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Encyclopedia of Scientific Principles, Laws, and Theories

Volume 1: AK

Robert E. Krebs First published in 2008

Contents List of Entries ix Preface xxi

Introduction xxiii THE ENCYCLOPEDIA 1 Glossary 587 Appendix A: Alphabetical Listing of Entries by Scientific Discipline 607 Appendix B: Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (19012007) 613 Appendix C: Nobel Laureates in Physics (19012007) 619 Appendix D: Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine (19012007) 627 Selected Bibliography 635 Index 645 List of Entries Abbes Theory for Correcting Lens Distortions Abeggs Rule and Valence Theory Abels Theory of Groups (Abelian Groups) Adams Concept of Hydrogenation Adhemars Ice Age Theory Agassizs Geological Theories Agricolas Theories of Earthquakes and Volcanoes Airys Concepts of Geologic Equilibrium Al-Battanis Theories Alvarezs Hypotheses of Subatomic Collisions

Ambartsumians Theory of Stellar Associations Amdahls Law Amp_eres Theories of Electrodynamics Anaximanders Concepts and Ideas Andersons Positron Theory Andersons Theories and Model A ngstroms Principle of Spectrum Analysis and Related Theories Aragos Wave Theory of Light and Aragos Disk Arbers Concept of the Structure of DNA Archimedes Theories Aristotles Theories Arrhenius Theories, Principles, and Concepts Astons Whole Number Rule Atomism Theories The Auger Effect Avogadros Law, Hypotheses, and Number Baades Theories of Stellar Phenomena Babbages Theory of Computing

Babinets Principle Babos Law Bacons Concept of Inductive Reasoning Baekelands Concept of Synthetic Polymerization Baers Laws of Embryonic Development Baeyers Strain Theory for Compound Stability Bahcalls Theory for the Solar Neutrino Model Bakkers Dinosaur Theory Balmer Series Baltimores Hypothesis for the Reverse Transfer of RNA to DNA Banachs Theory of Topological Vector Spaces Bantings Theory for Isolating Pancreatic Insulin Bardeens Theory of Superconductivity Barringers Impact Theory of Craters Beaumonts Theory for the Origin of Mountains Becquerels Hypothesis of X-Ray Fluorescence

Beers Law Behrings Theory of Immunology Bells Law (also known as the Bell Magendie Law) Bergerons Theory of Cloud Processes Bernoullis Law of Large Numbers Bernoullis Principle Berzelius Chemical Theories Bessels Astronomical Theories Bethes Theory of Thermonuclear Energy BiotSavart Law Birkelands Theory of the Aurora Borealis Bjerknes Theory of Air Masses Blacks Theories of Heat Bodes Law for Planetary Orbits Bohms Interpretation of the Uncertainty Theory for Electrons Bohrs Quantum Theory of Atomic Structure Boks Globules Theory of Star Formation Boltzmanns Laws, Hypotheses, and Constant Bonnets Theories of Parthenogenesis

and Catastrophism Booles Theory of Symbolic Logic BornHaber Theory of Cycle Reactions Boyles Law Bradleys Theory of a Moving Earth Brahes Theory of the Changing Heavens Buffons Theories of Nature Bunsens Theory of the Spectrochemistry of Elements The B2FH (BurbidgeBurbidgeFowler Hoyle) Theory Cagniard De La Tours Concept of Critical State Cailletets Concept for Liquefying Gases Calvins Carbon Cycle Candolles Concept of Plant Classification Cannizzaros Theory of Atomic and Molecular Weights Cantors Mathematical Theories Cardanos Cubic Equation Carnots Theories of Thermodynamics Casimir Force (Effect)

Casperssons Theory of Protein Synthesis Cassinis Hypothesis for the Size of the Solar System Cavendishs Theories and Hypothesis Celsius Temperature Scale Chadwicks Neutron Hypothesis Chambers Theory of the Origin of Life Chandrasekhar Limit Changs Theories and Concepts Changs Theory of Capacitation ChapmanEnskog Kinetic Theory of Gases Chargaffs Hypothesis for the Composition of DNA Charles Law Charneys Theoretical Meteorology Charpaks Concept of Tracking Particles Charpentiers Glacier Theory Chevreuls Theory of Fatty Acids Chus Hypothesis for High Temperature Superconductivity Clarkes Supergene Theory Claudes Concept for Producing Liquid

Air Clausius Laws and Theory of Thermodynamics CockcroftWalton Artificial Nuclear Reaction Cohns Bacteria and Cell Theories Comptons WaveParticle Hypotheses Conways Game of Life Theory Copernicus Cosmology Theories Coreys Theory of Retrosynthetic Analysis Coriolis Theory of Forces Acting on Rotating Surfaces The Cori Theory of Catalytic Conversion of Glycogen x List of Entries Coulombs Laws Coupers Theory for the Structure of Carbon Compounds CrickWatson Theory of DNA Crookes Radiation Theories Crutzens Theory of Ozone Depletion Curies Radiation Theories and Hypotheses

Curls Hypothesis for a New Form of Carbon Cuviers Theories of Anatomy and Taxonomy Daguerres Concept of How to Freeze Images Made by the Camera Obscura Dales Theory of Vagus Nerve Stimuli DAlemberts Principle of Fluid Dynamics Daltons Law and Theories Danas Theory of Geosyncline Daniells Concept of the ElectroChemical Cell Darlingtons Theory of Cell Nuclear Divisions Darwins Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Davissons Theory of Diffraction of Electrons Davys Concept That Electric Current Can Be Used to Separate Elements Dawkins Theory of Evolution De Beers Germ-Layer Theory De Broglies Wave Theory of Matter

DebyeHuckel Theory of Electrolytes Dehmelts Electron Trap Delbrucks and Lurias Phage Theory Democritus Atomic Theory of Matter Descartes Theories and Philosophy De Vries Pangenes Theory of Evolution Dewars Concept of Liquefying Gases DHerelles Bacteriolytic Theory Dickes Theory of the Big Bang Diesels Concept of an Internal Combustion Engine Diracs Relativistic Theories Djerassis Theory for Synthetic Oral Contraception Dobereiners Law of Triads Dobzhanskys Theory of Genetic Diversity Domagks Concept of Dyes as an Antibiotic Dopplers Principle Douglass Theory of Dendrochronology The Drake Equation Drapers Ray Theory

Dulbeccos Theory of Cancer Cell Transformation Dumas Substitution Theory Dysons Theory of Quantum Electrodynamics Eddingtons Theories and Concepts Edisons Theory of Thermionic Effect Ehrlichs Designer Drug Hypothesis Eigens Theory of Fast Ionic Reactions Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts Einthovens Theory that the Heart Generates an Electric Current Ekmans Hypothesis of the Coriolis Effect on Ocean Currents EldredgeGould Theory of Punctuated Evolution Elions Theory for Cell Differences Eltons Theory of Animal Ecology Enders Theory for Cultivation of Viruses Eotvos Rule (Law) Erasistratus Theory of Anatomy and Physiology

Eratosthenes Mathematical Concepts Ernsts Theory of the Magnetic Moment of Atomic Nuclei Esakis Theory of Tunnel Diodes Euclids Paradigm for All Bodies of Knowledge Eudoxus Theory of Planetary Motion Eulers Contributions in Mathematics Everetts Multiple-Universe Theory of Reality Ewings Hypothesis for Undersea Mountain Ridges Eyrings Quantum Theory of Chemical Reaction Rates List of Entries xi Fabricius Theory of Embryology Fahrenheits Concept of a Thermometer Fairbanks Quark Theory Fajans Rules for Chemical Bonding Fallopius Theories of Anatomy Faradays Laws and Principles Fermats Principles and Theories Fermis Nuclear Theories

Fessendens Concept of the Thermionic Diode Feynmans Theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Fibonaccis Numbering System Ficks Laws of Diffusion Fischers Projection Formulas Fitzgeralds Concept of Electromagnetic Contraction Fizeaus Theory of the Nature of Light as a Wave Fleischmanns Theory for Cold Fusion Flemings Bactericide Hypothesis Flemings Rules for Determining Direction of Vectors Flerovs Theory of Spontaneous Fission Floreys Theory of Mucus Secretions Florys Theory of Nonlinear Polymers Foucaults Theories of Light and Earths Rotation Fouriers Theories of Heat Conduction and Harmonic Wave Motion Fowlers Theory of Stellar Nucleosynthesis

Foxs Theory of Proteinoid Microspheres Fracastoros Theory of Disease Francks Theory of Discrete Absorption of Electrons Franklands Theory of Valence Franklins Concept of DNA Structure Franklins Theories of Electricity Fraunhofers Theory of White Light Fresnels Theory for Multiple Prisms Friedmans Theory of the Quark Structure of Nucleons Friedmanns Theory of an Expanding Universe Frischs Theory of a Chain Reaction Gabors Theory of Reproducing ThreeDimensional Images Galens Theories of Anatomy and Physiology Galileos Theories Gallos HIV-AIDS Theory Galtons Theory of Eugenics Galvanis Theories of Galvanization and Animal Tissue Electricity

Gamows Theories of the Universe and DNA Garrods Theory of Congenital Metabolic Disorders Gassendis Theories Gauss Mathematics and Electromagnetism Theorems Gay-Lussacs Law of Combining Volumes GeigerNutter Law (Rule) for Decay of Radioactive Isotopes Gellers Theory of a Nonhomogeneous Universe Gell-Manns Theories for Subatomic Particles Gerhardts Type Theory for Classifying Organic Compounds Giauques Theory of Adiabatic Demagnetization Gibbs Theory of Chemical Thermodynamics Gilberts Theory for DNA Sequencing Gilberts Theory of Magnetism Glasers Concept of a Bubble Chamber

for Detecting Subnuclear Particles Glashows Unifying Theory of the Weak Forces Godels Incompleteness Theorem Golds Cosmological Theories Goldsteins Theory for the Metabolism of Cholesterol, Fats, and Lipids Goulds Hypothesis of Punctuated Equilibrium Grahams Laws of Diffusion and Effusion Guths Theory of an Inflationary Universe Habers Theories Hadamards Theory of Prime Numbers xii List of Entries Hadleys Hypothesis for the Cause of the Trade Winds Haeckels Biological Theories Hahns Theories of Nuclear Transmutations Haldanes Theories of Genetics, Evolution, and Origins of Life Hales Solar Theories Halleys Theories for Comets and Stars

Hall Effect of Electrical Flow Hamiltons Mathematical Theories Hardys Mathematical Theories Harkins Nuclear Theories Harveys Theory for the Circulation of the Blood Hauys Geometric Law of Crystallization Hawkings Theories of the Cosmos Haworths Formula Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle and Theory of Nucleons Helmholtzs Theories and Concepts Helmonts Theory of Matter and Growth Henrys Principles of Electromagnetism Herschels Stellar Theories and Discoveries Hertzsprungs Theory of Star Luminosity Hertzs Theory for Electromagnetic Waves Hess Sea-Floor Spreading Hypothesis Hess Theory for the Ionization of Gases Hewishs Theory of Pulsars Higgins Law of Definite Composition

Higgs Field and Boson Theories Hodgkins Theory of Organic Molecular Structure Hoffmanns Theory of Orbital Symmetry Hookes Laws, Theories, and Ideas Hoyles Theories of the Universe Hubbles Law and Constant Huckels MO Theory or Rule and the DebyeHuckel Theory Huggins Theory of Spectrosopic Astronomy Huygens Theories of Light and Gravity Ideal Gas Law I-Hsings Concepts of Astronomy Ingenhouszs Theory of Photosynthesis Ingolds Theory for the Structure of Organic Molecules Ingrams Sickle Cell Theory Ipatieffs Theory of High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions Isaacs Theory of Proteins Attacking Viruses JacobMonod Theory of Regulator Genes

Janskys Theory of Stellar Radio Interference Janssens Theory of Spectral Lines of Sunlight Jeans Tidal Hypothesis for the Origin of the Planets Jeffreys Theory of Genetic (DNA) Profiling Jeffreys Seismological Theories Jenners Inoculation Hypothesis Jernes Theory of Clonal Selection of Antibodies Johansons Theory for the Evolution of Humans Joliot-Curies Theory of Artificial Radioactivity Josephsons Theory of Semiconductors Joules Law and Theories Kamerlingh-Onnes Theory of Matter at Low Temperatures Kapitsas Theory of Superfluid Flow Kapteyns Theory of Galactic Rotation Karles Theory for Determining Molecular Structure

Kekules Theory of Carbon Compounds Kelvins Concept of Energy Kendalls Theory for Isolating Adrenal Steroids Keplers Three Laws of Planetary Motion Kerrs Theory of Quadratic ElectroOptic Effect (i.e., Kerr Effect) Kersts Theory for Accelerating Nuclear Particles Khoranas Theory of Artificial Genes Kimuras Neo-Darwinian Theory for Mutations List of Entries xiii Kimuras Theory for Variations in Earths Latitudes Kippings Theory of Inorganic-Organic Chemistry Kirchhoffs Laws and Theories Kirkwoods Asteroid Gap Theory Klitzings Theory for the Quantization of the Hall Effect Kochs Germ-Disease Postulate Kohlrauschs Law for the Independent Migration of Ions

Krebs Cycle Krotos Buckyballs Kuipers Theory for the Origin of the Planets Kuschs Theory for the Magnetic Moment of the Electron Lagranges Mathematical Theorems Lamarcks Theories of Evolution Lamberts Theories Lambs Theory for the Quantum States of the Hydrogen Atom Landaus Two-Fluid Model for Helium Landauers Principle for Very-LargeScale Integration Landsteiners Theories of Blood Groups Langevins Concept for Use of Ultrasound Langleys Theories of the Nervous System Langmuirs Theories of Chemical Bonding and Adsorption of Surface Chemistry Laplaces Theories and Nebular Hypothesis

Larmors Theories of Matter Laurents Theories for Chemical Equivalents and Types Lavoisiers Theories of Combustion, Respiration, and Conservation of Mass Lawrences Theory for the Acceleration of Charged Particles Leakeys Anthropological Theories Leavitts Theory for the Periodicity/ Luminosity Cycle of Cepheid Variable Stars Le Bels Theory of Isomers Le Chateliers Principle Lederbergs Hypothesis for Genetic Engineering Ledermans Two-Neutrino Hypothesis Lees Theories of Weak Nuclear Interaction Leeuwenhoeks Theory of Microscopic Life Leibnizs Theory for The Calculus Leishmans Hypothesis for Parasitic Diseases

Lema^_tres Theory for the Origin of the Universe Lenards Theory for Electron Emission Lenzs Law of Electromagnetics Levenes Tetra-Nucleotide Hypothesis Levi-Montalcini Cell Growth Theory Lewis Theory of Covalent Bonds Liebigs Theory of Isomers and Organic Compound Radicals Lindemanns Theory of Pi Linnaeus Theories for the Classification of Plants and Animals Listers Hypothesis of Antisepsis Lockyers Solar Atmosphere Theories Lorentzs Physical Theories of Matter Lorenzs Theory for Complex/Chaotic Systems Lovells Theory of Radio Astronomy Lowells Theory of Life on Mars Lyells Theory of Uniformitarianism Lysenkos Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Machs Number

Maimans Theory for Converting the Maser to the Laser Malpighis Theory for the Detailed Structure of Animals and Plants Malthusian Population Catastrophe Theory Malus Law for the Polarization of Light Mansfields Theory of Magnetic Resonance Marconis Theory of Radio Telegraphy Margulis Endosymbiotic Cell Theory xiv List of Entries Martins Theory of Chromatography Matthias Theory of Superconductivity Maunders Theory for Sunspots Effects on Weather Maupertuis Principle of Least Action Maxwells Theories Maynard Smiths Theory of Evolution McClintocks Theory of Cytogenetics McMillans Concept of Phase Stability Meissner Effect Meitners Theory of Nuclear Fission Mendeleevs Theory for the Periodicity

of the Elements Mendels Law of Inheritance Merrifields Theory of Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis MeselsonStahl Theory of DNA Replication Mesmers Theory of Animal Magnetism Metcalfes Law Meyers Theory for the Periodicity of the Elements Michelsons Theory for the Ether Mieschers Nuclein Theory Millers Theory for the Origin of Life Millikans Theory for the Charge of Electrons Minkowskis Space-Time Theory Minskys Theory of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Misners Theory for the Origin of the Universe Mitscherlichs Law of Isomorphism Mohorovicics Theory of the Earths Interior Structure Montagniers Theory for the HIV Virus

Moores Law Moseleys Law Mullers Theory of Mutation Mullikens Theory of Chemical Bonding Mullis Theory for Enzymatic Replication of DNA Nambus Theory for the Standard Model Nashs Embedding Theorems Nathans Theory for Restriction Enzymes Nattas Theory for High Polymers N_eels Theories of Ferrimagnetism and Antiferromagnetism Nehers Patch Clamp to Record Small Ionic Currents Nernsts Heat Theorem Newcombs Theory for the Speed of Light Newlands Law of Octaves Newtons Laws and Principles Nicholas Theory of an Incomplete Universe Nicolles Theory for the Cause of

Typhus Noddacks Hypothesis for Producing Artificial Elements Noethers Theorem Norrishs Theory of Very Fast Reactions Northrops Hypothesis for the Protein Nature of Enzymes Noyces Concept for the Integrated Circuit Ochoas Theory for the Synthesis of RNA Odlings Valence Theory Oersteds Theory of Electromagnetism Ohms Law Okens Cell Theory Olbers Paradox Oliphants Concepts of Isotopes for Light Elements Oorts Galaxy and Comet Cloud Theories Oparins Theory for the Origin of Life Oppenheimers Contributions to Theoretical Physics Ostwalds Theories and Concept of Chemistry

Paracelsus Concepts of Medicine Pardees Theory for Cell Enzyme Synthesis Parkes Theory for Separating Metals from Ores Pascals Concepts, Laws, and Theorems Pasteurs Germ and Vaccination Theories List of Entries xv Paulings Theory of Chemical Bonding Paulis Exclusion Principle Pavlovs Theory of Associative Learning by Respondent Conditioning Peanos Axioms and Curve Theorem Pearsons Statistical Theories Peierls Concept for Separating U-235 from U-238 Penroses Theories for Black Holes, Twistors, and Tiling Penzias Theory for the Big Bang Perls Theory for a New Lepton Perrins Theory of Molecular Motion Perutzs Theory of Molecular Structure

of Hemoglobin Pfeiffers Phenomenon: The Theory of Bacteriolysis Plancks Formula and Quantum Theory Pogsons Theory for Star Brightness Ponnamperumas Chemical Theory for the Origin of Life Porters Theory for the Structure of Human Gamma Globulin Poseidonius Concept of Earths Circumference Poyntings Theories Pr_evosts Theory for the Exchange of Heat Radiation Priestleys Theories of Electrical Force and Dephlogisticated Air Prigogines Theories of Dissipative Structures and Complex Systems Prousts Law of Definite Proportions Ptolemys Theory of a Geocentric Universe Purcells Theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Pythagoras Theorem

Quantum Theories: From 1900 to 2008 Rabis Theory of Magnetic Moment of Particles Ramans Theory of Light Scattering Ram_on y Cajals Neuron Theory Ramsays Hypothesis for Inert Gases Ramseys Chemical Shift Theory for Improved MRI Raoults Law Raups Theory of Cyclic Extinction of Animals Rayleighs Light Scattering Law Rays Theories of Fossils and Plant Classification Redis Theory of Spontaneous Generation Reeds Theory of the Transmission of Yellow Fever Regiomontanus Theory for Trigonometry Reichenbachs Theory of Probability Based on Logical Empiricism (aka Logical Positivism)

Reichsteins Theory of the Chemical Role of the Adrenal Gland Reines Theory of Natural Neutrinos Revelles Theory of Global Warming Ricciolos Theory of Falling Bodies Richardsons Law of Thermionic Emission Richters Theory of Earthquake Magnitude Riemanns Theory for Differential Geometry Robbins Theory for the Poliovirus Roberts Theory of Split Genes Roches Limit Theory Roentgens Theory of X-Rays Romers Theory for the Speed of Light Rossis Theory for Cosmic Radiation Rowlands Theory of Chlorofluorocarbons Effects on the Ozone Rubbias Theory of Intermediate Vector Bosons Rubins Theory of Dark Matter Rumfords Theory of Relating Work to

Heat Russells Theory of Stellar Evolution Rutherfords Theories of Radioactivity/ Transmutation and Atomic Structure Rydbergs Theory of Periodicity for Atomic Structure Ryles Theory of Using Radio Astronomy for Observing Distant Galaxies xvi List of Entries Sabins Theory for Attenuated Live Polio Vaccine Sachs Theory of Photosynthesis Sagans Theories of Nuclear Winter and the Cosmos Sahas Theory of Thermal Ionization Sakharovs Nuclear Fusion Theory Salams Theory for the Properties of Elementary Particles Sandages Theories of Quasars and the Age of the Universe Sangers Theories of the Structure of Proteins and Gene Splitting Sarichs Theory of Utilizing Protein to

Genetically Date Man/Ape Divergence Scheeles Theory of the Chemical Composition of Air Schiaparellis Theory of Regularity in the Solar System Schleidens Cell Theory for Plants Schmidts Theory of the Evolution and Distribution of Quasars Schneiders Theory of Biological Systems and Climate Change Schrodingers Theory of Wave Mechanics Schwanns Theory of Animal Cells Schwarzschilds Black Hole Theory Schwingers Theory for Renormalization Seaborgs Hypothesis for Transuranium Elements Seebecks Theory of Thermoelectricity Segr_es Hypothesis for the Antiproton Shapleys Theory of Globular Clusters Sharps Theory for the Splicing of DNA Shepards Theory of Submarine Canyon

Formation Shockleys Theory of Semiconductors Sidgwicks Theory of Coordinate Bonds Siemens Theory for Regenerating Heat Simons Third Law of Thermodynamics Sliphers Theories of Interstellar Gases and Andromeda Smoots Theory of a Nonuniform Universe Snells Law Soddys Displacement Law for Radioactive Decay and Theory of Isotopes Sorensens Negative Logarithms Representing Hydrogen Ion Concentration Spallanzanis Theory Refuting Spontaneous Generation Speddings Theories Spencer-Jones Concept for Measuring Solar Parallax Stahls Phlogiston Theory Starks Theories Stefans Theory of Black Box Radiation

Steinbergers Two-Neutrino Theory Stenos Theory for Fossil Formation Sterns Theory for the Magnetic Moment of the Proton Stokes Laws of Hydrodynamics and Fluorescence Stoneys Theory of the Electron Strasburgers Law of Cytology Struves Theory of Interstellar Matter Suess Theory of Continental Drift Swammerdams Theory of Preformation Szilards Theory of Neutrons Sustaining a Chain Reaction Tamms Theory of the Cherenkov Effect Tartaglias Mathematical Solution to Cubic Equations Tatums Theory of Gene-Controlling Enzymes Taylors Theory of Gravitational Waves Tellers Theory for the Hydrogen Bomb Temins Theory for Transcribing RNA Information into DNA Teslas Concept of High-Voltage

Alternating Current Thales Theory That Water Is the Basis for All Things Theophrastus Concepts for Plant Classification Theorells Theory of Enzyme Action Thomsons Electron Theory Tings Theory for a New Photon-Like Particle List of Entries xvii Tiselius Hypothesis for Protein Analysis Todds Theory for the Structure and Synthesis of Nucleotides, Nucleosides, and Nucleotide Co-enzymes Tomonagas Theory of Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics Tonegawas Theory of Antibodies and the Immune System Torricellis Vacuum and Theorem Townes Theory for Amplifying Electromagnetic Waves Townsends Theory of Collision Ionization Turings Theory for Testing Computer

Intelligence Turners Theory for Measuring Outer Energy Levels of Molecules Tyndalls Theory for the Transmission of Light through Gases Uhlenbecks Theory of Electron Spin Ulams Monte Carlo System Ureys Gaseous Diffusion and Origin-ofLife Theories Van Allen Radiation Belts Van de Graaffs Concept of Producing High Voltage Van der Meers Theory of Particles to Confirm the Weak Force Van der Waals Equation for Gas Molecules Vant Hoffs Theory of ThreeDimensional Organic Compounds Van Vlecks Theory of Paramagnetism Vesalius Theories of Anatomy and Physiology Virchows Cell Pathology Theory Voltas Concept of an Electric Current Von Laues Theory for the Diffraction of

X-Rays in Crystals Von Neumanns Theory of Automata Waddingtons Theory of Genetic Assimilation Waldeyer-Hartz Neuron Theory Wallaces Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Wallachs Theory for the Molecular Structure of Organic Compounds Waltons Concept for Transmuting Atomic Particles WatsonCrick Theory of DNA Watsons Theory of Electricity as a Fluid Watson-Watts Concept of Radar Webers Theory of Gravitational Waves Wegeners Theory of Continental Drift Weinbergs Grand Unification Theories Weismanns Germ Plasm Theory Weizsackers Theories of Star and Planet Formation

Werners Coordination Theory of Chemistry Werners Neptunian Theory (Neptunism) Wheelers Geon Theory Whipples Dirty Snowball Theory of Comets Whiteheads Action-at-a-Distance Theory of Relativity Wiens Displacement Law Wigners Concept of Parity/Symmetry in Nuclear Reactions Wilkinsons Concept of Sandwich Compounds Williamsons Theory of Reversible Chemical Reactions Wilsons Hypothesis of Cloud Condensation Wilsons Out-of-Africa Theory Wilsons Theory of Dynamic Equilibrium of Island Populations Wittens Superstring Theory Wohlers Theory for Nonliving Substances Transforming into Living

Substances Wolframs Theory of Complex Systems Wolfs Theory of the Dark Regions of the Milky Way Woodwards Theory of Organic Molecular Synthesis xviii List of Entries Wrights Theory of Genetic Drift (Sewall Wright Effect) Wrinchs Cyclol Theory of Protein Structure Wus Theory of Beta Decay Wurtzs Theory for Synthesizing Hydrocarbons Wynne-Edwards Theory of Group Selection Yalows Theory of Radioimmunoassay Yangs Theory of Nonconservation of Parity in Weak Interactions Yanofskys Theory for Colinearity of DNA and Protein Youngs Wave Theory of Light Yukawas Meson Theory for the Strong

Interaction Zeemans Theory of the Magnetic Effect on Light Zenos Paradoxes Zieglers Theory of Stereospecific Polymers Zinns Concept of a Breeder Reactor Zuckerandls Theory for Measuring the Rate of Evolution Zwickys Theory for Supernovas and Neutron Stars List of Entries xix Preface The development of universal scientific principles, fundamental physical laws, viable theories, and testable hypotheses has a long history. Humans are unique in that they can think about and contemplate the world around them, conceive ideas to explain natural events and processes, and then make use of what was learned. Early explanations of natural phenomena were interesting but not very reliable. Not until a few thousand years before the birth of Christ would recordings of history provide us with evidence of how humans related to the events and phenomena of nature. Some of the early Egyptian, Greek, Islamic, and Asian theories, as well as those from other cultures, demonstrated great insight into the structure and functions of animals, plants, matter, meteorology, agriculture, Earth, and astronomy. Our ancestors had the curiosity but lacked the means for forming truly accurate explanations and conclusions about nature

as the understanding of cause and effect, and objective use of controlled experimentation was yet to be developed. Included in this volume are a few ancient classical ideas and concepts that were theoretical descriptions of nature, often very inaccurate. This ancient classical philosophical process resulted in many dead ends. The modern sciences began when people learned how to explain nature by objectively observing events, asking questions that could be answered by making reliable measurements, using mathematics, and then considering probabilities to make reasonable predictions. This process led to operational facts that continued to be upgraded and corrected by the self-correcting nature of modern science. However, testing theories and hypotheses in a controlled situation developed late in human history and thus science, as we think of it, was slow to advance in ancient times. The development and implementation of scientific processes increased the growth of knowledge, as well as the rate of growth of science from the seventeenth to the twenty-first centuries. During this period science accelerated at an astounding exponential pace, and this growth will most likely continue throughout the twenty-first century and beyond, particularly in the biological sciences based on quantum theory. None of our current understanding of the universe, nature, and ourselves would have been possible without men and women using the processes and procedures of scientific investigations. The purpose of this encyclopedia is to present in two volumes a historical aspect for the important principles, laws, theories, hypotheses, and concepts that reflect this amazing progression of scientific descriptions and explanations of nature. Some more

recent theories are also included. These scientific principles, laws, theories, etc., did not just appear out of thin air. They are related to the period and people who developed these explanations and descriptions of the nature of our universe. The entries are listed alphabetically, in most cases, according to the name of the person credited with formulating the law, theory, or concept. Their names may be familiar to you. Others are less well known. Inventions and discoveries are included only if they contributed to the development or understanding of a particular scientific law, etc. Where appropriate, practical applications of particular laws and theories are included. Only laws, principles, theories, and concepts related to the basic sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, geology, mathematics, and related fields such as medicine are included. Social, political, behavioral, and related studies are not included. This encyclopedia is designed for the high school and college-level student as well as for the general reader who has an interest in science. Following the AZ portion of the encyclopedia is a glossary of technical terms. The terms contained in the glossary are highlighted in bold type the first time the word is used in the text. Following the glossary are four appendices. Appendix A groups the encyclopedia entries by scientific discipline. Appendices B through D list Nobel Prize recipients for Chemistry, Physics, and Physiology/Medicine, respectively. Following the appendices is a selected bibliography containing sources for additional information related to the scientific principles, laws, theories, etc., included in the volumes. A general subject index concludes the set. The following notations are used in this book: BCE Before the Common Era (instead of BC) CE The Common Era (Instead of AD)

c. Approximate Date (e.g., approximate birth or death dates) _ Approximate amount, quantity, or figure ppm Parts per million ppb Parts per billion % Percent a Alpha particle (radiation) b Beta particle (radiation) l Gamma radiation (similar to high-energy X-rays) IMPORTANT: Due to the technical nature of many of the original statements of principles, laws, theories, etc., and to the fact that some of the original statements are lost, are in a foreign language, or include technical jargon, they have been paraphrased and restated to make them more comprehensible. The paraphrased statements of the principles or laws are printed in italics for easy identification. xxii Preface Introduction WHAT SCIENCE IS AND IS NOT In his book Asimovs Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (1964) Isaac Asimov states science is a complex skein, intricately interknotted across the artificial boundaries we draw only that we may the more easily encompass its parts in our mind. Pick up any thread of that skein and the whole structure will follow. That interknotted skein may be thought of as a complex interrelationship between the processes and products of science. The processes are the verbs that relate to the socalled

methods of science, whereas the products are the nouns that represent the knowledge about nature that we gain through the rational and pragmatic uses of scientific processes. Scientific research investigations of nature may lead to the technology/ engineering that uses the knowledge gained through applying the processes of science. Thus, an understanding of Earth and universe requires the knowledge of science (the productsnouns) and the methods of obtaining that knowledge (the processesverbs). There are a series of analogies that can also be used to describe this process/product duality of science: basic science versus applied science, research and development, induction/deduction, and experimental investigation/technology innovations. There is no one scientific method. Scientists do not use a cut-and-dried procedure during their investigations of nature. There are at least twelve characteristics and processes of science that make up the so-called scientific method, and in real-life, objective, rational scientific research one does not always start with number 1 and follow in order to number 12. First of all, scientists are skeptics when they investigate nature or hear about some extraordinary new discovery. As the saying goes extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. They are skeptical of new evidence claimed by other scientists and will try to repeat their experiments. They also like to explore new problems, identify patterns or breaks in patterns existing in nature, and, in general, gather information and data to come up with answers to answerable questions and viable solutions to problems. In general, these processes are: ObservingThe thread used throughout a scientific investigation ConcentratingSkepticism, critical thinking, induction/deduction RecognizingScientific problems, questioning the ways things seem DiscriminatingJudging viability of identified problem, stereotyping

RelatingOld knowledge related to new information, being informed EstablishingCause and effect, eliminating irrational relationships Formulating hypothesesAsking answerable questions, forming answers TestingSelecting and using appropriate instruments and equipment ExperimentingObjective testing, research using controls Gathering, Treating, and InterpretingInformation and data Using appropriate statistical instrumentsConfirming and predicting CommunicatingResults and conclusions, peer review publishing. A slightly different list of techniques of inquiry are given in Surendra Vermas excellent book The Little Book of Scientific Principles Theories & Things (2005): 1. Observations and search for data 2. Hypothesis to explain observations 3. Experiments to test hypotheses 4. Formulation of theory 5. Experimental confirmation of theory 6. Mathematics of empirical confirmation of theory 7. Use of this confirmation to form scientific law 8. Use of scientific law to predict behavior of nature. It might be mentioned that these statements, and other similar ones, describe human ways of thinking and acting. The human concept of identifying and using the processes relates to a way of thinking and acting we call science. These rational procedures for acquiring new knowledge were developed and applied very late in human history. It is assumed that bits and pieces of these processes were known and used by proto-humans

even before Homo sapiens arrived on Earth several millions of years ago. For example, as a means for survival early humans learned the difference between poisonous plants and safe plants to eat, and animals that humans could kill and eat and those more likely to kill and eat the humans. This required trial and error leading to stereotyping (profiling) varieties of plants and animals as well as other aspects of their environment pointing to ways of making practical use of something that worked. These are rudimentary process of science. Applying the processes of observing, discriminating by stereotyping, relating new knowledge to what is known, and arriving at conclusions ensured humanitys continued existence, as well as the development of cultures and societies. This resulted in laws, civil and scientific, culminating in our modern use of knowledge gained through the use of the processes of science to sustain and improve human life. Above all, scientists are critical thinkers and skeptics who do not accept many things and events at face value. They are not convinced just because others find something acceptable or convenient. They do not accept certainties just because others accept them, and they do not trust absolutes including absolute ideologies. Finally they have no sacred cows, and they carefully select their authorities. They are aware that knowledge and science in general are subject to justifiable change and corrections. Conversely, science is NOT many of the things often attributed to it. xxiv Introduction First, science is not democraticwe do not vote on scientific theories or natural phenomena that scientists wish to explore. A possible exception might be when government supports a particular scientific effort. Second, science is not based on everyones opinionsome persons are more

informed, wiser, better educated, and better equipped to explore natural phenomena or solutions to problems than are many other people. Third, science is less subjective than other disciplinesalthough scientists are human and thus, to some degree subjective in their judgments, they are, as a group more objective in their outlook than most people. Claiming to be an authority does not make it so. Fourth, science is not magicmuch of science may seem like magic to the nonscientist, but there is no occult influence, sleight of hand, or conjuring related to the use of the processes that make up the scientific method. Pseudoscience and junk science are identified as such and exposed. Fifth, science is not religionscientists must have some degree of faith in the processes they use while conducting scientific investigations, but this is much different than the concept of having faith in spiritual nonexistent things. Although many scientists observe one form of irrational spiritual religious belief or another, to be successful in their particular discipline, they must separate theological ideologies from the rational science parts of their lives. Sixth, science is not parapsychologythis includes nonsciences and the pseudosciences such as telepathy, clairvoyance, extra-sensory perception (ESP), psychokinesis, and unproven activities such as fortune-telling, tarot cards, reading bones and head bumps, witchcraft, channeling, astrology, etc. These types of activities are irrational and have no bases in facts gained from controlled experiments to verify them. It is said that about 75 percent of the people in the United States believe in angels; it is doubtful that many scientists do because no verifiable evidence of such entities exists.

Seventh, science is not politicsalthough politics sometimes attempts to dominate science for its own purposes, science is best kept out of the political environment except in the use of science in an advisory capacity to the political operatives. Conversely, politics is best kept out of scientific endeavors. This is difficult because governments of the developed world have increasingly provided funds to support scientific investigations, and many believe that control follows the money, or as the saying goes: He who pays the piper selects the tunes. Peer review panels have been established to ensure the scientific viability of proposed research sponsored by the government. Unfortunately, as with any system of controls there are a few flaws. Furthermore, political science is not a really a science but a study of politics. Just as economics is not a science but rather is more of an art that uses some of the processes of science, such as statistics, to study the economics of a society. Eighth, science is not philosophyhistorically there were philosopher/scientists and not much distinction was made until the eighteenth century enlightenment period of history when modern concepts of science as a systematic self-correcting process were developed. No other discipline or intellectual/social activity has a natural built-in selfcorrecting component. SCIENTIFIC PHYSICAL LAWS The concept of laws is as old as civilization and originally implied a law giver that was often interpreted as one type of god or another. The laws of science grew out of the Introduction xxv

early concept that the universe operated in certain ways and that gods established these particular laws that controlled nature. These several gods later evolved into a supreme lawgiving god who controlled nature according to his or her whims. This concept changed as humans became more curious and the lawgiver became the worker of nature, which, in turn, became natural laws. By the time of the Enlightenment, the concept became the laws of science. This evolution of scientific laws naturally followed as humans learned how to objectively and logically examine and explain the workings of nature. It might be mentioned that while some so-called scientific theories were assigned the title law many years ago, many more modern theories, such as the theory of relativity, could just as well be referred to as the law of relativity today. Accepted and established theories are similar to accepted and established laws as far as authenticity is concerned. In other words, a scientific law is derived from a theory that has been proven and repeatedly verified by the application of mathematics and is consistent in predicting specific effects. Scientific physical laws are statements of fact that explain nature and how it works and are not merely applicable to the nonliving things in the field of physics (matter and energy). Scientific laws also apply to all living things in the field of biology (plants and animals), and all areas of nature. Physical laws do not apply to things that are not natural, for example, the spiritual, philosophical, and parapsychological. Physical laws are generalized factual principles that describe how things behave in nature under a variety of circumstances. Where did these physical laws come from? The answer is obvious

from within the universe itself. We live in an ordered universe, made comprehensible by applying the concept of rules and using intelligent powers of reasoning, logic, and critical thinking. Scientific physical laws describe how things work and to some degree what they are in reality, but not always why they work as they do (e.g., gravitywe really do not know what gravity is or why it works as it does, but it is universal, predictable, and can be described mathematically). Scientific laws are consistent, long lasting, universal, and rational. In other words, a phenomenon, event, or action that occurs and behaves in the same manner under the same conditions, and is thus predictable, can be stated as a scientific law. These are sometimes referred to as fundamental laws, universal laws, basic laws of science, or just physical or scientific laws. At least five characteristics apply to all scientific laws: 1) They can be expressed mathematically. (Mathematics is basic to understanding nature and expressing scientific lawseven abstract mathematics.) 2) Physical laws are not always exact (as is mathematics). Scientific laws may need future adjustments as more knowledge is gained concerning the natural phenomenon as expressed by the law (but revisions are not made often nor extensive). 3) The natural systems may be complex and contain many pieces, but the law describing the phenomenon always turns out to be simple. The universal theory of everything (TOE) or the grand unification theory (GUT) is expected to be an extremely complex composite of matter/energy. Even so, scientists predict that when found, the TOE or GUT will be a very simple mathematical expression. 4) Most important, scientific theories are universal. (Any well-established physical law that applies on

Earth also applies throughout the universe.) And, 5) by using statistical probabilities, scientific theories can be used to predict future natural events in the real world. SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES Scientific principles are similar general statements about nature as are scientific laws. A scientific principle of nature must be objective and universal. Principles are not xxvi Introduction dependent on the views or statement of individuals but must be true from all points of view and true from all points of reference in the universe. There are only a few general, fundamental, and overriding postulates from which scientific laws and theories are derived. One of the unifying principles is symmetry. The scientific definition of symmetry relates to the orientation of something regardless of its orientation in space and time. No matter where in space or at what time in the past, present, or future the event occurs, acts, or reacts, it will do so in the same way. Symmetry also enables an object to rotate on a fixed axis in any orientation regardless of where in the universe it is located, and it will move at a uniform velocity in a straight line regardless of orientation. Symmetry in our everyday lives is considered twofoldbilateral and radial. Rotational symmetry of a sphere does not point to any specific direction in space. Anything that can be reoriented or its position changed while keeping its same basic geometry is considered to be symmetrical. An example is a two-dimensional square drawn on a piece of paper. Despite its orientation, it will look the same (unless you view it from the edge of a piece of paper). Some three-dimensional figures and objects when examined can exhibit two kinds of symmetrybilateral and radial. For example, a drinking glass can be cut lengthwise (bilateral) or crosswise (radial). The human body is considered

to have bilateral symmetry. Another fundamental principle for all physical laws is conservation. The principle of conservation of matter and energy is related to symmetry because everything is in balance somewhat like the reflection in a mirror or a process that obtains equilibrium. (Note: the fundamental concept of the conservation of energy is also known as the first law of thermodynamics.) When something comes out the same way or results in the same answer, no matter what takes place during the event, conservation is involved. Another way to look at conservation is the principle (concept) of cause and effect. All effects (events) have a cause, or possibly several causes may be related to the effect, but there is a symmetrical pattern involved in this natural phenomenon. This is true for quantum mechanics that connects the minimum principle with the laws of conservation. There are antiparticles for all particles, and positives () for negatives (_). In other words, they are symmetrical but opposites and are conserved (no basic loss or gain). The fundamental property of mass is inertia. Inertia is the property of an object (with mass) that offers resistance to any change in its position or speed (orientation in space) when a force is applied to the mass. For our Earth and solar system this explanation is adequate, but inadequate for the relativity of space and time. Einsteins principle or theory of relativity redefined mass when considering the vastness of space, as expressed in his famous equation E mc2, which equates mass and energy as being conserved. (See Einstein for more on this principle.) Humans did not invent the principles and laws of physicsthey came from the formation of the universe

from the big bangfrom the void of the spontaneous formation of matter and energynot a supreme being. Other examples of conservation principles are Newtons three laws of motion and the theory of kinetic energy of particles that can be It might be mentioned that our recent explorations of space by unmanned vehicles that fly by other planets and their moons would be impossible to perform accurately if it were not for the use of the theory of relativity in the mathematical calculation to guide the flight path. Without the use of mathematical constants, scientific principles, laws, and theories by NASAs space exploration program, astronauts would have had a more difficult time landing on the moon and would make the planned trip to the planet Mars more hazardous. Introduction xxvii expressed in standard mathematical terms. A different example is the uncertainty principle related to quantum mechanics used to explain the nature of subatomic particles and energy. The uncertainty is based on the inability to ascertain, at the quantum level, the exact position of a subatomic particle, while at the same time trying to determine its momentum energy. The converse is also evident as a subatomic particles momentum cannot be determined at the same time as locating its position. Treating the

quanta data statistically solves this dilemma. Indeterminacy of quantum mechanics is a good example of the use of statistical probabilities to solve a problem (see Heisenberg). Interestingly, it seems that there is a deep correlation or connection between the concepts of symmetry and the conservation laws. Someday there may be a common mathematical formula or constant that relates the two ideas. SCIENTIFIC CONSTANTS Generalized scientific principles involve mathematical rules. In other words, the answer reached will always be the same if the mathematical rules are followed. This concept utilizes what are known as fundamental constants that are mathematical expressions that establish a mathematical relationship between two or more variables that never change their values. These constants never change regardless of where or how they are used in the universe and assist scientists in the formation of mathematical expressions of universal scientific laws and theories. The preceding paragraph on Einsteins theory of relativity contained a constant that is universally accepted. It is the speed of light (the c which he squared) in the formula E mc2. The speed of light is 186,282 miles per second (299,792 km/sec) and applies only when light traverses unobstructed space. Other examples of the many constants used in mathematical expressions in science include Plancks constant (_h), and the elementary charge of an electron (e_). (See gravity and Coulombs law related to electrical

charges over distance as examples.) SCIENTIFIC THEORIES The origin of the word theory is from the Greek word theorein or theoria that means to look at or to be observed as actors in a theater production are observed. In modern usage it does not mean that a person is seeing something not real or staged, or just as a guess or hunch. Scientific theories are a type of model designed as general explanatory statements about the workings of nature. A theory might be thought of There are over thirty fundamental physical constants that have specific and universal invariant quantities. These constants are expressed as symbols representing mathematical expressions that have a degree of accuracy as high as possible to obtain. Some examples of more familiar and frequently used fundamental physical constants and their mathematical expressions are: Plancks constant (_h) is 6.6260755 _ 10_32 Joules/ second. Elementary charge (e_) is 1.60217733 _ 10_19

Coulombs. Avogadros number (NA) is 6.0221367 _ 1023 particles per mol. Electrons mass at rest (me) is 9.11093897 _ 10_31 kilograms. Protons mass at rest (mp) is 1.6726231 _ 10_27 kilograms. Neutrons mass as rest (mn) is 1.6749286 _ 10_27 kilograms. Atomic mass unit (amu) is 1.66054 _ 10_27 kilograms. Bohr radius (atomic) (a0) is 5.29177 _ 10_11 meters. Acceleration due to gravity (g) is 9.80665 meters/sec2. Gas constant (R) is 8.31450 m2 _ kg/s2 _ K _ mol. xxviii Introduction as a hypothesis that has been tested by experiments. At times it is possible for an exception to be found in a theory, but if this happens the exception is usually found and corrected or the theory is discarded. Theories can be used to predict natural phenomena and lead to more specific laws. Many people think that a theory and hypothesis are somewhat interchangeable and can be related to a not well defined idea. In other words, a statement may be tested even though it may not be true. This confusion may result when the same scientific description of something appears to be in two different stages that are testing the idea. The hypothesis is a statement that is used in the early development of the research

investigation of phenomena. The idea is new, and results have a good chance of being wrong, even though correct data to be analyzed is presented. An example is the theory that electromagnetic radiation (light) requires some form of matter, such as the aether, in space to transmit electromagnetic waves. If the data gathered from related investigations can verify the experiment consistently, then the concept may be considered a theory. Conversely, if further experiments arrive at different and more viable explanations for the phenomenon then the theory may be falsified, which is what happened to the theory of the aether. Some modern scientists have other ways of looking at this conundrum by thinking about scientific models instead of theories or physical laws to describe the reality of nature. Some consider the term theory as handicapped with much social and historical baggage and believe that the concept of model can be much more productive as a statement for a well-established scientific idea or concept. Even so, the terms hypotheses, theories, laws, and models are all important concepts of science; and, at some point, they all started as ideas. They all may be thought of steps in the systematic searches for truth, which in science means the way things arenot as some humans would like them to be. Also, truth is not relative as some advocate. Accepted scientific theories are established facts and truths related to scientific laws and are viable and proven fundamental models (statements) about nature.

