2.*0.0258));% per meter
% Na = Nd = 0 (intrinsic)
% p - n + Nd - Na = 0 (charge neutrality)
% p = n = ni_300
%
p = ni_300
%
n = ni_300
%
Ef_Ei = k*T*log(n/ni_300)
%
figure
semilogy(T,n)
grid on
title('n versus T curve for Silicon')
%
figure
semilogy(T,p)
grid on
title('p versus T curve for Silicon')
%
figure
semilogy(T,Ef_Ei)
grid on
title('Ef_Ei versus T curve for Silicon')

3
p= n=

1.0e+016 * 1.0e+016 *

Columns 1 through 6 Columns 1 through 6

0.9065 0.9593 1.0134 1.0689 1.1256 1.1836 0.9065 0.9593 1.0134 1.0689 1.1256 1.1836

Columns 7 through 12 Columns 7 through 12

1.2429 1.3035 1.3654 1.4284 1.4927 1.5583 1.2429 1.3035 1.3654 1.4284 1.4927 1.5583

Columns 13 through 18 Columns 13 through 18

1.6250 1.6929 1.7619 1.8321 1.9034 1.9759 1.6250 1.6929 1.7619 1.8321 1.9034 1.9759

Columns 19 through 24 Columns 19 through 24

2.0494 2.1241 2.1997 2.2765 2.3542 2.4329 2.0494 2.1241 2.1997 2.2765 2.3542 2.4329

Columns 25 through 30 Columns 25 through 30

2.5127 2.5934 2.6750 2.7575 2.8410 2.9253 2.5127 2.5934 2.6750 2.7575 2.8410 2.9253

Columns 31 through 36 Columns 31 through 36

3.0104 3.0964 3.1832 3.2707 3.3591 3.4481 3.0104 3.0964 3.1832 3.2707 3.3591 3.4481

Columns 37 through 41 Columns 37 through 41

3.5379 3.6283 3.7194 3.8111 3.9034 3.5379 3.6283 3.7194 3.8111 3.9034

4
17
n versus T curve for Silicon
10

electron carrier concentration

16
10

15
10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature(K)

17
p versus T curve for Silicon
10
hole carrier concentration

16
10

15
10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature(K)

5
­37
Ef­Ei versus T curve for Silicon
­10

Ef­Ei

­36
­10

­35
­10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature(K)

6
%Given values of acceptor and donor dopants (Na and Nd)
for Na = [10^5, 10^11, 10^15, 10^17, 10^20,]
Nd = 0
Ef_Ei = k.*T.*log(Na./ni_300)
n = (Nd-Na)./2 + sqrt(((Nd-Na)./2).^2+ni.^2)
p = (Na-Nd)./2 + sqrt(((Na-Nd)./2).^2+ni.^2)

figure
semilogy(T,Ef_Ei)
grid on
title('Ef-Ei versus T with Na dopants')
xlabel('temperature')
ylabel('Ef-Ei')

figure
semilogy(T,n,T,p)
grid on
title('p versus T with Na dopants')
xlabel('temperature')
ylabel('hole/electron concentration')
legend('n','p')
end

for Nd = [10^5, 10^11, 10^15, 10^17, 10^20,]


Na = 0
Ef_Ei = -k.*T.*log(Nd./ni_300)
n = (Nd-Na)./2 + sqrt(((Nd-Na)./2).^2+ni.^2)
p = (Na-Nd)./2 + sqrt(((Na-Nd)./2).^2+ni.^2)

figure
semilogy(T,Ef_Ei)
grid on
title('Ef-Ei versus T with Nd dopants')
xlabel('temperature')
ylabel('Ef-Ei')

figure
semilogy(T,n,T,p)
grid on
title('n versus T with Na dopants')
xlabel('temperature')
ylabel('electron/hole concentration')
legend('n','p')
end

7
Na = [10^5]
Ef­Ei versus T with Na dopants

­18.9
­10

­18.8
­10
Ef­Ei

­18.7
­10

­18.6
­10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

8
22
p versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21 p
10

20
10
hole/electron concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

Na = [10^11]

9
­20
Ef­Ei versus T with Na dopants
­10

Ef­Ei

­19
­10

­18
­10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

10
22
p versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21 p
10

20
10
hole/electron concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

Na = [10^15]

11
­21
Ef­Ei versus T with Na dopants
­10

Ef­Ei

­20
­10

­19
­10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

22
p versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21 p
10

20
10
hole/electron concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

12
Na = [10^17]

­19
Ef­Ei versus T with Na dopants
10
Ef­Ei

­20
10

­21
10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

13
22
p versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21
10 p

20
10
hole/electron concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10

14
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

Na = [10^20]

14
Ef­Ei versus T with Na dopants

­19.2
10
Ef­Ei

­19.3
10

­19.4
10

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700


temperature

15
22
p versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
p
20
10
hole/electron concentration