Many established scientific theories might be considered laws because they both meet the same criteria for proven ideas. Scientific models of nature are mathematical constructs of stepbystep rules that reflect what happens in actual natural events. Scientific models are often undated and are revised as new evidence become available. Scientific theories may therefore be thought of as types of models designed as general explanatory statements about the workings of nature. As established explanations of how things work in nature, they are the end points of scientifically gathered evidence about specific events that In his book The Trouble with Physics, Lee Smolin (2006) explains why the recent string theory was proposed to combine all theories of matter and energy into one simple unified theory, but it has not yet become a proven theory for several reasons, mainly because it cannot, as currently stated, be used to make predictions. Smolin

describes a theory as: In science, for a theory to be believed, it must make a predictiondifferent from those made by previous theoriesfor an experiment not yet done. For the experiment to be meaningful, we must be able to get an answer that disagrees with that prediction. When this is the case, we say that a theory is falsifiablevulnerable to being shown false. The theory also has to be confirmable, it must be possible to verify a new prediction that only this theory makes. Only when a theory has been tested and the results agree with the theory do we advance the statement to the rank of a true scientific theory. Introduction xxix may incorporate other laws and hypotheses. Humans derive all theories, and as such scientists make linguistic constructs of assumptions. They are similar to, but much more than, educated guesses because they are the results of crucial observations, experimentation, logical inferences, and creative thinking. They are not the same as what we think of as guesses as stated in everyday life. They are neither undocumented statements nor uninformed opinions. People often come up with theories based on social or behavioral

notions or assumptions, which are often accepted by faith. These nonscientific theories are without experimental proof and seldom based on mathematics, verifiable facts, measurable data, and evidence. The main test of validity (truth or correctness) of an idea, concept, or theory (model) is found in the results of the experiment, and when possible, a controlled experiment. Theories advanced by scientists can be described as predictions based on the scientists knowledge of a probable occurrence within a given set of circumstances or conditions. In fact, the validity of a theory, law, or model is determined by its predictability of one or more events. The nature of science is that exactly the same thing may not always occur at exactly the same time in exactly the same way in nature, but this does not negate the requirement of predictability of the law, theory, or model. Therefore, scientists, through experimentations, often seek a statistical average upon which to make their predictions. This being said, a proven fundamental scientific law or theory is as close as humans can get to 100 percent truth. Unfortunately, there are some people who consider everything relative (not in the Einstein concept of relativity as related to ones point of reference) but in accepting that everyones relativity and often ambiguous truths are as authentic as proven scientific laws and theories. An important characteristic of a theory is that it must be stated in such a way that it is nonambiguous. A vague theory cannot be proven wrong, and it is possible to come up with almost any answer desired for an ambiguously stated theory. Confirming a theory requires specific conditions, an experiment (controlled, if possible), and measured results that are analyzed

statistically. If the related facts indicate a high probability for its validity and reliability, the theory can then be said to be justified and acceptable. Even so, there must exist the possibility that the theory may not be quite correct and will require additional testing, etc., and new knowledge related to the basic theory becomes available. A theory is only as good as the limited number of assumptions and generalizations postulated. The fewer astute assumptions incorporated in a theory, the more likely it will stand the test of time. This is known as Ockhams razor (William of Ockham, c.12841349) which is a maxim that states that Entities ought not be multiplied, except from necessity. In modern There are two general classifications of theories. One covers a large range of ideas and concepts, often referred to as breadth or broad theory. Historically, ancient people attempting to understand their world used broad

theory such as myths by using stories and folktales to explain observed phenomena. Scientists are still attempting to reduce all scientific theories, principles, and laws into a unified field theory (UFT), grand unification theory (GUT), theory of everything (TOE), or come up with the final answer. However, theories based on the laws of gravity, time, conservation, symmetry, relativity, quantum mechanics, etc., are not yet explained in ways that can be incorporated into a general, universal theory of everything. Nature is extremely complex, and humans are still attempting to understand it more fully. In summary, a theory must exhibit the following conditions: 1) It must explain the law from which it was derived; 2) It must in some way be related to the law it challenges; 3) It must be able to predict new, verifiable adjustments to the law or postulate a new law; and 4) it must be stated in such a manner that it can be proven false as well true (validity/true and reliable/repeatability). xxx Introduction vernacular it might be thought of as KISS (keep it simple stupid). In other words, the number of unnecessary assumptions should be avoided in formulating theories and hypotheses. SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES

The word hypothesis comes from the Greek, hypo thesis, meaning placed under or foundation. Somewhat similar to a theory a hypothesis is a more tentative observation of facts. Every scientific law and theory began as an idea, question, or hypothesis. Hypotheses and theories lend themselves to deductions that can be experimentally tested. A hypothesis is a logical and rational explanation of a series of critical observations that have not yet been disproved or proved, nor accepted by the scientific community. Hypotheses are reasonable statements, measurable assumptions, and generalizations drawn from a series of observations and selected facts. In other words, scientists confirm a hypothesis by experiments under controlled conditions, and if the data resulting from the experiments do not support the original hypothesis, it must be altered or discarded. The origins of hypotheses (or concepts) are immaterial. They can be derived from intuitions, dreams, or as ideas arrived at by scientists who have knowledge and understanding of the subject related to the hypothesis. What matters is that the investigator must be familiar with the processes (methods) of scientific research and that the hypothesis is systematically tested to determine consequences. Like theories, hypotheses are products of the informed imaginations of scientists, but they are not wild speculations. Hypotheses are only accepted when tested and confirmed by additional observations by other investigators who conduct their own related experiments. A viable scientific hypothesis must be stated in such a way that it has some chance of being disproved, and proved, and that it conforms to the observed facts (just as with

a theory). Hypotheses can be proved or disproved by continuing observations of the phenomena and additional experimentation. It is the responsibility of the person advancing the hypothesis (or theory) to prove his or her casenot the responsibility of someone else to disprove it, although others can certainly challenge the results and conduct their own related experiments for another persons hypothesis. As an example, it is the responsibility of someone who states as a fact that angels, ghosts, and spirits exist to prove that they are real and actually exist. It is not the responsibility of science to disprove such beliefs (hypotheses). Scientific hypotheses can only answer questions for which answers can be achieved by observing, testing, measuring, gathering data, and statistically treating and analyzing the data. The results become valid and reliable only when others repeat the experiment and obtain similar results. This is why science can deal only with answerable questions. Most questions are not answerable in a scientific sense nor can they be stated as a scientific hypothesis because answers for such questions cannot be measured, or effectively analyzed. For example, the questions: What is the secret of success? or How can I become more popular? or How can I become rich? (One wag suggested that that person acquire more wealth.) These are, scientifically speaking, nonsense questions that dont lend themselves to rational answers. Even so these are the types of questions many people askthe answers just cannot be gleaned by controlled experimentation and the analysis of data. For instance, success is subjective and not the same for everyone. The implies there is only one secret to success. And, if it is a

Introduction xxxi secret, no one knows the answer. Being able to formulate questions that can be answered by conducting controlled experiments by all who wish to investigate nature requires a statistical analysis of data. A scientific hypothesis (also theory, principle, or law) must be changed if new observed facts or experiments contradict or even slightly alter the original statement or data. This self-correcting process is one of the basic reasons that science may some day triumph over ignorance. SCIENCE CONCEPTS A concept is one step above a specific idea. Related to ideas are assumptions (notions) that are based on beliefs in or about something, most often accepted without proof. What counts in science is how ideas are developed into viable concepts, hypotheses, theories, and models that accurately describe nature. Most ideas and concepts people come up with are a dime a dozen and seldom result in anything beneficial. CAUSALITY There is one more concept that can be confusing. It deals with the causes of events on the micro/quanta and macro/universal levels. Causal laws are considered those that can predict and explain empirical and theoretical laws that describe the nature of our known universe. This relationship is usually referred to as cause and effect. Some science philosophers classify causal principles as 1) empirical generalizations from facts based on other facts, 2) a rational interpretation of a required connection between two or more events, and, 3) a cause may be a useful or pragmatic explanation of science. This is what we usually consider as a specific cause (or causes) leading to a specific effect (or effects or events) but may not necessarily be a direct observable connection

between the two. During Sir Isaac Newtons time science was considered a system to describe a mechanistic, deterministic, and reductionist world. Determinism and predictability are not the same. Determinism deals with how nature behaves, particularly nature as we know it within the solar systemit depends on the laws of nature. Predictability is based on what scientists are able to observe, measure, and analyze, as related to outcomes for specific events. To better understand complex nature, scientists attempt to reduce its complexity to more manageable and understandable laws, principles, and theories. We live our everyday lives in a Newtonian mechanistic solar system based on logic, physics, and mathematics, whereas the Einsteinian universe is based on theories of relative space and time in particular perspectives to each other that are not easy to apply on Earth as are Newtonian laws of physics. Why? Because the setting for events on Earth is very small compared to the relational aspects for the frames of reference in space and time of the universe. Einsteins relativistic physics rendered some of Newtons laws of motion only approximations. Newtons laws do not hold up when considered for the immense universe consisting of great space, energies, masses, and velocities in different frames of reference over very great distances of space and time. Historically, all effects or events were assumed to have a cause, or possibly several causes, or to be co-events. We now know that many natural events are described and predicted by statistical probabilities, not mathematical certainties. This is true for very large events in the universe and the very small events as related to subatomic particles and energy. These very small events led to quantum theory and indeterminacy xxxii Introduction

(uncertainty principle) resulting in some problems with the cause-and-effect concept for accepted physical laws. This is one reason scientists think in statistical probabilities rather than what is possible. Probabilities involve measurements to arrive at predictable events, whereas possibilities may or may not lead to an event. No one ever expects an effect to precede a cause. Scientists would say that such a situation is unlikely (with a very low degree of probability), but we never know for sure. In other words, the probability of the effect preceding the cause is practically zero. There are some effects (events) in nature where the cause or causes have not been detected and thus not well understood. This is one reason that the cause-and-effect relationship is not highly thought of by some scientists. The nature of the universe is extremely complex. The universe is about 13 to 14 billion years old, the Earth is about 3.5 to 4 billion years old, and thinking, rational humans have been on Earth for only several hundred thousands of years. Early humans must surely have wondered about the world around them and by observing cycles of nature speculated how things worked and affected them. It has been about five hundred years since humans arrived at a systematic method of asking questions of nature for which rational answers were possible. There are many areas of nature that we do not yet understand, including our own nature and role in the scheme of things. No doubt, we will continue exploring the unknown throughout the twenty-first century and beyond. Introduction xxxiii A ABBES THEORY FOR CORRECTING LENS DISTORTIONS: Physics: Ernst

Abbe (18401905), Germany. The equation for Abbes theory is: u/sin U u/sin U, where u and u are the angles for the entering and exiting of rays from the object to the image, as in a microscope. Ernst Abbe was raised in a poor German family but managed to become a physics professor at the University of Jena (now located in Germany). He also was the director of the universitys observatory and a theoretical optical consultant for the Carl Zeiss instrument company. Up to this time the field of optics was an art, but Abbe brought several viable theories of optics to bear on several problems of the day, for example, chromatic aberrations in lenses. He also worked with Otto Schott, a glassmaker, to improve several optical devices. In 1888 he became the owner of the Carl Zeiss optical company that is known worldwide for its high-quality precision instruments. The Abbe sine condition is a mathematical concept used to make lenses that produce sharper images and less distortion. It is a means to eliminate spherical aberration of an optical system to produce an aplanatic lens (corrected lens). In 1886 Abbe used his mathematical approach to develop apochromatic lenses (corrected for chromatic and spherical aberrations) to eliminate primary and secondary color distortions. The U and U are the corresponding angles of any other rays transmitted. Abbes contributions to the field of optics include several inventions, most notably the Abbe condensing lens to focus light onto microscopic slides, the achromatic lens, the Abbe refractometer, and the prismatic binocular, a design for binoculars that is still used today. His contributions led to the improvement of all of optical instruments, including sharper images with less color distortion for cameras, microscopes, refracting telescopes, spectroscopes, and so forth.

See also Newton ABEGGS RULE AND VALENCE THEORY: Chemistry: Richard Abegg (1869 1910), Poland. Chemical reactions are the result of electron transfer from one atom to another. Richard Abegg attended several universities in Poland and Germany, graduating from the University of Berlin in 1891. He was the pupil of Wilhelm Hofmann, the famous theoretical chemist. Although trained in organic chemistry, Abegg was interested in the physical nature of chemistry. He was working as an electrochemist when he published his famous paper, Die Elektronaffinitat, that explained his theory on the combining power of chemicals (valence). Abegg not only became famous for what became known as the Abegg Rule, but also he arrived at his rule years before the existence of valence for elements was firmly established. His rule and valence theory predated Dmitri Mendeleevs development of the periodicity of elements. The rule stated that each element has a positive valence and a negative valence whose sum is eight. This predated the octet rule for the periodic table. He further theorized that the attraction of electrons for atoms of all elements has two distinct types of similarities or valences, that is, a normal affinity (valence) and a counter affinity (countervalence). His theory that two related valences always add up to eight, published in 1869, is responsible for the octet rule as related to the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements (see Figure S2 under Sidgwick). Abeggs early theories of valence became valuable for later chemists and were used to explain chemical reactions and the organization of the periodic

table. For instance, elements in the groups with just one or two electrons in their outer orbit (metals), when combining with other elements (nonmetals), tend to give up their outer electron(s) and thus attain an outer octet of electrons. Elements with six or seven electrons in their outer orbits tend to acquire electrons to complete their outer octet orbit. The octet rule is just a device to remember the position of some elements in the periodic table, and it is only valid for elements located in the higher periods and groups of the periodic table. The concept of valence has become extremely useful in all fields of chemistry. See also Mendeleev; Newlands; Sidgwick ABELS THEORY OF GROUPS (ABELIAN GROUPS): Mathematics: Niels Henrik Abel (18021829), Norway. Following is a list of Niels Abels notable accomplishments in his short lifetime: 1. In 1824 at age nineteen he proved that there was no general algebraic solution (proof) for roots to solve quintic equations by radicals, or in other polynomial equations of degrees greater than four. 2. In 1826 he published an updated version of this proof in August Leopold Crelles new journal on mathematics. 3. He invented a branch of mathematics known as group theory, for which he has become famous. 4. He did original research in the theory of functions including elliptic and hyperelliptic functions that later became known as the famous abelian functions. 5. He is also known for the abelian group, abelian category, abelian variety, and the abel transformation. Note: these terms are so common in mathematics that they 2 Abeggs Rule and Valence Theory

are expressed with the lower case (a). This is contrary to what one might expect when naming such important mathematical concepts and theories for a person who has received many of the highest honors in his field. The Abel Prize was established in 2001 by the King of Norway on the bicentennial of the birth of Niels Henrik Abel. This prize is awarded annually to an outstanding mathematician and is intended to stimulate interest in mathematics among young scientists and increase the amount of research in the field of mathematics, as well as improve the image of Norway as a nation of learning. The Abel Prize in mathematics is considered on a par with the Swedish Nobel Prize in other fields. Abels theorem is proof of a fundamental theorem on transcendental functions. Abels theorem, and his outstanding theory of elliptical functions,

kept mathematicians busy for the latter part of the nineteenth century. The usefulness of the Abelian group concept in mathematics is based on notations and is sometimes called the commutative group that can be additive or multiplicative. For example: if the group is (G *) a * b b * a, the end product is immaterial. Complete discussion of the Abelian group theory is beyond the scope of this book. ADAMS CONCEPT OF HYDROGENATION: Organic chemistry: Roger Adams (18891971), United States. 1. Additional hydrogenation will take place when hydrogen is added to double bonds of unsaturated molecules of organic substances such as liquid fats and oils. 2. Hydrogenolysis hydrogenation will take place when hydrogen breaks the bonds of organic molecules, permitting a reaction of hydrogen with the molecular fragments. The first type of hydrogenation led to the formation of solid or semisolid fats from liquid oils, and the second process is used in hydrocracking petroleum or adding hydrogen to coal molecules to increase its heat output. In the early 1900s Roger Adams ideas resulted in the successful hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds by catalyzing them with finely powdered platinum and palladium metals under heat. It is similar to the process of reduction in organic chemistry that led to the hydrogenation of many of our fuels and foods, where liquid oils are converted to semisolid oils or fats. Niels Henrik Abels story is that of a twenty-six-year-old geniuss life of rags-to-rags. He was born into a large

family with six male siblings whose father was a poor Protestant minister in a church in Christiansand, a diocese in Norway. At age fifteen Niels proved to have a remarkable knack for understanding complicated mathematical principles. He was only age eighteen when the breadwinner of the family died, leaving the family to live in miserable conditions. A small government pension provided Niels an opportunity to attend the local cathedral school in Christiania in 1821. In 1825 he was awarded another state scholarship that enabled him to visit France for ten months where he became friends with many mathematicians. He briefly visited Germany where he met local mathematicians. As he was unable to secure a paying job, he ran out of money and had to return to Norway. Even after mastering a number of remarkable developments in the field of mathematics that few other mathematicians understood, Niels remained in a life of poverty as he sought, through the assistance of a friend, a position at the University of Berlin. The letter appointing him to this position by his friend, the amateur mathematician August Crelle, to whose journal Abel contributed several publications, arrived two days after his early death from tuberculosis on April 6, 1829. Adams Concept of Hydrogenation 3

The hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds is used in industrial processes that result in many of todays most popular products. Some examples are the synthesis of liquid fuels; the production of several alcohols, including methanol; the production of aldehydes and benzene derivatives; the synthesis of nylon; the hydrogenation process of peanut butter to make a smooth spread without the separation of the peanut oil; and hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils to form margarine. Hydrogenation is also used to form solid petroleum fuels and some semisolid medications. The second type of hydrogenation led to an increase in the production of petroleum products from crude oil, such as gasoline. ADHEMARS ICE AGE THEORY: Astronomy: Joseph Alphonse Adhemar (1797 1862), France. Because Earth tilts 23.5% from its ecliptic (the orbital plane of Earth around the sun), the Southern Hemisphere receives about two hundred fewer hours of sunlight per year. Therefore, more ice accumulates on Antarctica than at the North Pole. In 1842, Joseph Adhemar proposed his theory, the first to provide a reasonable answer to the questions as to the causes of the ice ages. His theory is based on evidence gained from astronomical events expressed in his book Les Revolutions da la mer published in 1842. He was the first to propose that natural astronomical occurrences might be responsible for the ice ages and, by implication, global warming/cooling cycles. He realized that Earth is just one focal point in its elliptical orbit around the sun, which means that Earth is farther away from the sun in July. In addition, Earths axis does not always point in the same direction in space; rather, it slowly rotates in a small circular orbit approximately every twenty-six thousand years (called precession). These astronomical

factors, plus the inclination of Earth, cause the winters to be slightly longer for the Southern Hemisphere. Due to the tilt of Earth on its axis the South Pole receives about 170 to 200 fewer hours of sunlight than does the North Pole. Adhemar claimed these differences were adequate explanations for the extensive ice build-up at the South Pole. It might be mentioned that during the current global warming trend, unlike the North Pole, the South Pole is still building up its ice sheet, which Adhemar claimed contributed to the ice age. However, many scientists today do not completely agree with his theory. See also Agassiz; Kepler AGASSIZS GEOLOGICAL THEORIES: Geology: Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (18071873), Switzerland. Agassizs glacier theory: The movement of glaciers created scratch marks in rocks, smoothed over vast areas of the terrain, gouged out great valleys, carried large boulders over long distances, and left piles of dirt, soil, and debris called moraines. In 18361837 Jean Agassiz arrived at the new idea that glaciers in his native Switzerland were not static when he realized that a hut on a glacier had moved over a period of years. He then constructed a line across a glacier and noted that after a year it had moved. After discovering rocks and scars in the landscape that he found under the glacier, he concluded that much of Northern Europe had at one time been covered with ice. This led to his theory of the cause and effect of glaciers. As a keen observer 4 Adhemars Ice Age Theory of geological phenomena he believed there was evidence of glaciers where none now exists. After his theory was published in 1840, he was invited to the United States in

1846 as a lecturer where he speculated that North America had also experienced the effects of glaciers. He further speculated that ice sheets and glaciers formed at the same time in most of the continents. Agassizs second glacier theory: Glacier ice sheets had movements that included advancements as well as periods of retreat, which correspond to the ice ages. Jean Agassizs work led to the concept that glaciers were the result of the ice age. As the ice sheets that covered Earth melted in the warmer zones, great deposits of compact ice were deposited in the colder regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. These ice masses, now called glaciers, moved slowly toward the warmer areas, and they continue to move even today. Periodic ice ages, some much smaller than the original frozen Earth period, formed, advanced, and retreated over many millions of years. Ice ages on Earth are considered normal cyclic occurrences. Previous to Agassizs glacier theories, scientists assumed glaciers were caused by icebergs. In fact, the opposite is true, icebergs are caused by the calving of huge chunks off the edges of glaciers that extend into lakes and oceans. Agassiz, sometimes known as the father of glaciology, also made contributions to evolutionary development through his study and classification of the fossils of freshwater fish. Agassizs theory of fossils and evolution: The lowest forms of organisms were found in rock strata located at the lowest levels of rock formations. Before Agassiz devised his theory, William Smith (17691839), the English surveyor and amateur geologist, proposed that fossils found in older layers of sedimentary rocks were much older than the more modern-appearing fossils located

in sediments laid down in more recent geological times. This concept answered some of the questions about the evolution of species because the ages of fossil plants and animals now could be determined by their placement in the rock strata. This information led to Agassizs more formal theory on the subject. Agassiz at first did not believe in evolution but later did accept the concept of evolution while still rejecting Darwins theory of natural selection because it required long, gradual periods of change. Oddly, Agassizs studies of fossils were used to support Darwins theory of natural selection. Agassiz accepted and expanded on Georges Cuviers catastrophism theory of evolution, which postulated periods of rapid environmental changes, not natural selection, as the basis of evolution. William Smith was born in 1769 on a small farm and received little formal education. His interest was in collecting

and studying fossils while he learned geometry. By age eighteen he worked as an assistant to the master surveyor, Edward Webb. This enabled him to travel extensively in England and led to his supervision of the digging of the Somerset Canal in southern England. The digging of the canal provided Smith with an opportunity to observe the fossils found in the sedimentary rock. He noticed that older-appearing fossils were always found in the older, deeper layer of rocks. This led to the principle that The layers of sedimentary rocks in any given location contain fossils in a definite sequence. In other words, the same sequence can be found in different geographic locations, thus providing a correlation between locations. Smiths career expanded, and he became a well-known engineer who developed a complete geological map of England and Wales. He had difficulty in raising funds to publish his map, but it was finally published in 1815. A biography of William Smith by Simon Winchester titled The Map That Changed The World The Birth of Modern Geology was published in 2001 by HarperCollins. The books cover is a unique expandable geological map of the below-surface geological structure of Great Britain. Agassizs Geological Theories 5

More recent uses of Agassizs theories of ice ages and stratification of fossils should give pause to many claims that modern society is responsible for global warming and an increase in the extinction of plants and animal. Both processes have been occurring over eons of time as cycles in the cooling and heating of Earth and the rate of plant and animal extinction due to natural environmental changes. Although humans certainly influence and alter their environment, just as do all living organisms, which in turn result in some evolutionary changes, there are multiple causes and influences on these two interrelated natural cycles. These cycles most likely will continue long after the human species is extinct. See also Adhemar; Agricola; Charpentier; Cuvier; Darwin; EldredgeGould; Gould; Lyell; Raup AGRICOLAS THEORIES OF EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES: Geology (Mineralogy, Metallurgy): Georgius Agricola (14941555), Germany. Agricolas original name was Georg Bauer, but he followed the custom of the time and chose the Latin name, Georgius Agricola. Agricola means farmer while his original name meant peasant. In the 1540s Agricolas studies based on his observations of minerals and stratified layers of rock led to several geological theories. Agricolas theory of stratification: Stratified forms of rocks are the arrangement and relationships of different layers of sedimentary rocks as formed during earthquakes, floods, and volcanoes. The planes between different strata (layers) assist in determining not only the source of the sedimentary rocks but also the areas local history. In addition, the fossil content found in different strata provides a record of the biological and geological history of

Earth. Today, the study of stratification is called stratigraphy, which is the branch of geology that studies the different layers of rock. Agricolas stratification system, though primitive, proved useful as one means of identifying the location and sources of petroleum. Agricolas theory of earthquakes and volcanoes: Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by subterranean (below ground level) gases and vapors originating deep in Earth, where they are heated and then escape to the surface. A keen observer and practicing physician specializing in miners diseases, Agricolas main interest was minerals, known in those days as metals. In 1546 he was one of the first to classify minerals according to their physical properties, such as color, weight, and texture. He believed these minerals/metals originated deep in the underground and were brought to the surface by earthquakes and volcanoes. Agricola was also known as a paleontologist for his

Although later scientists disputed some of his ideas and subsequently revised his theories, Agricolas publications were used in the field of geology for over two hundred years. His most famous book De re metallica (1556) provided much new information on mining and metallurgy, including mine management, how to use windmill-driven pumps, and how to derive power from water wheels. He updated the process required for working with metals. Much of the information in his writings, as was other knowledge of the Middle Ages, was derived from antiquity and Arabic scholars. Interestingly, in 1912 President H. Hoover and his wife Lou translated Agricolas book into English. It is still available. In 1546 Agricola published De ortu et causis subterraneorum (Origins and Causes of Subterranean Things) in which he updated the concept of rock juices as subterranean fluids. Also in 1546 he published, De natura fossilium, which was a new classification system of minerals (called fossils in those days) that was based on a minerals physical properties such as color, weight, texture, solubility, combustibility, etc. 6 Agricolas Theories of Earthquakes and Volcanoes work with objects found in the soil, including fossils, gemstones, and even gallstones. He is sometimes referred to as the father or founder of mineralogy and the science of

geology because he was among the first to describe fossils as once-living organisms. AIRYS CONCEPTS OF GEOLOGIC EQUILIBRIUM: Geology and Astronomy: Sir George Biddell Airy (18011892), England. Airy, along with other scientists, proposed two theories of equilibrium as expressed in geological structures. Airys first theory of geologic equilibrium: Mountains must have root structures of a lower density in proportion to their heights in order to maintain their isostasy (equilibrium). Isostasy is Airys theory that there is a proportional balance between the height of mountains as compared to the distribution of the root structure or mass underneath the mountain. He claimed this equilibrium resulted in a balance of hydrostatic pressure for the formation of mountains. It became an important concept in geology and aided in the exploration of minerals and gas and oil deposits. Although his theory has been revised, it was a step in the right direction in understanding the dynamics involved in geological systems. Shortly after graduation from Cambridge University in 1819 he wrote several successful textbooks in mathematics and optics. He later became a professor of astronomy and the director of the Cambridge Observatory where he developed several innovative instruments. These include a type of altazimuth device for lunar observations, a transit circle, and a new equatorial telescope with a spectroscope. He also devised an optical device with a central hole (called the Airy disk) to examine diffraction patterns of a point source of light. His second theory deals with internal water waves and is based on ideas expressed by Vagn Walfrid Ekman (18741954). Airys second theory of equilibrium: In areas where the sea is covered with a thin layer

of freshwater, energy is generated by internal waves and is radiated away from ships, which subsequently produces a drag on ships. Because this slows the ships progress, it is known as dead water. One area where freshwater and seawater are at different levels, which causes these internal waves to drag on ships, is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea at Gibraltar. AL-BATTANIS THEORIES: Astronomy: Abu Abdullah Al-Battani (c.858929), Mesopotamia (presentday Iraq). Abu Abdullah Al-Battani developed various theories after improving measurements completed by Ptolemy of Alexandria. A story from World War II pertains to the fact that the water in the Mediterranean Sea has a higher salt content due to evaporation than does the water in the Atlantic Ocean. Because the Mediterraneans water is saltier and thus denser, it flows out past the Strait of Gibraltar near the bottom of the Strait into the Atlantic Ocean. At the

same time, the less salty (less dense) Atlantic Ocean water flows into the Mediterranean near the surface. It was suggested that when submarines wished to avoid detection as they passed through the fortified Strait of Gibraltar they drifted quietly in the less dense water into the Mediterranean near the surface. When submarines wished to leave without being detected, they drifted quietly in the more dense water near the bottom as they were carried past the protected Gibraltar and into the Atlantic. By using the difference in density of saltwater in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea submarines could apply the Airy waves concept to their advantage. The success of this tactic remains unknown. Al-Battanis Theories 7 Al-Battanis theory of solar perigee: Solar perigee equations demonstrate slow variations over time. Al-Battani determined that the suns perigee (the point at which the sun is closest to Earth in Earths elliptical path around the sun) is greater than Ptolemys measurement by a difference of over 16_470. Although Al-Battani admired Ptolemy, he improved on several of Ptolemys calculations, including the ecliptic of Earths orbit to its equatorial plane. Al-Battanis theory of the Earths ecliptic: The inclination of the angle of Earths equatorial plane to its orbital plane is 23_350. This figure is very close to the current measurement. The ecliptic for Earth can also

be thought of as the apparent yearly path of the sun as Earth revolves around it. In other words, it is the angle of tilt of Earth to its solar orbital plane that is the major cause of our four seasonsnot how close Earth is to the sun. The Northern Hemisphere is tilted more toward the sun during the summer, thus receiving more direct sunlight for more daylight hours than in the winter, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun. The situation is reversed for the Southern Hemisphere. Al-Battanis theory of the length of the year: The solar year is 365 days, 5 hours, and 24 seconds. Al-Battanis calculations are very close to the actual figure of 365.24220 days that is accepted today. This led to more exact recalculations for the dates of the spring and fall equinoxes. The dates for the equinoxes and the accuracy for the length of the year were important for various religions of the world that base many of their holy days on the seasons and these particular dates. Al-Battanis concept of the motion of the moon: It is possible to determine the acceleration of the motion of the Moon by measuring the lunar and solar eclipses. Al-Battani was able to time the lunar and solar eclipses and thus able to extrapolate this figure to calculate the speed of the moon in its orbit. He also devised a theory for determining the visibility of the new moon. Albategnius, an eighty-mile plane surface area on Earths moon surrounded by high mountains, is named for Al-Battani. Al-Battanis concepts of two trigonometric ratios: 1) Sines (which he formulated) were demonstrated as more practical and superior to the use of Greek chords. (A chord is a line segment that intersects a curve only at the end of the curve.) 2) Cotangents are the reciprocal of tangents. Considering the period in history during which Al-Battaini lived, his contributions

to astronomy and mathematics are extremely innovative and accurate. Al-Battani devised tables for the use of sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents, which are invaluable for modern algebra and trigonometry. Copernicus credited Al-Battani with advancing astronomy based on his work in trigonometry and algebra. For many years, Al-Battanis contributions to science and mathematics were considered preeminent and advanced the cause of knowledge over the next several centuries. He is sometimes referred to by his Latin name, Albategnius. ALVAREZS HYPOTHESES OF SUBATOMIC COLLISIONS: Physics: Luis Walter Alvarez (19111988); United States. Luis Walter Alvarez was awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physics. Alvarez K-capture hypothesis: The vacant inner K shell will capture an orbital electron as the electron moves from an outer shell to the innermost K shell of the atom. 8 Alvarezs Hypotheses of Subatomic Collisions Luis Alvarezs discovery of the number of high-energy nuclear collisions of subatomic particles was the result of his developing a liquidhydrogen bubble chamber. This bubble chamber was able to detect the decay of nuclei of atoms using the procedure known as K-capture of the orbiting electrons from the innermost orbit (K shell or orbit) of atoms. He also worked on the World War

II Manhattan Project where he developed the device for detonating the atomic bomb. In addition, he held over thirty patents, including those for unique radar systems. His large, seventy-two-inch bubble chamber first used in 1959 contributed to the discovery of many elementary subatomic particles. Along with his son, Walter Alvarez (1940), and several other geologists, he arrived at what is known as the Alvarez asteroid impact theory in 1980. The theory states that an asteroid about ten miles in diameter struck Earth approximately sixty-five million years ago with an impact that sent debris into the atmosphere that blocked the sun and caused worldwide storms, acid rain, and other chemical changes in Earths air. Other conditions, such as fires and high winds, along with the many volcanoes present at that time, contributed to the disruption in the balance of the environment resulting in a cooling period during which much of the plant life was wiped out. This loss of plant life killed off the herbivores (animals that survive on plants) and subsequently the carnivores (meat eaters) that needed the herbivores as a food source. Thus, with their food supplies eradicated, all species of dinosaurs suffered

extinction, that is the herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. AMBARTSUMIANS THEORY OF STELLAR ASSOCIATIONS: Astronomy: Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian (also known as Ambarzsumian Ambarzumyan) (1908 1996), Armenia-Russia. Star systems, including galaxies, form cluster type associations as they evolve. Ambartsumian was a professor of astrophysics at the University of Leningrad and later at the University at Yerevan in Armenia. He established the Byurakan Astronomical Observatory in 1946 when he did most of his work in the evolution of galaxies and star clusters. His main interest was the cosmogony of stars and galaxies and nebulas. There is considerable evidence for this catastrophic event. A 120-mile-wide crater, known as the Chicxulub impact crater is located at the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico. There is evidence that this impact caused huge tsunamis in the area. (It might be mentioned that another huge asteroid hit Earth at about the same time in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Bombay, India. It is called the Shiva Crater after the Hindu god of destruction and renewal.) Additional evidence for the Chicxulub Crater is known as the K-T layer of sedimentary deposits. This is a strip of clay with a relatively high concentration of iridium brought to Earth by the asteroid. (Note: the K stands for Kreide, which is German for cretaceous, and the T stands for tertiary, that are the two geological

periods between which the clay strip of sediment is found.) Other evidences of the ancient event are the discovery of several rare earth elements (siderophiles), particularly the rare earth iridium, as well as tektites that are also found in the region. Tektites are quartz grains that were vaporized by extreme heat and pressure that crystallize into glass beads when cooled. Tektites result from high-impact meteorites, asteroids, and bolides. Many tektites are found in the K-T layer. Other evidence of the impact are layers of quartz and glass beads found at the crater sites. Ambartsumians Theory of Stellar Associations 9 His work on stellar dynamics led to his theory of stellar associations that is based on loose groups of young hot stars that are located near the disk-shaped plane of our Milky Way galaxy. This association occurs only with young stars that are just a few million years old. As they age over many millions of years, the galaxys gravity will separate them from their relatively close association sending them further apart from each other. This seems to be evidence that new star formation in our galaxy is ongoing. Ambartsumian was the first to propose that the T Tauri type stars are very young and are found in groupings (clusters) that are expanding. In addition, he demonstrated that as galaxies evolve, they lose mass. During his long career he also explored the nature of interstellar matter and the radio signals emitted by galaxies. A small planet was recently named for Ambartsumian, as was a dwarf galaxy located in the constellation Ursa Major, referred to as Ambartsumains Knot.

AMDAHLS LAW: Computer Science: Gene Myron Amdahl (1922), United States. Amdahls law of parallel computing can be stated in several ways, but it is basically a law related to the acceleration of computers from using just a single computer to multiple parallel computers. The law is used to find the maximum expected improvement to an entire system when only one part of the system is known. A simple statement of the law is: Parallel computing that performs speedup of a parallel algorithm is limited by the fraction of the problem that must be performed sequentially, which is to say that a design is only as strong as its weakest link. In essence, this means it is not the number of computers involved that is the limiting factor, but rather it is the algorithm that cannot speedup beyond limits of the paralleling. The term speedup is defined as the time it takes a computer program to execute a program with just one processor, divided by the time it takes to execute the program in parallel using many processors. The formula for speedup is: S the speedup. The T(1) is the time required to execute the program with a single computer, while the T(J)

is the time required to execute the program using a (J) multiple number of computers in parallel. Amdahl worked for IBM in developing the famous IBM 704, 709, and 7030 mainframe super computers. In Sandia National Laboratory located in Livermore, California, is one of three U.S. Defense Program Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy. The other two are Los Alamos in New Mexico where the Manhattan Project created the first two atomic nuclear fission bombs, and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California where the fission-type atomic bomb technology was advanced to nuclear fusion used by the much more powerful hydrogen bomb (H-bomb). These labs, although owned by the federal government are managed and operated by contract to private corporations. The Lockheed Martin Corporation operates the Sandia facilities. The Sandia laboratory has four major responsibilities, all related to meeting national security needs. These four functions are 1) ensuring the safety, reliability, and security of the nations nuclear weapons; 2) reducing the nations vulnerability to other nations use of weapons of mass destruction; 3) improving and

enhancing critical infrastructures, in particular energy; and, 4) addressing any new or possible threats to the nations security. Following World War II these Department of Energy laboratories have expanded their responsibilities and assumed the major role in providing integrated systems and engineering support for nuclear weapons and the explosive core used to fire these weapons, and to ensure the nations security from nuclear attacks. 10 Amdahls Law 1970 when IBM did not accept his idea for a new super computer, he left the company and established the Amdahl Corporation located in California. He later founded other related corporations in California. The Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California, question the validity of Amdahls law when dealing with massive ensembles of parallel computers. The equation for Amdahls law may need some revision for the new hypercube-type processors. AMP_ERES THEORIES OF ELECTRODYNAMICS: Physics: Andr_e-Marie Amp_ere (17751836), France. Amp_ere came from a wealthy French merchants family who hired a private tutor for his education. He was mainly a self-taught young genius who early in life showed talent for mathematics. He taught mathematics in several universities and was honored by Napoleon who in 1808 appointed him as the inspector general of the newly formed French university system. In 1820 his interest was aroused at a demonstration of the emerging field of electricity. He was inspired to learn more and just a week later was

performing his own experiments to explore the nature of electricity. In the early 1820s Amp_ere based his theories of electrodynamics on how electric currents influence each other and how they interact with magnetism. Amp_eres theory of flowing current and magnetism: When two parallel wires carry current in the same direction, they will attract each other. And if the current flows in opposite directions in the two parallel wires, they will repel each other. Amp_ere related this attraction/repulsion concept to the two poles of magnets, which led to his famous laws developed in 1825. Amp_eres law, part I: The force of the electric current between two wires (or conductors) will exhibit the inverse square law, which states that the force decreases with the square of the distance between the two conductors, and that the force will be proportional to the product of the two currents. Amp_eres law, part II: When there is an electric charge in motion, there will be a magnetic field associated with that motion. Amp_eres law is related to induction, which can be expressed as the equation: db k A dl sin y/r2, where A is the current and k is a proportional factor based on either the cm (centimeter) or m (meter) units of the SI system. db is the increase in the strength of the magnetic field due to an infinitesimal increment dl in the length of the current element (a wire carrying the current A); y is the angle between the current elements;

and r is the distance from the element of wire to the part where the field is measured. (Note: the symbol for electrical current may be A or I, depending on the convention used.) Amp_ere devised another law related to the magnetic effects of flowing electrical current in curved wires. Amp_eres circuital law: The magnetic intensity of a curved or enclosed loop of wire is the sum of the current and can be determined by considering the sum of the Figure A1. Amp_eres Law. For both examples, the strength of the magnetic fields generated between the wires decreases with the square of the distance between the wires. Amp_eres Theories of Electrodynamics 11 magnetic field for each segment of the loop. (This is similar to Gausss magnetic law for closed surfaces.) The equation for the circuital law is B(r) _ 2p r mA (B is the magnetic field at the center of the loop, r is the radius of the loop, p and m are constants, and A [or upper case letter I] is the electric current). This law measures the strength of the magnetic field in a solenoid and determines the strength of the field in electromagnets used in electric generators and motors.

The unit of electrical current known as an ampere or amp was named after Amp_ere and is given the symbol of A or I. Amp_ere rule: The unit of electric current flowing through parallel, straight, long wires in a vacuum produces a force between the wires of 2 _ 10_7 N (newtons) for every meter of wire through which the current flows. In other words, it is the measure of the amount of electrical current flowing through a wire. As an analogy, consider amps similar to the amount of water flowing through a pipe every second. Another way to think of an amp (A) is to count the number of electrons that cross a particular point while flowing through a conductor (wire). The rule also states: One amp equals 6 _ 1018 electrons passing this point every second. Electrical appliances are rated according to the number of amps (current) they use (e.g., a TV set uses 3 to 8 amps, a small motor about 2 to 5 amps, a 100-watt light bulb about 1 amp, an electric stove between 10 and 25 amps, or more) (see also Faraday; Galvani; Oersted; Ohm; Maxwell). There is another Amp_ere rule that states: The direction of the magnetic field surrounding a conductor will be clockwise when viewed from the conductor if the direction of the current flow is away from the observer (also commonly known as the righthand grip rule).

ANAXIMANDERS CONCEPTS AND IDEAS: Natural Philosophy: Anaximander of Miletus (c.611547 BCE), Greece and Turkey. Although Anaximanders writings were lost, his many original concepts and ideas were well known and reported by other Greek philosopher/ scientists. Following are some of his original concepts: 1. Anaximander contested his mentors (Thales of Miletus) Figure A2. The right hand rule indicates the direction of the magnetic field as related to the direction of the flow of current. Amp_eres contributions advanced the development of many practical industrial devices that make our lives more enjoyable and easier. For example, he suggested his discovery could be used to send signals, which, over time, became a reality (e.g., telegraph, the radio, TV). Others, including Faraday and Oersted, used Amp_eres laws to construct the dynamo (electric generator) and the electric motor. A more recent application is the experimental

nuclear fusion project to generate heat for the production of electricity. This process requires very strong magnets to produce the pinch effect that will contain and concentrate the hot plasma gases required for the application of nuclear fusion. However, controlled nuclear fusion to produce electricity has yet to be developed to the point where it is practical. Strong electromagnets are also important for the operation of particle accelerators and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) medical diagnostic instruments. 12 Anaximanders Concepts and Ideas assertion that water was the main substance (element) on Earth. Anaximander stated that basic matter is indefinite. This led to the Greek atomists concept of the indivisible atom of matter. 2. The Earth does not rest on a body of water, as believed by many in his day. Rather, it is not supported by anything, but it is in equilibrium with other bodies in the universe. 3. He was the first to use a sundial (in Greece) to determine the spring and fall equinoxes. 4. He was the first philosopher/scientist to propose a theory for the origin of humans, as well as how Earth was formed. 5. He determined that the surface of Earth was curved but thought that its shape was similar to a cylinder, not a sphere. 6. Earths axis was oriented east and west within the cylinder. Anaximander was

the first to draw a map of the entire world as known in his day. ANDERSONS POSITRON THEORY: Physics: Carl D. Anderson (19051991), United States. Carl Anderson shared the 1936 Nobel Prize with Victor Franz Hess, who discovered cosmic rays. Cosmic rays passing through a cloud chamber produce tracks of negative particles deflected in one direction (electrons), while producing tracks of particles with equal curvature and equal mass in the opposite direction. Both are deflected by a magnetic field. These particles can be only positive-type electrons. Thus, they are new elementary particles called a positron. In 1932 Carl Andersons concept of a positive electron (positron) was verified by Patrick Blackett (18971974) and Giuseppe Occhialini (19071993). This conclusion was arrived at by basing it on Paul Diracs (19021984) theory, that the positron was the equivalent in mass but opposite in charge to the electron. Thus, it is an antiparticle, and when considered by itself, it is stable. However, when a positron collides with an electron, they annihilate each other to form a photon (quantum unit of light). In the early 1930s this discovery was followed by nuclear physicists realizing that the nuclei of an unstable element (radioactive nuclei) consists primarily of neutrons and protons and will, during radioactive decay, produce four (instead of the previously thought three) basic particles, namely, 1) the alpha particle (similar to a helium nucleus); 2) the beta particle (similar to a negative electron); 3) the positron (similar to an electron, but with a positive charge); and 4) the gamma ray (similar to a high energy X-ray). The positron is considered antimatter instead of normal matter that led to speculations that there might possibly be an anti-universe somewhere consisting of antimatter.

This is just thatspeculation, not a proven fact. Anderson later discovered what is called the mu-meson that was predicted by Hideki Yukawa. It is now called the muon whose nature and role in nuclear physics are not yet completely understood. Andersons use of the cloud chamber and his discovery of two new particles opened the path to the exploration and understanding of numerous subnuclear particles. See also Dirac; Yukawa ANDERSONS THEORIES AND MODEL: Theoretical Physics: Philip Warren Anderson (1923), United States. Philip Anderson shared the 1977 Nobel Prize in Andersons Theories and Model 13 Physics with John Van Vleck and Neville Mott for investigations of the electronic structure of disordered magnetic systems as related to semiconductors. Andersons superexchange theory: This theory explains how the different spins of magnetic atoms in a crystal interact with nonmagnetic atoms that are between the magnetic atoms within the crystal. This theory led to theoretical statements related to superconductors and antimagnetism. Andersons model describes what

takes place when a metal, particularly a semiconductor, acts when impure atoms are present. This is of importance to the modern semiconductor industry because the semiconductors capacity is dependent on the type and amount of impure atoms present in the semiconducting element such as silicon and germanium. Andersons localization is based on the idea that extended states of matter be localized by the presence of disorder in a particular system. Again, this deals with impurities in crystals as related to superfluidity and superconductivity at extremely low temperatures. This is related to the unique characteristic of heavy helium (H-3) at low temperatures that behaves in an unusual fashion by climbing up and over the sides of a beaker when at near absolute temperatures. The AndersonHamiltonian theory describes how electrons behave in a metal undergoing a transition phase. Andersons work in quantum relationships as to how the structure of magnetic and electronic structures affect disordered systems provided the information needed for the development of electronic switching and magnetic memory disks used in modern computers. A NGSTROMS PRINCIPLE OF SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AND RELATED

THEORIES: Astronomy and Physics: Anders Jonas A ngstrom (18141874), Sweden. A ngstrom grew up in a simple home in Sweden where his father was a chaplain. He studied and taught physics at the University of Uppsala. He received his doctorate from the university in 1839 followed by a professorship and in 1858 became chairman of the universitys physics department. In 1853 A ngstrom published Optical Investigations where he compiled a list of his measurements of over one thousand atomic spectra lines that were visible for both the gas and the types of electrodes used in the analysis. This work led to his principle Philip Warren Anderson was born on December 13, 1923, and raised on a farm in Crawfordville, Indiana (near Indianapolis). He grew up during the Great Depression. His family moved to Urbana, Illinois, where he attended school. His grandparents and parents were educated and had many friends who were scientists. As a young man, Anderson did extensive reading and was influenced by a high school mathematics teacher. After graduation from the university high school in Urbana he received a national scholarship to Harvard. During the war years of 1940 to 1943 he majored in electronic physics and in 1943 was employed by the Naval Research Laboratory to work on the then-secret radar project. Anderson attended graduate school in 1945 1949 where he made many friends and studied with

some famous physicists. In 1949 to 1984 he worked in Bell Labs (now Lucent Technologies that was acquired by the Alcatel Corporation) and is still a consultant to the lab. In 1967 he became a professor of theoretical physics at Cambridge University, and in 1977, along with two other scientists, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Philip Anderson is well known for his works in magnetic superconductivity and quantum disorder in systems and related areas. He has received many awards over the years. 14 A ngstroms Principle of Spectrum Analysis and Related Theories related to spectrum analysis that states: A hot gas will emit light at exactly the same wavelength at which it absorbs light when cooler. This principle was formulated from his work with spectral analysis and led to his analysis of the suns light spectrum. In 1868 he published Researches on the Solar Spectrum based on his observations leading to his conclusion that hydrogen gas is present in the sun because it showed up in his analysis of the suns spectrum. This work enabled him to demonstrate that the spectra of alloy metals are of a composite nature. In other words, the metals that compose the alloys show up in the analysis as unique individual spectral lines. He was also the first to view and analyze the spectrum of the aurora borealis, also known as the northern lights. ARAGOS WAVE THEORY OF LIGHT AND ARAGOS DISK: Physics: Dominique

Francois Jean Arago (17861853), France. After discovering chromatic polarization of light in 1811, Arago investigated the idea proposed by the French physicist A. J. Fresnel that light was a wave. This was contrary to the theory of other physicists of the day, including Pierre de Laplace and JeanBaptiste Biot, that light was of a corpuscular nature and required a medium (the aether or ether) through which to travel. Arago set up an experiment to prove the theory that light travels through air and media with different densities in waves. He did this by measuring the speed of light in air and water. Later, after Aragos death, Jean Foucault and Armand Fizeau proved his theory correct. Today, light is considered both a wave and particle (photon), and there is no aether in space. Arago also discovered how to produce magnetism by wrapping a wire that is carrying electricity around a cylindrical piece of iron. This discovery led to the development of the electric motor, the dynamo, solenoid, and other modern electrical devices. Aragos disk was a device consisting of a copper disk suspended above, but in close proximity to, a compass. When the disk is spinning, it deflects the compass needle. This is another example of the phenomenon known as Amp_eres electric/magnetic induction. Arago was interested in astronomy and discovered the suns chromosphere and assisted Urbain Leverrier (18111877) in the discovery of Neptune. In his later life instead of continuing his work in physics, he became involved in politics. He was the government official most responsible for the abolishment of slavery in most of the French colonies. See also Amp_ere; Fizeau; Foucault; Fresnel ARBERS CONCEPT OF THE STRUCTURE OF DNA: Microbiology: Werner

Arber (1929), Switzerland and the United States. Werner Arber and two other microbiologists (Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith) received the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Arber was born in Switzerland and graduated from two major universities in his home nation before attending the University of Southern California. He returned to Geneva, Switzerland, where he served as professor of microbiology from 1960 to 1970. He experimented with bacteriophages (a form of virus) that invade bacteria and may cause hereditary mutations in the host bacteria, as well as undergo similar mutations themselves. Arbers main concept proposed in 1962 relates to the use of a specialized enzyme that can destroy invading phage viruses by cutting up and separating their DNA Arbers Concept of the Structure of DNA 15 molecules into smaller pieces. Further, these restriction enzymes always attack the DNA at precise and predictable locations on the molecule, which allows the smaller strands of DNA to be reformed in combinations during what is now called genetic engineering. This is possible because the bits of DNA that are separated are somewhat sticky and can be made to combine with other sticky bits of DNA at different sites on molecules. This process is used in the treatment of genetic diseases (although not always successfully), the cloning of plants and animals (also not always successfully), the use of DNA as evidence in legal proceedings, and the mapping of genes in the Human Genome Project. The main benefit of Arbers discovery is its use as a tool for further

genetic research. The benefits of genetic engineering are mixed, and much research is still needed to make all its promises a reality. See also Delbruck; Lederberg ARCHIMEDES THEORIES: Mathematics: Archimedes of Syracuse (c.287212 BCE), Greece. Archimedes was an accomplished theoretical and applied mathematician who developed thought experiments to test some of his ideas and then expressed their results mathematically. He actually did not conduct controlled experiments as we think of the process today. Only a few of his many theories and accomplishments are explored. Archimedes theory of perfect exhaustion (calculation of pi): Archimedes was not the first to recognize the consistency of the ratio of the diameter to the circumference for all circles or to attempt the calculation of pi as this ratio has became known. Objects of differing shapes and how their dimensions were related intrigued ancient Stone Age people. They realized straight lines do not exist in nature and recognized curved lines in the shape of rocks, plants, animals, and other objects. By about 2000 BCE humans recognized and roughly calculated the relationship of a circles measurement in the sense that the larger the circle, the greater is its circumference. By the era of the ancient Greeks, mathematicians understood this ratio was consistent for all circles because they measured and compared the diameters and perimeters of various circles. Soon after, this constant irrational number was given the Greek symbol p (pi). Using his knowledge of the geometry of many-sided plane figures, such as squares and multiple polygons, Archimedes proposed his theory of perfect exhaustion, which he demonstrated by drawing a circle and inscribing several polygons on the inside and outside of the circles circumference. At first, he used polygons with just a few sides.

Later he used multiple polygons with as many as ninety-six or more sides. This is often referred to as perfect exhaustion because Aristotle used polygons with larger numbers of sides. Theoretically, a polygon with an infinite number of sides could be used. Through the use of geometry and fractions, Archimedes measured the inside polygons and compared them with the measured outside polygons. He concluded that the polygons Figure A3. Artists example of Archimedes using geometry for Perfect Exhaustion to estimate pi. 16 Archimedes Theories touching the circle on its outside circumference (perimeter) were slightly larger than pi and that the polygons touching the inside of the rim of the circle were slightly smaller than pi. Therefore, pi must be a value somewhere between these two measurements. His value for pi was 3.14163, which he calculated as the figure between the inner and outer polygons (310/71 < p > 31/7). His figure for pi has been used for many hundreds of years and was developed by using Euclidean plane geometry. This method of using geometry to calculate pi has physical limitations for arriving at the correct ratio. Later mathematicians used algebra, which enabled the calculation of a more accurate

value for pi. With the invention of fast computers, pi has been run off to several hundred thousand decimal places in a few hours. Yet one could run off pi on a computer forever and still never reach a final number to make pi come out even, because it is an irrational number. Archimedes theory for the volume of spheres: The volume of a sphere is two-thirds the volume of a cylinder that circumscribes (surrounds) the sphere. It is said that Archimedes wanted this theorem inscribed on his tombstone. Historically, measuring the volume of a sphere was difficult, whereas measuring the volume of a cylinder was easy. Therefore, if one knew the volume of a cylinder that surrounded a sphere, its volume could be determined. Archimedes theory of levers: The mechanical advantage of a lever is due to the ratio of the weight (load) to the action (effort) required to move the load, which is determined by measuring the distance the effort moves from the central point (fulcrum) divided by the distance the load moves from the central point. Humans have used the simple lever since prehistoric times. How people learned to take advantage of this simple lever is unknown, but evidence exists that ancient people were aware of the advantage of using sticks for digging and moving heavy objects by prying them with sticks. Archimedes was the first to calculate the ratio of the distance between a force and a weight, separated by a fulcrum. The placement of the fulcrum in relation to the force and weight determined the ratio for the mechanical advantage. Archimedes used his knowledge of geometry and mathematics to calculate the mechanical ratio for several simple machines. For the simple lever, he believed the advantage was the ability to move very heavy loads with little effort. Most of his demonstrations

of mechanics dealt with the simple lever. His major demonstration was the raising of a large ship by pushing down on one end of a large lever that he had designed. Archimedes concept of the inclined plane: It is easier to move a load along a long, sloping ascent of a given height than it is to move a load of the same weight along a shorter but steeper ascent to the same height. Archimedes knew the mechanical advantage of rolling objects up a long inclined plane of a given height rather than lifting them vertically for the same height. He applied the concept of an inclined plane as a means of raising water in a well up to the surface. He wrapped an inclined plane device around a central shaft to form a water screw, which was placed with one end in the well and the other on the surface where the water was to be used. When turned by a crank handle, this helical pump enabled one man to lift water more efficiently than with any other pump then known. Remarkably, it is still used, twenty-three hundred years later, in Egypt and other parts of the world. Archimedes also developed catapults, cranes, pulleys, and optical devices that consisted of a series of shiny metallic mirrors that reflected and concentrated rays of the sun. All of the devices are believed to have been used to defend his city of Syracuse Archimedes Theories 17 from Roman invaders. Although not the first to use his knowledge of physics and mechanics in the name of war, Archimedes was one of the most successful. Archimedes concepts of relative density and specific gravity: The compactness of an object is related to the ratio of its weight divided by its volume. Archimedes used his concept of buoyancy to measure the relationship between the

weight and volume of an object. No discussion can omit the famous story of how Archimedes gained insight into the concept of density and specific gravity. As the story goes, King Hiero of Greece asked Archimedes to ascertain whether a gold crown he Figure A4. Archimedes Theory of Levers. Humans used levers for centuries and intuitively knew their advantage, but the theory was not formalized until Archimedes stated it. 18 Archimedes Theories commissioned from a goldsmith was pure gold or whether silver was substituted for some of the gold. Archimedes pondered the question while taking a public bath. He lowered himself into a bath filled to the brim. As he sank deeper into the bath, more and more water spilled over the sides. He immediately grasped the significance of this phenomenon, jumped out of the bath, and ran naked down the street shouting Eureka! Eureka! (I have found it! I have found it!). He proceeded to fill a bucket to the brim with water into which he lowered the crown, catching and measuring

the volume of the water that overflowed. He did the same with equal weights of gold and silver. Because gold has a greater density than silver, the ball of gold was smaller; thus with a smaller volume less water spilled over the edge of the bucket. Once he could measure the volumes of the water representing the volumes of the gold, silver, and the crown, all he needed to do was to divide the figures obtained for the weight of each item by their volume of water and calculate a ratio representing their comparative densities. He could then determine how much of the crown was gold and how much was silver. (Supposedly, the crown was not pure gold, and the goldsmith was executed.) His principle led to the expression of density as the weight (mass) of an object divided by its volume (d m/v). Specific gravity is the ratio of an objects density to that of some standard. For liquids, water at 15_C temperature is the standard for specific gravity expressed as 1.0. (Any object denser than water would have a specific gravity greater than 1.0 and would sink, whereas any object with a density less than 1.0 would float in water.) For gases, dry air is used as the standard pressure and temperature. Specific gravity is easier to use than density for making calculations because it is the same value in all systems of measurement. Archimedes theories, principles, and concepts have been refined over the ages, but his genius has provided the basis for modern-day machinery and instruments. ARISTOTLES THEORIES: Physics: Aristotle of Macedonia (384322 BCE), Greece. In the estimation of many historians, Aristotle was one of the most influential humans who ever lived. Although he was a philosopher concerned with classes and hierarchies rather than a scientist concerned with observations and evidence, his philosophy,

methods of reasoning, logic, and scientific contributions are still with us and continue to be influential. Much of Aristotles philosophy is related to his four causes: 1) the matter cause, which makes up all material, including living organisms; 2) the form cause of species, types, and kinds of things; 3) the efficient cause of motion and change; 4) the Figure A5. Archimedes Screw used the concept of an inclined plane wrapped around a central shaft to form a helical pump that one person could use to raise water from a well. Aristotles Theories 19 final cause of development or the final goal of an intended activity (maturity). He related these causes to inanimate and animate phenomena. Only a few of Aristotles theories related to limited areas of science are presented. Aristotles topological-species theories: An ideal form is a living group in which each member resembles each other, but the group is distinct in structure from members of other groups. His concept can further be stated as Each living thing has a natural built-in pattern that, through reproduction, growth, and development, leads to an individual type (species) similar to its parents. Aristotle also believed that all living species reproduce as to type (e.g., humans beget humans, cattle beget cattle), but he considered a possible exception to this

theory when applied to the lowest of species. He organized species from lowly flies and worms at the bottom, then lower animals, up to mammals, and then humans at the top. Aristotle classified everything and endeavored to write all as a unified theory of knowledge, which preceded Einsteins long-sought grand unification theory by many centuries. Aristotles theory of spontaneous generation: Flies and low worms are generated from rotting fruit and manure. He based this theory on observations, not experimentation. Later scientists, through the use of simple experimentation, demonstrated spontaneous generation of life does not exist, at least as expressed by Aristotle and some former scientists (see also Leeuwenhoek; Pasteur; Redi). Aristotles theory of taxonomy (classification) of living things: Nature proceeds from tiny lifeless forms to larger animal life, so it is impossible to determine the exact line of demarcation. Reproduction identifies those giving live birth (viviparous) as being mammals and humans, whereas those laying eggs (oviparous) are subdivided into birds and reptiles, and fish and insects. Aristotle developed an elaborate classification system of nature later called Aristotles ladder of nature. It listed inanimate matter at the bottom, progressing upward from lower plants, higher plants, minor water organisms, shellfish, insects, fish, reptiles, whales, mammals, and finally on the top rung of the ladder, humans. Aristotle expressed his theory in a graphic structure called scala naturae or chain of

being, better known as Aristotles ladder of nature. Aristotles three classes of living things: 1) vegetable, which possessed a nutritive soul; 2) animals, who were able to move and thus had a sensitive soul; and 3) humans who had intelligence and thus a rational soul, and who also possessed souls of all the types of creatures. One of Aristotles classifications was that male humans had more teeth than did females. As a philosopher concerned with the meaning of classes and hierarchies rather than a scientist concerned with observations and evidence, neither he nor anyone else at that time bothered to count the teeth in men and women. Regardless, man was at the top class with a rational soul. Aristotles concept of reproduction: An invisible seed of the most rudimentary structure was imparted by the male to join a female egg to produce an offspring of the same species. Figure A6. Aristotles classification (taxonomy) of living things known as the Ladder of Life 20 Aristotles Theories Some philosophers and scientists of Aristotles day (and later) believed the seed (sperm) was a tiny, invisible person or animal that grew larger once it joined with the female egg. Aristotle concluded this by observations made while dissecting and studying fertile chicken eggs at different stages of embryonic development. He rejected most theories about reproduction proposed by previous philosophers, including those that posited that the sex of an embryo is determined by how it was placed in the womb, a seed originates as a whole body, and the embryo contains all of the adult and body parts (preformationism).

Aristotles laws of motion: 1) Heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, and the speed of descent is proportional to the weight of the object. 2) The speed of the falling object is inversely proportional to the density of the medium through which it is falling. 3) An object will fall twice as fast as it proceeds through a medium of half its density. Thus a vacuum cannot exist because the object would proceed at an infinite speed. This law is one of the few examples indicative of Aristotles concern with the quantitative nature of things. Unfortunately, he did not verify his insights by experimenting and making measurements. Although his laws of motion were incorrect, they were accepted for many years and provided the background for which Galileo and Newton revised Aristotles original concepts. Aristotles concepts of motion were rather simplistic. When asked why things move, he responded simply that it is because something moves them. He considered three types of motion on Earth: 1) the motion of living things that is voluntary; 2) objects that are moved tend to return to their a natural position of rest; and 3) when something is set in motion its motion will cease once the mover is eliminated. These ideas are expressed as Aristotles laws of motion: Violent (forced) motion will always be displaced by natural motion that ends in a state of rest. The speed of a moving object is directly proportional to the force applied to it. In simple language this means if you cease pushing an object, it will stop moving. Philosophers and scientists, before as well as after Aristotles time, could not accept the concept of action (force) at a distance, such as gravity. There had to be something in contact with the object

that would force the object to move, and it could not just be spirits, as some believed, but rather something physical. To Aristotle, all motion was self-explanatory because all bodies sooner or later came to their natural place of rest in the universe. He explained his theory somewhat in this way: Once impulse was given to a stone by throwing it up in the air, this impulse was transferred to the air in tiny increments, which kept pushing the stone up. These air impulses pushing the stone upward became weaker as the stone rose, and now the natural motion of the stone returned it to the ground in a straight line, and finally to its natural state of rest. When the impulse completely stopped, so did the objects motion. Aristotle applied his concepts of motion to his observations of heavenly bodies. His theory states: Heavenly bodies move in perfect circles rather than in straight lines as bodies do on Earth. Thus, heavenly bodies are not composed of the four earth elements but rather a fifth element called aether. This concept that heavenly bodies and bodies on Earth obey separate laws was followed by scientists until Newtons time. Celestial bodies were pure, whereas those on Earth were subject to death and decay. Aristotles theory of the prime mover, impulse, and motion came very close to the modern physical law of conservation of momentum (see also Galileo; Newton). Aristotles concept of infinity: Because the universe is spherical and has a center, it cannot be infinite. An infinite thing cannot have a center, and the universe does have a center (Earth). Therefore, infinity does not exist. Most philosophers of Aristotles day believed the universe was composed of crystalline

concentric spheres with the earth at the center; therefore, the universe was finite. Aristotles Theories 21 Somewhat the same argument was used to negate the existence of a void, or vacuum. Accepting concepts such as infinity and vacuum was beyond the philosophical reasoning of people in Aristotles time. It was not until the sixteenth century, when Copernicus provided credible evidence that the earth was not the center of the universe, that this geocentric conceptwas overcome. Aristotles theory of the matter and the aether: Because all celestial bodies move in perfect circles, there must be a perfect medium for this to occur. This perfect medium that enables circular motion is known as the aether, which also has circular motion. Aristotle accepted the classification of elements as devised by Empedocles (c.490430 BCE) and others that placed all things into four elementary groups: earth, water, fire, and air. He saw the

need for a fifth class of matter when addressing the heavens. Until Newtons time, scientists continued to accept the concept of aether (or ether, the Greek word for blazing). In its more sophisticated form, it was referred to as the fabric of space. The concept of an ether existed into the days of early radio. It was popular to believe that radio signals (and other electromagnetic waves) were transported by something in space similar to the way sound is carried by air. In Aristotles time, people did not believe the suns heat could reach Earth without some form of matter transporting it. See also Maxwell ARRHENIUS THEORIES, PRINCIPLES, AND CONCEPTS: Chemistry: Svante August Arrhenius (18591927), Sweden. Arrhenius was awarded the Nobel Price for Chemistry in 1903. In 1883 Svante Arrhenius proposed two related theories of dissociation. One deals with what occurs when substances are dissolved in solutions; the other explains what happens when a current of electricity is passed through a solution. Arrhenius theory of solutions: When a substance is dissolved, it is partly converted into an active dissolved form that will conduct a current. Arrhenius theory is based on the concept that electrolytes in solution dissociate into atoms (see Figure A7, and see Faraday). Arrhenius theory of ionic dissociation: 1) When an electric current is passed through molten salt (sodium chloride, NaCl), it dissociates into charged ions of Na and Cl_. 2) Positive

charged Na ions are attracted to the negative pole (cathode) and deposited as neutral atoms of sodium metal, and the negative charged ions of Cl_ are attracted to the positive pole (anode) and changed back to neutral atoms of chlorine, as the gas molecule Cl2. Aristotelian logic is still taught in high school and university courses in dealing with reasoning and logic and is often used by debaters. The word logic is derived from the Greek word logos, meaning a form of reasoning using speech. Several Greek philosophers before Aristotle had developed forms of logic, but it was Aristotle who advanced the study and whose writings still exist. It is from these records that we have learned about the basic logic called Aristotelian syllogism. A syllogism is a form of verbal deductive reasoning that contains three parts, 1) first major premise; 2) second premise (both are assumptions); and 3) a conclusion drawn from 1) and 2). For example: 1) All warm-blooded land animals with four legs are mammals. 2) Horses are warm-blooded land animals and have four legs. And, 3) therefore, all horses are mammals. Note that both 2) and 3) are consistent with and contained within 1), the major assumption. Syllogistic logic can be either positive [all 1) are 2)] as is the above syllogism, or negative [no 1) are 2)] as follows: 1) All warm-blooded mammals can run. 2)

Birds are warm blooded and can run. And, 3) Therefore, birds are mammals. Thus, a negative syllogism is flawed logic. It is a type of fallacious statement often used by people with the intent to deceive. 22 Arrhenius Theories, Principles, and Concepts Once the atoms are dissociated into ions in a liquid and become an electrolyte solution, an electric current can pass through the solution, producing a completed electric circuit. These theories are related to electrolysis and are important to many industrial processes today, including electroplating. For instance, ionic dissociation is one way to produce chlorine and sodium from common salt (NaCl). The dissociation of substances, such as NaNO3, separates the compound molecule into Na (sodium metal) and NO(the negative nitrate ion). A similar process occurs when electroplating gold and chromium, and other metals (see also Faraday). Arrhenius principle of acid-base pairs: When an acid splits, it will yield hydrogen ions (H). When a base breaks apart, it will yield hydroxyl ions (OH_). Arrhenius extended his concepts about ionic dissociation to include his theory related to acids and bases. In general terms, this principle has been broadened to make it more useful for chemists, who still speak of acid-base pairs. This broadened principle refers to the transfer of a proton from one molecule to another: The molecule that gave up the proton is the acid, and the one receiving the proton is a base. The process is used in industry to produce acids and alkaline (basic) chemicals. Figure A7. The positive ions are attracted to the negative cathode, and the negative ions are attracted to the positive anode. The ions lose their electrons to form neutral atoms

through a discharge of the current between the electrodes and through the electrolyte, which is an ionized compound in solution that can carry electricity. Arrhenius Theories, Principles, and Concepts 23 Arrhenius rate law: The rate of a chemical reaction increases exponentially with the absolute temperature. Arrhenius and others based this phenomenon on their observations that when the temperature rises, the rate (speed) of chemical reactions increases; conversely, when the temperature cools, reactions slow down. They noted this for such things as spoilage and decomposition of fruits and vegetables in hot climates, though their usefulness can be extended by refrigeration. Also, bread rises faster in a warm environment, substances dissolve faster in warm water, and so forth. Arrhenius rate law can be expressed mathematically: Rate A exp(_B/T), where A and B are constants that differ from one reaction to another, and T is time. The value of this equation is its use in generalizing the concept based on the fact that most chemical reactions occur at room temperatures of about 20_C, and a rise of 10_C will double the rate of the reaction. Arrhenius theory of panspermia:

Life came to Earth as a bacterial spore or other simple form from outside the solar system. After Redi and Pasteur discredited the theories for spontaneous generation, other theories for the origin of life were postulated, including theories of life arriving on Earth from outer space. Arrhenius proposed a theory, called panspermia, for the beginning of life on Earth from extraterrestrial origins. This theory is gaining some new proponents since it was reported that simple organic molecules were found in some meteorites, possibly from Mars, that landed on the ice sheets of Antarctica. A modern version of the theory is that prebacteriatype organisms capable of reproducing are universal and develop within a suitable environment anywhere in the universe (see also Hoyle; Pasteur; Redi; Spallanzani; Struve). Arrhenius theory for the greenhouse

effect: The percentage of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere regulates the temperature, which may be the cause of the ice ages. In 1967 when the unmanned lunar lander Surveyor 3 landed on the moon, it contained a TV camera that was recovered more than two years later by two astronauts. They brought the camera back to Earth for testing. When it was examined in a sterile environment, scientists were surprised to discover that specimens of the bacteria Streptococcus mitis were still alive and active. At first, they were puzzled about the origin of these bacteria and then realized they must have been in the camera before it was launched to the moon. It seems amazing that bacteria can exist in the cold/hot vacuum of space, but this does not seem to be a problem for bacteria that are found living in extreme environmental conditions on Earth. When some species of bacteria are faced with lack of water and are exposed to extreme temperatures for extended periods of time, they break open and release proteins, sugars, and other chemicals that act to protect some of the surviving bacteria. If there are enough bacteria in the colony and enough protective substance is released, some of the protected bacteria

will survive. These protective substances are called cryoprotectives. Some surviving bacteria form an endospore into which the original cell reproduces its chromosomes. These inner endospores formed by the original cell are protected by a surrounding wall, while the outer original cell may perish. The protected endosperm will survive most conditions, including boiling water. There are many cases where bacteria have survived for thousands of year on Earth in very inhospitable environments. One example is the bacteria found in the gut of a bee that was preserved in amber as a fossil for about forty million years. Actual bacteria, spores, or viruses (or any other forms of life) from distant outer space have yet to be found, in spite of advocates of extraterrestrial life found on Earth by people who believe in science fiction. The theory of panspermia as the basis for the origin of life and its evolution on Earth is now considered a hypothesis that might be tested. The revival of this old theory of life on Earth originating from outer space as proposed by Arrhenius and others is based on some unusual discoveries. 24 Arrhenius Theories, Principles, and Concepts Over eighty years ago, Arrhenius was one of the first to relate carbon dioxide to

global climate changes. Although he was unable to establish an exact relationship between carbon dioxide and atmospheric temperatures, he considered the cooling and warming effects of CO2 as evidence for the cause of the past ice ages. His theory is based on the belief that CO2 in the atmosphere does not absorb the energy from the sun that arrives on the surface of Earth in the form of light and infrared (heat) radiation. In addition, the energy radiated from Earth is in the form of infrared radiation that is absorbed by CO2, acting as a blanket thus creating a greenhouse effect. This theory is still controversial; however, evidence indicates that there is a slight increase in the levels of atmospheric CO2 that may, or may not, have a slightly more warming than cooling effect on Earth (about 1.5_C in the twentieth century). The increase in water vapor plus methane from industry, decaying of organic matter, and animal flatulence also contribute to a greenhouse effect. Another theory states the massive ice age six hundred million years ago, when Earth was a complete ice planet, ended as trillions of simple organisms produced enough carbon dioxide to create a greenhouse effect. This may have resulted in the melting of the ice that covered Earth, thus permitting the evolution of higher forms of life. Carbon dioxide also increases plant growth on Earth, which provides food for a more diverse animal kingdom. See also Rowland ASTONS WHOLE NUMBER RULE: Chemistry/Physics: Francis William Aston (18771945), England. Francis Aston received the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Aston began his career in chemistry and physics just before the turn of the twentieth century. He devised a new and improved pump used to create a vacuum inside glass tubes that were used in gas discharge experiments. One area he explored was Crookes dark space found in these discharge tubes. He discovered a phenomenon now known as

Aston dark space. This work led to his discovery of two isotopes of neon gas, each with a different atomic mass. Further work led to his invention of the mass spectrometer that uses electromagnetic focusing to detect any slight difference in the mass of atoms of the same element (isotopes). This work led to Astons formation of the whole number rule, that in essence, states: The mass of the oxygen isotope is defined as a whole number, and all the other isotopes of elements have masses that are very nearly whole numbers. Aston invented the mass spectrograph, an instrument that uses electromagnetic focusing to separate isotopes of the same element by slight differences in their atomic weights. The nuclei of atoms of a specific element are composed of both positive protons and neutral neutrons. The number of protons determines the chemical identity of the element, which does not change, whereas the number of neutrons can be more or fewer than the number of protons. This explains the formation of isotopes of the same element with different atomic weights. This difference in weight is very slight and was not successfully detected until the development of the spectrograph. Aston used his instrument to measure this minute difference in atomic weights and to separate and identify 212 isotopes of nonradioactive elements. From his research he devised the whole number rule, which advanced the fields of inorganic and nuclear science. Astons invention of the mass spectrometer and identification of isotopes for atoms has been invaluable to science. In his personal life he excelled in such sports as tennis, swimming, rock climbing, and skiing. He was also an accomplished musician playing the violin, cello, and piano. Astons Whole Number Rule 25 ATOMISM THEORIES: Physics. Theories related to the nature of atoms and related scientists listed chronologically.

Theories of atomism date back to the fifth century BCE, when philosophers conceived the idea that all matter was composed of tiny, indivisible particles. In ancient times these ideas were classical philosophical theories deduced by reason and logic, not by empirical or experimental evidence. The word atomos is derived from two Greek words: a, which means not, and tomos, which means cut. In other words, you cannot cut it, or it is indivisible. Several examples of atomic theories follow: Leucippus atomic theory: Leucippus of Miletus (c.490430 BCE), Greece. All matter is composed of very minute particles called atomos. They are so small that there cannot be anything smaller, and they cannot be further divided. Not much is known about Leucippus, but he was the first to be credited with originating the atomic theory, giving the concept the name atom and describing the indestructible nature of atoms. One of Leucippus students was a philosopher named Democritus, who is also credited with the atomic concept. Zenos paradox: Zeno of Elea (c.495430 BCE). One of Zenos theories stated that conclusions could be reached by reason even when there was contradictory sensory evidence. He used paradoxes to present his hypotheses that motion and distance could be divided into smaller units ad infinitum. His most famous paradox was used by other philosophers and scientists to explain the concept of the division of matter into smaller and smaller particles while never reaching a final indivisible particle (see also Zeno). Democritus theory of atoms: Democritus of Abdera (c.460370 BCE), Greece. It is assumed that Democritus and others who followed questioned Zenos paradox as a rational way of looking at nature in the sense that the division of space and motion

could be divided indefinitely, and perhaps there was a final limit to the point of indivisibility. He further developed the atomic theory of his teacher, Leucippus. Democritus and other philosophers considered what would happen if a person took a handful of dirt and divided it by half, then divided that half into half, and continued dividing it by halves. Eventually a point would be reached at which a single tiny speck of dirt that could no longer be divided was all that remained. The result was considered, on a philosophical basis, to be the indivisible atom of dirt. Democritus also theorized these tiny atoms of matter unite to form larger masses, and the large mass could fly apart and the smallest particles would still be the tiny atoms. This led to his theory that nothing can be created out of nothing, which was the precursor to the basic physical law of conservation of matter and energy. Aristotles theory of the atom: Aristotle (384322 BCE), Greece. Aristotle recorded much of the philosophy of Democritus. He also credited Democritus with the concept of the indivisible atom and accepted it as a rational, logical, philosophical explanation (see also Aristotle). Epicurus theory of the atom: Epicurus of Samos (c.341270 BCE), Greece. Epicurus kept the atomism theory current by demonstrating how it could be the basis for perceiving reality and eliminating superstitionsthe Epicurean concept of just being happy and living a good life without fear. Later, the Romans adopted this philosophy of the good life. The modern word epicurean is derived from Epicurus, whose theory stated that atoms were forever in constant motion, perceivable, and thus deterministic.