18
10

16
10

14
10

12
10

10
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

Nd = [10^5]
Ef­Ei versus T with Nd dopants
­18.6
10

­18.7
10
Ef­Ei

­18.8
10

­18.9
10

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700


temperature

16
22
n versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21 p
10

20
10
electron/hole concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

Nd = [10^11]

17
­18
Ef­Ei versus T with Nd dopants
10

Ef­Ei

­19
10

­20
10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

22
n versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21 p
10

20
10
electron/hole concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

18
Nd = [10^15]

­19
Ef­Ei versus T with Nd dopants
10
Ef­Ei

­20
10

­21
10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

19
22
n versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21 p
10

20
10
electron/hole concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

Nd = [10^17]

20
­21
Ef­Ei versus T with Nd dopants
­10

Ef­Ei

­20
­10

­19
­10
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

22
n versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
21
10 p

20
10
electron/hole concentration

19
10

18
10

17
10

16
10

15
10

14
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

21
Nd = [10^20]
Ef­Ei versus T with Nd dopants
­19.4
­10

­19.3
­10
Ef­Ei

­19.2
­10

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700


temperature

22
n versus T with Na dopants
10  
n
p
20
10
electron/hole concentration

18
10

16
10

14
10

12
10

10
10  
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
temperature

22
a) The position of the Fermi level is related to the carrier concentration in semiconductors. At the freeze out
temperature, the Fermi level serves as an indicator, representing the energy below which all electron states are
occupied and above which all electron states are filled. The Fermi level, in an extrinsic semiconductor will move
towards the valence band if the semiconductor is doped with acceptor dopants (Na) and towards the conduction
band if the semiconductor is doped with donor dopants (Nd). In both cases the level is determined by the
concentrations (Nd-Na). If the system gains thermal energy, the Fermi level will then move towards the middle of
the band gap and Ef-Ei will approach zero. Therefore at 0K, the Fermi level, for an extrinsic semiconductor doped
with Na=10 14 dopants, will be in-between Ei and the valence Band

b) MATLAB

Eg = 1.12;
k = 1.381*10^(-23); % J/K *9.11*10^(-31)
T = 300:10:700;
h = 6.626*10^(-34); % Js
Mn_T = ((1.028+(6.11.*(10.^(-4))).*T-(3.09.*(10.^(-7))).*T.^2));
Mp_T = ((0.610+(7.83.*10.^((-4))).*T-(4.46.*(10.^(-7))).*T.^2));
%
Nc_300 = 2.*((2.*pi.*9.11.*10.^(-31).*Mn_T.*k.*T)./(h.^2)).^(3./2);% per meter
%
Nv_300 = 2.*((2.*pi.*9.11.*10.^(-31).*Mp_T.*k.*T)./(h.^2)).^(3./2);% per meter
%
Ef_Ei = k*T*log(n/ni_300)
%
ni = sqrt(Nc_300.*Nv_300).* exp(-1.*Eg./(2.*(0.0258./300).*T));% per meter
%
for Na = [10^14]
Nd = 0
Ef_Ei = -k.*T.*log(Na./ni_300)

figure
semilogy(T,Ef_Ei)
grid on
title('Ef-Ei versus T with Na dopants')
xlabel('temperature')
ylabel('Ef-Ei')

23
end

Ef­Ei versus T with Na dopants

­19.3
10

­19.4
10
Ef­Ei

­19.5
10

­19.6
10

­19.7
10

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700


temperature

c) The Fermi level

d)

Eg = 1.12;

k = 1.381*10^(-23); % J/K *9.11*10^(-31)

T = 300:10:700;

h = 6.626*10^(-34); % Js

Mn_T = ((1.028+(6.11.*(10.^(-4))).*T-(3.09.*(10.^(-7))).*T.^2));

Mp_T = ((0.610+(7.83.*10.^((-4))).*T-(4.46.*(10.^(-7))).*T.^2));

Nc_300 = 2.*((2.*pi.*9.11.*10.^(-31).*Mn_T.*k.*T)./(h.^2)).^(3./2);% per meter

Nv_300 = 2.*((2.*pi.*9.11.*10.^(-31).*Mp_T.*k.*T)./(h.^2)).^(3./2);% per meter

Ef_Ei = k*T*log(n/ni_300)

24
ni = sqrt(Nc_300.*Nv_300).* exp(-1.*Eg./(2.*(0.0258./300).*T));% per meter

for Na = [10^14]

Nd = 0

Ef_Ei = -k.*T.*log(Na./ni_300)

figure

semilogy(T,Ef_Ei)

grid on

title('Ef-Ei versus T with Na dopants')

xlabel('temperature')

ylabel('Ef-Ei')

end

25