Although he disputed Democritus concept of atoms as having free will, Epicurus was the first to suggest atomic or molecular motion, which later developed into the concepts of kinetic energy, heat, and thermodynamics. 26 Atomism Theories Lucretius theory of atoms: Titus Lucretius Carus (c.9555 BCE), Italy. Lucretius was a follower of Epicurean philosophy that lifes goal should be to avoid misery. His theory was the last of the ancient classical period: There is a natural origin of all things in the universe, including the heavens, physical objects, and living things, and all things, including living organisms, are composed of atoms of different substances. Although atoms and molecules could not be seen at this time, his ideas preceded the cell theory and the theory for the chemical basis of metabolism. He also preceded Charles Darwin by many centuries with his philosophy that all living things struggle for existence, which is one of the principles of evolution, more accurately stated as natural selection. Up to this time, the indivisible atom was a concept that usually included inorganic matter. Lucretius is credited as being one of the first to write about the atomic structure of living things, including humans, based more on divine knowledge and his philosophy than on empirical evidence. These ancient classical theories, concepts, and philosophies of atomism were mostly ignored and unexplored for over fifteen hundred years. The more modern atomic theories that developed during later periods are presented alphabetically under the names of the scientists. See also Bohr; Boyle; Gassendi; Heisenberg; Rutherford; Thomson THE AUGER EFFECT: Physics: Pierre Victor Auger (18991993), France

Born and educated in France, Pierre Auger was a professor of physics at the University of Paris who, after World War II, became the director general of the European Space and Research Organization. Auger discovered the effect or process that was named after him in the early 1920s. In essence it is a two-stage process that can be stated as: When an electron absorbs energy from an X-ray photon it will lose that energy as an electron is emitted from an inner shell (instead of a photon) as the atom reverts to a lower energy state. This results in the emission of an electron representing the energy difference and is known as the Auger effect. It is well known that the various energy levels of electrons in different shells are discrete and unique to the atoms for each individual element. Thus, the Auger process is the identification of the energy levels, which are signatures of the atoms that emit quanta units of energy. Auger developed a spectroscope capable of using this effect to measure this phenomenon. This spectroscope is useful in the laboratory to provide information about the electron structure of ionized atoms with different atomic numbers (protons). The Auger process is used to identify the signature of specific atoms that are emitting quanta of energy, including atoms that make up crystals. AVOGADROS LAW, HYPOTHESES, AND NUMBER: Chemistry: Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro (17761856), Italy. Avogadros hypothesis: If the density of one gas is twice that of another, the atomic mass of particles of the first gas must be twice that of the particles of the second gas. This relationship between the density and the number of particles in a given volume of gas opened

the field of quantitative chemistry, which became a more exact science because it involved the analysis of measurements made of observed phenomena. It enabled molecular weights of different substances to be compared by weighing and measuring the combining substances. Using his hypothesis to compare molecular weights of the oxygen and hydrogen molecules, Avogadro established that it required two hydrogen atoms Avogadros Law, Hypotheses, and Number 27 to combine with one oxygen atom to form a molecule of water. Avogadro also hypothesized that gases such as oxygen and nitrogen must be composed of two atoms when in their gaseous phase. He named the particle, which is composed of more than one atom, the molecule, meaning small mass in Latin. This concept led to the structure of the diatomic molecule for gases (e.g., H2 O2 Cl2). Avogadros law: Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, regardless of the physical and chemical properties of the gases. This is true only for a perfect gas. Avogadro knew that all gases expand by equal amounts as the temperature becomes greater (assuming that the pressure on a gas remains unchanged). Through some insight on his part, he realized that if the volume, pressure, and temperature were the same for any type of gas, the number of particles of each of the gases, existing under the same circumstances, would be the same. His reasoning that all gases under the same physical conditions have the same number of molecules was based on the fact that all gas molecules have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature. Other physicists of his day called this unique law Avogadros hypothesis.

The scientists of this period of history did not completely understand this concept and its relationship to the atomic weights of elements. This delayed the use of Avogadros theories and principles for about five decades until they were rediscovered and applied to modern chemistry. In 1858 the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro used Avogadros hypothesis to show that molecular weights of gases could be definitely determined by weighing 22.4 liters of each gas; thus the results could explain molecular structure (see also Cannizzaro). Avogadros Number: 6.023 _ 1023 is the number (N) of atoms found in 1 mole of an element. In other words, 1 mole of any substance, under standard conditions, contains 6.023 _ 1023 atoms. Avogadros number provided scientists with a very easy and practical means to calculate the mass of atoms and molecules of substances. As an example, the number of atoms in 12 grams of the common form of carbon 12 equals the atomic weight of carbon 12 (6 protons 6 neutrons in the nucleus); thus 12 grams of carbon is equal to 1 mole of carbon. This is expressed as the constant N and applies to all elements and also to molecules of compounds. Scientists assigned the simplest atom, hydrogen, an atomic weight of 1, which then results in the weight of 2 for diatomic molecules of hydrogen gas (H2). It was determined that at 0_C, under normal atmospheric pressure, exactly 5.9 gallons (or 22.4 liters) of hydrogen gas weigh exactly 2 grams. (In other words, 22.4 liters of any gas, under the same conditions, equals its atomic or molecular weight in grams.) This established that the atomic weight of any element, expressed in grams, is 1 mole. Avogadros number is one of the basic physical constants of chemistry. Thus, 22.4 liters of any gas weighs the same as the molecular weight of that gas and is considered 1 mole. Two

other examples: one molecule of H2O has a weight of 18 (2 16), so 18 grams of water is equal to 1 mole of water; sulfuric acid, H2SO4 has the molecular weight of 98 (2 32 64), so 1 mole of sulfuric acid equals 98 grams of H2SO4. Using this constant makes chemical calculation much easier. All that is needed to arrive at a mole of a chemical is to weigh out, in grams, the amount equal to its atomic or molecular weight. These examples can be changed to kilograms, by multiplying grams by 1000, but they are still equivalent as a molar amount. Using the kinetic theory of gases and the gas laws, it is now possible to calculate the total number of molecules in 22.4 liters (1 mole) of a gas. The figure turned out to be six hundred billion trillion, or 600 followed by 23 zeros, or more exactly 6.023 _ 1023. 28 Avogadros Law, Hypotheses, and Number B BAADES THEORIES OF STELLAR PHENOMENA: Astronomy: Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (18931960), United States. Baades theory of stellar populations: Population I stars are like our sun and are found in the disk portions of galaxies. Population II stars are found in the halo region of galaxies. As a result of his observations at the Mt. Wilson Observatory located in Pasadena, California, Baade developed the concept of two different types of stars and his theory of galactic evolution, which was based on the following characteristics of the two star populations: Population I Stars 1. Population I stars are younger halo stars (formed more recently than Population II).

2. Thus, Population I stars have more heavy metals. Heavy metals is a descriptive term for all elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. 3. Population I stars have lower velocities as compared to our sun (disk stars). 4. Orion Nebula is an example of a younger Population I disk with more metals than the sun. Population II Stars 1. Population II stars are older disk stars (formed early in galactic history). Population II stars have fewer heavy metals. 2. Population II stars have random orbits and higher velocities than Population I stars. 3. Stars in the galactic bulge are old but received heavy elements from supernovas. Baades theory of star luminosity: The period/luminosity relationship is valid only for Population II-type Cepheid stars. Baades theory is based on the work of Henrietta Leavitt and Edwin Hubble who determined the relationship of periodicity and luminosity of Cepheid-type stars that vary in brightness. Baades work, combined with the results of other astronomers, led to methods for determining the distance (in light-years), size, and age (in billions of years) of Andromeda and other galaxies. Baade concluded that the Milky Way galaxy was larger than the average galaxy, but, by far, it is not the largest (or oldest) galaxy in the universe. Baade also theorized that luminosity is related to the mass of stars. In other words, 1) there are more low-mass stars than bright high-mass stars; 2) this determines the mass

function when referring to the number and density of stars; and 3) this is similar to the luminosity function that relates to stars with different luminosities. This theory eliminates the evolutionary processes of stars and just considers the initial mass function for stars. In addition, Baade, as well as several other astronomers, developed several theories, hypotheses, and opinions concerning dark matter. The phenomenon referred to as the massive amounts of dark matter in the universe may be described as two major types: 1) massive compact halo objects (MACHOS) identified as brown dwarf stars, extra large planets, and other types of very compact matter and 2) weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS) that have not yet been discovered. Following are some possibilities of why it is believed there is so much dark matter in the universe that falls within the two general categories of dark matter: MACHOS or WIMPS: 1. Failed stars called brown dwarfs or large planets similar to Jupiter that have a mass-to-light (M/L) ratio less than the sun. (The sun is considered to have a M/L of 1.) 2. Stars with low luminosity have a M/L less than 1 and are thus less massive than the sun. (They most likely make up most of the disk of dark matter in the universe.) 3. Compact objects consisting of neutron stars, dwarfs, and black holes that have a high M/L ratio and thus not as many are required to form dark matter. 4. Strange new massive particles that are odd, not-yet-discovered, strange bodies that in some way weakly interact with normal types of matter to form dark matter.

Baades theory of gravitational microlensing: Gravitational microlensing occurs when one star happens to be positioned in front of another star. Baade based this theory on work done previously by Albert Einstein. Depending upon the distance between the two stars and on the positioning of the foreground star in relation to the background star, the background stars image is magnified due to the gravitational lens effect of the gravity of the foreground star. This is called microlensing because the difference (increase in size) in the image of the background star is often too minute to be observed with a telescope. The chances of actually observing gravitational microlensing are relatively small. Millions of stars must be observed to find a situation that correctly aligns one star of the right type in front of another star. In addition, their masses, distance from each other, velocities, and brightness are limiting factors. Therefore, this phenomenon is more likely to occur when looking edgewise at a galaxy that appears as a flattened disk with a bulge at its center. This bulge of stars provides more of an opportunity for seeing stars in alignment and thus the microlensing phenomena. Note: When viewing a galaxy from above or below, it appears as a rather 30 Baades Theories of Stellar Phenomena flat, spiral shape structure with a massive cluster of stars at its center and with stars dispersed outward on its spiral arms. Baade is also credited with discovering two minor planets (more likely asteroids than planets) that follow very elliptical orbits. One extends from the asteroid belt (between Mars and Jupiter) to beyond Saturn. He named it Hidalgo, which is Spanish for a person of noble birth. The other he named Icarus after a character in Greek mythology. The

planetoid Icarus has an elliptical orbit inside Mercurys orbit and sweeps past Earth. See also Zuckerandl Figure B1. Two views of the Milky Way: Top View and Edge View. Baades Theories of Stellar Phenomena 31 BABBAGES THEORY OF COMPUTING: Mathematics: Charles Babbage (c.17911871), England. A machine can be built to calculate a series of values of polynomial functions automatically by using finite differences. Astronomers and mathematicians used other people, usually women, called computers to do the complicated calculations involved in their theoretical work, despite the fact that inaccuracies often beset some of their calculations. Thus, Babbage was inspired to develop a machine that could perform complex mathematical computations without errors. In 1822 he outlined his first plan for a difference engine that is the forerunner of todays modern computer.

It was designed to more accurately calculate star tables to improve navigation. Because of its potential of saving lives at sea, the British government was interested and helped fund Babbages research. This was most unusual because, in those days, governments did not fund scientific research. However, the promise that his difference engine would improve navigation was a selling point. Babbages first attempt was more complicated than he expected. He suffered a nervous breakdown in 1827, the year in which his wife, two sons, and his father died. He ceased work on the project in 1833. Some years later, when he still had no success, the government, as governments are bound to do, stopped funding his research. Although the cessation of funding by the British government effectively ended the practical application of the Babbage computer, the fact that he could not afford to build the actual machine exclusively with his own funds did not end the theoretical nature of his work. Beginning in 1833, Babbage worked on a different concept that he called an analytical engine for which he is more famous. It was based on the system of punch cards used in looms that wove fabrics. Babbage believed instructions could be built into these cards for the loom operators to follow to design the final product. The famous IBM punch card computer of the mid-twentieth century used a similar system. Babbage started construction on his difference engine in 1823. It is still in existence. In 1991 a working model number 2 was built from Babbages drawings of his original model. The first difference engine stood 8 feet high, had 25,000 parts, and weighed 15 tons. Today, the model can be seen in Londons Science Museum. Babbage also designed a printer that could be used with his engine computer that had many features of modern computer printers.

See also Turing Charles Babbages birth date is uncertain. It was either the 26th of December 1791 or January 6, 1792. His father was a banker in London who had the means to send him to a private academy and then to continue his education with an Oxford tutor. In 1810 he entered Trinity College in Cambridge. Babbage became familiar with the works of several scientists/mathematicians, including Liebnizs and Newtons calculus. He helped form the Analytical Society whose purpose was to study abstract algebra and improve mathematics in Great Britain. He also helped found the Royal Astronomical Society in Great Britain. Charles Babbage, known as the father of computing, is also credited with inventing the first ophthalmoscope in 1847, although another inventor in Germany, Hermann von Helmholtz, was unaware of Babbages instrument and designed his own version in 1850. Babbage gave his ophthalmoscope to a physician to test, but it was neglected for a number of years until later revisions and improvements resulted in the modern instrument that is used to examine the retina, optic nerve, optic disc, and blood vessels of the eye. 32 Babbages Theory of Computing

BABINETS PRINCIPLE: Physics: Jacques Babinet (17941872), France. Babinets principle, sometimes referred to as Babinets theorem, states: The diffraction pattern from an opaque body is identical to that from a hole of the same size and shape as the opaque body except for the intensity of the diffracting light beam. Babinets principle/theorem is true for light and all other types of electromagnetic radiation and is used to detect the relative sameness of size and shape of materials and objects. Although this theorem is most often used in the field of optics, it holds true for all waves of the electromagnetic spectrum. It finds practical uses in determining the equivalence in the size and shapes of objects. For example, by shining a laser light beam through a small blob of blood cells, the diffraction patterns can be used to determine the size of all the blood cells. Another example is the corona or ring-like haze observed around the moon that is caused by sunlight, and which is reflected from the moons surface, being diffracted by either clouds or water droplets in the earths atmosphere. This effect is measured by the intensity of the diffraction pattern of the beams of moonlight entering the earths atmosphere. Interested in optics and polarization, Babinet developed several instruments and techniques to measure the properties of rocks and minerals, as well as the optical nature of metrological phenomena. He was the first to measure the polarization of light and the nature of rainbows. He was educated at the _Ecole Polytechnique and later in 1812 at the Military School in Metz. In 1820 he became a professor at the College Louis le Grand and in 1840 was elected to the French Academy of Sciences. Throughout his life he had varied interests in the optical nature of minerals, polarization of light, meteorology,

magnetism, geography, and cartography. He designed and invented several instruments including the Babinet compensator and the polariscope that are used to polarize light for microscopes. He also invented the goniometer used to measure refractive indices. He is best known for his standardization of the A ngstrom unit of light as the wavelength of light emitted by heated red cadmium. He suggested that a particular wavelength of light could be used as a standard to measure length. In 1960 his idea was accepted and was used as a definition for the length of the meter. This standard for the meter was the length equal to 1,650,763.73 times the wavelength of orange light emitted by the gas of the pure isotope krypton-86 when the gas is excited by an electrical discharge. The krypton-86 wavelength standard for the meter was changed in 1983 to equal the fraction 1/299,792,458 that light travels in one second. BABOS LAW: Chemistry: Lambert Heinrich Clemens von Babo (18181899), Germany. The vapor pressure over a liquid decreases proportionally when specific amounts of solute are dissolved in the liquid. This was the first quantitative measurement that stated that the vapor pressure of a liquid is decreased proportionally to the amount of solvent added to the liquid, when the liquids temperature is unchanged. In 1845 Lambert von Babo was appointed to an assistant professorship at the University of Freiburg in Germany and later advanced to a full professor in 1859. Babo was one of the earliest chemists to do quantitative studies of vapor pressures over water. As Babos Law 33 a chemist he was aware of works of Charles Blagden (17481820), the British physician and scientist, who in 1788 observed that adding a solute to a solvent lowered the freezing

point of the solution, as well as that of Michael Faraday who in 1822 determined that adding a solute to a liquid raised the solutions boiling point. In 1882 the French physical chemist Fran_cois Marie Raoult performed more quantifiable experiments to show how solutes that affect the freezing points of a solution might be used to determine molecular weights. All of these chemists were familiar with Robert Boyles research that established the relationship between temperature, pressure, and volume of gases. See also Raoult BACONS CONCEPT OF INDUCTIVE REASONING: Philosophy of Science: Francis Bacon, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans (15611626), England. Francis Bacon was a philosopher/scientist, politician, and writer, whose book Novum Organum, published in 1620, has influenced every scientist since his day by introducing the logic of induction and devising his scientific method, which in essence proceeds from the specific to the general: 1. Approach the problem without prejudices; proceed with inquiry. 2. Observe situations accurately and critically. 3. Collect relevant facts and data from observations; make measurements. 4. Infer by use of analogies based on characteristics of observed facts. 5. Draw general conclusions from the specific to the general. 6. Correct initial conclusions with new insights. Truth comes from error, not confusion. Francis Bacon started his career at the age of 12 when he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, although he never graduated. He then pursued a career in law in 1576 and was first elected to the House of Commons of Parliament in 1584. He continued his career

as a statesman and was knighted 1603. In rapid succession he became the attorney general in 1613 and was proclaimed a Baron in 1618 and the Viscount St Albans in 1621. But all this ended in the same year he became Viscount when he was removed from office after being convicted of accepting bribes. He was removed from Parliament, fined, and sent to prison. In 1621 King James I pardoned him, but he was not allowed to return to Parliament. (King James I was actually the Scottish King James VI who succeeded the unmarried, childless English Queen Elizabeth I upon her death in 1603.) This crime was unfortunate for his political career but was fortunate for science as the rest of his life, although short, was devoted to efforts related to the philosophy of science. His early philosophy was concerned with purging the mind of what he called idols that are the tendency of humans to believe in things that are not true (errors). (This seems to be as true today as in the 1600s.) His intention was to write a six-volume work called Instauratio Magna (Great Restoration) that included 1) a way to classify science, 2) his new inductive science, 3) a listing of facts acquired by experimentation, 4) how to use new approaches to learning, 5) general facts learned from natural history, and 6) his final philosophy of the science of nature. However he completed just two parts of this massive project: The Advancement of Learning in 1605, which was a review of the state of knowledge in England at that time in history and which was expanded 34 Bacons Concept of Inductive Reasoning in Latin as De Augmentis Scientarum in 1623, and Novum Organum (Indications Respecting the Interpretation of Nature) which was published 1n 1620the year before his removal from Parliament. Although Bacon is not considered a great experimental scientist, his philosophy of science, best known for his inductive method of investigation nature (scientific method)

was appreciated by later scientists, such as Robert Boyle, Sir Isaac Newton, Voltaire, Robert Hooke, and many others who considered him the father of modern science. His inductive method was a great improvement over the Aristotelian deductive method (that proceeds from the general to the specific) and the philosophical thought processes many ancients used to arrive at conclusions. (Bacon disagreed with Aristotles philosophy that was based on truth is derived from authority, and he believed that Arisotelianism produced only disputes.) Bacons inductive reasoning improved the way scientists observed and experimented and thus arrived at a more authentic or factual understanding of nature. It also improved the process of establishing scientific hypotheses that could lead to new theories, principles, and laws of nature while still leaving room for future corrections. Of great importance was his idea of generating tentative conclusions such as hypotheses and theories that could be addressed and corrected by further scientific investigations. Bacon was the first to observe that the coastlines on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean (Europe/Africa and North/South America) seemed to fit each other. Years later, this concept was developed into the theory of continental drift by Suess and Wegener. See also Boyle; Ewing; Hess; Hooke; Newton; Suess; Wegener BAEKELANDS CONCEPT OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERIZATION: Chemistry: Leo Hendrik Baekeland (18631944), Belgium and the United States. Leo Hendrik Baekeland started his career as a professor of physics and chemistry at the University of Bruges in Belgium in 1887 and later returned to University of Ghent where he received his doctorate. On his honeymoon in 1889 in the United States he realized that

this was the place to begin a career as an industrial chemist. More of an entrepreneur than an academic professor, Baekeland started a consulting laboratory to explore possibilities in the field of photography. His first success was the invention of paper called Velox that was coated with light sensitive salts that could be used to produce positive photographs from the projection of the image from a negative of the image. It became a well-known product that he sold in 1899 to George Eastman of the Kodak Company for $1 million. These funds provided independence enabling him to investigate a new field of chemistry known as polymerization. Baekeland began with experiments to find a substitute for shellac that at the time was manufactured by collecting a natural resin secreted by an oriental beetle that deposited this secretion on twigs of trees in India. As a chemical reaction, polymerization requires that small molecules that make up larger molecules have at least two points involved in the reaction. The reaction usually requires a catalyst and heat, and often light and pressure, to force the smaller molecules to combine into

larger chain-like macromolecules called monomers. There are two major types of polymerization. One, known as condensation polymerization, takes place when the growing chain eliminates some of the smaller molecules such as H2O and CH3OH. The other is called additional polymerization in which the polymer is formed without the loss of other chemicals. Polymerization can occur in nature, but today there are many known polymerization chemical processes used to make synthetic versions of what we now know as plastics. Baekelands Concept of Synthetic Polymerization 35 After collecting the resin, and then undergoing a process of cleaning and purifying, it was formed into thin sheets. When broken into flakes, it was called orange shellac. Natural shellac is soluble in alcohol but not water and is used as an undercoating on wood before varnish is applied. Because it is a natural product, shellacs source and availability was limited. This inspired Baekeland to find a synthetic substitute, although his motives were less than altruistic, as he openly admitted his main goal was to make money. Many scientists by patenting their discoveries have a motive to make money, which in a democracy is considered moral if the goal is to provide a useful product. As an experimental chemist, he combined the synthetic phenol/formaldehyde resinlike substance that was first produced by Johann Friedrich Adolph von Baeyer in 1871 but had no success. By adding some other ingredients, including wood flour filler, as well as applying heat and pressure, he produced the first synthetic plastic, Bakelite in 1909. It was named after him. Soon after, Baekeland founded the General Bakelite

Company that merged with two rivals, the Condensite Corporation and the Redmanol Company in 1922. In 1939, the Bakelite Corporation, the new name, was acquired by Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation. Bakelite can be formed in molds, machined, and produced in many forms. One of its essential properties is its electrical insulation capability. As the first totally synthetic plastic, Bakelite was used in the manufacture of a variety of toys, kitchenware, telephones, and other electrical related equipment. The complexity and high cost of its production, along with its brittleness and other undesirable qualities, proved its undoing when other superior plastics were able to be produced. Bakelite was soon replaced by other polymer plastics. Leo Hendrik Baekeland served as president of the American Chemical Society in 1924 and continued producing scientific papers until his death in 1944. BAERS LAWS OF EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT: Biology: Karl von Baer (17921876), Germany and Russia. Individuals develop by structural elaboration of the unstructured egg rather than by a simple enlargement of a preformed entity. This theory, also referred to as epigenesis, is based on Baers four rules formulated in 1828: 1. In a large group, the general characteristics of animals will appear early in their embryonic development, whereas more special differences will appear later in their development. 2. The more general structural forms are formed before the less general structural forms are developed. Both forms are followed by the development of the most specific structural forms. 3. The more an embryo of a given animal becomes specialized, the more different it

becomes from other species of animals as it matures. 4. Therefore, the embryos of higher animals only resemble other animal forms in the embryo stage. This theory is basic to the field of embryology and, in essence, states that mammal development proceeds from simple (general) to complex (specific)from homogeneous to heterogeneous. This means that, though all mammal embryos may look similar and 36 Baers Laws of Embryonic Development have similar rudimentary structures, they grow up to be very distinctly different adult species. Baers theory made the recapitulation theory impossible because young embryos are undifferentiated in form and are not previous adult ancestors. This means that mammals of a higher form of animal never resemble any other form of animal, except in the embryo stage. In other words, animal development proceeds from the general to the more specific. As the embryo matures into a fetus and later grows into an adult changes are not only differentiated but also irreversible. Although of German descent, Karl

von Baer was born in Estonia, where he studied and graduated with a degree in medicine in 1814. However, he was dissatisfied with his medical training and moved to Germany and then Austria for more advanced studies from 1814 to 1817. Beginning in 1817 Baer taught at the University of Konigsberg (present-day Kaliningrad) in Russia where in 1826, while studying follicles and eggs (ovum) of mammalian ovaries, he identified the ovum as developing into an embryo. He continued the studies of other biologists in this area and is now known as the father of comparative and descriptive embryology. Baer also corrected some of the misconceptions of the mechanistic view of mammalian development from embryo to fetus to adult. The common belief of many biologists of his day and before, even as far back as Aristotle, was the embryos of one species pass through comparable stages to adults of other species. This was known as recapitulation theory, or as ontogeny follows phylogeny, and also as Haeckels biogenetics law. These theories all state that the embryos of one species pass through stages comparable to adults of other species. See also Gould; Haeckel; Russell

BAEYERS STRAIN THEORY FOR COMPOUND STABILITY: Chemistry: Johann Friedrich Adolph von Baeyer (18351917), Germany. He was awarded the 1905 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds. In addition to embryology Karl von Baer had other interests. He teamed up with Jacques Babinet, a French physicist, to study factors that influence the directional flow of rivers, as well as currents in other bodies of water. This law is known as the BaerBabinet law of current flow. The directional flow of rivers, as well as ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream, are affected by the results of tectonics (movement of continental plates) and the Coriolis force created by the rotation of Earth. Tectonic movements of large plates of Earth have altered land structures and influenced the currents of rivers, lakes, and oceans by uplifting some regions as one giant plate overrode another plate. This geological activity creates an uplift of the lithosphere (Earths crust) in some areas while submerging other regions, causing water to flow from the higher uplifted areas to the lower submerged region. The other force that affects direction of water flow is related to the physical law of conservation of angular momentum that is exhibited by the rotation of Earth on its axis. A river

flowing northward will be diverted to the east due to the Coriolis force, whereas a stream flowing southward will be directed to the west. This effect is responsible for the direction of flow of the Gulf Stream northeastward toward Great Britain, and the counterclockwise direction of winds in hurricanes heading out of the South Atlantic Ocean to the north along the East Coast of the United States. See also Babinet; Coriolis; Wegener Figure B2. Tetrahedron structure of carbon atom. Baeyers Strain Theory for Compound Stability 37 Chemical compounds (molecules) are less stable the more they depart from a regular tetrahedral structure. Aregular tetrahedron is a four-sided (faces) polyhedron. Each face is a triangle. It has four verticals and six line segments that join each pair of verticals. It may also be described as an analog of a three-dimensional triangle. This is the typical structure for some crystals and carbon compounds, where the carbon atom provides a covalent bond to each

of the four corners of the tetrahedral atom to other elements (see Figure B2 tetrahedron, and Figure V3 carbon atom under Vant Hoff.) Think of the tetrahedron structure of the carbon atom as having one electron at each of the four corners. Each of these electrons can be shared with the outer electrons of other carbon atoms and atoms of other elements to form a wide variety of structures, such as long chains of carbon atoms with branches or rings whose skeleton is formed by connecting carbon bonds. This unique tetrahedron structure for carbon makes it important for the formation of the many different types of organic molecules that make up plants and animals. See also Kekule; Van der Waals; Vant Hoff BAHCALLS THEORY FOR THE SOLAR NEUTRINO MODEL: Astronomy: John Norris Bahcall (1934 2005), United States.

The sun produces 1036 neutrino events every second (solar neutrino units of SNU) at a density (flux) of 8 SNU. A neutrino is an elementary particle classed as a lepton (somewhat like an electron of the same class) that has zero mass at rest as well as a zero electrical charge. It has other characteristics that make it useful for studying other minute particles produced in After twelve years as a successful teacher of organic chemistry in several schools, Adolph von Baeyer moved to Munich where he spent the rest of his life working on the organic chemistry of dyes. He discovered phthalein dyes, phenolphthalein, and fluorescein as well as a phenollike formaldehyde resin that was further commercially developed by Leo Baekeland as Bakelite (see Baekeland). Baeyer is best known for his synthetic development of a synthetic indigo dye begun in 1865. Indigo dye known for its distinctive blue color has an interesting history. It is one of the oldest dyes used to color textiles and in paintings and has been used for hundreds of years in Asia and India. It was even known in ancient Greece, Rome, and the Middle East. India was the major supplier of indigo to Europe during the occupation by Roman troops and into the Middle Ages.

Indigo dye originates in several plants including the woad (Isatis tinctoria), the dyers knotweed (Polygonum tinctorum), the true indigo plant in Asia (Indigofera tinctoria), plus several other varieties from Asia, Central, and South America. Native plants that were used to produce indigo, particularly in India during the 1800s were replaced by the synthetic versions produced in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The development and production of synthetic dyes devastated the indigo business in many countries. In modern times, over 17,000 tons of synthetic indigo dyes are produced in several countries. Indigo dye is not only used to dye blue jeans. (Cloth dyed with indigo fades when repeatedly washed because indigo is not a fast dye. This quality seems to make clothing dyed with indigo more desirable to young people.) It is also used as a food coloring known as Blue No. 2. The original synthetic indigo dye Baeyer developed was too expensive for commercialization; but later other similar chemical compounds were synthesized, and by 1890 they became inexpensive and thus commercially successful. Baeyer also worked on hydrobenzenes, terpenes, organic explosives, uric acid, and synthesized barbiturate drugs. There are several tales

about how he came to the term barbiturate. One involves it being named after a lady friend of his, Barbara. Another is that he celebrated his discovery on the feast of St. Barbara. Although interesting, both are unproven. 38 Bahcalls Theory for the Solar Neutrino Model accelerators. The suns interior is a natural nuclear fusion (atomic) reactor that produces its energy by the proton-to-neutron chain reaction by converting four protons (hydrogen nuclei) into helium, neutrinos, and other forms of energy such as gamma rays as well as the kinetic energy of the neutrinos and other moving particles that travel from the interior of the sun to the earth. The solar neutrino model presents several problems related to the number and types of emissions of neutrinos from the sun. John Bahcall and several other theorists predicted that neutrinos, which are considered weightless, will strike the earth and not be absorbed, as are some of the other heavier particles created by the fusion reaction that takes place in the sun. His theory was tested by others but did not seem to hold up very well. This prompted Bahcall to consider several options to his theory. One was that the sun was going through a passive phase and that only over a long period of time (cycles) would his predictions be accurate. Another consideration was that the neutrinos were decaying before they reached Earth, thus causing a lower count than his predictions. Still another consideration was that perhaps the entire solar neutrino model was wrong, which caused a false count in his predicted neutrino rate and density. The problem is still not settled and is now left up to the development of better instrumentation or revised and improved theories to account for the extent of neutrino production by the sun. More recent speculation

involves the vast amounts of dark matter (over 90% of all matter in space) that may be composed of neutrinos left over from the big bang. It is now estimated that one type of neutrino, called the electron neutrino, is not exactly massless but has a tiny mass of about 0.5 eV to 5.0 eV, which is less than 1 millionth the mass of a regular electron. Until improved equipment is developed and additional and improved data is acquired relating to the neutrino problem, it will remain speculation and a problem for future theoretical physicists and cosmologists to solve. See also Bethe; Birkeland; Fermi; Pauli BAKKERS DINOSAUR THEORY: Biology: Robert Bakker (1945), United States. Dinosaurs were warm-blooded, similar to mammals and birds, and were not related to cold-blooded reptiles. Robert Bakker based his theory of warm-blooded dinosaurs on the following evidence: 1) Bones of warm-blooded animals, such as mammals and birds (including some dinosaurs), have blood vessels, whereas cold-blooded reptiles bones exhibit growth rings. Other bone structures also suggest that at least some dinosaurs were warmblooded. 2) The fossil of a dinosaur heart with four chambers was found that indicates that at least some species were warm-blooded. Other fossilized dinosaur hearts were chamberedsimilar to reptiles. 3) Cold-blooded animals cannot withstand large variations in climate, such as the cold northern parts of the United States and Canada. Cold-blooded animals are ectothermic, which means their bodies cannot self-adjust internal temperatures to react to external temperatures. They do not have an internal thermostatic system to control their internal temperature, thus they need less food and less sleep. Because dinosaur fossils have been found in cold northern climates, it seems that they were endothermic. Although warm-blooded animals are endothermic and do

have internal thermostatic systems, they need more food and sleep; and 4) warmblooded animals have a high rate of metabolism. Therefore the prey ratio is much higher for warm-blooded mammals than reptilesthat is, the food consumption for Bakkers Dinosaur Theory 39 warm-blooded animals is many times higher (per unit of body weight) than it is for cold-blooded reptiles. Fossil evidence suggests dinosaurs consumed vast amounts of plant and animal foods. From these data, Bakker, as well as some others, concluded that, at least, some species of dinosaurs were more closely related to birds than reptiles, both having a common fossil ancestor known as thecodonts that means animals with teeth embedded in the jaws. Bakkers theory created much discussion in the field of paleontology and raised concerns about some of the concepts of evolution. (He is a Pentecostal preacher and a proponent of theistic evolution.) Not all scientists agree that dinosaurs were warm-blooded. His theory is still being debated. BALMER SERIES: Mathematics and Physics: Johann Jakob Balmer (18251898), Switzerland. The Balmer series is the designation of a set of Balmer lines that are lines in the hydrogen spectrum that are produced by changes between n 2 and levels greater than 2 either in emission or in absorption, where n represents the principal quantum number. Johann Jakob Balmer was born in Switzerland, attending universities in Switzerland and Germany. He received his degree in mathematics from the University of Basel in 1849 and lived there the rest of his life. He began his career teaching in a girls school and did not make any real contributions to the field of mathematics until the age of 60. In 1885 he devised a rather simple formula that described the wavelength for

hydrogens spectral line. This led to a generalized concept for the Balmer lines and the Balmer series. The formula was limited to the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom but later was expanded to include the spectral lines for all elements. Where l the wavelength. a constant with the value of 3.6456_10_7 meters, or 364.56 nanometers, n 2, and m an integer when m is greater than n. Balmer devised the formula by gathering empirical evidence and thus was unable to explain why his formula was correct. (This was due to his and other scientists lack of knowledge about the structure of the atom at that time in history.) It was later in 1888 when Johannes Rydberg generalized Balmers formula so that it can be used for all transitions for the hydrogen atom. The four main transitions of hydrogen are based on the principle quantum numbers of the electron in the hydrogen atom. The wavelength and Greek letter associated with the different colors of the electromagnetic spectrum are: l a at 656 nm, red color emitted l b at 486 nm, blue-green color emitted l g at 434 nm, violet color emitted l d at 410 nm, deep violet color emitted. The Balmer series is important in the field of astronomy because it shows up in many stars due to the abundance of hydrogen in the universe and stars. Starlight can show up as absorption or emission lines in the spectrum depending on the age of the star. Thus, the Balmer series assists in determining the age of stars because younger stars are mostly 40 Balmer Series hydrogen whereas older stars have used up much of their hydrogen due to the

fusion process and end up with a higher proportion of heavier elements, thus they are not as bright. BALTIMORES HYPOTHESIS FOR THE REVERSE TRANSFER OF RNA TO DNA: Biology: David Baltimore (1938), United States. David Baltimore, Howard Martin Temin, and Renato Dulbecco jointly received the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. A special enzyme, called reverse transcriptase, will reverse the transfer of genetic information from RNA back to DNA, causing the DNA possibly to provide information to protect cells. Previous work with DNA and RNA indicated that genetic information could be passed from DNA to RNA but not the other way around. David Baltimore and Howard Temin independently announced that the enzyme reverse transcriptase enabled RNA to pass some

genetic information to DNA, which possibly could aid cells to fight off cancer and other diseases, such as HIV/AIDS. Baltimore also worked on the replication of the poliovirus and continues research on the HIV retrovirus, which was identified by other biologists. Baltimore and other virologists hope their research will lead to a better understanding of the relationship between the HIV retrovirus and AIDS. Biomedical researchers are attempting to find an effective vaccine that will prevent the damage the HIV virus does to the immune system or prevent AIDS by immunization. See also Dulbecco; Gallo; Montagnier; Temin BANACHS THEORY OF TOPOLOGICAL VECTOR SPACES: Mathematics: Stefan Banach (18921945), Poland. Banach vector spaces are complete normed vector spaces where the space is a vector space V over a real or complex number and the norm introduces topology onto the vector space. David Baltimore has had a varied career between academic administration and academic research. After studying chemistry at Swarthmore College, and later attending Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Rockefeller University, he changed his field to virology. It was as director of the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, that he began his groundbreaking research on DNA and RNA. In 1970 he presented

his discovery of the new enzyme reverse transcriptase that can transcribe RNA information into DNA in some cancer viruses. This was a unique discovery because, up to this time, it was assumed that the transfer of information could only be by DNA. Baltimore became president of the Rockefeller University in 1990 where he played an unusual role as university presidents go by combining the careers of administrator, researcher, and fund-raiser. A colleague was accused of falsifying data after submitting a research paper to the magazine Cell with Baltimore as a coauthor. As the case developed over a period of years, it became an excellent example of what can happen when politics becomes involved in science. The investigation affected several careers over the years. Baltimore admitted his involvement, removed his name from the paper, and apologized. The researcher was later vindicated of fraud. As a result of the charges of falsifying data, Baltimores position became difficult resulting in his resignation as president of the Rockefeller University. He returned to MIT in 1994 and in 1997 he became president of the California Institute of Technology where he became appreciative of the great advances being made in all areas of science. He resigned in

2006 after nine years as president of California Institute of Technology. It seems that about ten years is the average tenure of college presidents. Banachs Theory of Topological Vector Spaces 41 Banachs most important work was in function analysis where he integrated related concepts into a comprehensive system of normal linear spaces, which became known as Banach spacesa type of vector space. In 1924 he and Alfred Tarski (19021983) jointly published their theory of The BanachTarski paradox where they claim that it is possible to dissect a sphere into a finite number of pieces (more than five), which mathematically can be recombined to form two spheres the same size as the original sphere. Banachs major work was published in Theory of Linear Operations in 1932. In addition to founding the modern theory of functional analysis, he made contributions to the theories of topological vector spaces, measure theory, integration, and the orthogonal series. In 1979 a two-volume commentary of his works was published. Stefan Banach was given his mothers surname but never saw her after his birth. His father, Stefan Greczek, gave him his first name, but, because of financial and social circumstances, Banach was raised by another family. Stefan Banachs father contributed to his financial support and maintained a relationship with his illegitimate son. From 1910 to 1914 Banach worked his way through Lvov (or Lwow) Technical University (now the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv in the Ukraine). He taught mathematics in local schools and in 1922 was hired by Lvov University where he did most of his research before dying of lung cancer in 1945.

BANTINGS THEORY FOR ISOLATING PANCREATIC INSULIN: Medicine: Sir Frederick Grant Banting (18911941), Canada. Frederick Banting was awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with his coresearcher, J. J. Macleod. By ligating the pancreatic duct, it is possible to extract the polypeptide hormone insulin from the islands of Langerhans within the pancreas before the destruction of insulin can take place. The extracted insulin can therefore be administered to a diabetic patient in an effort to regulate carbohydrate metabolism within the body. Trysin-secreting cells are produced in the pancreas. When insulin that is produced in the pancreas is destroyed by proteolytic enzymes, the body is unable to metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) correctly. The result is a condition called diabetes. Frederick Banting was born on a farm in Alliston, Ontario, Canada, where in 1910 he entered Victoria College at the University of Toronto to become a medical missionary. He received his medical degree in 1916 and entered the Canadian Army Medical Corps during World War I. In 1918 he received the Military Cross for heroism after being wounded in the Battle of Cambria in France. After the war he set up a practice related to childrens diseases but soon joined the University of Western Ontario at London, Ontario, to specialize in research related to pancreatic cells known as islets of Langerhans that were, in some way, related to regulation of sugar metabolism and diabetes. With the assistance of a professor of physiology, the Scottish physician John Macleod (18761935), and a young research assistant, Charles Best (18991978) an American physiologist who was educated in Canada, Banting performed a series of crucial experiments in a borrowed laboratory. They tied off the pancreatic ducts of dogs and took samples of the insulin extracted from the islets of Langerhans that was now isolated from other secretions, namely trypsin. They then injected these insulin extracts

into diabetic dogs and found that they had some beneficial effects protecting the dogs from diabetes. The trio asked James Collip (18921965), a Canadian biochemist, to 42 Bantings Theory for Isolating Pancreatic Insulin purify the extract. Soon after, the four of them (Banting, Macleod, Best, and Collip) patented the hormone. It is now known as insulin. They licensed it to Eli Lilly, receiving a royalty that was used to support their research. It should be noted that at the time of Bantings discovery, insulin was already identified and named. In 1916 an English physician, Sir Edward A. Sharpey-Schafer (1850 1935) formulated the word insulin after theorizing that a single substance produced in the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas is responsible for the condition called diabetes mellitus. Also, a Romanian professor, Nicolae Paulescu (18691931), isolated insulin in his lab about a year before the Canadians. He called it pancreatine. However, he only published

his findings in French and was never accorded any real recognition for his efforts. In 1923 the Nobel Prize was awarded to Banting and Macleod, but not to the other two researchers. This infuriated Banting and Macleod who then shared their prize money with Best and Collip. Macleod was Bantings lab supervisor and did little of the actual work involved in this important discovery. Banting was knighted in 1934 and worked with the Canadian and British medical research efforts dealing mainly with the effects of mustard gas and the physiological problems of fighter pilots. In 1941 he died in an airplane crash on his way to England to continue his research. BARDEENS THEORY OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Physics: John Bardeen (19081991), United States. John Bardeen is the only person to receive two Nobel Prizes for Physics. In 1956 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize for the development of the point contact transistor. And in 1972 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer for developing the BCS theory of superconductivity. When electrons interact in pairs in a vibrating crystal lattice, the electrons will cause a slight increase in positive charges in the crystal creating binding energy that holds

After eating, carbohydrates and sugars are absorbed by the intestines and then into the bloodstream and finally into the cells. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas as a response to an increase of blood sugar in the system. Cells have insulin receptors with the capacity to bind and absorb the blood sugar (glucose) from the blood into the cell where it is used in the process of metabolism to produce energy. If an individuals body is unable to produce adequate insulin or the cells cannot receive insulin, no matter how much an individual eats, he or she can still starve. This is why victims of type 1 diabetes become very ill without insulin shots. Whereas, people with type 2 diabetes have developed a resistance to insulin rather than a deficiency of insulin. Type 2 diabetes patients do not respond well to insulin because their cells cannot absorb the sugar from the blood, leading to sugar levels in the blood that are higher than normal. The first insulin used by humans to treat diabetes was purified insulin extracted from cows and later pigs. This nonhuman insulin works well with most people, but some individuals develop allergies and other reactions to animal insulin. By the 1980s researchers developed a method to produce human insulin by using recombinant DNA techniques where the human gene

that codes for insulin was copied and then placed inside bacteria. The gene is then tricked, the end result being the bacteria cells make human insulin constantly. Because all humans have the same insulin genes, sensitive people are not allergic to it nor are humans as likely to reject this biologically engineered insulin. Medical research continues to seek a cure for diabetes. Some researchers believe that stem cells may play an important role in this endeavor. In the meantime, there are multiple new drugs on the market that are effective in controlling blood sugar levels in diabetes patients. Bardeens Theory of Superconductivity 43 the electron pair together, except at very low temperatures (near absolute zero), and thus not exhibit electrical resistance. After graduating from high school at age 15 Bardeen attended the University of Wisconsin where he graduated in 1928, receiving his bachelors and masters degrees in electrical engineering at that time. He secured a position at Gulf Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh. While there, he helped develop magnetic and geophysical means for oil prospecting, but he decided his interests were really in theoretical physics. He also spent five productive years with Bell Labs in New Jersey, working in the field of solidstate physics. While there, he and his colleagues, Walter Brattain and William Shockley, developed the transistor. Influenced by other outstanding professors and researchers, Bardeen conducted research on the electrical conductivity of metals. After graduating from Princeton in

1936 with a PhD in mathematical physics, he went on to wartime research at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in Washington, D.C. In 1951 he became professor of electrical engineering and physics at the University of Illinois in Urbana. Beginning in 1945 his main research interests were in the theoretical effects of quantum mechanics as related to electrical conductivity in semiconductors and metals, which led to the invention of the transistor. In cooperation with two colleagues, Leon Cooper and John Schfieffer, they developed a viable theory of superconductivity, at low and high temperatures that is also known as the BCS theory of condensed matter or superconductivity. John Bardeens work with transistors and the theory of superconductivity of metals revolutionized electronics. Transistors are a necessity in our modern world. They are used in radio and television transmitting and receiving equipment, telephones, computers, and wherever electrical distribution systems are in place, such as automobiles, airplanes, ships, security systems, and so forth. BARRINGERS IMPACT THEORY OF CRATERS: Geology: Daniel Moreau Barringer (18601929), United States. Craters were formed on the planets (including Earth) and the moon by the impact of large extraterrestrial objects such as meteors, asteroids, and comets. Following is the evidence that Barringer developed for his theory: 1. The large amount of silica powder found at crater sites could be formed only by very great pressure. 2. In the past, large deposits of meteoritic iron globs were found at the rims of craters, most of which was removed many years ago by humans. 3. Rocks from deep in the craters are mixed with meteoritic material.

4. There is no evidence of volcanoes at crater sites. Therefore, they could be ruled out as a possible cause of impact craters. Barringers impact theory for craters is based on his study of the famous meteor crater (also referred to as the Barringer meteorite crater) located near Flagstaff, Arizona. Estimated to be twenty thousand to twenty-five thousand years old, it is almost 1 mile across and 600 feet deep. Compared to other meteorite impact craters, it is considered small. 44 Barringers Impact Theory of Craters Barringer was not the first to study this crater or come up with theories of crater formation on Earth. He did, however, establish the impact theory for craters, which is generally accepted within the scientific community. He did this despite having at one time agreed mistakenly with the theory that the meteor crater was the result of the impact of a meteor of the same size as the crater itself. (The current estimation of the size of the meteorite that impacted to create the Barringer crater is about 35 feet in diameter. It was a very dense iron meteorite weighing about 10,000 tons.) After Barringer found small pieces of nickel-iron rocks in the area, he spent a great deal of money establishing a mining company to extract the meteorite iron thought to be at the bottom of the crater. However, he was unsuccessful in finding significant deposits. Today, his theory is still the best explanation for most craters, including the Barringer meteorite crater found in Arizona. It is believed that at one time Earths surface was pockmarked with craters, as is the current moons surface, primarily because the moon does not experience extensive erosion. However, the process of weathering and erosion over eons of time has eliminated most of the evidence of the largest craters on Earth. BEAUMONTS THEORY FOR THE ORIGIN OF MOUNTAINS: Geology: Jean

Baptiste Armand Leonce Beaumont, Elie de (17981874), France. Mountains were rapidly formed by the distortion of molten matter as it cooled in the earths crust. Jean Beaumonts theory is an explanation for the formation of mountains consisting mainly of basalt rocks, but not sedimentary shales or layered limestone. His theory is still considered viable by some biologists and geologists, particularly by those who believe in the concept of catastrophismtheories that deal with the different types of catastrophic events on Earth that occurred in the past. These catastrophic events on Earth include earthquakes and volcanoes, which possibly are responsible for the formation of mountains, as well as catastrophic meteor impacts/craters and major climate changes. The major evidence in support of Beaumonts theory is that roots of mountains are less dense than the rocks found at the mountains higher elevations. Modern theory for the origin of mountains is based on the concept of the earths crust being raised above the surrounding area by the warping and folding of surface rock into layers. Another modern concept is plate tectonics: large plates on the ocean floor and under the continents move and crash into each other over eons. This plate movement, at a depth of 25 to 90 miles, has been ongoing for the past 2.5 to 3 billion years and still continues. The crashing together of the edges of these plates cause the development of earthquake fault lines similar to those located in California, Eastern Europe, and Asia. Plate movement is the process responsible for building the global distribution of mountains, as well as resulting in earthquakes and volcanoes. Mountains are formed in either a ring configuration, as in the Olympic Mountains in Washington State, or, more often, in ridges linked together, as in the Sierra

Nevada range. A third type is the group of ranges similar to the Rocky Mountains in the western United States, the Andes in South America, the Alps in Europe, and the Himalayas in Asia. Beaumonts theory, though not completely wrong, is too limited as a geological concept for the origin of mountains. See also Buffon; Cuvier; Eldredge; Gould Beaumonts Theory for the Origin of Mountains 45 BECQUERELS HYPOTHESIS OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE: Physics: Antoine Henri Becquerel (18521908), France. Antoine Becquerel shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with Marie and Pierre Curie. The exposure of fluorescent crystals to ultraviolet light will produce X-rays. Antoine Becquerels concept is an excellent example of how his hypothesis, which proved false, later resulted in a discovery of great importance. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895. Becquerel believed he could produce X-rays by exposing his fluorescent crystals (salts) to sunlight (ultraviolet radiation). He placed his crystals on a photographic plate covered in black paper and then exposed both to sunlight. His original hypothesis assumed that the photographic plate had been darkened by what he incorrectly thought was exposure to X-rays passing through the paper from the crystals. He inadvertently left an unexposed, wrapped, photographic plate in a desk drawer with some of his fluorescent crystals on top of the plate that had not been exposed to sunlight. To his amazement, when the plate was developed, it was darkened as if it had been exposed to something coming from the crystalsobviously not ultraviolet light, because it was stored in a dark drawer. Because neither the plate nor the crystals were exposed to sunlight, he concluded that his original hypothesis was incorrect. He now hypothesized that the crystals gave off some form of penetrating

radiation (later identified as radiation of short wavelengths with an electrical charge such as beta and gamma rays.) He continued to experiment and found that the radiation could be deflected by a magnet and thus must consist of minute charged radiation particles. Becquerel is credited with discovering radioactivity. See also Curies; Roentgen; Rutherford BEERS LAW: Physics: August Beer (18251863), Germany. (Note: This law is also known as the BeerLambertBouguer law because all three independently discovered variations of the law at about the same time. Their law states: There is a logarithmic dependence between the transmission of light that shines through a material and the density of the material as well as the length of the material that the light is traveling through. In 1729 Pierre Bouguers theory was published that defined the amount of light that was lost by passing it through a given amount of atmosphere. Pierre Bouguer (1698 1758), a French mathematician, also determined that the suns light was 300 times brighter than the moonlight reflected from its surface that originates from sunlight. Johann Heinrich Lambert (17281777), a German mathematician, physicist and astronomer, published a book in 1760 on how light is reflected from different surfaces. He coined the word albedo (the reflection factor of light or other forms of radiation from a surface). Lambert also presented a hypothesis that the planets near the sun were part of a system that traveled within the Milky Way galaxy, and that our solar system is just one of many found in the galaxy. He also presented a hypothesis for the nebular (interstellar cloud of gas) origin of our solar system. In 1852 August Beer expressed his law in several elaborate forms of common logarithms

and in exponential equations. In essence, the results may vary according to the ability of the material to absorb light and the materials wavelength. In other words, if the material is very dense or opaque the law does not apply because little or no light 46 Becquerels Hypothesis of X-Ray Fluorescence can transverse the material. This law is expressed in logarithms when applied to spectrophotometry. When used with regular optical equipment, it is expressed in exponential form. Little is known about August Beers life. He was born in Trier, Germany, in 1815 where he studied mathematics and the natural sciences. He worked for the famous mathematician and physicist, Julius Plucker (18011868), in Bonn, Germany. Beer eventually received a PhD in mathematics and published a book in 1854 titled Einleitung in die hohere Optik. His work, along with that of Lambert and Bouguer, the German and French eighteenth-century mathematicians, constitutes Beers Law. A version of the BeerLambert law is also used to describe the absorption of solar radiation as it travels through the atmosphere. Its application and relevance is dependent with respect to the degree the suns light is perpendicular to the observer on Earths surface. See also Ramsay; Tyndall BEHRINGS THEORY OF IMMUNOLOGY: Biology: Emil Adolph von Behring (18541917) Germany. Emil von Behring was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for his discovery of antitoxins that are produced by humans to counteract the toxins (poisons) produced by bacteria in the body. The blood of animals will produce substances that can neutralize toxins, that is, poisons caused by invading organisms such as bacteria, and that antitoxins similar to

antibodies will fight the disease-causing organisms. Emil Behring, the son of a small town schoolteacher with a large family, was a brilliant child who, with the assistance of the local preacher, was able to attend the Gymnasium (high school) in Hohenstein in Saxony. He then attended the Academy for Military Doctors at the Royal Medical-Surgical Institute in Berlin. After receiving his medical degree, he entered the Army Medical Corps where he served as a troop doctor and later became a lecturer in the Army Medical College in Berlin. Following his military service he was employed at the Hygiene Institute of Berlin and became an assistant to Robert Koch (18481910), the well-known German physician and bacteriologist. At this point in his career, Behring studied and experimented with the development of a therapeutic serum that led to successful treatments for diphtheria and tetanus. His first successful therapeutic serum treatment took place in 1891. It involved a child who was suffering from diphtheria. These first treatments were not successful because the antitoxins were not strong enough. After more research, an improved protocol, using a mixture of the toxins along with the antitoxins now derived from larger animals such as sheep, and later horses, proved successful. As with many such inoculations, there were adverse reactions to the treatment serum, but in the long run diphtheria and tetanus as devastating diseases have been conquered. Behring received many awards during his long career and went on to develop treatments for other diseases including a vaccine for the immunization of calves against tuberculosis. He spent the end of his career attempting, unsuccessfully, to develop a vaccine for human tuberculosis. Behring, along with Shibasaburo Kitasato (18561931), a Japanese bacteriologist, proposed a serum theory that led to their development of an antitoxin for diphtheria and tetanus (a form of blood poisoning). They demonstrated that giving animals graduated

doses of tetanus bacilli caused the animals to produce in their blood substances Behrings Theory of Immunology 47 that could neutralize the toxins that these bacilli produced. These were called antitoxins. They also demonstrated that the antitoxins produced by one animal could immunize another animal and that it could also cure an animal showing signs of diphtheria. Their research was confirmed and replicated by others. Using this information Behring collaborated with Ehrlich to develop similar antitoxin immunity for diphtheria, a major killer of children at that time in history. It might be of some interest that the best antitoxin was made from injecting horses and then using blood serum from the infected horse as the source of the antitoxin. It was also discovered that by mixing a small amount of the original toxin (poison) with the serum antitoxin, the treatment for tetanus and diphtheria was more effective. See also Ehrlich; Jenner; Koch BELLS LAW (ALSO KNOWN AS THE BELLMAGENDIE LAW): Medicine: Sir Charles Bell (17441842), Scotland. The anterior spinal nerve roots contain only motor fibers, and posterior roots only sensory fibers. Bells major work in 1811 was the first to refer to the motor functions of the ventral (abdominal) spinal nerve that established the sensory functions of the dorsal roots. This, along with the discovery made by the French physiologist, FranVois Magendie (1783 1855), that damage to the dorsal root and anterior root in spinal nerves destroys both the sensory and motor activity, enabled Bell to arrive at Bells law that is based on anatomical evidence. This discovery is considered one of the greatest in the history of physiology. He demonstrated that the spinal nerves were able to transmit sensory and motor functions. In

addition, he found that the sensory nerves traverse the posterior roots whereas the motor nerves go through the anterior section. Evidence of Bells law was confirmed by experiments conducted by Magendie, who is considered a founder of experimental physiology, and the German physiologist and anatomist Johannes Peter M_ller (18011858) who used frogs to demonstrate the theory because it was easier to extract their spinal cords than it was for small mammals. Magendie believed living organisms were merely complex systems that could be subjected to all types of experimentation with impunity. He used living cats, dogs, and rabbits without seeming to care about their pain or discomfort. Sir Charles Bell received his medical degree in 1799. In 1824 he became the first professor of anatomy and surgery of the College of Surgeons in London. In cooperation with his brother John Bell (17631820), also a surgeon, they wrote and illustrated a two-volume medical text titled, A System of Dissection Explaining the Anatomy of the Human Body. Bell wrote an earlier book in 1811 called An Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain in which he describes his various experiments with animals and his ability to distinguish between sensory and motor nerves, which was a first. Many physiologists considered the work described in Bells 1811 text to be the foundation of clinical neurology. In 1826 he was elected a Fellow of Royal Society and was knighted in 1831. Bell established a new hospital and medical school in 1828. Bell may be best known to the general public for discovering the paralysis of facial muscles caused by a lesion of the facial nerveknown as Bells palsy, as well as his discovery of a related problem, Bells spasm, which is the involuntary twitching of the facial muscles.

48 Bells Law (also known as the BellMagendie Law) BERGERONS THEORY OF CLOUD PROCESSES: Meteorology: Tor Harold Percival Bergeron (18911977), Sweden. Water vapor is formed as a result of water evaporating from supercooled drops that then are attached to ice crystals that either fall as snow or melt and fall as cool rain, depending upon local temperatures. Between 1925 and 1928 Bergeron worked at the Geophysical Institute in Stockholm and, after teaching at Oslo University, was elected as the head of the Meteorological Institute in Uppsala. As a meteorologist, Bergeron collaborated with his German colleague Walter Findeisen (19091945), thus, the theory is also known as the Bergeron Findeisen theory. The theory is based on their discovery of the mechanism for the formation of precipitation (rain, snow, and ice) in clouds. In 1935 Bergeron wrote a paper titled On the Physics of Clouds and Precipitation that documents the change in state from a vapor to a liquid water, which is called condensation. He arrived at the Bergeron process while walking in the mountains where the humidity was high and it began to rain. We now know that there is more to the process than Bergerons idea that the saturation vapor pressure with respect to ice is less than the saturation vapor pressure with respect to water. There are several other conditions that result in condensation besides the Bergeron process as follows: 1) when the relative humidity on the surface of Earth reaches 100% and 2) when vapor pressure is the same as the saturation vapor pressure. The primary difference is that, in clouds, the water will not condense until the saturation point reaches a level of supersaturation of about 120%. This level is required for

the cloud droplets to overcome the natural surface tension of drops of water. Oddly, the pure water in the atmosphere requires some air pollution (called aerosol) for the vapor to have something on which to condense and form droplets. Contrary to common beliefs, water vapor in clouds does not condense on itself when the temperature drops in rain clouds, but rather it condenses on tiny particles of matter (less than 2 microns) called nuclei that are forms of air pollution. These nuclei must be below freezing for this process to occur. Once the droplets are formed on the nuclei, air currents cause them to collide and coalesce with each other to form snowflakesor raindrops carry them. These processes are referred to as ccn (cloud condensation nuclei). Note: Pure water does not freeze at 0oC, and at temperatures below this point, liquid water is called supercooled water. This is important for another method of forming rain or snow. It is not until the temperature drops lower than freezing that the aerosol pollutants (called freezing nuclei) are cold enough to allow the supercooled cloud droplets to freeze onto these nuclei. This process does not occur until the temperature of the freezing nuclei reaches about _10_C. BERNOULLIS LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS: Mathematics: Jakob (Jacques) Bernoulli (16541705), Switzerland. The average of a random sample from a large population is likely to be close to the mean of the entire population. This law of large numbers is a fundamental principle of statistical sequences that can be expressed in another way: The probability of a possible event (no matter how likely or unlikely) occurring at least once in a series of events increases with the number of events Bernoullis Law of Large Numbers 49 in the particular series. Jakob also is known for his work in permutations and combinations.

The law of large numbers is sometimes referred to as the principle of probability, meaning that the probability of an event occurring at least once increases in likelihood if the number of events is large enough or approaches infinity. This can be interpreted in several ways. For example, when an increasing number of lottery tickets are sold, the odds increase that there will be at least one winner; whereas if only a few tickets are sold, the odds of a winner decrease drastically. Another way the law of large numbers may be interpreted is related to the differences in the concepts of possible and probable. Anything might be considered possible. Even so, the term possible is not quantifiable, whereas the concept of probable is quantifiable in a statistical sense ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 or a scale of one (or it may be thought of a scale of 10 or 100%). The probability of an event occurring or not occurring in a nonstatistical sense may be thought of as likely or unlikely or reasonably or unreasonably. There is no statistical scale for a possible event to occur or not occur even for an infinite number of events. This means that a possible event is not likely to occur or that it is most unlikely to have occurred in the past. This is the reason why the term possible should not be used in a courtroom because the term has no quantifiable or definitive meaning in determining guilt or innocence. After all, according to the law of large numbers, it is also possible for anyone to have committed the crime unless there is evidence establishing a high probability of a specific suspect. Jakob Bernoulli and Johann Bernoulli (16671748) were brothers. (Daniel Bernoulli

was the son of Johann Bernoulli.) Jakobs and Johanns father, Nicolaus Bernoulli (1623 1708), discouraged their ambitions as mathematicians and encouraged them to have careers in medicine instead. Jakob had degrees in mathematics and theology, Johann in iatromathematics and medicine. The brothers were rivals with each other throughout most of their lives. Part of this rivalry started as a disagreement over how to solve the problem of finding the shortest path between two points of something moving all by itself as influenced by the force of gravity. This problem led several mathematicians, including Leonhard Euler, in the direction of the field that became known as calculus. Their rivalry was not limited to their related work in the field of mathematics but continued in all aspects of their relationship and that of Johanns son, Daniel. Jakob was involved in the development of and popularization of the new field of integral and differential calculus. Calculus, a field of mathematics dealing with differentiation and integration, was constructed by Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. Jakobs contribution was in demonstrating how calculus could be used in practical ways in various fields of mathematics, whereas Johanns interest in this field was to support the version of calculus proposed by Gottfried Leibniz. Johann claimed that Leibnizs version had priority over Newtons calculus. Johanns interest extended beyond mathematics and included the fields of astronomy, chemistry, and physics. Even today the controversy of who invented calculus is not settled. See also Bernoulli (Daniel); Euler; Leibniz; Newton BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE: Physics and Mathematics: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 1782), Switzerland. The sum of the mechanical energy of a flowing fluid (the combined energy of fluid

pressure, gravitational potential energy, and kinetic energy of the moving fluid) remains constant. 50 Bernoullis Principle Daniel Bernoullis principle is related to the concept of energy conservation of ideal fluids (gases and liquids) that are in a steady flow. This principle, used by mathematicians and engineers to explain and design many machines, further states that if fluid is moving horizontally with no change in gravitational potential energy and if there is then a decrease in the fluids pressure, then there will be a corresponding increase in the fluids velocity (or vice versa). One example of this aspect of the principle is the design of airplane wings. The air that flows over the upper curved surface of the wing moves faster than the air that passes past the underside of the wing, thus creating a pressure differential. In other words, the air must travel faster over the curved top of the wing and thus the pressure is less (i.e., the air molecules are spread further apart). While on the underside of the wing, the air flows slower (molecules closer together) and thus exerts greater pressure. This causes the wing to be pushed up, keeping the moving aircraft in flight. This upward pressure on the wing is called lift, but it might be more appropriate to call it push.

A similar part of the Bernoulli principle states, for example, that if there is a partial constriction in a pipe or air duct, the velocity of the fluid (gas or liquid) will increase as the pressure increases. This is known as the Venturi effect and can be demonstrated by the narrow nozzle of a garden hose that constricts, and thus speeds up, the flow of water as the water pressure forces the same amount of water through a smaller opening. A spray bottle or atomizer works on the same principle. It is named after the Italian physicist Giovanni Battista Venturi (17461822) who first described the effect by constrictions on water flowing in channels. Bernoulli laid the groundwork for Robert Boyles work in gases when he proposed a model for gases that consisted of many small atoms that were in constant motion and that exhibited elasticity as they bounced off each other as well as the sides of its container. Daniel Bernoulli was interested in philosophy, logic, medicine, and mathematics. Bernoulli developed an equation that oddly received the name Bessel functions. Named after the German mathematician, astronomer, and systematizer, Friedrich Bessel, Bessel functions are solutions involving cylindrical or spherical coordinates and are important for solving problems of wave propagation and signal processing. In 1724 Daniel Bernoulli published work in differential equations, which was well received throughout Europe. Following this publication he was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of St. Petersburg and later as professor of physics at the University at Basel in Switzerland where his father, Johann Bernoulli, formerly held the chair in mathematics. He also made contributions to probability theory, the kinetic theory of gases, electrostatics, and was a pioneer in the field of

hydrodynamics. See also Bernoulli (Jakob); Bessel; Boyle Figure B3. As the speed of the flow of a fluid (air or liquid) increases, the pressure decreases (and vice versa). Bernoullis Principle 51 BERZELIUS CHEMICAL THEORIES: Chemistry: Baron Jons Jakob Berzelius (17791848), Sweden. Berzelius electrochemical theory: Molecules that make up compounds carry either a negative or positive electric charge. Baron Berzelius work with the electrochemical nature of chemical reactions led to his concept of catalysts being related to the speeds at which chemical reactions take place. He not only gave this concept the name catalyst but also coined the names protein and isometric. However, his positive-negative or, as it became known, his dualistic view of compounds did not hold up very well for future theories related to organic chemistry. Berzelius theory for chemical proportions: The proportion of chemicals in a reaction is related to the masses (atomic weights) of the molecules involved in the reaction. His theory of chemical proportions allowed Berzelius to develop an accurate table of atomic weights for elements and molecules. Somewhat oddly, despite understanding the proportional relationship of atomic weights in chemical reactions, he did not accept Avogadros hypothesis or number (see Avogadro). Even so, his accurate measurements

of atomic weights of chemicals were one of his most important contributions to chemistry. His table of atomic weights was a precursor to the establishment of John Daltons atomic theory. Berzelius theory of radicals: Groups of atoms can act as a single unit during a chemical reaction and have at least one unpaired electron. Baron Berzelius named these groups of atoms radicals because of their nature to act as a singular electrically charged unit (ions), for example, OH, NH4, SO4, and NO2 _, all of which have a charge. They are short-lived, highly reactive charged particles that can initiate a chemical reaction by splitting molecular bonds. It was later discovered that ionizing radioactivity causes illness, including radiation poisoning, and death. Other causes for the formation of free radicals in the tissues of living organisms are not completely understood, but their formation is related to normal metabolism within organisms. The role of free radicals as they affect cells and accelerate the aging process in humans continues to be studied. Berzelius had a difficult time in securing an education. He was forced to leave the University of Uppsala in Sweden to secure employment to finance his further education. He worked as a chemist testing the local water supply. Although he finally received his medical degree, he chose to work with Wilhelm Hisinger (17661852), the Swedish mineralogist, in the field of mining chemistry. Together they discovered the elements cerium, selenium, and thorium and assisted in the discovery of lithium and vanadium. (The German chemist Martin Klaproth (17431817) is also given credit for the discovery of cerium.) Berzelius was a meticulous researcher who kept accurate records and published over 250 papers. His textbook on chemistry published in 1808 was translated into several languages. Later, in 1818 he published an important paper

titled Essay on the Theory of Chemical Proportions and on the Chemical Effects of Electricity. Berzelius also developed the system for abbreviating the elements by the first one or two letters of their names (e.g., H for hydrogen, O for oxygen, S for sulfur, Na for Natrium [sodium], Co for cobalt, and Ra for radium). Berzelius was not as successful in the field of organic chemistry as he was in inorganic chemistry. His insistence on the importance of his dualistic theory became an obstacle for future development in that field. Even so, his contributions to the field of organic chemistry were significant. His introduction of the concept of organic radicals (molecular fragments with an electrical charge) was a large step in the understanding 52 Berzelius Chemical Theories of organic chemistry, particularly when it led to the discovery of the benzol radical. (Note: The term benzol is an archaic term for benzene.) As mentioned, his textbook on chemistry published in the early 1800s was well accepted in universities. It went through many printings and was translated into many languages except English. Berzelius was creative and invented a number of the chemical supplies, equipment, and terms used in todays laboratories. These included rubber tubing, protein, isomerism, catalyst, radical, and filter paper. See also Avogadro; Dalton; Dumas BESSELS ASTRONOMICAL THEORIES: Astronomy and Mathematics: Friedrich Bessel (17841846), Germany. A stars distance from Earth can be determined by measuring its parallax. Bessel cataloged the positions of over fifty thousand stars up to the ninth magnitude and was able to determine the parallax of 30 seconds for the star 61Cygni. From this calculation he was able to measure the stars distance from Earth as over 10 lightyears,

which is now correctly determined to be 11.2 light-years distant. In 1838 Bessel proclaimed that he had determined the parallax for the star 61Cygni. It was difficult to measure the parallax for stars because they are so far from Earth and the instrumentation at the time was inadequate. Also, he was not the first to do so. That honor goes to Thomas Henderson who measured the parallax for the triple-star system Alpha Centauri in 1832. (A simple experiment to recognize parallax involves holding your index finger about 12 inches in front of your face, then closing one eye and then the other. Notice that the finger seems to jump to the left and then to the right. This phenomenon becomes less obvious and less measurable as distance increases.) Bessels theory of double star systems: When the orbit of a bright star is displaced, the displacement is caused by a dark companion star that forms a two-star system. In 1844 after careful observations of wave-like motions of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, he correctly determined that it was a double star system and its mate was a dark body that, though not visible, was the cause for the slight displacement of Sirius. Using the same rationale he employed for his theory of the movement of Sirius, he determined that the gravitational motion displacement for the planet Uranus indicated the presence of an unknown planet beyond Uranus. After his death and as he predicted, the planet Neptune was discovered in 1846 by the German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle (18121910). However, Galle used calculations provided by Urbain LeVerrier (18111877), the French astronomer. As a young man Bessel was trained as an accountant and was employed by an import-export firm. His interest in navigation eventually led to his pursuits in astronomy and mathematics. He refined the calculation for Halleys Comet, which started his success in the field of astronomy. After a friend secured him a position as an assistant

at the Lilienthal Observatory in Saxony, he made accurate observations for the positions of over three thousand stars. At one time, the Lilienthal Observatory was the best-equipped observatory in the world. This success led to a commission to build an observatory at Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Germany) where Frederick William III of Prussia appointed him as the observatorys director. He held this position until his death in 1846. Bessel had no university education but was highly respected by his Bessels Astronomical Theories 53 peers. The largest crater in the moons Mare Serenitatis (Sea of Serenity) is named after him. Not withstanding Bessels contributions to astronomy, he may be better known for Bessel functions, which is a mathematical theory to determine celestial motion that is influenced by gravity that causes perturbations. Oddly, Bessel functions, which were actually discovered by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli, refer to a method for solving Bessels differential equations. (Note: A detailed analysis of differential equations and the various form of Bessel functions of the first and second kind, as well as other

applications, is beyond the discussion in this book.) The Bessel function is also useful in finding solutions to Laplaces equations and the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical and spherical coordinates related to wave propagation in the field of communications. Bessel used his theory of functions to determine the motions of two or more bodies under the influence of mutual gravitation. His work in mathematics and astronomy enabled future astronomers and physicists to arrive at new astronomical observations. Bessel functions also assist in the study of the flow of heat and electricity through cylinders and spheres, as well as solving problems related to the wave functions in electricity and hydrodynamics. See also Bernoulli (Daniel); Halley; Laplace BETHES THEORY OF THERMONUCLEAR ENERGY: Physics: Hans Albrecht Bethe (19062005), United States. Hans Bethe was awarded the 1967 Nobel Prize for Physics. Carbon-12 atoms found in all stars undergo a series of catalytic reactions that convert hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei through the process of a thermonuclear reaction, releasing 17.5 million electron volts of energy (17.5 MeV). Bethes theory became known as the carbon cycle. Others had previously determined the sun is composed of about 85% hydrogen and 10%

helium. Bethe postulated his thermonuclear theory as the explanation for the tremendous, long-lived source for the energy produced by the stars, including our sun. Although the thermonuclear reaction Figure B4. Structure of the three isotopes of hydrogen atoms. Bessel was one of many scientists interested in calculating the shape of Earth. Back in the sixth century BCE Pythagoras calculated that Earth was a sphere, and three hundred years later Eratosthenes calculated the size of Earth. In the late 1600s Jean Richter (16301696), a Frenchman, determined that his pendulum time machine was 2 minutes slower when he measured time at the Equator than it was in Paris. Isaac Newton claimed that Earth was flattened at the poles and thus was shaped as a rotating spheroid. Others came to similar conclusions. Bessel used the imaginary meridian arcs in the sky that correspond to Earths longitudinal lines in his 1832 calculations to determine that the shape of Earth was an elliptical spheroid. In mathematical terms a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions that can be formed by rotating an ellipse about one of its major axes; if the ellipse is rotated around its minor axis (rather than its major axis), the surface of the ellipse will take the shape of an oblate spheroid. This

shape is similar to the pancake shape of Earth where the diameter from the North Pole to the South Pole is less then the distance of the diameter of Earth at the Equator. The rotation of Earth on its north/south axis creates the bulge of about 25 miles greater diameter at the Equator than is the diameter from pole to pole. 54 Bethes Theory of Thermonuclear Energy involving just one carbon-12 atom and a few hydrogen nuclei will not produce much energy, the stars have an enormous quantity of hydrogen. This reaction has continued over billions of years and produces prodigious amounts of energy. One unsolved problem was why the reaction did not take place faster and blow up the stars similar to a hydrogen (thermal fusion) bomb. Herman Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz suggested that gravitational forces slowed the contraction of hydrogen to keep the system running. This theory did not hold up. Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington suggested that the hydrogen-to-helium reaction could be sustained in the stars if their centers contained very high-temperature gases that would force the nuclei together. Experiments on Earth with high-pressure and temperature-heavy hydrogen plasmas (highly ionized gas) to replicate the fusion process of the sun indicated that Bethes and Eddingtons theory is correct. The essence of this thermonuclear reaction is that four protons (4 H) are converted into helium nuclei (2He), with the carbon-12 atom acting as a catalyst that is not consumed. The hydrogen protons involved are isotopesdeuterium (D) and tritium (T)which are forms of heavy hydrogen. The reaction can be written as: D T e fi 4He n 17.5 MeV of energy, where e is an input of energy required to start the reaction

and n is radiation. This process led others to develop the fusion H-bomb, which is many times more destructive than the nuclear fission atomic bomb but produces less harmful radiation. For the past half-century, research had attempted to achieve a similar controlled thermonuclear reaction to produce prodigious amounts of controlled energy for the production of electricity. See also Gamow; Hoyle; Teller BIOTSAVART LAW: Physics: Jean-Baptiste Biot (17741862) and Felix Savart (17911841), France. The intensity of the magnetic field set up by a current flowing through a wire varies inversely with the distance of the field from the wire. The BiotSavart law means that the intensity of a magnetic field that is set up by an electric current flowing through a conductor (wire) will vary inversely with the distance of the magnetic field from the wire. Jean Biot and Felix Savart were French physicists at the Coll_ege de France in Paris where they studied the relationship between the flow of electrical current and magnetism and arrived at the law that is named after them. This law follows other laws of electricity such as Coulombs law, Amp_eres law, and Gauss law. As a practical statement, it is an analogy between magneto-statics and fluid dynamics that is used to calculate magnetic responses and current density (amperes) in fluids. More recently the BiotSavart law was used in the calculation of the velocity of air induced by vortex lines in aerodynamic systems because a vortex in fluids (air) is analogous to the velocity of a currents (amps) strength through a magnetic field.

In addition to electromagnetism, Biot was interested in other areas of physics. He was the first person to determine the optical properties related to the polarization of light as the light passes through a solution. He also was the first to determine the optical properties of mica, which is found in the mineral biot that was named after him. For his work on polarization he was awarded the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society. He later wrote a book in which he proposed that the shape of Earth might be based on its BiotSavart Law 55 rotation on its axis. In 1804, along with Joseph Gay-Lussac, he flew a hot-air balloon to an altitude of 5 kilometers as they explored the changes in Earths atmosphere. A small crater on the moon is named for Biot. Felix Savart (17911841) actually discovered the law related to how the flow of current through a magnetic field is related inversely to the distance of the field from the magnet in 1820 during his collaboration with Jean Biot. Jean Biot was Savarts mentor and was senior in age and academic position at the Coll_ege de France. Savart was also interested in acoustics. He invented the Savart disk that, using a cogwheel as a measuring tool, produced a sound wave of a known frequency. In addition, the savart which is a unit of measurement for musical intervals is named after him although it was actually invented by the French mathematician and physicist Joseph Sauveur (16531716). See also Amp_ere; Coulomb; Gay-Lussac BIRKELANDS THEORY OF THE AURORA BOREALIS: Physics: Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (18671917), Norway. The aurora borealis is caused by rays (charged particles) from the sun that are trapped in Earths magnetic field and concentrated at the polar regions. The aurora is a curtain-like, luminous, greenish-white light produced by upper atmospheric

atoms and molecules that become ionized after being struck by electrons, thus emitting radiation. It is a large-scale electrical discharge affected by the solar wind and Earth acting as a magnetosphere generator that concentrates the aurora at the polar regions. Kristian Birkeland studied this phenomenon for some time and arrived at his theory from his knowledge of cathode rays recently produced and named by the German physicist Eugen Goldstein (18501930). He recognized the relationship of the glowing charged particles in cathode rays whose directions could be altered by magnetism. Birkeland made another important contribution involving the great worldwide demand for nitrogen fertilizer. The major supply of fertilizer was limited to guano (bat dung found in caves) and some natural nitrogen compounds. However, the atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen and could be an almost unlimited source of nitrogen fertilizer. In 1903 Birkeland and the Norweigian engineer and industrialist Samuel Eyde (18661940) developed a process by which air was passed through an electric carbon arc and produced nitrogen oxides, which were then dissolved in water to form nitric acid. The nitric acid reacted with lime to form calcium to produce calcium nitrate, an excellent fertilizer. It required great amounts of electricity to operate the electric arc. As a consequence, the commercialization of the process led to the development and the growth of hydroelectric power in Norway. This process became known as the BirkelandEyde process that produced fertilizer for export worldwide before World War I. About the same time another process that involved a catalytic reaction with hydrogen was developed that used the free nitrogen from the atmosphere and converted it into fixed nitrogen. The resulting nitrogen oxides, the basis for fertilizer, were less expensive to manufacture than those

produced by the BirkelandEyde process. This alternate process became known as the Haber process using an electric arc as a means of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. The process was commercialized by the German chemist and engineer Carl Bosch (18741940) and is still used today to produce the worldwide demand for fertilizer. See also Haber 56 Birkelands Theory of the Aurora Borealis BJERKNES THEORY OF AIR MASSES: Physics and Meterology: Vilhelm Friman Koren Bjerknes (18621951), Norway. The thermodynamic properties of an air mass will determine the weather factors for the area that is covered by the air mass. Essentially, this means that the physical nature of an air mass is partly determined by the nature of the surface region over which it develops. Bjerknes was the head of the geophysics department at the University of Leipzig in Germany before establishing the famous Bergen Geophysical Institute in Bergen, Norway, in 1917, which laid the foundation for the Bergen School of Meteorology. In collaboration with his son Jacob Bjerknes (18971975), a renowned meteorologist in his own right, they established a series of weather stations in Norway. As a result of the data and research gathered from these stations, Vilhelm Bjerknes developed his theory of air masses and cold (polar) fronts. He recognized that there were at least four types of air masses: equatorial, tropical, polar, and arctic (and antarctic). An air mass is a very large dome of air, which internally has similar factors of temperature, humidity, and pressure. Some fifty air masses exist over the surface of Earth at any one time, and their nature reflects the

region from which they were spawned. Bjerknes used these and other factors to develop a system that distinguished properties that determine the weather, such as humidity, temperature, and visibility (based on the amount of dust in the atmosphere). He recognized that the mass movement of air could better be predicted when the hydrodynamics, such as polar fronts, squall lines, and low-pressure areas (cyclonic regions) of large massive weather system were understood. The movement of air masses, related hydrodynamics, and the refinement of his classification system for air masses in the atmosphere are the bases for todays weather predications and reports. As a young boy Vilhelm assisted his father, Carl Bjerknes, in setting up and conducting experiments in hydrodynamics. He continued this work until he entered the University of Kristiania. (The city of Kristiania

was renamed Oslo in 1925.) He wrote his first scientific paper New Hydrodynamic Investigations in 1882 when he was just twenty years old. Prehistoric humans, no doubt, were aware of weather and changes in atmospheric conditions that affected their lives. They could tell if a weather front was upon them by the mere fact that they became colder or hotter, or that it was humid or wet, as well as windy. During the ice ages they were well aware of the seasons and prepared for long winters. People always could, and still do, recognize repeated patterns of the weather and sense the difference between hot/cold, wet/dry, cloudy/bright, and calm/windy. There are records that indicate the ancient Greeks understood that weather changed when masses of air passed through their region. In about 400 BCE, Hippocrates wrote a piece On Air, Water, and Places that describes changes in weather and how directions of the wind entering the city could affect the health of citizens. Until about the seventeen century observing the weather was accomplished by folk tales, myths, and legends. Some of the tales still exist. For instance, the amount of hair on a certain type of caterpillar will predict how cold the winter will be, and the predictions of the

famous Punxsutawney Phil groundhog that comes out of his hole on the second day of February each year are but two examples. If the sun is shining and Phil sees his shadow, there will be six more weeks of winter; and if he does not see his shadow, spring will come early. Despite all the knowledge, equipment, computers, satellites, and theories at hand today, weather forecasting is still somewhat unreliable due to the enormous amount of constantly shifting variables involved that are beyond the capabilities of our best efforts to incorporate them into a forecast that is accurate for more than a few days. Bjerknes Theory of Air Masses 57 He then moved to Germany to continue his studies, returning to Norway in 1907 where he remained for the next five years before going to the University of Leipzig as the head of the geophysics department. He presented his theory in a 1921 paper titled On the Dynamics of the Circular Vortex with Application to Atmosphere and to Atmospheric Vortex and Wave Motion. His theory is based on the direct analogy of the flow of fluids (air and water), turbulence, and whirlpools in water to the behavior of air masses. In other words, he applied his fathers work on hydrodynamics and electrodynamics to air masses. BLACKS THEORIES OF HEAT: Chemistry: Joseph Black (17281799), Scotland. There are three aspects to Blacks theory. One deals with solids changing to liquids (fusion), one involves the change of liquids into gases (vaporization), and the third

relates the capacity of heat required to a specific temperature change of a given mass. Blacks theory of latent heat of fusion: The heat of fusion is the heat capacity required to change 1 kilogram of a substance from a solid to a liquid without a temperature change. Blacks theory of latent heat of vaporization: The heat of vaporization is the heat capacity required to change 1 kilogram of a substance from a liquid to a gas without any temperature change. Blacks theory of specific heat: Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 degree Kelvin. Joseph Black proposed these theories after experimenting and making many measurements involving changes in the states of matter (e.g., water to ice and boiling water to steam; see Figure B5). He was the first to distinguish between temperature and heat, a distinction that many still confuse today. Temperature is based on the law of thermodynamics and is the degree of hotness or coldness transferred from one body to another as measured in degrees Celsius, Kelvin, or Fahrenheit. Temperature is a measure of the average (mean) energy of the motion of molecules and atoms in a substance in internal equilibrium. Heat, on the other hand, is a form

in which energy is transferred from one body to another. Heat always flows from a substance that contains more energy to one with less. Thus, the temperature of the first substance is reduced, and the second substance increases until equilibrium between the two substances is established. In other words, at equilibrium they are at the same temperature. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a number of physicists developed the science of heat, later named thermodynamics, the second law of which states that heat flows naturally from hot to cold, Figure B5. States of matter: A solid state exists when the substance has a definite shape and volume and tends to maintain its shape and volume. A substance in the liquid state has a definite volume but no definite shape; it flows and takes on the shape of it container. The liquid state is between the solid and gaseous states. A substance in the gaseous state has a lower density than solids and liquids, and it will expand to fill the extent of its container. The states of matter are related to the densities of matter and the kinetic

energy of their constituent particles. 58 Blacks Theories of Heat but never the other direction. The second law of thermodynamics describes entropy, which is an increase in disorganization (of molecules) within a closed system until equilibrium is established. In several ways, Blacks work was the beginning of modern chemistry. More important, he was one of the first to measure chemical reactions quantitatively. For example, the reaction of limestone with acid that exhibited an effervescence that he called fixed air, and that later proved to be carbon dioxide, was one of his more famous experiments. See also Carnot; Clausius; Joule; Kelvin; Maxwell; Mayer; Thomson; von Helmholtz BODES LAW FOR PLANETARY ORBITS: Astronomy: Johann Elert Bode (1747 1826), Germany. Bodes law is a numerical system for determining the average radii (distance) of a planet from the sun, calculated in astronomical units (AU). An AU is the average distance of Earth from the center of the sunapproximately 93 million miles. Start with a series of numbers where each number is twice the preceding number, namely, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96..., then add 4 to each number, namely, 7, 10, 16, 28, 52, 100.. ., then divide the sum of each by 10. The answer is the mean radii of the planetary orbits in astronomical units (AU), which is the planets mean distance from the sunfor example: 3 4 7 10 0.7 AU 6 4 10 10 1.0 AU 2 4 16 10 1.6 AU 24 4 28 10 2.8 AU

48 4 52 10 5.2 AU Bodes law is really the mathematical expression of a concept proposed by the German astronomer Johann Titius (17291796) in 1766 or 1772. It is based on Titiuss idea that a simple numerical rule governs the distance of planets from the sun. A few years later Bode proposed a useful combination of simple numbers that he claimed could predict the location of unknown planets. It is unknown if this is some true relationship of the nature of the solar system or just coincidence. Most astronomers of his day were unimpressed with his number sequence because the rule did not apply for the planets Neptune and Pluto. Bodes law predicted a planet between Mars and Jupiter, but none was found until the Italian monk, mathematician and astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi (17461826) discovered a very small (about 650 miles in diameter) asteroid-like planet, Ceres, in 1801. Ceres was located at 2.55 AUs from the sun in an area with many, many asteroids (also known as planetoids). Bodes law was finally accepted when Bode accurately predicted the location of a yet-to-be-discovered planet. Using a telescope, William Herschel located Uranus in 1781, exactly where Bodes numbers indicated it should be, at 19.2 AUs. Bode was given the privilege of naming this new planet, calling it Uranus after the Greek god of the sky. BOHMS INTERPRETATION OF THE UNCERTAINTY THEORY FOR ELECTRONS: Physics: David Joseph Bohm (19171992), United States. The electron has a definite momentum and position and is thus a real particle, with wave and particle characteristics, but this duality is the result of new pilot waves that connect the electron with its environment. Bohms Interpretation of the Uncertainty Theory for Electrons 59 David Bohm did not completely agree with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (indeterminacy principle) or with then current interpretations of quantum theory. He

considered Heisenbergs theory as presenting only a description of the behavior of an electron and not a view of the electron because it stated neither the position nor momentum (mass multiplied by velocity) of the electron could be determined at the same instant. Bohm claimed that this uncertainty does not represent the deterministic nature of realitythat is, an event cannot precede its cause. Bohms pilot wave is not the classical or traditional explanation of quantum or indeterminacy theories. It can be measured only by complex mathematics, not by experimentation. Although Bohms pilot wave interpretation maintains the concept of real nature as being deterministic, it is not as well accepted, as is Bohrs interpretation. Today, most physicists accept the latters theory. See also Bohr; Dehmelt; Einstein; Heisenberg; Planck BOHRS QUANTUM THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Physics: Niels Hendrik David Bohr (18851962), Denmark. Bohr was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physics. Bohrs quantum mechanics theory for atoms: 1) Electrons reside in discrete energy levels (similar to the shells or orbits of Rutherfords model) in which they move. As long as they remain in their orbit, they do not emit radiation. Therefore, these energy levels (orbits) are stable and are always whole number multiples of Plancks constant as 1h, 2h, 3h, and so on, and the orbiting electrons are limited to a discrete series of orbits. 2) Electrons move in stable orbits because they can only emit or absorb discrete radiation packets of energy that are equal to the difference between the original and the final energy levels of the electrons. The

quanta packets of energy are absorbed or radiated when electrons change from one orbit to another. Niels Bohr based his theory for the structure of the atom on Ernest Rutherfords famous experiment demonstrating that atoms comprised very small, heavy, dense, positively charged central nuclei surrounded at some distance by very light, negatively charged particles, referred to as electrons. This concept of the negative electrons orbiting the positive nucleus was somewhat similar to planets orbiting around the sun. This classical mechanical-electrodynamic concept presented a problem in the sense that electrons carry a negative electrical charge, and according to the laws of physics, they should radiate energy as they orbit the nucleus, which would result in instability and cause them to spiral into the positively charged nucleus. Thus the conservation of momentum would be violated. Bohr solved this problem of the atoms potential instability by postulating that the circumference of the orbit must be equal to an integral number of wavelengths. The extension of this idea led to the development of quantum mechanics. To account for the conservation of momentum (mass times speed), Bohr assigned specific values to orbits and later to suborbits. This led to his concept that when an electron emitted a quantum of energy (photon), it would move to a lower orbit (lower energy level). Conversely, when an electron absorbed a quantum of energy, it would move to an outer or higher orbit (energy level). This became known as a quantum leap. By using Plancks constant (_) he measured the difference in radiation for these energy level changes by _v, where v is the frequency of the radiation. These developments led

Bohr to another principle. 60 Bohrs Quantum Theory of Atomic Structure Bohrs correspondence principle: The quantum theory description of the Bohr atom relates to events on a very small scale but corresponds to the older classical physics, which describes events on a much larger scale. This principle is based on electrons obeying the principle of quantum mechanics but with limits corresponding to and similar to Newtonian classical mechanics. Thus, his model of the atom could exist only if electrons exhibited both wave and particle properties. This explains how electrons, as standing waves, could move in orbits without emitting radiation but still have particle characteristics. Bohrs next principle is related to the quantum nature of photons and electrons. Bohrs complementary principle: The electron can behave in two mutually exclusive ways. It can be either a particle or a wave. The waveparticle duality was demonstrated by others and is accepted today as the duality nature of quantum particles. Bohr also was the first to theorize that an electron could enter a nucleus and cause it to be excited and unstable. This led to his next contribution.

Bohrs theory of a compounded nucleus: The nuclei of atoms are compounded or composed of distinct parts. The heavier the nuclei the more parts they contain and more likely to be unstable and break up. This led to his next theory. Bohrs droplet model theory: The impact of a neutron (corresponding to a droplet) on a very heavy nucleus can cause the heavy nucleus to be compounded and become unstable and fission or split into two parts, whose total mass almost equals the mass and charge of the original heavy nucleus. Later, Otto Hahn who discovered protactinium (Pa), and German chemist Fritz Strassman (19021980) chemically identified fragmentary decay particles of uranium predicted in Bohrs model but did not identify it as fission. This decay reaction, called nuclear fission by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch, occurs when compounded heavy nuclei break into two or more lighter nuclei. These experiments were the first evidence for fission of the rare uranium radioactive isotope U-235, which ended as a small radioactive isotope of barium-56. This led to the use of another fissionable element, plutonium, used in atomic fission bombs, which Bohr assisted in developing. Among Bohrs other contributions was his early (1920) theoretical description of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements that he based on his theories of atomic structure. See also Bohm; Dehmelt; Frisch; Hahn; Heisenberg; Meitner; Planck; Rutherford BOKS GLOBULES THEORY OF STAR FORMATION: Astronomy: Bart Jan Bok (19061983), United States.

The small, circular clouds of matter that are visible against a background of luminous gas or by the light from stars are actually massive globular-like clouds of dust and gas that are in the process of condensing to form new stars. Figure B6. When electrons move from a stable energy level of atoms, they emit discrete packets of energy. Boks Globules Theory of Star Formation 61 Bart Bok identified these interstellar dark globules near the nebula Centaurus, referred to as IC2944. Boks theory is used to explain one of the concepts for the origin of our universe. Recently his theory has been reexamined as a possible model for the creation, regeneration, or rebirthing of stars to explain the idea for the ever-continuing universe. After receiving his PhD in the Netherlands, Bart Jan Bok arrived in the United States in 1929. He became a citizen in 1938 and was appointed professor of astronomy at Harvard University in 1947. From 1957 to 1966 he was director of the Observatory in Canberra, Australia. After returning to the United States in 1966 he became director of the Steward Observatory in Arizona and professor of astronomy. In cooperation with his wife, Priscilla, they published a paper The Milky Way in 1941 that explained his theory for the spiral structure of the Milky Way. Walter Baade who identified hot young O and B type stars in the Andromeda galaxy further explored Boks theory. These bright O and B stars act as identifiers in the arms of the spirals of the galaxy. In the early 1950s William Morgan and Hendrik van de Hulst produced data from radio-astronomy experiments that contradicted the circular spiral nature of galaxies. Their data identified them as being more elliptical in shape. Bok attempted to

join the two different types of structures (circular vs. elliptical) for galaxies but was not successful. He is now best known for what are called Bok globules that are the small dark circular clouds that are visible against the background of stars. See also Baade BOLTZMANNS LAWS, HYPOTHESES, AND CONSTANT: Physics: Ludwig Edward Boltzmann (18441906), Austria. Boltzmanns law of equipartition: The total amount of energy of molecules (or atoms) is equally distributed over their kinetic motions. In other words, on the average, the energy of molecular motion is distributed with discrete degrees of freedom within an ideal gas. This led to Boltzmanns description of how the total energy of a gas is distributed equally among the molecules in the gas, namely, heat. This became known as the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution equation, which is based on the Boltzmann constant: k R/N 1.38 _ 10_23 J/k, where k is the Boltzmann constant, R is the universal gas constant, N is the number of molecules in 1 mole of gas as per Avogadros number, and J/K is joules per degree of Kelvin. Boltzmann distribution equation: The probability exists that a molecule of a gas will be in energy equilibrium with the position and movement of the molecule and will be within an unlimited range of values. This is another way of stating the energy distribution of gas molecules. It states that atoms and molecules should obey the laws of thermodynamics. Boltzmanns entropy hypothesis: The entropy (the measure of disorder in a closed system) in a given state is directly proportional to the logarithm of the number of distinct states available to the system. Entropy was the term given to the concept of the second law of thermodynamics.

It is based on the fact that unless energy is added to a closed system, the system will always proceed to a state of disorganization and finally to a state of energy or heat equilibrium. Boltzmann supplemented the mathematics related to thermodynamics using a statistical treatment to interpret the second law of thermodynamics, which in essence states that heat can only move toward cold, or to a region of less heat, never the other way around. This hypothesis can be stated as the Boltzmann constant 62 Boltzmanns Laws, Hypotheses, and Constant equation: S/k log p b, where S is entropy and k is the Boltzmann constant, which has the value of 1.380 _ 10_23 joules per degrees Kelvin. Boltzmann thought so highly of this equation that he had it inscribed on his tombstone. Most of Boltzmanns theoretical work contributed to the science of statistical mechanics. He is also known as the father of statistical mechanics. See also Carnot; Clausius; Kelvin; Maxwell; Rumford BONNETS THEORIES OF PARTHENOGENESIS AND CATASTROPHISM: Biology: Charles Bonnet (17201793), Switzerland. All organisms are preformed in miniature (homunculi) as little beings inside the female eggs of the species, and the germ of a species is constant over time, thus no male of the species is required for propagation of the species. Charles Bonnet developed this theory of parthenogenesis after discovering the female of a species of a tree aphid reproduced without the aid of male sperm (thus, parthenogenesis, or virgin birth). To overcome the objections to his theory, which implied all living organisms were unchanged from the beginning of time, he proposed the concept of catastrophism. Although he was the first to explain evolution in a biological

context, and the first to use the term evolution in a biological sense, he did not accept the extinction and changes of species as a gradual process. Bonnet was one of the first to propose catastrophism as the cause of changes (evolution) in biological species. According to his theory, catastrophic events on Earth result in great extinction of most species and that that new species are created from the few individuals that survived catastrophic events. He believed that catastrophism was responsible for apes becoming humans and that the next step is for humans to evolve into angels. Catastrophism as a concept, with modifications, is still accepted by a few biologists today. The concept of preformation of humans in either the female egg or male sperm as a homunculus (small human form) persisted since the days of ancient Greek philosophers. Catastrophism influenced many biologists until Darwins concept of a more gradual type of biological evolution, but even Darwin was aware that evolution was not smooth over periods of time and that there were interruptions in the process. See also Aristotle; Buffon; Cuvier; EldredgeGould; Gould; Swammerdam BOOLES THEORY OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC: Mathematics (Logic): George Boole (18151864), Ireland. A mathematically (algebraic) logical construction is based on one of the following operators: AND, OR, or NOT, or is based on a construction that may be expressed by all three of these operators. Symbolic logic, and in particular Boolean logic, is indispensable for use in developing computer programs and computer-based research engines. This system is based on what mathematicians refer to as elements of the system and sets. A set is a collection

of things (such as a group of numbers) that have the characteristic that can be identified as being included in a collection of other things (other groups of numbers). Booles Theory of Symbolic Logic 63 When using the English terms of OR, AND, and NOT, Boolean logic is the basis for computer programming languages as well as computer search engines, such as Google and Ask, although not all computer search engines use the same syntax. As an example of a common engine syntax: Search for Students with last name Jones AND first name James; Search for Students with last name Jones OR first name James; Search for Students where NOT is last name Jones The Google search engine uses the AND syntax as a default in their program as a way to link two related or different items, e.g., search Jones search James. In other words the AND is understood in their program and automatically gives you students with both names Jones and James. If you want to refine the search OR is used as in search Jones OR James, and they use the sign for the logical use of NOT, as in search Jones. Actually the Google program is more elegant than this simple Boolean logic suggests, but these techniques seem to speed up a more comprehensive search. George Boole is sometimes thought of as mathematics genius because of his work in abstract algebraic operations that are expressed in his work on Boolean algebra and Boolean logic that are the bases for the programming language of computers. After his shopkeeper father taught him what math he knew, George continued to learn on his own all he could in mathematics as well as other fields, including Latin and Greek. When he was sixteen years old, he added to the family income by teaching school, and

four years later in 1835 he opened his own school. He studied the works of other seventeenthcentury mathematicians and just four years later published his first paper in The Cambridge Mathematical Journal in 1839 that discussed differential equations and invariance. On the basis of this paper and other works he became a professor of mathematics at Queens College in Cork, Ireland. In 1844 he received The Royal Society Award for his work on differential equations. In 1847 he published Mathematical Analysis of Logic, and in 1854 he worked on the idea of applying mathematical approaches to symbolic logic, which he published in An Investigation into the Laws of Thought. This last publication before his death from pneumonia in 1864 established the field of symbolic logic later refined by the German mathematician, logician, and philosopher Gottlob Frege (18481925), the famous Welsh philosopher Bertrand Russell (18721970), and Alfred North Whitehead. BORNHABER THEORY OF CYCLE REACTIONS: Physics: Max Born (1882 1970), Germany. Born shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Physics with Walter Bothe. The sequence of energy involved in the chemical and physical reactions that form lattice ionic crystals is related to the crystals initial state (zero pressure at zero kelvin), and to the crystals final state, which is also at zero pressure and zero K (e.g., for a gas of infinite dilution). The BornHaber cycle is better known by the early work of Max Born, which resulted in the mathematical theory referred to as the cycle explaining how chemical bonds are the result of sharing or transferring electrons between atoms. As a result, several scientists applied quantum mechanics to the concept of chemical bonding. Born

64 BornHaber Theory of Cycle Reactions and others used the hydrogen atom as a model, and it was soon obvious that quantum mechanics could explain almost all aspects of chemistry, including the different types of reactions between atoms of different elements and the probability of where to find an electron within its orbit surrounding the nucleus. Max Born is better known for his work in the field of quantum mechanics. In cooperation with German physicist Ernst Pascual Jordan (1902 1980), Born refined Werner Heisenbergs concept of matrix mechanics by developing the mathematics that explained the theory in 1925. Born was among the first to provide the mathematics to explain the possibility that particles can also behave like waves. This was about the time that the duality concept of light (photons) and other types of radiation was being discussed and debated. See also Bohm; Bohr; Dehmelt; Frisch; Haber; Hahn; Heisenberg; Meitner; Schrodinger BOYLES LAW: Chemistry: Robert Boyle (16271691), Ireland and England.

There is an inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas when the temperature remains constant. The equation for this law is written as P _ V c (pressure times volume equals a constant inverse relationship). Robert Boyle, an Irish chemist who later worked in England, used air pumps developed by Robert Hooke to experiment with the physical conditions of gases under differing pressures while maintaining constant temperatures. In 1661 he published the results in his book, The Sceptical Chymist. In 1662 Boyle discovered air could be compressed, and as the pressure increased, the volume decreased. He demonstrated that if the pressure on a gas doubled, its volume would be just one-half its original volume; if the pressure was increased by one-third, the volume would decrease one-third. Boyle also noted the opposite inverse relationship existed when he used a vacuum pump to decrease the pressure that increased the volume of air. This proved to be a classical inverse relationship, which seems to be a universal constant. It was an important conclusion because it helped explain the atomic (particle) nature of gasesthat is, atoms (or molecules) of gases would spread farther apart when the pressure was decreased. Conversely, the atoms would be forced closer together if the pressure increased. Boyle was an atomist who supported the original concept of matter first proposed by the ancient Greek Democritus. It took more than a century after Boyles work before the modern atomic theory of matter was fully developed. It might seem ironic that a scientist who is considered one of the founders of modern chemistry was also an alchemist who spent much of his time attempting to transmute base metals into gold. Fritz Haber (18681934) was born in Breslau, Germany, now Wrolcaw, Poland, and studied at the University of Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen. He and Carl Bosch

developed the Haber process for the catalytic formation of ammonia from hydrogen using the nitrogen found in the free atmosphere. The HaberBosch process (not to be confused with the BornHaber cycle) was a great development in the field of industrial chemistry because it greatly increased the supply of nitrogen for use in producing cheap nitrogenous fertilizer and WWI explosives for which he received the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He also developed deadly war gases and was personally involved in their release. He also developed an effective gas mask during the war years. Haber converted from Judaism to be more acceptable to the German government. Even so, the Nazis forced him to emigrate because he was still Jewish by the Nazis definition. Boyles Law 65 Robert Boyle was born into a wealthy aristocratic family who lived in a castle in Ireland. Like the sons of many aristocratic families, as a young boy he was sent off to schools in Switzerland and later to Italy. It is said that he developed an interest in science while at school when he found copies of Galileos writings describing his work and ideas on astronomy. After his schooling, Boyles family moved to their estate in England where in 1644 Robert retired for ten years, during which time he became interested in studying the nature of gases, then called pneumatics. He then moved to Oxford where he met Robert Hooke who had constructed an air pump that he used to

demonstrate how air is important for respiration, combustion, and the transmission of sound. An important phase of Boyles life was when he joined with Francis Bacon who supported the idea that science should be based on empirical observations and controlled experiments. This group originally known as the Invisible College became the famous Royal Society for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge in London in 1662. In his famous book The Sceptical Chymist Boyle attacked the age-old concepts of Aristotles four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) by proposing another ancient concept that matter is composed of basic particles and that different types of matter are identified by their number and position as well as the motion of these particles. He also stressed the importance of accurate empirical observations, planning and conducting well-designed experiments, and keeping records of the results. In addition, an important concept was Boyles theory that heat was the result of the motion of the particles of matter. Later this idea was expanded into the kinetic theory of matter and the second law of thermodynamics. Boyles law is a rather simple inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas, assuming no change in the temperature of the gas. Boyle considered this law as the compressibility of air. In 1660 it was published in New Experiments Physico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects. The law is known as Boyles law in the United States and Great Britain and as Mariottes law in most of Europe. Edme Mariotte (16201684) was a French physicist and priest who recognized the validity of Boyles law ostensibly before he published his findings in 1676. It is expressed as p _ V C (when C is the universal inverse constant, p is the pressure, and V is the volume of the gas). See also Avogadro; Charles; Gay-Lussac; Ideal Gas Law BRADLEYS THEORY OF A MOVING EARTH: Astronomy: James Bradley

(16931762), England. Parallax exhibited by the stars indicates a movement of the earth. James Bradley was the successor of Edmond Halley as the Astronomer Royal, during which time he erected a telescope in a stationary vertical position to observe the same spot in the sky each night. Over time he observed a slight displacement (parallax) of the image of the star Gamma Draconis. At first he thought this parallax of a star viewed over a period of time from the same place on Earth meant that only the star moved in relation to Earth. Bradley later realized it was not really the stars motion causing the parallax because the pattern of the stars displacement was repeated every six months. Thus, it meant the observer and his fixed telescope on a moving Earth caused the change in the stars apparent position. This concept is based on Earths orbiting around the sun every twelve months, which means Earth is in a very different 66 Bradleys Theory of a Moving Earth viewing position in relation to the star every six months. This creates an apparent displacement called parallax. The diameter of Earths orbit around the sun is approximately 186 million miles (twice the radius of 93 million miles). Every six months, Bradleys telescope was 186 million miles from where he viewed the star the previous six months. Parallax seemed to place the star in slightly different positions. Bradley calculated that the aberration or movement he observed was related to the ratio of the velocity of light to the velocity of Earth as it circled the sun. He figured that this ratio was approximately 30 km s_1, which is about 10,000 to 1. From this data he calculated that the speed of light was 3.083 _ 108 m s_1. This was the most accurate measurement

for the speed of light at that time in history. Bradleys theory that explained the motion of Earth was the first direct evidence for such motion. Up until this time Earths motion was always inferred from indirect factors. Today, astronomers using the parallax concept can mathematically determine the distance of the closer stars to our solar system. Parallax does not work very well for distant objects located in deep space. Bradley also was one of the first to conceptualize that light has a finite, not infinite, speed. The idea of light having a finite speed (_186,000 miles per sec.), and the movement of Earth, were important concepts for compiling accurate observations and calculations of stars. Bradley determined that Earth had a wobble (precession) as it spins on its axis. He also calculated the extent of this wobble on the changing gravitational attraction of the moon, which has a slightly inclined orbit around Earth. See also Brahe; Copernicus; Galileo; Kepler BRAHES THEORY OF THE CHANGING HEAVENS: Astronomy: Tycho Brahe (15461601), Denmark. (Tycho Brahe is the Latinized form of his birth name, Tyge Ottesen Brahe. Universally, he is referred to as Tycho.) Because a new star does not exhibit any parallax and comets come and go, there must be changes in the heavens,

proving Earth with its orbiting moon is the center of the universe. Tycho Brahe was an ardent proponent of Ptolemys concept that Earth was the center of the universe, but he did not accept the idea that the universe was static. Based on his observation, Tycho devised this theory of a changing universe but incorrectly believed Earth was at its center. Tychos concept of a changing universe was unique; until that time Artistotles concept of a Figure B7. Tycho Brahes 11-foot quadrant is an example of the large-scale astronomic instruments (sextants and quadrants) that he constructed for direct viewing since the telescope had not yet been invented. Some were so large that he was able to climb into them while viewing the heavens. Brahes Theory of the Changing Heavens 67 permanent, unchanging universe was accepted as fact. This belief changed when Tycho discovered a new supernova (exploding star) known as the Tycho Star in 1572. Tycho also discovered a large comet in 1577 that further

supported his theory. A large crater on the moon is also named after him. Tychos theory of a changing universe was not well accepted by other astronomers. Because telescopes had not yet been invented, Tycho constructed several large sextants and quadrants for his direct sight viewing of the universe. He kept a journal of all his activities as well as astronomical tables, which later proved useful to his assistant, Johannes Kepler. Tychos most important contribution was the result of the twenty years he spent recording the positions of over eight hundred stars that proved invaluable for the future work of Kepler. These records assisted Kepler in developing his three laws of planetary motion. See also Copernicus; Galileo; Kepler; Ptolemy BUFFONS THEORIES OF NATURE: Biology: Comte George Louis Leclerc de Buffon (17071788), France.

Buffons theory of ecology: The animals of an area (ecology) are the product of the environmental conditions of the land where they developed. Comte de Buffon based this theory on his concept that Earth makes and grows the plants on which the animals depend; thus the regions plants determine the geography and geology of the regions animals. Buffons theory of natural classes: Animals were classed not according to genera and species, but rather in a hierarchy of man, domesticated animals, savage animals, and lower animals. Taxonomy and species classifications based on structure and functions were not yet fully developed. Therefore, Buffon classed animals according to major categories as he interpreted their status in life. His classification of animals is somewhat similar to Aristotles ladder of life (see Aristotle). Buffons theory of species: Animals within a hierarchical group (species), and only those within that group, can reproduce themselves. Buffon based his theory on empirical evidence. He observed that animals of one group from his hierarchical classification of animals would breed only with others of their kind. He was unaware of hybrids or mutations. In 1577 Denmarks King Frederick II offered Tycho Brahe unlimited funds and the use of the island of Hven for Tychos lifetime if he would build his proposed observatory that would be large enough to hold Tychos extra-large instruments for viewing the heavens. These

included his large quadrants and sextants that enabled him to observe, with the unaided eye, and with some accuracy events outside of the solar system. This led to the development of his theory. After the death of Frederick II in 1588, his successor, Christian IV, became the king of Denmark. Christian IV and Tycho had a falling out, and Tycho was forced to find a new patron. He succeeded when he met someone a bit more unbalanced than himself, the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, who gave Tycho another castle near the city of Prague to house his enormous instruments. He also acquired a young assistant, Johannes Kepler, who later made a name for himself. They did not get along, but their work was outstanding, and after Tychos death two years later Kepler made good use of the mass of data Tycho had recorded. An interesting story about Tycho Brahes eccentric and argumentative nature related to the duel he fought when he was just nineteen years old. The dispute with a Danish nobleman was about who was the better mathematician. During the fight with swords Tycho lost the end of his nose. It is said that he then formed a false nose out of wax, gold, and silver that he wore for the rest of his life. 68 Buffons Theories of Nature Buffons theory of the age of

Earth: Based on a series of stages as evidenced by geological history, Earth is seventy-eight thousand years old. Buffon rejected biblical records that contended Earths age as six thousand years. His estimate of the age of Earth was based on fossils and geology. Buffon believed Earth was originally a hot body that cooled off sufficiently enough for people to exist and would continue to cool, at which time all life on Earth would end. His extension of the age of Earth led other scientists to examine fossils and geological evidence more closely, which provided a more accurate estimate of Earths age. Today, the universe is considered to be _13.4 to _15 billion years old, with Earth being formed about _3.5 to _4.5 billion years ago. Buffons theory of the origin of the planets: The formation of planets was the result of a collision between a large comet and the sun.

Buffon is credited with providing an important naturalistic history of Earth. He based his concept of the origin of the solar system and planets on the more current explanation of natural forces where cosmic dust circulated to form the solar system and coalesce into the planets around the sun. He used the mechanics of motion as described by Sir Isaac Newton as well as his own empirical observations. See also Cuvier; Darwin; Wallace BUNSENS THEORY OF THE SPECTROCHEMISTRY OF ELEMENTS: Chemistry: Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (18111899), Germany. Each element, when heated, emits a unique electromagnetic spectrum that can be identified by careful spectrum analysis of the emitted light. While assisting in an experiment of spectrum analysis, Robert Bunsen, along with his assistant, Peter Desaga, refined Michael Faradays gas burner by adding a collar that could be adjusted to control the flow of air into the burning gas. This device greatly improved the burner by providing a hotter and steady flame. Since that time, it has been known as the Bunsen burner. By using this extremely sensitive instrument (spectroscope) other scientists were able to identify and discover new elements. Bunsen is credited with the discovery of two new elements: rubidium and cesium. By using the spectra produced by different elements Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff are credited with providing the first evidence for the internal structure of atoms that Buffon produced numerous writings that influenced other scientists for close to one hundred years. Some of his more famous publications were a translation of Hales Vegetable

Statistics (1735) and a translation of Newtons Method of Fluxions (1740). From 1740 to the end of his life Buffon worked on a massive forty-four volume manuscript titled Histoire naturelle, that included the following: Volumes I15 titled Quadrupeds (17491767) Volumes 1624 titled Birds (17701783) Volumes 2531 titled Epochs of Nature and Supplementary Volumes (1778) Volumes 3236 titled Minerals (17831788) Volumes 3744 titled Reptiles (including fish and cetaceans) (17881789). His most influential work was included in Volume I with the subtitle of Preliminary Discourse of Nature where his ideas were ahead of his time, nontheological, and very rational but were not always correct. He proposed the division of animals into natural classes, while insisting that only individual species existed in nature and that only two animals of the same species can propagate themselves. Bunsens Theory of the Spectrochemistry of Elements 69 make up all matter. Up to this time it was believed that the atomic nature of the structure of the different elements was invisible. The use of his concept that each element has it own unique frequency (wavelength) that can be detected by using his spectroscope was applied to astronomy. Astronomers, using this device, were able for the first time to analyze the light from the stars from which they were able to detect the

various chemical elements that composed the stars, including our sun. In addition to the field of spectroscopy, Bunsen contributed to the fields of electrochemistry, electrodeposition of metals, and photochemistry. His career began by experimenting in organic chemistry. The results of his work were published between the years of 1837 to 1842 in Studies in the Cacodyl Series. While experimenting with the toxic compounds of cacodyls (tetramethylarsine, a derivative of arsenic), he lost an eye in an accidental explosion. He also nearly killed himself by arsenic poisoning as he worked with poisonous compounds of arsenic, chlorine, fluorine, and cyanide. He soon changed the direction of his work and began experimenting with inorganic compounds, spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. In cooperation with Gustav Kirchhoff, he published the Chemical Analysis through Observations of the Spectrum in 1860. His contributions in this field were made possible by the improvement of Michael Faradays gas burner that he completed in 1855. See also Berzelius; Faraday; Kirchhoff THE B2FH (BURBIDGEBURBIDGEFOWLERHOYLE) THEORY: Astronomy: Eleanor Margaret Burbidge, n_ee Peachey (1922) along with her husband Geoffrey Burbidge (1925) were the lead researchers of this group that included William Fowler and Sir Fred Hoyle, England and United States. The theory is known as the B2FH theory of the formation of chemical elements in the universe. It states: Chemical elements are produced in the nuclei of stars of during supernova explosions. The Burbidges along with Fred Hoyle of Great Britain and William A. Fowler of

the United States published the B2FH theory in 1957. It explained how all the lighter elements from hydrogen to iron began with hydrogen. However, the original theory had some gaps that needed to be explained. One problem in their theory was that if all the elements were produced by either supernova explosions or inside stars, the great abundance of helium and deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in the universe could not be explained. George Gamow and other scientists proposed another theory that states that in the very early period after the big bang, all matter was ionized and dissociated forming a type of plasma. In just a few minutes the temperature dropped, resulting in nucleosynthesis, at which time a few light elements were created. Protons and neutrons were formed within the first three minutes after the big bang. They collided with each other to produce deuterium (heavy hydrogen), which consists of one proton and one neutron. Then deuterium nuclei collided with additional protons and neutrons to create helium as well as the next element in the periodic table, that is, lithium nuclei consisting of a mass of a total of seven protons and neutrons (which is a combination of one tritium [3H] and two deuterium [22H] nuclei). The fact that helium makes up about 25% of all the mass in the universe is evidence that a very hot phase existed shortly after the big bang. Later it was theorized that the heavier elements were created by the fusion reaction within stars. Margaret Burbidge is one of the outstanding women in science and astronomy who can 70 The B2FH (BurbidgeBurbidgeFowlerHoyle) Theory be claimed by England and the United States. She received many academic and scientific honors later in her life. Margaret Peachey-Burbidge began her career at the University of London where she graduated in 1948. She then joined the Universitys Observatory and after receiving

her PhD served as its acting director from 1950 to 1951. From this position she moved to the Yerkes Observatory at the University of Chicago in 1951 to 1953, followed by research work at the California Institute of Technology from 1955 to 1957. She also did research work at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England, before returning to the Yerkes Observatory at Chicago where she served as associate professor of astronomy from 1959 to 1962, at which time she moved to the University of California at San Diego as professor of astronomy from 1964 to 1990. Her career was briefly interrupted when, on a leave, she returned to England to become the director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory where she made improvements in optical astronomy in England. The Royal Observatory located in Greenwich, London, was founded by King Charles II in 1675 and provided astronomical services until 1946. In 1946 the Royal Observatory was moved to the Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex, England. Because this region was located close to the ocean and near sea level, it provided poor viewing conditions for optical telescopes. Also, the castle was very old and in need of many repairs. The castle became a hotel that did not survive and is now a science center. Administration operations, except the telescopes and other equipment, were moved to Cambridge, England, in 1990. After her marriage to the theoretical physicist Geoffrey Burbidge the couple collaborated with other astronomers and physicists to study the physical nature of how chemical elements are synthesized in stars. See also Fowler; Gamow; Hoyle The B2FH (BurbidgeBurbidgeFowlerHoyle) Theory 71 C

CAGNIARD DE LA TOURS CONCEPT OF CRITICAL STATE: Physics: Charles Cagniard de la Tour (17771859), France. The critical state exists at the point where the temperature and pressure create equal densities between a liquid and its vapor. The vapor and liquid can be in equilibrium at any temperature that is below the critical point. The term critical state is also known as critical point (at the critical temperature there is no clear-cut distinction between the vapor [gas] and liquid states) (see Figure B5 under Black). Their densities are equal, and their two phases are also equal and considered to be one phase. Cagniard de la Tour Cagniard discovered the concept of the critical state in 1822 by heating liquids in a sealed tube until the liquid and vapor were not distinguishable from each other. He referred to this point as the critical temperature. His concept was based on the work of the French physicist Louis Paul Cailletet, the English physicist James P. Joule, and the Irish chemist and physicist Thomas Andrews (18131885). Some examples of practical applications are boilers used in home heating and industry, steam engines, and frequently in the generating of electricity by steam turbines. Another example is the pressure cooker. By increasing the pressure, the liquid and vapor can be compressed with an increase in temperature, changing the critical state until pressure is released. Food then cooks faster under the increased pressure, using less applied heat than nonpressurized cooking. Cagniard is also known as the inventor of the siren used on police cars, fire engines, and so forth to produce a rising, piercing sound. He formed a disk containing one or more holes, and when the disk was spun rapidly and air was passed through the holes in the disk, the typical siren sound was produced. His original, crude apparatus has undergone

many improvements in the last century and a half. See also Cailletet; Joule; Kelvin CAILLETETS CONCEPT FOR LIQUEFYING GASES: Physics: Louis Paul Cailletet (18321913), France. As pressure on most gases increases, so does the boiling point. Therefore, reducing the temperature while increasing the pressure will liquefy the gas at a lower pressure. After studying in Paris, Cailletet returned home to assist his father in his ironworks business. He became interested in metallurgy, particularly in the use of forced air applied to the blast furnace. This led him to try to liquefy gases, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen that would then be more easily transported to blast furnaces. He failed in this attempt, which led him to identify H2, O2, and N2 as permanent gases. It was at this point that he learned about the works of other physicists regarding the concept of critical temperature (see Cagniard). This concept gave him the idea that it would require more cooling of his gases as well as greatly increasing the pressure (then releasing the pressure) for the gas to become cool enough to liquefy. This idea is based on the JouleThompson effect, which in effect means that when a gas expands, its temperature decreases. Cailletet was the first to liquefy his permanent gases by compressing oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and air by rapidly increasing the pressure, and then releasing the pressure of cold gases, which further reduced the temperature by the rapid expansion of the gas. Thus, the gas reached the critical temperature point at which gaseous air turned into liquid air. This process is used today to produce various liquefied gases including air from which other gases are fractionated (e.g., oxygen and nitrogen) that are used in experimental work in nuclear physics, chemistry, and cryogenics. Compressed and liquefied oxygen

is essential in the health care of oxygen-dependent patients and in many industrial processes, such as steel production, smelting, rocket fuels, and welding. Cailletet was also ahead of his time in considering high-altitude flight. He invented the altimeter, the manometer, and a mask-like breathing device that could be used at high altitudes. See also Cagniard; Joule; Kelvin CALVINS CARBON CYCLE: Chemistry: Melvin Calvin (19111997), United States. Calvin was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The path (route) of carbon dioxide in the chemical and physical reactions of photosynthesis occurs only in the presence of chloroplasts of living plants. Melvin Calvin began his teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1937. During World War II he worked on the Manhattan atomic bomb project where he conducted research that involved new analytical techniques. He spent the remainder of his career at the University of California where he applied the techniques of ion-exchange chromatography and the use of radioisotopes to the study of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in green plants when they are exposed to sunlight by absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and by an intricate process that converts the CO2 molecules into starch and oxygen (O2). This process sends oxygen into the air at about 1012 kilograms per year on Earth. It is believed that photosynthesis is responsible for supplying the oxygen in the atmosphere of the ancient Earth that enabled primordial life to begin many millions of years ago. 74 Cailletets Concept for Liquefying Gases Calvin exposed plants for a few seconds to radioactive CO2 containing the isotope

carbon-14. Carbon-14 has the same atomic number (six protons) and is chemically similar to carbon-12, the more abundant form of carbon. But the carbon-14 nucleus has two more neutrons than the nucleus of C-12. There is no chemical distinction between C14 and C-12 because they have the same atomic number (number of protons). The radioactive tracer of C-14 was assimilated in plant chloroplasts during the process of photosynthesis and could be traced with radiation detection devices. Because the process is very rapid, he worked quickly to mash the cells to separate the carbon-14 in boiling alcohol. He then separated and identified the components and products of photosynthesis by using paper chromatography. After many experiments, Calvin identified the cycle of absorption and the use of carbon dioxide by plants, leading to a better understanding of the roles of chlorophyll and carbon dioxide in the science of photosynthesis. Using this technique Calvin identified the cycle for the reductive pentose phosphate reaction that is an important aspect of photosynthesis. This is now known as the Calvin cycle for which he won the Nobel Prize. We now know that most plants increase their rate of growth in an atmosphere rich in CO2. Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the inside air in greenhouses to accelerate plant growth. An increase in the growth rate of crops is one of the few benefits of the excessive production of carbon dioxide in modern society. Calvin is also known for his development of the analytical techniques that use radioisotopes for labeling stages in chemical and physical reactions as well as in chromatography methods. They are all important analytical processes used in todays laboratories. CANDOLLES CONCEPT OF PLANT CLASSIFICATION: Biology: Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (17781841), Switzerland.

There is a homologous or fundamental relationship of similarities for the parts of different types of organisms. Several classification systems for plants and animals existed at the time of Candolles work. However, Candolle was the first to use the terms taxonomy and classification synonymously. His taxonomy (naming system) was based on the recognized similarity of various body parts of near relatives of different species, thus assuming they derived from common ancestors. Candolle also originated the idea of homologous parts, which Figure C1. Results from a typical chromatography analysis. Candolles Concept of Plant Classification 75 along with the concept of relating taxonomy to species influenced the British naturalists Alfred Wallace and Charles Darwin in the development of their theories or organic evolution. Only six volumes of Candolles twenty-one-volume taxonomy project were published before his death. His work, which was superior to that of Carolus Linnaeus, is still used today. See also Cuvier; Lamarck; Linnaeus CANNIZZAROS THEORY OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS: Chemistry: Stanislao

Cannizzaro (18261910), Italy. In 1891 the Royal Society of London awarded Cannizzaro the Copley Medal for his contributions to science. The atomic weights of elements in molecules of a compound can be determined by applying Avogadros law for gases, which states that gram-molecular weights of gases occupy equal volumes at standard temperature and pressure (STP). In essence, Avogadros law states that all gases that are at the same pressure and temperature will contain the same number of molecules. Cannizzaros genius was recognizing the utility of this law fifty years after it was proposed by Avogadro and ignored by other scientists. Cannizzaro applied the law as a means for measuring the atomic weights of atoms of elements and the weights of gas molecules. He also determined that the theory could be applied to solids if their vapor density is unknown by measuring their specific heat. Although Cannizzaro credited Avogadro for the basis of his theory, it was Cannizzaro in his 1858 publication The Epitome of a Course of Chemical Philosophy that finally convinced the scientific community that molecular weights of gases could be determined by measuring their vapor densities. In essence, Cannizzaro restated Avogadros theory that definitely established the theory of atoms and molecules in a

way that was accepted by the chemists of his day. The field of quantitative chemistry rapidly advanced once atomic and molecular weights could be accurately determined. Cannizzaros theory provided a means for defining the molecular weights of many organic compounds, as well as clarifying the structure of complex organic molecules. Avogadros number of molecules in a gram-molecule weight of gases at standard conditions has been determined experimentally as 6.02 _ 1023 and is now considered Avogadros constant. See also Avogadro After studying medicine in Geneva, Switzerland, Candolle went to Paris, France, to study natural sciences as well as medicine. He met and was influenced by several naturalists, including Georges Cuvier and Jean Lamarck, and soon became better known as a botanist than a medical doctor. His many scholarly papers earned him a reputation that resulted in an assignment to conduct a botany and agricultural plant survey of France. In 1813 he published his first original volume titled Elementary Theory of Botany. Based on the natural classification systems of Cuvier and other botanists, Candolle introduced, for the first time, the concept of taxonomy as related to classification. Candolles taxonomy form of classification took the place of the older Linnaeus system and was used for about fifty years before other botanists

improved it. Candolle also was the first to realize that geographic location, to some degree, determined what plants were native to a particular region. His concept was based on the premise that various types of soil found in different geographic regions determined the types of vegetation growing in a specific region. Between 1824 and 1839 Candolle wrote a massive seventeen-volume encyclopedia titled A Guide to Natural Classification for the Plant Kingdom. He was only able to publish the first seven volumes before his death; his son completed the publication of the remaining ten volumes after his fathers death in 1841. 76 Cannizzaros Theory of Atomic and Molecular Weights CANTORS MATHEMATICAL THEORIES: Mathematics: Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (18451918), Germany. Cantors theory of infinity: Without qualification, one can say that the transfinite numbers stand or fall with the infinite irrational; their inmost essence is the same, for these are definitely laid-out instances or modifications of the actual infinite.

This theory is related to Cantors axiom, which states that if you start with a single point on a two-dimensional surface and continue to add points on each side of the original point, they will continue to extend out in both directions. By adding point-to-point, there will be no one-to-one relationships between the two directions of points, and the lines they form can be extended forever (infinity). Another way to look at this is as follows. If you start from zero, you can progress indefinitely to larger and larger functions, or you can extend indefinitely in the opposite direction to smaller and smaller values. Karl F. Gauss, the German physicist and mathematician, stated that infinity was not permitted in mathematics and was only a figure of speech. The concept of endlessness, whether in time, distance (space), or mathematics, is difficult to grasp. Galileo considered the

study of infinity as an infinite set of numbers, later defined as Galileos paradox. However, it was not until Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz developed calculus that it became necessary for a mathematical explanation of infinity. The English mathematician John Wallis (16161703), who developed the law of conservation of momentum, also proposed the symbol for infinity (1), which was known as the lazy eight or love knot. It was Georg Cantor, however, who postulated that consecutive numbers could be counted high enough to reach or pass infinity. His development of transfinite numbers, a group of real numbers (rational and irrational) that represent a higher infinity, led to set theory, which permits the use of numbers within an infinite range. Cantor is better known for his proposed set theory: The study of the size (cardinality) of sets of numbers and the makeup or structure (countability) of groups of rational or irrational natural numbers. Following are two examples of sets of numbers: 1 2 3 4 5,..., n,..., 1 l- l- l- l- l2 4 6 8 10,..., 2n,... 1 Cantors set theory has a long history although it was essentially created by one personGeorge Cantor in the late 1800s. The theorys history goes back as far as the Greek philosopher, Zeno of Elea, in _450 BCE. Since

then, ideas related to infinity and cardinal numbers, imaginary numbers, algebra, groupings, classifications, and so on have all led up to Cantors theory. In mathematics a set can be a collection of distinct objects that are considered as a whole (the parts comprise the whole). Although this seems a simple idea, some mathematicians did not accept it. Today it is a fundamental concept in modern mathematics and is now taught at the grade school level. Cantors concept was that the objects (things) in the set, which are called elements of the members of the set, can be anything such as numbers, pencils, shoes, letters of the alphabet, and so on. Sets are designated by using capital letters (A, B, C, etc,). Two sets of things, A and B are said to be equal if they have the same members (an element or things in each set). A set in mathematics is not the same as what is thought of as a set in real life. In real life it is possible to have a set of something that has multiple copies of the same element (things or objects), whereas in mathematics if two different sets have the same members or items, they are equal even if the members are not in the same order. For instance; Cantor proved that if A and B are sets with A being equivalent to the subset of B, and B is equivalent to a subset of A, then A and B are equivalent.

Over the years the mathematical theory of sets and subsets has been refined, and set theory is a fundamental mathematical concept. Cantors Mathematical Theories 77 1 2 3 4 5,..., n, ...1 l- l- l- l- l1 4 9 16 25,..., n2,..., 1 Where n is a continuation of the sequence or set. By finding a one-to-one match in a set (in the example, a number below the number above it), even if the set is infinite, it is possible to determine the size of the number if the entire structure is unknown. If the set is infinite, some of the numbers can be eliminated without reducing the size or eliminating the structure of the set. See also Galileo; Gauss; Leibniz; Newton CARDANOS CUBIC EQUATION: Mathematics: Gerolamo Cardano (15011576), Italy. Definition of cubic equation: A polynomial equation with no exponent larger than threeSpecifically: x3 2x2 _ x _ 2 0 (x _ 1)(x 1)(x 2), which can be further treated by algebraic functions. Earlier mathematicians solved equations for x and x2 but were unable to solve x3 (cubic) equations. (First-degree equations are linear [straight line], or one-dimensional, involving x; second-degree equations are quadratic [plane surface], or twodimensional, involving x2; and third-degree equations are cubic [solid figures], or three-dimensional, involving x3.) The graphic depiction for the solution of a cube is usually easier to understand than is the algebraic representation. When a graph is used

to solve cubic equations, the x-axis is eliminated and reoriented. Cardano was not the first to come up with a solution to cubic equations, having been given the explanation for cubic and biquadratic equations by the Italian mathematician and engineer Niccolo Tartaglia who made Cardano promise not to reveal the secret. After Cardano found that someone previous to Tartaglia had achieved a partial solution, he published the results as his own version. As the first to publish, Cardano has been credited with the discovery of a solution to solving cubic equations. As a result of this controversy, a new policy stated that the first person to publish the results of an experiment or a discovery, and not necessarily the first person to actually conduct the experiment or make the discovery, is the one given credit. This is based on the belief that science should be open and available to all rather than kept secret. See also Tartaglia CARNOTS THEORIES OF THERMODYNAMICS: Physics: Nicholas Leonard Sadi Carnot (17961832), France. Carnot cycle: The maximum efficiency of a steam engine is dependent on the difference in temperature between the steam at its hottest and the water at its coldest. It is the temperature differential that represents the energy available to produce work. T2 _ T1 E, where T2 is the higher temperature, T1 is the lower temperature, and E is the energy available to do work. The efficiency E is 1 only if T1 0 Kelvin. The concept of a temperature differential is analogous to the potential energy of water flowing over a water wheel to produce work. This concept enabled inventors to develop more efficient steam engines and locomotives and became known as the Carnot

cycle, based on the difference in the temperature of the steam at its highest temperature and the water at its coldest temperaturenot on the total amount of internal 78 Cardanos Cubic Equation heat. Carnot pointed out that energy (heat) is always available to do work, but it cannot completely be turned into useful work. Even so, it is always conserved; none is ever lost. For example, within the steam engine, which is not 100% efficient, some energy is not available to accomplish work due to lost heat. The first law of thermodynamics (the word thermo-dynamics means heat-flow in Greek) states that energy is always conserved, while the second law states there is a limit to how much of the energy can be converted into work. A system cannot produce more energy (work) than the amount of energy that is expended. Perpetual motion is impossible, as some energy is always lost to heat due to friction. See also Clausius; Fourier; Helmholtz; Kelvin; Maxwell CASIMIR FORCE (EFFECT): Physics: Hendrick Brugt Gerhard Casimir (19092000), Netherlands. The Casimir force is the effect of a very small attraction that takes place between two closely spaced plates that, although they have the ability to carry an electrical charge, are uncharged in an environment of a quantum vacuum that contains virtual particles that are in continuous motion. These two plates may be composed of a conductor (any substances such as metals that can carry an electrical current), or a dielectric (a substance other than a metal on which an electrical field might be sustained with the loss of minimum power, i.e., insulator).

Casimirs two electron theory: During superconduction there are pairs of electrons consisting mostly of normal electrons, but some are superconducting electrons. Along with the assistance of two colleagues, the German physicist WaltherMeibner and the Dutch physicist Cornelis Gorter (19071980), in 1934Hendrik Casimir explained their two fluid model of superconductivity at low temperatures. At near absolute zero some properties of superconductivity are altered. Two types of electrons are formed, most were normal-type electrons and a few were types of superconducting electrons. This explained the physics between the thermal and magnetic properties of superconductors. These electrons form types represented by paired and unpaired electrons referred to as Cooper pairs. The Casimir force provided evidence for the concept of a quantum vacuum, which is similar in quantum mechanics to what is described as empty space in classical physics. It is due to quantum vacuum changes in the electromagnetic field between the plates. The Casimir force also proved the viability of the van der Waals force that exists between two uncharged

atoms (not ions). In addition, the Casimir force affects the chiral bag (nonmirror image) asymmetric model An interesting analogy of the Casimir force was evident as far back as the 1700s when sailors observed that when two large wooden ships came closer than 50 feet to each other side-by-side, a calm sea would form between the ships. This calm would occur between the ships regardless of how high the waves were on the open ocean side of the ships. As the distance between the ships decreased, they were drawn closer together by the Casimir-like force. If the ships were not forcefully separated, they would soon crash into each other. The solution was to send small boats full of sailors to forcibly keep the ships apart. A more recent application of the Casimir force is in the field of applied physics (engineering) in the development of the science of nanotechnologies where exotic materials are artificially constructed at the atomic and molecular levels. Casimir Force (Effect) 79 of the nucleon, which indicated that the mass of the nucleon is independent of the bag radius. Also, the Casimir effect needs to be considered in the field of extremely small electro-mechanical systems including the design of computers and cell phones.

See also Meissner; Van der Waals CASPERSSONS THEORY OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: Chemistry: Torbjorn Oskar Caspersson (19101997), Sweden. Proteins are synthesized in cells by large RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules. Torbjorn Caspersson invented a new type of spectrophotometer, enabling him to trace the movement of RNA. He concluded that RNA is involved in the synthesis of amino acids in the production of proteins. RNA is a type of single, long, unbranched, organic macromolecule responsible for transmitting genetic information to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules (see Figure C5 under Crick). All organisms, except viruses, depend on RNA messengers to carry inherited characteristics to the DNA molecules, which can then be duplicated to pass genetic information to offspring. In RNA-type viruses, the RNA itself acts as the DNA because it contains all the genetic information required for the virus to replicate. Caspersson was the first to determine that DNA had a molecular weight of 500,000 daltons. In addition, he discovered a way to dye specimens of DNA so that the nucleotides would appear in dark bands. Casperssons work provided information used by Crick and Watson in discovering the specific double helix shape of the DNA molecule. Tests comparing one persons DNA with another persons or their offspring can determine who is genetically related to whom, often years after death. Many police departments and laboratories use this procedure to test and compare human DNA when investigating the crimes of rape and murder. See also Chargaff; Crick CASSINIS HYPOTHESIS FOR THE SIZE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: Astronomy:

Giovanni Domenico Cassini (16251712), France. The mean distance between Earth and Sun is 87 million miles. Giovanni Cassini developed this figure by working out the parallax for the distance of Mars from Earth, which enabled him to calculate the astronomical unit (AU) for the distance between Earth and the sun. He accomplished this by using calculations attained by other astronomers, as well as his own observations. The figure greatly increased the estimations at this time in history for the size of the solar system. In the late 1500s Tycho Brahe calculated the distance between Sun and Earth at just 5 million miles. A few years later Johannes Keplers estimation of 15 million miles was better, but still greatly underestimated, whereas in 1824 the German astronomer Johann F. Encke (17911865) used Venuss transit with the sun to overestimate the distance as 95.3 million miles. (The correct mean distance from Earth to the suns center is approximately 92.95 million miles 1 AU.) Cassini was the first to distinguish the major gap separating the two major rings of Saturn, now called the Cassini division. He also discovered four new moons of Saturn, 80 Casperssons Theory of Protein Synthesis determined the period of rotation of Jupiter as 9 hours, 56 minutes, and observed that Mars rotates on its axis once every 24 hours, 40 minutes. Cassini measured Earths shape and size but incorrectly identified it as a perfect sphere. His work is convincing, inasmuch as Earth is not unique in the solar system and is similar to the other inner planets, with the obvious exception of its human habitation. See also Brahe; Kepler; Spencer-Jones CAVENDISHS THEORIES AND HYPOTHESIS: Chemistry: Henry Cavendish (17311810), England.

Cavendishs theory of flammable air: When acids act on some metals, a highly flammable gas is produced, called fire air. Henry Cavendish was one of the last scientists to believe in the phlogiston theory of matter, which states that when matter containing phlogiston burns, the phlogiston is released. Because his fire air would burn, he called it phlogisticated air. It was Antoine Lavoisier who named the new gas hydrogen, meaning water former in Greek. Cavendish was the first to determine the accurate weights and volumes of several gases (e.g., hydrogen is one-fourteenth the density of air). Until this time, no one considered that matter of any type could be lighter than air (see also Lavoisier; Stahl). Cavendishs theory of the composition of water: When fire air and oxygen are mixed two to one by weight and are burned in a closed, cold, glass container, the water formed is equal to the weight of the two gases. Thus, water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. Although similar experiments and claims that water is a compound, and not an element (as believed for hundreds of years), were made by other scientists, Cavendish was credited with the discovery of hydrogen, as well as the concept of water as a compound, although he delayed publishing the results of his experiments. Cavendish developed many concepts but had difficulty making generalizations from his experimental results. Two examples of his new discoveries are 1) the distinction between electrical current, voltage, and capacitance, which later led to Ohms law, and 2) the anticipation of the gas laws dealing with pressure, temperature, and water vapor. He also foresaw the chemical concepts of multiple proportions and equivalent weights

for which John Dalton and others were given credit. Cavendish also determined that oxygen gas has the same molecular weight regardless of where it is found and that the percentage of oxygen in ordinary air is approximately the same wherever found on Earth. Cavendishs hypothesis for the mass of Earth: Based on the determination of the gravitational constant and the estimated volume of Earth, its mass should be 6.6 _ 1036 tons, with a density about twice that of surface rocks. Cavendishs procedure for determining the mass of Earth is known as the Cavendish experiment. It involved two large lead balls on the ends of a torsion bar and two small lead balls, one on each end of a single rod suspended at its midpoint by a long, fine wire. As the two large lead balls were brought close to the smaller ones from opposite directions, the force of gravity between the balls produced a minute twist in the wire that could be measured. From this twist, Cavendish calculated the gravitational force between the balls, which he used as a gravitational constant for calculating the mass of Earth. His figure was approximately 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons, very close to todays estimation of 5.97 _ 1024 kilograms. See also Dalton; Ohm Cavendishs Theories and Hypothesis 81 CELSIUS TEMPERATURE SCALE: Physics: Anders Celsius (17011744), Sweden. A standard centigrade scale for measuring temperatures with 100 graduation points is needed for scientific endeavors using the metric system. Invented in 1742, the Celsius temperature scale was originally referred to as the centigrade scale from about 1750 until the middle of the twentieth century because the apparatus that Anders Celsius used to boil water was zero and the freezing point

was 100. Celsius scale was the reverse of the modern centigrade (Celsius) scale now in use. The scale was based on 100 units and thus the prefix centi for the name of the scale. Its name was not officially changed to Celsius until 1948. Celsius, a young mathematician became a professor of astronomy at Uppsala University in Stockholm, Sweden, where he built and then became the director of an observatory in 1740. He devised his new temperature scale in 1742 that is now the most-used scale throughout the world, not just in science. However, he was not the first to arrive at some type of scale for recording temperatures. Others before, as well as after Celsius, included Daniel Fahrenheit, Lord Kelvin, Christian of Lyons (fl. 1743), William Rankine (18201872), Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (16881768), Carolus Linnaeus, Per Elvius the Elder (16601718), Isaac Newton, Rene-Antoine Reaumur (16831757), and Ole Romer. The Celsius temperature scale was originally based on the freezing point of water as being 100 on the scale and the boiling point of water at 0 degrees, assuming the conditions of standard atmospheric pressure. It was not until after Celsius death in 1744 at the age of forty-two that the scale was reversed to represent the temperature of boiling water at 100_C and the freezing point of water at 0_C, where it remains to this day. The temperature at which all molecular motion ceases (except vibrations of individual particles/molecules) is now referred to as absolute zero, which is 0 degrees on the Kelvin scale. The boiling point on the Fahrenheit scale is 212 and the freezing point is 32. The Fahrenheit scale is only used in two countries of the world, the United States and Myanmar (formerly Burma) (see also Farhrenheit; Kelvin). The conversion formulas used to change one scale to another follow: 1. Celsius to Fahrenheit: Conversion Formula: F C _ 1.8 32.

2. Fahrenheit to Celsius: Conversion Formula: C (F _ 32) / 1.8. 3. Celsius to Kelvin: Conversion Formula: K C 273.15. 4. Kelvin to Celsius: Conversion Formula: C K _ 273.15. CHADWICKS NEUTRON HYPOTHESIS: Physics: Sir James Chadwick (1891 1974), England. Chadwick was awarded the 1935 Noble Prize for Physics. Physicists believed there were only two elementary particles in atoms: the positive proton and the negative electron. However, this concept was not adequate to explain many physical phenomena. One idea was that the internal nucleus of a helium atom has four protons, as well as two internal neutralizing electrons, which could explain the 2 charges for helium. But scientists could not identify any electrons originating from the helium nuclei when it was bombarded with radiation. Another dilemma was that nitrogen has a mass of 14 but an electrical charge of 7. This was confusing because if the nitrogen nucleus has 14 protons, it would have a charge of 14. One solution was to assign seven negative electrons to neutralize seven of the positive protons, meaning 82 Celsius Temperature Scale the nucleus of nitrogen now has twenty-one particles. Because this did not make sense to many scientists, it was determined that the measured spin of particles in the nitrogen nucleus could be only a whole number; thus there could not be twenty-one particles in the nucleus. Further work demonstrated that gamma rays did not

eject the electrons from positive protons, nor did the radiation eject the protons. Therefore, it was hypothesized that some new particle(s) with no electrical charge and very little mass must exist in the nuclei of atoms. Some years later this ghost particle was found and named the neutrino (see also Fermi; Pauli; Steinberger). Chadwicks hypothesis: Particles with the same mass as protons, but with no electrical charge, were one of the particles ejected from helium nuclei by radiation. In the early twentieth century Walther Bothe bombarded beryllium nuclei with alpha particles (helium nuclei) and detected some unidentified particle radiation. Chadwick continued this work and called these nuclear particles neutrons because they carried no electrical charge but had a similar mass as protons. This discovery assisted in understanding the atomic number and the atomic mass of elements and provided an excellent tool for further investigations of the structure of atoms. It was this discovery for which Chadwick was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutron bombardment is used today to produce radioisotopes for medical purposes. Chadwick also was the developer of the first cyclotron, or atom smasher, in England. Some physicists

consider Chadwicks neutron discovery the beginning of the nuclear age because it led to understanding the physics necessary to develop practical uses for nuclear fission such as nuclear energy used in electric power plants and the atomic fission bomb and nuclear fusion hydrogen bomb. See also Anderson (Carl); Fermi; Heisenberg; Pauli; Soddy CHAMBERS THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF LIFE: Biology: Robert Chambers (18021871), Scotland. If the solar system can be formed by inorganic physical processes without the assistance of a supreme being, then it follows that organic plants and animals can develop by a similar physical system. In other words, if the formation of an inorganic world (the universe) is possible without intervention of a supreme entity, then an organic world is also possible. There was some opposition to Chadwicks construction of a cyclotron type of instrument by the British-based New Zealand physicist Baron Rutherford who thought it might lead to uncontrolled release of energy. This argument led Chadwick in 1935 to move from the Cavendish Laboratory in London to the physics department at Liverpool University. While chair of the physics department at Liverpool, he built the first cyclotron in Great Britain that produced results that supported the claims of Otto Frisch that a sustainable chain reaction is possible by the fission of a few pounds of Uranium-235, and Rudolph Peierls concept that it was possible to separate

fissionable Uranium-235 from a much larger quantity of Uranium-238. Frisch and Peierls believed that the atomic bomb was possible by releasing enormous amounts of energy by the process of the fission of nuclei. At the outbreak of World War II Chadwick moved to the United States as head of the British group working on the Manhattan Project that developed the first sustainable nuclear chain reaction. In 1945 Sir James Chadwick was knighted for his contributions in the field of physics and his service during World War II. Chambers Theory of the Origin of Life 83 Robert Chambers was self-educated by reading the Encyclopedia Britannica and other science publications. He published several books while in partnership with his brother, William, after they established their own publishing house, which is still in business in Edinburgh, Scotland. He wrote extensively on the origin and development of the solar system and proposed that the organic world operated on the same principles as the inorganic world. He wrote that there was a progression from lower animals to higher life forms with no input by a god. The force responsible for life was based on his concept of chemical/electrical interactions. A contemporary of Charles Darwin, Chambers based his theory for the origin of life on his acceptance of Pierre Laplaces nebula hypothesis for the origin and stability of the solar system. Many scientists accepted as a logical explanation Chambers concept that the same laws of physics and chemistry that created the universe could create organisms. But theologians and the general public never accepted it because the theory

denied credit for the origin of life to a supreme being (deism) or personal god (theism). Chambers proposed several other theories related to the embryonic development of species, which engendered tremendous negative reactions from the public. See also Baer; Haeckel; Laplace; Ponnamperuma; Swammerdam CHANDRASEKHAR LIMIT: Astronomy: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910 1995), India. The Chandrasekhar limit is a physical constant that states if white dwarf stars exceed a mass of 1.4 greater than the suns mass, they will no longer be self-supporting. As their mass increases past this limit, internal pressure will not be balanced by the outward release of pressure generated by atoms losing electrons to form ions. Thus, white dwarfs exceeding this limit will explode. Interestingly, no white dwarfs have been found with a mass greater than the 1.4 mass limit. To date, most white dwarfs that have been discovered average about 0.6 the mass of our sun. It is speculated that the supernova observed and reported by Tycho Brahe in 1572 and another in 1604 by Johannes Kepler may each have been the collapse of a white dwarf star that pulled off mass from nearby red supergiants at a rate greater than could be eliminated by radiation from the white dwarf. This new mass was attracted internally by the gravitational pull of the white dwarf, causing an increase in its mass exceeding the 1.4 mass limit. Thus, a giant nuclear explosion occurred, creating a supernova. Chandrasekhar also believed that as stars exhaust their nuclear fuel they begin to collapse by internal gravitational attraction, which ceases when a balance is established by the outward pressure of ionized gases. This gas is a high concentration of electrons,

leaving behind ions, which become very dense. One thimbleful would weigh several tons on Earth due to the collapsed stars density. It is estimated that most white dwarfs are leftovers of mass pulled from more massive stars. It is also speculated that in the long-distant future of the universe, all stars will become white dwarfs, and then we may have a static, or unchanging universe (thermodynamic equilibrium) because no other bodies would be available from which they could gather in extra mass and exceed the Chandrasekhar limit. See also Brahe; Kepler CHANGS THEORIES AND CONCEPTS: Mathematics and Astronomy: Cheng Chang (c.78142), China. 84 Chandrasekhar Limit Changs concept of pi: Pi is the square root of 10, which equals 3.1622. This was one of the most original and most accurate methods of determining the value of pi up to this time, with the exception of Archimedes geometric method of perfect exhaustion. Many early mathematicians were intrigued by the relationship of the diameter of a circle to its circumference. This led to the idea of forming a series of geometric squares or polygons within the bounds and adjacent to the outer circumference of a circle and then calculating the known parameters of the squares or polygons (see also Archimedes). Changs concept of the universe: The universe is not a hemisphere rising over Earth, but rather the universe consists of a large sphere with Earth at the center, similar to the yolk in

the center of an egg. The early Greeks, including Aristotle, believed the universe consisted of a series of crystal hemispheres suspended above Earth. Changs idea was the first to consider a spherical universe. Further, he developed an instrument to measure the major circles of the celestial bodies and demonstrated how they intersected at various points on Earth. He also developed an instrument that used flowing water to measure the movement of the stars (see also Aristotle). Changs concept of earthquakes: Earthquakes are caused by dragons fighting in the center of the earth. From this idea Chang developed an instrument shaped in the likeness of several heads of dragons. A ball was held inside the mouth of each of the heads. When an earthquake occurred, a pendulum device would expel a ball from one of the mouths of one of the dragon heads, which would then determine the direction of the earthquake. Although Changs seismograph was inaccurate, it was developed and used in the Far East for over seventeen hundred years before a more accurate one was designed in the West that used the Richter scale. See also Richter CHANGS THEORY OF CAPACITATION: Biology: Min Chueh Chang (1909 1991), United States. The male sperm must spend some time traveling in the reproductive organs of the female before it can fertilize the egg. Chang called this time factor, whereby sperm become more potent while in the female reproductive tract, the capacitation factor. He also believed that male seminal

fluid has a decapacitation substance that prevents sperm from fertilizing the egg. Although no such factor or substance has yet been identified, it is assumed it is this decapacitation factor that prevents other sperm from uniting with an egg once one sperm has penetrated the ovum. Using rabbits, Chang conducted much of the research with in vitro fertilization, where the ova (egg) is fertilized by a male sperm outside the body and then transplanted into the female rabbits uterus. His research pioneered the way for others to perfect human in vitro fertilization. Changs work also provided much of the knowledge used to set up experiments by American biologist and researcher Gregory Pincus (19031967) to demonstrate that injections of progesterone into rabbits would prevent contraception. This was pioneering work for several modern methods of contraception. Changs Theory of Capacitation 85 CHAPMANENSKOG KINETIC THEORY OF GASES: Mathematics/Physics: Sydney Chapman (18881970), England. In the nineteenth century James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann developed the general mathematical concept that describes the properties of gases as partially determined by the molecular motion of the gas particles, assuming the gas molecules follow classical mechanics. This is referred to as the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution that gives gas particles a specific momentum. In 1911 Chapman developed the next logical step in the theory of gas particles. He performed the mathematics necessary to prove the kinetic theory of gases. The ChapmanEnskog theory provides a complete treatment and solution to the mathematics

of the MaxwellBoltzmann equation by using approximations to determine the average path of gas particles. This joint theory is also known as the Enskog theory because the Swedish mathematical physicist David Enskog (18841947) also worked independently on this theory. Chapman also used mathematics to predict the thermal diffusion of gases and the electron density at different levels of the upper atmosphere. In addition, he determined the detailed variations in Earths magnetic field and related this to the length of the moons day. (Because the moon keeps the same side pointed toward Earth, it rotates once every 27.3 days.) He demonstrated not only that the moon causes tidal effects on Earths water and land, but there is a much weaker tidal effect on Earths atmosphere. Chapmans work enabled other scientists to measure more accurately the kinetic motion of molecules as related to heat, and to understand better the ideal gas law, thermodynamics, and geomagnetism. See also Boltzmann; Boyle; Gilbert; Ideal Gas Law; Maxwell CHARGAFFS HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COMPOSITION OF DNA: Biology: Erwin Chargaff (19052002), United States. In the DNA molecule, the number of adenine (A) nucleotide units always equals the number of thymine (T) nucleotides, and the number of guanine (G) units always equals the number of cytosine (C) units. Chargaffs earlier work used paper chromatography and spectroscopy to study the composition of DNA in different species. He found that within one species, the DNA was always the same, but there was a difference in DNA composition between species. He believed there must be as many forms ofDNAas there are species, even though much of the

DNA was similar for all species. (It has been determined about 98%of human and chimpanzeeDNAis identical.) At this point, he realized that a pattern of consistency of ATnucleotide pairs and GC nucleotide pairs appeared in nucleic acid molecules. Although Chargaff did not follow up on this discovery, it enabled Crick and Watson to arrive at the placement of theATandGCpairs inside the helix structure of theDNAmolecule (see Figure C5 under Crick). Scientists are continuing to explore the many possible benefits of this discovery for the betterment of humankind. See also Crick; Franklin (Rosalind); Watson CHARLES LAW: Chemistry: Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles (17461823), France. When the pressure remains constant, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature. V/T constant n/P. It might also be stated as: The volume of a 86 ChapmanEnskog Kinetic Theory of Gases fixed amount of gas that is at a constant pressure is inversely proportional to its temperature, VnP/T, where the nP represents the constant pressure on the fixed volume of gas. Jacques Charles, originally an employee of a French government agency, became a physics professor at the Conservatoire des Arts et M_etiers in Paris. He established the direct relationship between the temperature and the volume of gases. Aware of the flights of hot air balloons, Charles realized that as the air in the balloon became hotter, it expanded and thus became lighter due to a decrease in its density and an increase in its volume. As long as the fire at the bottom opening of the balloon heated the air, the air would expand and become lighter than the air outside of the balloon. When the air

cooled, it decreased in volume and became heavier, causing the balloon to descend. He was also aware of the work of Henry Cavendish, a British chemist, who produced hydrogen gas that was much lighter than hot air and thus more buoyant. Even better, hydrogen did not lose as much of its buoyancy as did hot air as it cooled. On August 27, 1783, Jacques Charles, and his brother, Robert, made the first flight in a hydrogen-filled balloon. On a later flight, they reached an unprecedented altitude of just under 2 miles. This flight made him famous with the public and royalty. The danger of using hydrogen for lighter-than-air ships was recognized even in these early days, and its use for this type of airship was halted after the 1937 explosion of the Hindenburg zeppelin while mooring in New Jersey. Charles gas law led to further experimentation by Gay-Lussac, Dalton, and other scientists interested in the nature of matter and resulted in what is known as the ideal gas law, a combination of several gas laws, including Boyles Law. See also Avogadro; Boyle; Dalton; Galileo; Gay-Lussac; Ideal Gas Law CHARNEYS THEORETICAL METEOROLOGY: Physics and Meteorology: Jule Gregory Charney (19171981), United States. Charney proposed two important theories related to meteorology: 1. Weather can be understood by the use of computer models and mathematics. 2. Biogeographical feedback mechanisms are responsible for desertification of landmasses. Jule Charney received his PhD from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1946. He then became a member of the Advance Studies Group at Princeton, New Jersey, and in 1956 became head of meteorology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) until his retirement in 1977. While they were at the Institute of Advanced Studies in the 1940s Charney, along

with John Von Neumann, developed a large computer that required an extensive airconditioned room in which it needed to be housed due to the tremendous heat its many vacuum tubes generated. They decided that it would be a logical use of the new Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC) computer, which was built during the period 1942 to 1945, to set up calculations that could predict weather for short periods of time. In 1949 they succeeded in more accurately predicting the weather for a four-day period. This exceeded the reliability of any other method of predicting weather over short periods of time. Today, computers can reasonably and accurately predict local and regional weather for about one week. The record of using computers, even supercomputers, to predict long-term climate changes is not nearly as Charneys Theoretical Meteorology 87 successful. One reason: even the best computer/climate models cannot accurately predict long-term (or even short-term) climate changes on a regional or worldwide basis due to the many interacting variables that affect long-term cyclic climate factors, such as sunspots, temperature/pressure fluctuations of the sun, ocean, and atmospheric anomalies, and Earths slight pertubations (wobble on its axis), among other factors. Short-term computer/mathematical weather predictions are possible, but they are not always accurate partly because weather (as well as long-term climate) does not behave as the computer models predict. While at MIT, Charney proposed his theory of desertification in his 1974 Theory of Biogeographical Feedback. This concept considers the biological, geological, and geographical factors for a particular region. Because severe droughts have persisted on the

African continent, particularly in the central and northern regions, Charneys theory considered the following: overgrazing and the cutting down of forest timber for firewood led to an increase in albedo of the land (the reflection of sunlight from the land into the atmosphere). This results in a cooler land surface and a warmer lower atmosphere, resulting in less cloud formation and therefore less rain. His theory that the less plant cover of land surfaces the greater the albedo is not completely accepted, particularly as the only or main causation of desertification. CHARPAKS CONCEPT OF TRACKING PARTICLES: Physics: Georges Charpak (1924), France. Georges Charpak, the Polish-born French physicist was awarded the 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work in inventing a device known as the drift chamber for detecting subatomic particles that provided a means of analyzing these particles by using computers. Because only one particle in a billion interacts when exploring the deep parts of matter, the single event is not easily discernable, and photographic techniques are inadequate to the task. Therefore, a high-speed electronic device might be used to detect a greater number of events. The cloud chamber, for which C.T.R. Wilson received the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics, preceded the development of the drift chamber for detecting and analyzing subatomic particles. As charged particles passed through the cloud, they formed a track through the cloud in the closed chamber. Using the cloud chamber, Carl D. Anderson discovered the first antiparticle, known as the positron (a positively charged electron). He received the 1936 Nobel Prize for Physics for this endeavor. Over the years other means of detecting subatomic particles and cosmic radiation

used special photographic emulsions. The classic bubble chamber was the next device capable of detecting the movement and interactions of charged subatomic particles. Donald A. Glaser invented the bubble chamber in 1952 for which he received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1960. This chamber was filled with overheated fluid; and as the charged particles passed through the liquid, they caused bubbles to form as the liquid boiled along the particles tracks. These tracks could only be photographed at the rate of one per second. There were several problems with all of these instruments. One was that they only recorded a few particle events per second. Another was that they did not provide complete information about the particle. And another was that they do not lend the results to computer analysis. 88 Charpaks Concept of Tracking Particles A number of new devices have been developed that actually track the subatomic particles paths across a computer screen in three dimensions. These include the multiwire chamber that can track one million subatomic particles per second for computer analysis. Another was the wire spark chamber. During the 1970s Georges Charpak was doing his research at Conseil Europ_een pour la Recherche Nucl_eaire (CERN; also known as the European Organization for Nuclear Research) when he invented the improved drift chamber that helped revolutionize high-energy and subatomic particle physics. Conseil Europ_een pour la Recherche Nucl_eaire is located near Geneva, Switzerland. It is the worlds largest subatomic particle physics laboratory with the worlds largest particle accelerator. As evidence of the importance of the invention of these detection devices is the

number of Nobel Prizes for Physics that have been awarded to physicists and the discoveries made possible by their use. They have made great advances in related fields. For example, two important discoveries are 1) the J/psi particle in 1974 by Samuel Ting and Burton Richter, and 2) the W and Z subatomic particles by Carlo Rubbia and Simon Van der Meer. Not only does the drift chamber have application in physics, but it also contributed to research in the fields of biology and medicine as well as other industries. See also C. Anderson; Glaser; Rubbia; Ting; Van der Meer; C. T. R. Wilson CHARPENTIERS GLACIER THEORY: Geology: Jean de Charpentier (17861885), Switzerland. Glaciation is the agent responsible for the movement of boulders of one composition to an area where the boulders and rocks of a different composition are found. Figure C2. This multi-wire device can detect one million subparticle impulses a second that can then be analyzed by computers. Charpentiers Glacier Theory 89 Early geologists were puzzled for many years by the presence of large boulders that did not seem to belong in the areas in which they were found. Some thought that they were carried to their new locations by icebergs, but there was no evidence that icebergs ever existed in these areas. Charles Lyell contended these boulders were brought to their locations by enormous floods; however, there existed no other evidence of any such giant water flow that would have been needed to move these huge rocks. Others claimed that the boulders were really meteorites from outer space. But no firm evidence supported this notion. Charpentiers glaciation theory was correct but not well accepted by most scientists,

except Louis Agassiz, who believed the idea viable and published his glacier theory Studies on Glaciers in 1840 before Charpentier published his paper titled Essays on Glaciers in 1841. See also Agassiz; Lyell CHEVREULS THEORY OF FATTY ACIDS: Chemistry: Michel Eugene Chevreul (17861889), France. When treated with acids or alkali, animal fats break down to produce glycerol and fatty acids. Chevreul experimented with saponification, the process of producing soaps by treating animal fats with alkalis. By using alcohols to crystallize the product, he identified several fatty acids, including oleic acid, stearic acid, butyric acid, capric acid, and valeric acid, which are used in organic chemistry. He published his first paper titled Chemical Researches on Animal Fats in 1823. Chevreul and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac patented the process to make candles from the stearic fatty acid. Until this time tallow candles rendered from animal fat were used. They had an unpleasant odor, burned poorly, and were messy. The new fatty acid candles were harder, burned brighter, and were less odiferous. They were a better product and made a fortune for Chevreul and Gay-Lussac. Chevreul also experimented with and produced other fats including lanolin, cholesterol, and spermaceti (a waxy substance obtained from the head of the sperm whale). Later in life he worked with dyes and produced coloring from logwood, yellow oak, and indigo. He became professor of chemistry, and later director at the Mus_ee dHistoire Naturelle (Museum of Natural History) in France in the 1880s. He had a long and productive life of 103 years.

See also Gay-Lussac CHUS HYPOTHESIS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Physics: Paul Ching-wu Chu (1941), United States. The combination of the proper amounts of yttrium, barium, and copper can be used under pressure to reach a critical temperature above that of liquid nitrogen. The Swiss physicist Karl Alexander Muller (1927) developed material that achieved superconductivity, at an unprecedented high temperature (35K or _238_C). This temperature is very low compared to ordinary temperatures, and liquid helium is required to maintain a system at this temperature. Using Mullers results, Chus goal 90 Chevreuls Theory of Fatty Acids was to make superconductivity practical. To achieve this, it was necessary to make a material that would be superconductive at a temperature at which a material could be cooled by liquid nitrogen. Liquid helium has a lower boiling temperature than liquid nitrogen but is too expensive to use on a regular basis. Nitrogen becomes a liquid at about 77 kelvin (K) (_195.5_C). Chu tried several combinations of metals as superconductors and finally developed a mixture that was stable. It was a ceramic-type substance consisting of the elements lanthanum, copper oxide, and barium that would become superconductive of electricity at a temperature of about 93 K. He experimented with various ratios of these three elements and then substituted yttrium for the lanthanum. In 1987 he used a mixture of Y1.2Ba0.8CuO4 and was successful in achieving superconductivity at about 93 K. Because there is very little or no resistance to the flow of electricity through superconductors at these low temperatures, the potential for research possibilities is limitless. Superconductivity at even higher temperatures may lead to superefficient magnets, improved electromagnetic devices, such as computed

axial tomography (CAT or CT) scanning equipment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as other electrical equipment. Practical superconductivity will lead to the development of super-fast trains and less expensive transmission of electricity. See also Nernst; Simon CLARKES SUPERGENE THEORY: Biology: Sir Cyril Astley Clarke (19072000), England. Supergenes are groups of closely linked genes that act as an individual unit and carry a single controlling characteristic. Clarke was interested in the phenomenon of butterflies inheriting particular wing patterns referred to as mimicrythat is, one species (mostly insect species) exhibits a color, body structure, or behavior of another species that acts as camouflage. For example, the eye spots on the wings of butterflies that mimic another species protect the butterfly from predators. He found that male swallowtail butterflies carry supergenes as recessive. However, the characteristics are expressed as patterns for the females. It is now known that many inherited human traits and characteristics are controlled by supergenes. Clarke recognized a similarity between the supergenes that resulted in butterfly wing patterns and the blood antigen of rhesus monkeys, referred to as the Rh-factor. An Rh-negative mother and Rh-positive father may produce an Rh-positive child, which can lead to the development of Rh-antibodies in the mother if the childs blood leaks through the placenta. This can cause the destruction of red blood cells in future Rh-positive children born to the mother. Clarks wife suggested that he inject the Rhnegative mothers with Rh-antibodies because this was what destroyed the red blood cells of the fetus. This proposed solution to the problem proved ingenious because after

injecting antibodies into the mothers blood the incompatible Rh-positive factor of the mother would be destroyed before the mothers own blood made antibodies, thus preventing her blood from destroying the red blood cells of her unborn baby. Clark tested prospective mothers and injected those with the Rh-negative blood factor with Rhantibodies, thus counteracting the effects on future Rh-positive children. This testing and these procedures are now used by most obstetricians and hospitals and have saved many lives of newborn children. Clarkes Supergene Theory 91 CLAUDES CONCEPT FOR PRODUCING LIQUID AIR: Chemistry: Georges Claude (18701960), France. When air is compressed and the heat generated by the increase in molecular activity is removed, a point will be reached at which the major gases of air will liquefy. Claude was successful in applying this principle on an industrial scale, forming the worldwide Air Liquid Company. The gases that make up air can be fractionally separated by this process, producing oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, neon, and other noble gases. Because each of these gases becomes liquid at a specific temperature, the reverse also occurs. As the temperature of liquid air containing all of these gases in liquid form increases, each specific gas boils off at its specific evaporation temperature, where it can be isolated and collected as a pure gas. Claude was the inventor of neon lighting (glass tubes containing neon gas at less than normal pressure). When an electric discharge is sent through the gas, it glows with the familiar red light. CLAUSIUS LAWS AND THEORY OF THERMODYNAMICS: Physics: Rudolf

Julius Emmanuel Clausius (18221888), Germany. Clausius law: Heat does not flow spontaneously from a colder body to a hotter body. In an early form, the law was stated as: It is impossible by a cyclic process to transfer heat from a colder to a warmer reservoir without changes in other close-by bodies. The conservation of energy is a fundamental law of physics and is often called the first law of thermodynamics, which states that the total energy of a closed system is conserved. Clausius law is an early statement of the second law of thermodynamics, and it led to the concept of entropy. Clausius theory of entropy: In an isolated system, the increase in entropy exceeds the ratio of heat input to its absolute temperature for any irreversible process. The three classifications assigned to thermodynamics processes are natural, unnatural, and reversible. The natural process proceeds only in a direction of equilibrium. It is a reversible process only if additional energy (heat) enters the isolated system. A hot body transfers some of its heat (hotness) to a cold body until both are at the same temperature as their surroundingsthus equilibrium. The unnatural process never occurs over extended time because the unnatural process would require moving away from equilibrium (reverse the arrow of time). And reversible systems are idealized in the sense they are always arriving at different states or stages of equilibrium (e.g., growing living organisms) until their death. In a perfect closed system, Clausius ratio (entropy) would always remain constant. However in real life, every process occurring in nature is irreversible and directional (the arrow of time is pointed in only one direction) toward disorder. Thus, there is always an increase in entropy, which sooner or later leads to complete disorder

and randomness and a static (unchanging) universe (i.e., equilibrium). More recently, concepts of entropy have been expanded to the analysis of information theory. Consequence of Clausius second law of thermodynamics: The amount of energy in the universe is constant while the entropy of the universe is always increasing toward a maximum. At some future point, this maximum disorder will result in the unavailability of useful energy. The second law of thermodynamics is also known as times arrow because it only progresses in one directiontoward disorganization. For any irreversible process, entropy will be increased. In other words, a greater state of disorganization or randomness 92 Claudes Concept for Producing Liquid Air will exist until equilibrium is reached. The only way entropy or an entire system can be decreased is by extracting energy from the system. The entropy of a part of the system may decrease if the entropy of the rest of the system increases enough. For example, the sun continually supplies energy to Earth. Otherwise, total entropy (disorder) would soon occur on Earth. This also applies to small temporary systems, such as some chemical reactions, crystallization, and growth of living organisms. The sun provides most of the energy used on Earth (with the exception of radioactive minerals). Energy is pumped into all living systems through plants as food, resulting in highly ordered complex molecules and growth in living organisms. Thus, the entropy of some parts of the universe (but not the entire universe) is decreased as organisms grow and become more organized through the input of energy. However, the entropy of the universe is increased by the radiation of the sun and other stars. Upon death, the second law of

thermodynamics proceeds, resulting in the disorganization of the organism and its complex molecules. Without Earth receiving the suns energy, entropy will increase and become all-encompassing, leading to the death of all living organisms. Clausius summarized the first and second laws of thermodynamics as follows: The energy of the universe is constant, and the entropy of the universe will always tend toward a maximum. See also Boltzmann; Carnot; Fourier; Heisenberg; Kelvin; Maxwell; Rumford; Simon COCKCROFTWALTON ARTIFICIAL NUCLEAR REACTION: Physics: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (18971967) and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (19031995), England. They were joint recipients of the 1951 Nobel Prize for Physics. The transmutation reaction progressed as follows: 3Li-7 1H-1 fi 2He-4 2He-4 17.2 MeV: where 3Li-7 is a heavy isotope of lithium, 1H-1 is a proton (hydrogen nucleus), 2He-4 are alpha particles (helium nuclei), and 17.2 MeV is in millions of electron volts of energy. This first artificial nuclear reaction was the lithium reaction that occurred in 1932 and was made possible by Cockcrofts development of a

proton accelerator and E.T.S. Waltons invention of a voltage multiplier that increased the speed of the proton bullets. This was the beginning of the nuclear era. The lithium nuclei (the target) were bombarded by highenergy hydrogen nuclei (protons), resulting in the production of two Before joining the British Army in 1915 Cockcroft studied mathematics at Manchester University in England. After the war he studied electrical engineering and later attended Cambridge University where he graduated with a degree in mathematics. Following graduation he joined Rutherfords group at the Cavendish Laboratory. This is where he met E.T.S. Walton who had constructed a device that multiplied voltages that could be used to accelerate positive protons. They were the first to successfully produce an artificial nuclear reaction by bombarding lithium nuclei with protons. In 1940 Cockcroft traveled to the United States to join the Tizard Mission that was charged with the exchange of science and technology between Canada, England, and the United States (It was named after Henry Tizard [18851959] the head of Britains Aeronautical Research Committee

who headed the mission.) He also assisted in developing radar. In 1946 he returned to Great Britain to head up the new British Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, England. In 1948 he was knighted as Sir John Douglas Cockcroft. Later in 1959 he was appointed master of Churchill College in Cambridge that emphasized science and technology. Cockcroft combined his research and administration skills, as he became a leading statesman of science. CockcroftWalton Artificial Nuclear Reaction 93 alpha particles (helium nuclei), plus a small amount of energy. There were no cyclotrons or particle accelerators available so they used particles (protons) from a natural radioactive source. This provided the information and knowledge needed to continue the development of powerful cyclotrons and particle accelerators that produced nuclear fission (transmutation) reactions, giving rise to the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity, radioisotopes, and the atomic (fission) bomb. See also Chadwick; Fermi; Hahn; Meitner; Szilard; Walton COHNS BACTERIA AND CELL THEORIES: Biology: Ferdinand Cohn (1828 1898), Germany. Cohns infectious disease theory: Microscopic bacteria are simple organisms that can cause diseases in other plants as well as animals. Cohns study of microscopic organisms led him to develop the first classification of bacteria titled Researches on Bacteria that he published in his journal in 1872. His classification system is basically still used today. He experimented with boiled solutions

of bacteria and suggested that some bacteria can develop resistance to external environmental influences, including heat-resistant spores that led to his research on the formation of heat-resistant spores formed by Bacilus subtilis. Later, similar bacteria and other forms of life were found living around the steam vents on the bottom of the oceans where the temperatures were much too high to support normal surface life. Based on his research, and unlike many biologists of his day, Cohn did not believe in spontaneous generation, a theory that life can start in rotting garbage (see also Redi). Cohns theory of protoplasm: The protoplasm found in plant and animal cells is essentially of the same composition. Protoplasm is the colloidal substance composed of mostly complex protein molecules found in all living cells. In green plants the protoplasm contains chlorophyll, which in the presence of sunlight manufactures complex organic compounds (mostly carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and the hydrogen from water), while liberating oxygen mainly from the water as a waste product. All animal and plant cells require the food produced by this process, called photosynthesis. Cohn was a popular lecturer who presented biology in an interesting manner to a large and appreciative audience. He not only published his own research and lectures but also supervised the publication of Robert Kochs research on the life cycle of the anthrax bacillus. Others biologists including Louis Pasteur used Cohns research and publications. See also Koch; Pasteur; Redi COMPTONS WAVEPARTICLE HYPOTHESES: Physics: Arthur Holly Compton (18921962), United States. Arthur Compton and Charles T.R. Wilson jointly received the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics.

Compton effect: When X-rays bombard elements, such as carbon, the resulting radiation is scattered (reflected) with a wavelength that increases with the angle of scattering. For this effect to occur, the X-rays must behave as particles (photons) that during the collision transfer their energy to the electrons of the carbon. This reaction indicates that X-rays behave as particles as well as waves. Compton used Charles Wilsons cloud chamber to assist in detecting, tracking, and identifying these particles. The 94 Cohns Bacteria and Cell Theories Compton effect was the first experimental evidence of the dual nature of electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, light, ultraviolet radiation, microwaves, X-rays, and gamma rays that exhibit characteristics of waves and particles. Comptons hypothesis for cosmic rays as particles: If cosmic rays have characteristics similar to charged particles, then there should be a variation in their distribution by latitude caused by Earths magnetic field. If such an effect by the magnetic field could be detected, then it could be concluded that cosmic radiation consists of charged particles and is not pure electromagnetic radiation. This hypothesis was later proved correct in 1938 by measuring the distribution of cosmic rays from outer space as they were affected by Earths magnetism, which proved that their concentrations were different at different latitudes of Earths surface. See also C. Anderson; Hess; Rutherford; C. T. R. Wilson CONWAYS GAME OF LIFE THEORY: Mathematics: John Horton Conway (1937), England/United States. Conways game of life is: An infinite grid of cells, either alive or dead, that interact with

eight surrounding neighbor cells that are located either above, below, or diagonally from adjacent cells. As time progresses, each of the following rules occur: 1. A live cell with fewer than two neighbors dies. 2. Any cell that is surrounded by three or more neighboring cells dies. 3. Any cell with two or three neighbors lives for the next generation. 4. Any dead cell with just three neighbors will come to life. The first pattern is just for the first generation of the system. For the second pattern, the rules apply to all (every) cells in the first generation as births and deaths occur at the same time. Repeat the rules to continue for future generations. This game of life is the result of Conways interest in John von Neumanns hypothetical machine that could replicate itself. In 1940 von Neumann found a mathematical

model for such a machine with rules following a Cartesian grid. Conway simplified von Neumanns ideas for a self-replicating machine and devised the game theory of life. His game was published in Martin Gardners John Conway was born in Liverpool, England, the day after Christmas in 1937. Although his family was not poor, they experienced difficult times during World War II in England. Interested in mathematics from the age of four, he was first in his class in mathematics in his elementary school and excelled in the subject in high school. He also developed an interest in astronomy that he still follows. He entered Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge where he was awarded a BA in mathematics in 1959. While at Cambridge, he began his research in number theory and games, as he liked to play games in the colleges game room. He was awarded his PhD in mathematics in 1964 and was assigned as lecturer in pure mathematics at Cambridge. Following this period his interests covered many areas in the field of mathematics that led to his famous cellular automata theory (game of life), group theory, surreal numbers, knot theory, quadratic forms, coding theory, fractals, and tilings. John Conway

became a fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1983. He received many awards including the Berwick Prize and the Poly Prize from the London Mathematical Society, the Esser Nemmers Prize in Mathematics from Northwestern University, the Leroy P. Steele Prize for Mathematics by the American Mathematical Society, the Joseph Priestley Award from Dickinson College located at Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 2000, and was given an Honorary Doctorate in Science by the University of Liverpool in the year 2001. In addition he has written several books on his original theories. He has taught at Princeton University in New Jersey since 1986. Conways Game of Life Theory 95 column Mathematical Games in the October 1970 issue of Scientific American magazine. The game became very popular with professional and amateur mathematicians and also made Conway popular. Conway also invented a new system of numbers and a theory of knots that identifies the differences in 801 different types of knots based on the number of crossings in the knot if the crossings are no higher than 11. He helped develop the field of group theory where groups, similar to prime numbers, cannot be broken down into smaller groups. Conway contributed to the identification of several types of groups leading to a total of twenty-six groups described in the fifteen thousand pages of the publication explaining the enormous theorem.

COPERNICUS COSMOLOGY THEORIES: Astronomy: Nicolaus Copernicus (14731543), Poland. Copernicus heliocentric theory of the universe: All the spheres (planets and moons) revolve about the sun as their midpoint; therefore, the sun is the center of the universe. At the time of Copernicus pronouncement, the concept of a sun-centered universe was not really new. Aristarchus of Samos (c.320250 BCE) reportedly stated that the sun and stars were motionless and the planets, including Earth, revolved in perfect circles around the sun. However, no attention was paid to his theory for almost two thousand years because the Earth-centered universe, as postulated by Aristotle and Ptolemy, was the accepted truththat is, until the Copernican heliocentric model was proposed. Copernicus was influenced by the Pythagorean Philolaus (c.480400 BCE) who theorized that the planets, including Earth, moved around a central fire. Philolaus believed that we could not see this fire because we lived on the side of Earth that was always turned away from it. Copernicus model engendered much controversy among the clergy, as well as most scientists, until others were able to study and understand his new model, which also explained planetary motion (see Figure C3). Copernicus theory of planetary positions:

Superior planets are those whose orbits are larger than Earths and therefore, are farther from the sun than is Earth. Inferior planets are those whose orbits are smaller than Earths and are closer to the sun. As a result of this theory, several other concepts to explain planetary motion were proposed. When an inferior planet is between Earth and the sun, it is in line of sight with the sun and is said to be in inferior conjunction. When the planet passes on the far side of the Sun, away Figure C3. An artists conception of Copernicus heliocentric universe where all planets including Earth, revolve around the sun. His rationale was that if the sun is the midpoint of the planets orbits, then the sun must be at the center. 96 Copernicus Cosmology Theories from Earth, the planet is in opposition and is said to be in superior conjunction. Further observations of planetary motion led Copernicus to distinguish between the planets sidereal periodits actual period of revolution around the sunand the synodic periodthe time period of two successive conjunctions of a planet as seen from Earth. Therefore, the synodic period is what is directly viewed from Earth, as it is the time

required for the planet to progress from one 180-degree opposition to the opposition of the next cycle, as related to Earth. Copernicus was also aware his model required the inferior planets to move faster in their smaller orbits, while the speed of the superior planets was slower as they revolved around the sun. This information later became important for Kepler in the development of his laws of planetary motion. Copernicus theory of planetary distance from the sun: Because the planets travel in perfect circles, they can be viewed as a direct line of sight to the sun, as well as at a 90degree right angle, which forms a right triangle with the sun. The distance from the sun to the planets can be determined by geometry and trigonometry. At this time in history it was believed that all celestial motion, including planetary motion, progressed in perfect circles. Also, there were only six known planets in Copernicus day. Copernicus calculations for the distance of planets to the sun were excellent, considering that he believed their orbits to be perfect circles. His figures are close to what we now know about elliptical orbits of planets and their distances from the sun. Current figures are based on Earths distance to the Sun as being 1 unit. This distance is the standard astronomical unit (AU), which equals the mean distance of 92,956,000 miles from Earth to the Sun. AUs are used to calculate the distances for the other planets to the sun. Copernicus theory of planetary brightness: All the planets travel in circles around the sun; thus they are at different distances from Earth. Therefore, as their distances from Earth differ, so does their brightness.

These theories raised another question: If Earth actually revolved around the sun, why didnt the position of the stars change every six months of Earths yearly orbit of the Sun? This question is based on parallaxthe apparent change in position of an object when viewed from two different positions. Copernicus conclusion about the size of the universe: Stars seem not to move and therefore must be located at tremendous distances in space. Thus, the universe is much larger than formerly believed. Copernicus based this theory on the concept of parallax, which is dependent on the distance between two geographic sites at which the stars are viewed and the distance separating the observer and the actual object. In other words, even when viewed from opposite positions every six months in Earths orbit, the stars are so distant they seem to stay in one position. About two hundred years later, with the development of improved instruments, a slight parallax of the stars was measured. But for the ordinary Planet Copernicus Data (AUs) Modern Distance (AUs) Mercury 0.38 0.39 Venus 0.72 0.72 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52 1.52 Jupiter 5.22 5.21 Saturn 9.18 9.55 Copernicus Cosmology Theories 97 viewer on Earth, this slight parallax displacement is not noticeable. Copernicus was one of the first to conceptualize a vast universe that for the next hundred years

remained incomprehensible. Copernicus theory of epicycle motion of the planets: The minor irregularities in the motion of planets revolving around the sun can be explained by the epicycle each planet traces as it progresses in its own orbit. Ptolemys Earth-centered model of the universe required the extensive use of epicycles to explain planetary motion. Because Copernicus maintained that planets revolved around the sun in perfect circles, he too required the use of epicycles to explain the irregularities in their motion. Several centuries later, it was determined that not all of celestial motion is in circles, and planets, moons, and comets traveled in ellipses of one type or another. An epicycle may be thought of as the planet moving in its own series of small circles as it progresses around the circumference of its orbit. Copernicus theory of the Earth spinning on its axis: The motions of Earth consist of two or more component motions. One motion is revolving; the other is rotating. Most philosophers and scientists in Copernicus day rejected the concept of Earths revolving around the sun. The second contentionthat Earth spins on its axis as it revolves around the sunwas even more difficult to comprehend. Most people claimed that their common sense dictated it was not possible and offered these arguments against a rotating Earth: 1) If Earth spun on an axis, why didnt objects fly off into space? 2) It would be impossible for anything moveable to be firmly affixed to Earth. 3) Birds would have to fly faster in the direction of Earths rotation just to stay in the same place. 4) If a person jumped up, he would come down in a different spot because Earth would have moved. Copernicus not only lived during the Renaissance, he was a Renaissance man with

interests in economics, law, medicine, mathematics, as well as astronomy. During this period the Roman Catholic Church needed better astronomical information to set correct times and dates for special holidays and ceremonies. They approached Nicholas Copernicus, a monk in the church, for assistance. His studies on their behalf led to his astronomical theories that were not always accepted by the Church. His model of the solar system did not become generally known until 1515 as he shared his ideas only with friends. His studies were published in De Revolutionibus Orbium Celestium in the same year he died (1543). See also Brahe; Coriolis; Galileo; Kepler; Ptolemy COREYS THEORY OF RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS: Chemistry: Elias James Corey (1928), United States. Elias Corey was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Retrosynthetic analysis occurs when the whole target chemical compound (the compound to be studied) is divided into subunits for analysis and then synthetically recombined. This was a new approach to analyzing chemical substances, particularly complex organic molecules. Corey and his research teams reduced complex molecules to smaller and smaller pieces and then recombined these units to arrive at the original or an altered molecule. In this manner, they determined how to synthesize many organic 98 Coreys Theory of Retrosynthetic Analysis compounds for medical use. An example is the synthesis of prostaglandin hormones useful in treating infertility and inducing labor. Using his retrosynthetic concept, Corey developed a new computer program that greatly assisted chemists in their analysis and synthesis of organic compounds.

Elias Corey received his undergraduate degree at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1948 and his graduate degree in 1950, both in chemistry. He became interested in chemistry after auditing a course in organic chemistry. After receiving his doctorate, he was employed by the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana, and nine years later moved to Harvard as a professor of chemistry. He is best known for new and unique methods for synthesizing organic molecules, particularly his retrosynthetic analysis technique that examines parts of whole molecules. He published his methods in The Logic of Chemical Synthesis in 1989. CORIOLIS THEORY OF FORCES ACTING ON ROTATING SURFACES: Physics: Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (17921843), France. An inertial force acts on rotating surfaces at right angles to the rotating Earth, causing a body to follow a curved path opposite the direction of the rotating Earth. The Coriolis effect is greatest if an object is moving longitudinally on Earth from either pole to the Equator along longitudinal lines. In the Northern Hemisphere the apparent motion, when viewed from the North Pole, is to the right; for the Southern Hemisphere, when viewed from the South Pole, it is to the left. It affects the oceans and atmosphere on Earth but is a much weaker force than gravity. Even so, over great distances it causes cyclones, which are low-pressure areas that can develop into hurricanes, and water whirlpools to circle counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, anticyclones may develop into typhoons, which rotate clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The Coriolis effect influences ocean currents, including El-Ni~no, as well as other local and worldwide weather and climate phenomena.

The magnitude of the Coriolis effect is the velocity of the object compared to Earths angular velocity for the given latitude and is the reason rockets and spacecrafts are launched to the east. The Coriolis effect gives rockets an extra boost as Earth spins eastward. Also, missile-launching sites are usually located on coastal areas so that any defective rockets or missiles will fall on water rather than land. Although other scientists recognized the effect caused by Earths rotation as an inertial force, it was Coriolis who worked out the mathematics for this force and was the first to publish his results. The mathematical parameter for the Coriolis force is twice the component of Earths angular velocity around the local vertical as expressed in: 2_ sin _, where _ is the angular momentum of Earth and _ is the latitude on Earths surface. This complex force resulting from the rotation of Earth on its axis was not apparent in the days of Copernicus and Galileo because it is a force much too weak to have been recognized or measured in their times. Although the Coriolis force deflects or moves air and water masses to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, the rotation of the large air masses (hurricanes) is to the left (see Figure C4). There are several misconceptions about the Coriolis effect. One is that it will affect the direction of rotation of flow of relatively small volumes of water, such as the Coriolis Theory of Forces Acting on Rotating Surfaces 99 draining of water down a bathtub or sink drain or when flushing a toilet. The direction of rotation of water down a drain can be made to go in either direction by swirling the water

around before the plug is pulled. The Coriolis effect is much too small to be effective at this level of magnitude. In addition, the shape of the tub, the nature of its surface, the waters disturbance as it enters the tub, sink, or toilet, and how the drain is opened have more effect on the direction of the whirlpool of draining water than the Coriolis effect. This becomes more understandable when considering that Earth spins on its axis every 24 hours and affects very large masses of air and the oceans, whereas the tiny amount of water going down the drain might be said to be just a drop in the larger bucket. When firing a rifle, the bullet is affected by gravity and follows a curved path, but the distance the bullet travels is too small to be affected by the Coriolis effect. However, when firing very long-range artillery shells, the calculation of the ballistics of the projectiles flight must take into consideration the Coriolis effect. In World War I the Germans developed a

huge gun that bombarded Paris from a distance of 120 kilometers. This distance required the Coriolis effect to be taken into consideration when aiming the gun. Cyclones are low-pressure areas in the Northern Hemisphere that, when under the right conditions, form hurricanes. They generally travel in a northerly direction, and the further north, the stronger the Coriolis effect. Hurricanes seldom move toward the equator because the closer you get to the equator, the less effect of the Coriolis force. In fact, the Coriolis effect is zero at the equator. THE CORI THEORY OF CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF GLYCOGEN: Chemistry: Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896 1984) and Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori (18961957), both from the United States, jointly received one-half of the 1947 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The other half of the 1947 prize was awarded to Bernardo Houssay (18871971) for The Coriolis effect on Earth may be summarized as follows 1. The Coriolis effect is an inertial force caused by Earths rotation to the east. Its strength is altered with the degree of speed of Earths air and water masses. 2. The Coriolis effect increases as one goes from the equator toward the polar regions. The polar

regions are at right angles to the axis of Earths rotation. 3. The Coriolis effect decreases as one nears the equator. At the equator Earths surface is parallel to the axis of rotation. 4. The Coriolis effect causes air and water masses to be deflected and turn right in the Northern Hemisphere and to be deflected and turn left in the Southern Hemisphere. Note: the direction of deflection is not to be confused with the direction of rotation of the air and water masses. 5. The geotropic flow is a gradient flow where the Coriolis force balances the pressure of the horizontal force of the wind. Figure C4. The Coriolis Effect causes winds and hurricanes to rotate counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. 100 The Cori Theory of Catalytic Conversion of Glycogen his work with the pituitary gland and sugar metabolism. The only other husband-andwife teams of scientists to share a Nobel Prize besides the Coris were Marie and Pierre Curie in 1903 and the Joliot-Curies in 1935. Coris hypothesis for glucose conversion: The complex carbohydrate glycogen stored in

the liver and muscles is converted, as needed, to energy, in the form of glucose-6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphoglucomutase. The process is reversible. Carl and Gerty Cori collaborated on biochemical research projects dealing with the analysis of enzymes and glycogen (sugars and starch). They isolated a chemical from dissected frog muscle identified as glucose-1-phosphate, where a molecular ring containing six carbon atoms joined this complex molecule. This new compound was named the Cori-ester and was shown to convert to the more complex sugar form after it was injected into animal muscles. Their research led to a more complete understanding of the role of high blood sugars, diabetes, insulin, hormones, and the pituitary gland. Their research also opened the door for a more complete understanding of the important role phosphates play in producing the energy in animal cells. COULOMBS LAWS: Physics: Charles Augustin de Coulomb (17361806), France. Coulombs fundamental law of electricity: Two bodies charged with the same sort of electricity will repel each other in the inverse ratio of the square of the distance between the centers of the two bodies. Coulomb devised this law after developing an extremely sensitive torsion balance, which consisted of a thin silk thread supporting a wax-covered straw (thin, very light reed or grass) with a small pith ball suspended on one end. The straw was balanced and suspended in an enclosed jar to prevent air drafts from affecting the results. His torsion balance could measure a force of only 1/100,000 of a gram by gauging the twist of the thread. There were markings around the circumference of the jar so Coulomb could

measure, in degrees, any changes in the balls position. Coulomb then used static electricity to charge the pith ball on the straw and another pith ball outside the jar. He brought the outside charged ball close to the jar. The ball inside the jar was repelled. He measured the distance of its movement on the degree markings on the jar and compared it with the distance between the centers of the inner and outer balls. He discovered that one of the basic laws of science applied (the inverse square law). When moving the outer ball twice the distance away from the inner ball, the effect on the inner ball was not one-half its movement but one-fourth. In other words, the effect of the electrical charge decreased as to the square of the distance between the centers of the charged balls. Although Coulomb was given credit for demonstrating the effects of the inverse square law he was not the first to do so. Several other scientists, including Joseph Priestley and Daniel Bernoulli, of the early eighteenth century tried to find evidence of the inverse square law but failed. In the 1760s Henry Cavendish demonstrated the effects of the inverse square law experimentally. Unfortunately, the results of his experiments were not published until 1879. The law is really an analog of Sir Isaac Newtons law of gravity that is F G[m1 _ m2]/d2 , where the F is the force, G is gravity, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two bodies that are involved, and d2 is the square Coulombs Laws 101 of the distance between the masses. Coulombs law for electrical charges between two bodies is similar: F k[1 _ q2]/d2, where k is the electrical charge, q1 and q2 are the magnitude of the charges of the two bodies, and d2 is the square to the distance

between to two bodies. Or it can be written as the force between two charged particles as: F qq0/kd2 where F is the force, q and q0 are the two charged particles, k is the dielectric constant, and d2 is the distance between the two particles. It should be mentioned that electric and magnetic forces are four million, trillion trillion trillion times stronger than the force of gravity. Gravity is one of the weakest forces known, but it exists on a cosmic scale. Coulombs theory of the relationship between electricity and magnetism: Electricity and magnetism follow the same physical laws, including the inverse square law. Coulomb demonstrated the similarity of the attractive and repulsive forces for electricity and magnetism and concluded that both were similar physical phenomena that followed the same physical laws. (See Figure A1 under Amp_ere.) Coulomb also concluded that electrical charges follow the same inverse law as does gravitation. Even so, many scientists of his day rejected this theory. When the theory of electromagnetism was later refined and better understood, it became important for the development and use of electromagnetic devices, such as motors and generators. Coulombs law of electrical charge: The attractive and repulsive forces for electricity are proportional to the products of the charge. This famous theory is now known as Coulombs law, which states that a coulomb is the unit quantity of electricity carried by an electric current of 1 ampere in 1 second. The unit of electrical charge, the coulomb (C), is named after him. As a result, a much better understanding exists of how to quantify electricity as a measurable current forced through a conductor by a voltage differential. See also Cavendish; Faraday; Maxwell COUPERS THEORY FOR THE STRUCTURE OF CARBON COMPOUNDS:

Chemistry: Archibald Scott Couper (18311892), Scotland. Carbon atoms have the unique ability to bond their valence electrons together to structure both chains and branches of chains to form carbon compounds (mostly organic). Couper knew carbon must have four valence electrons because it could form inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide, CO2, where oxygen has a valance of 2. Thus, it takes only one carbon atom with a valence of 4 to join with two oxygen atoms to form the molecule OCO (Note: the two represents two valence electrons joining the single carbon atom with two oxygen atoms). Further research indicated that carbon atoms have the unique ability to bond with other carbon atoms to form chains and branches (see Figure V3.) Couper was the first to use notations such as CCC for carbon atoms to illustrate his theory, advancing the concept of isomers, which are compounds with the same molecular formulas but are structured differently. Isomers have different chemical and physical characteristics due to different arrangements of the elements making up the molecules. The greatest variety of isomers is found among the various hydrocarbons and the many complex organic compounds. A typical example is the hydrocarbon isomer of C4H10 that can be structured as a chain of 4 carbon atoms 102 Coupers Theory for the Structure of Carbon Compounds with 10 attached hydrogen atoms, or a different structure of a branched group of 4 carbon atoms, with 10 hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms. Their physical and chemical characteristics are quite different. The entire chemistry of carbon isomers, while complicated, has pioneered many new medicines and useful

products. Couper wrote an important paper titled On a New Chemical Theory in 1858 that explained his concepts of chemical compounds, but publication was delayed. In the meantime Fredrich Kekule arrived at similar isomeric straight chain and branching carbon molecular structures. However, after a dream of a snake eating its tail (see Figure K1), Kekule came up with a carbon ring structure that solved the problem of how some carbon compounds, including benzene, are formed in connecting rings. Even though Coupers designs for carbon compounds and isomers involved only straight and branching chain molecules, they anticipated and preceded Kekules work. See also Kekule; Vant Hoff CRICKWATSON THEORY OF DNA: Biology: Francis Harry Compton Crick (19162004), England. Francis Crick shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins. DNA is a double helix joined by pairs of nucleotides of adenine thymine (AT) and guanine cytosine (GC), with the sugar-phosphate structure attached to the outsides of the helix strands. Early in Cricks career in England, he was joined by an American James Watson (1928), who suggested that the first step in determining the structure of the basic molecule of life would be to learn more about its chemical nature, which they then pursued together. Crick and Watson were not the only scientists searching for the holy grail of life. Others, such as Maurice Wilkins (19162004) and his assistant, Rosalind Franklin, as well as the Nobel Laureate and Scottish biochemist Alexander Todd (19071997) in England, Erwin Chargaff, and Phoebus Levene in the United States, were conducting similar research.

There is a history of a number of scientists investigating the origins of replication of the DNA molecule. Frederick Griffith (18711941), a British medical officer, produced the first evidence of DNA when he experimentally identified the transformation of S and R strains of a bacterium. The Canadian-American physician and researcher Oswald Avery (18771955) experimentally proved that DNA was the transferring CrickWatson Theory of DNA 103 agent for genetic information. And, Linus Pauling, who worked with the nature of chemical bonding, described the complex protein molecules (DNA) involved in the chromosomes of cells as being an alpha-helix structure, which came close to describing the doublehelix structure proposed by Crick and Watson. Nationalism, competition, jealousy, and secrecy, all of which are the antithesis of scientific investigations, were part of the search for the structure of DNA. Cricks work depended on information he obtained from crystallographic X-rays (X-ray photos) of DNA

crystals to determine its structure (see Figure C5.) Franklin was very secretive about her work and refused to share her photographs or her crystallography techniques. Her supervisor, Wilkins, considered the study of DNA a joint project between Franklin and him. Franklin also withheld information about the placement of the sugar-phosphate backbone for the DNA molecule. Crick was acquainted previously with Wilkins, and as the story goes, there may have been a break in trust when Wilkins provided Crick with some of Franklins vital information that enabled Crick to succeed with his project. In 1953 Crick and Watson completed their model based on information known at that time. Figure C5. Crick and Watson determined the shape of the double helix shape for the DNA molecule from the crystal X-rays made by Rosalind Franklin. Francis Crick proposed a rather controversial hypothesis in his book Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul in 1994. The hypothesis in essence states: That a persons you, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated

molecules. Humans have always wondered about their ability to be aware of themselves and attributed this phenomenon and their many personal thoughts, including beliefs in supernatural powers separate from their bodies. In the early seventeenth century Ren_e Descartes came up with the idea that the mind contains the essence of a human being and was distinct and separate from the brain and body. It was not until the discovery of the double helix of DNA that most scientists gave up the idea that consciousness, and so on, was too philosophical to study. Science experiments have indicated that all aspects of our subjective selves, our awareness, and all aspects of the mind are best explained by the behavior of over fifty billion nerve cells in the brain. Even today, not all scientists consider the mind, consciousness, and self as existing as a neurological phenomenon of the brains multitude of neurons. 104 CrickWatson Theory of DNA Crick and Watson shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for their discovery along with Wilkins, but Rosalind Franklin, being deceased, was not included. (Some say Franklin was not given adequate credit for her contributions to the final outcome.) See also Chargaff; Franklin (Rosalind); Pauling; Watson CROOKES RADIATION THEORIES: Physics: Sir William Crookes (18321919), England.

Crookes radiometer: A closed glass container in which most of the air has been evacuated will continue to radiate heat. From his spectrographic work in identifying the element thallium, Crookes noticed that heat radiation caused unusual effects on the thallium gas while in the sealed glass container. He designed a device with four vanes. One side of each of the four vanes was painted black, and the other sides of the vanes were polished like a mirror. The vanes were balanced on a vertical pivot in a closed glass in which most of the air had been removed. When heat radiation (sunlight) struck the vanes inside the glass bulb, molecules on the dark hot side had greater momentum and thus pushed the vanes backward to a greater extent than did the molecules from the cooler shiny side. This led to further investigation of the effects of electricity on low-pressure gases. At the time, the radiometer demonstrated the essence of kinetic energy of gas molecules. Today, Crookes radiometer is more like a toy used to demonstrate the effects of radiant heat on dark and shiny surfaces. Crookes cathode ray tube: The air will glow when an electric current is passed through a closed glass tube containing low air pressure. To demonstrate that the glow in the Crookes tube and the slight fluorescence on the inner walls of the tube were due to electricity, Crookes placed a Maltese cross in the path of the rays. The form of the Maltese cross was used because its symmetrical design would produce a recognizable image as it interrupts the flow of cathode rays.

At the point where the rays were blocked by the cross, a distinct shadow-like pattern appeared on the end of the glass tube. Crookes also demonstrated that a magnet brought near the glass tube would deflect the cathode rays in a curved pattern that suggested the rays were composed of particles with an electric charge. He concluded it was impossible for electromagnetic radiation, such as light, to carry an electric charge and be deflected by a magnet. Therefore, the cathode rays must be charged particles. J. J. Thomson later demonstrated the cathode rays were really electrons. The shadow of the Maltese cross in Crookes cathode ray tube might be considered the first TV picture because a similar process is used in modern television receivers. See also Thomson Figure C6. The symmetrical Maltese cross design was used to demonstrate that when a stream of electrons was sent to a target in the path of a fluorescent screen, the metal cross would block the screen. The shadow of the cross on the screen prevented the electrons from producing light on the fluorescent

material on the screen. A similar device was used to demonstrate the nature of the electron; it has a negative charge and a magnet can deflect its path. Its mass is just 1/1840 the mass of the hydrogen atom. Crookes Radiation Theories 105 CRUTZENS THEORY OF OZONE DEPLETION: Chemistry: Paul Crutzen (1933), Netherlands. Paul Crutzen, along with Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland received the 1995 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Crutzen demonstrated that nitrogen oxide accelerated the destruction of ozone (O3) in the stratosphere, while Rowland and Molina, two American chemists, discovered in 1974 that CFC gas (chlorofluorocarbon) also causes ozone depletion. Crutzens theory states: Nonreactive nitrogen dioxide (N2O) gas is lighter than air, thus it rises in the atmosphere where solar energy splits it into two different reactive compounds (NO and NO2) where they react as a catalyst with ozone gas (O3) breaking it into O2 and atomic oxygen, thus causing a depletion of the original ozone. These three scientists were not the first to arrive at the chemistry related to the ozone-oxygen cyclic reactions. In 1930 Sydney Chapman, a British astronomer and geophysicist who is best known for his work with the kinetic theory of gases (see Chapman), wrote an article that explained how ultraviolet radiation (UV) breaks stratospheric oxygen (O2) into oxygen atoms (O) which then combine to form ozone (O3), followed by the formation of two oxygen molecules (2O2) when the oxygen atoms recombine with the ozone. At that time Chapman was unaware that there was a catalytic

action that drove this sequence. Paul Crutzen knew that nitrous oxide (N2O), a stable gas produced by some soil bacteria (and later identified as a gas produced by automobile exhausts, jet airplanes, and fertilizers), could change into nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere that, in turn, acts as a catalyst and contributes to ozone depletion. In 1974 Frank Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Molina were the first to arrive at the idea that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) would have the same catalytic effect on the ozone molecule, as did nitrous oxide as proposed by Chapman. It was discovered that most of the CFCs produced since the 1930s were still in the atmosphere due to its high degree of stability. It was determined that UV light dissociates the CFCs and releases chlorine (Cl) in the ozone layer and is thus more effective in breaking down the ozone molecule than is nitrous oxide. A number of other scientists became involved in the chemistry of ozone, but it was not until 1985 that Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin with the British Antarctic Society (BAS) published a paper in Nature that announced the discovery of a hole (more accurately a thinning area) in the ozone over Antarctica. Later a less extensive hole was discovered over the North Pole as well. Ozone is not really a layer but rather a diffuse screen of gases at an altitude of about 35 kilometers that partially blocks harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching Earths surface. Ozone is produced in the warmer stratosphere over the equator and drifts toward the poles. Crutzen showed that ozone is continually created and destroyed in the stratosphere. The concentration of ozone is also affected by natural processes such as volcanoes, atmospheric temperatures,

and variations in solar activity so that, to some extent, it is replenished, but less so over the colder polar regions. The size of the holes over the poles varies with temperatures at different times of the year. A simplified depiction of the chemical reaction follows: Ozone reacts to many things in the atmosphere such as nitrous oxide, several halogens (chlorine and bromine), methyl chloride, as well as hydrogen, where they capture an 106 Crutzens Theory of Ozone Depletion oxygen atom from the ozone molecule. An X is used as a generic chemical symbol to represent any substance that can react with ozone as follows: The great increase in the use of CFCs for refrigeration and pressure in spray cans over the years is held responsible as possibly the main cause of ozone depletion. In 1996 several nations began phasing out the production of CFCs, halogens, and related chemicals that seems to have affected the size of the ozone hole. It might be noted that the ozone hole has recently been significantly decreased. This may also be a result of a natural cycle related to the formation

and destruction of ozone, or it may be a result of several nations banning the use of CFCs. See also Chapman; Rowland CURIES RADIATION THEORIES AND HYPOTHESES: Chemistry: Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867 1934), France. Marie and Pierre Curie shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with Antoine Henri Becquerel (18521908), who discovered spontaneous radioactivity. Madame Curie was also awarded the 1911 Nobel Prize for chemistry for her discovery of radium and polonium. She is one of only four people ever to receive two Nobel Prizes (the other three are L. Pauling, J. Bardeen, and F. Sanger). Curies radiation hypothesis: Chemical reactions and mixtures of uranium with other substances do not affect the level of radiation. Only the quantity of uranium determines the level of radiation.

Therefore, radioactivity must be a basic property of uranium. Pierre Curie (18591906) jointly received the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with his wife Marie, and Antoine Henri Becquerel. He determined that the slight deformation caused by the squeezing of opposite sides of certain types of ceramic crystals produces opposite electric charges on opposite faces of a crystal. Pierre Curie was a well-known physicist who assisted his wife, Marie, in her research with radioactive elements. With his brother, Jacques Curie (18561941) they developed several techniques for detecting and measuring the strength of radiation. Their instrument, the electrometer, was sensitive enough to produce an electric current between two metal plates separated by the radioactive sample. They also discovered piezoelectricity, from the Greek work piezo meaning to press. The piezo effect occurs when certain types of crystals are put under pressure. Pierre Curie and his brother also discovered it would work in the opposite manner, that is, by applying an electric charge to a crystal a change in the crystals structure occurs. This discovery was incorporated in their electrometer used to measure minute electric currents, as well as radiation. The piezoelectric

effect has found many useful applications including crystals in crystal microphones, sonar, ultrasound devices, phonograph needle pickup devices, radio transmitters, and as an analogous pendulum in timepieces. It is now found in many types of watches, clocks, and other devices where regular mechanical vibrations of a quartz crystal are used. Pierre Curie also measured the amount of heat given off by radium. Each gram of radium gives off 140 calories of heat per hour, with a half-life of about sixteen hundred years. The Curies realized this amount of energy was beyond normal chemical reactions and must be from some other unknown part of the atom. Thus began the age of nuclear energy, even though the nuclei of atoms had yet to be discovered. Pierre Curie also discovered that permanent magnets lose their magnetism when heated to a specific temperature. This temperature point is now called the Curie temperature as a unit of measurement. At the time the Curies worked with radiation, particularly radium, the extent of the dangers of radiation was unknown. It is assumed the Curies may have been the first humans to suffer from radiation sickness, but Pierre died after an accident with a horse and carriage. Marie

died from illnesses related to radiation poisoning. The curie, the unit measurement for radioactivity, was named for Pierre Curie. Marie Curies notebooks are still considered extremely radioactive. Curies Radiation Theories and Hypotheses 107 Madame Curie separated chemicals from uranium minerals and found the ore pitchblende was more radioactive than uranium earth itself. Pitchblende is a heavy black ore containing a yellow compound that the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (17431817) thought was a new element. He named it uranium after the planet Uranus. The Curies brought many cartloads of pitchblende from northern Europe to her laboratory shed in France. (Pitchblende is also found in Colorado, Canada, and Zaire.) Over a period of months, Curie and her assistant chemically extracted this new element. She also theorized there must be more than one type of radioactive element in the ore, leading to a new hypothesis. Curies hypothesis for new radioactive elements: Because the pitchblende ore contained substances with greater radioactivity than uranium, pitchblende must contain new radioactive elements. Curie continued to separate and test these new substances, which proved to be new elements. She named one polonium after her native country (Poland), and the other radium, for its high radioactivity. She discovered that the heavy metal thorium also exhibited radiation. Curie is credited with coining the word radioactivity. She and her assistant used several chemical processes to separate the radium, which exists in very small amounts in pitchblende. After many months, she had produced only about 0.1 gram of radium chloride.

See also Becquerel CURLS HYPOTHESIS FOR A NEW FORM OF CARBON: Chemistry: Robert F. Curl, Jr. (1933), United States. Robert F. Curl, Richard E. Smalley, and Sir Harold W. Kroto jointly received the 1996 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Curls C60 hypothesis: Vaporized carbon atoms in a vacuum can form single and double bonds, similar to aromatic carbon compounds, to produce a symmetrically closed shell with a surface consisting of multiple polygons. Curl and Smalley discovered the new complex carbon molecules, called fullerenes in 1985 while they were at Rice University in Houston, Texas, and Kroto was at the University of Sussex in England. The most common form is a group of 60 atoms shaped similar to a soccer ball, which is formed by 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons of bonded carbon atoms (see Figure C7). Due to the geodesic shape of the surfaces it was named buckminsterfullerene, after the architect R. Buckminster Fuller, who designed geodesic

dome structures. However, it is usually referred to by its nickname, Buckyballs. Additional complex ball-shaped molecules Figure C7. Artists conception for the structure of the C60 atom discovered by Robert Curl and named buckminsterfullerene (nicknamed Buckyballs) by Harold Kroto. These compact masses of carbon are a third form of pure carbon, each composed of 60 carbon atoms into a soccer ball shape by 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons of bonded carbon atoms. 108 Curls Hypothesis for a New Form of Carbon of bonded carbon have been developed in addition to C60. They include C69, C70, C76, C78, and C80. The discovery of fullerene Buckyball molecules has opened up new research vistas in the areas of superconductive materials, plastics, polymers, and medicines, as well as new theories to explain the beginning of the universe and the structure of stars. See also Kroto CUVIERS THEORIES OF ANATOMY AND TAXONOMY:

Biology: Baron Georges Leopold Chr_etien Fr_ed_eric Dagobert Cuvier (17691832), France. Cuviers classification of animals: Based on functional integration of animals there are four classes or branches: 1) vertebrata (with backbones; e.g., mammals), 2) articulata (arthropods; e.g., insects), 3) mollusca (bilateral symmetrical invertebrates; e.g., clams), and 4) radiata (radially symmetrical sea animals; e.g., echinoderms). Cuvier demonstrated how the anatomy of different animals compared with one another and proposed these four phyla of animals in his classification scheme. Cuvier is often referred to as the founder of the science of comparative anatomy. Cuviers concept of form and function: All organisms are integrated wholes into which parts are formed according to their functions. Cuvier was a firm believer that form follows function, not the reverse. Generally this means that the structure of tissue or an organ is based on what function the tissue or

organ is required to execute. He believed that if a part of an animal changed, it would change the entire animals form. He stated that all the parts of each animal are arranged to make it possible for the animal to be complete. Thus, he rejected organic evolution. The concept of form follows function is, to some extent, still debated in modern biology. The concept is also used in the field of architectural design, particularly by followers of the American architect Louis Henri Sullivans (18561924) philosophy that a buildings form should be designed to represent its intended function. In other words, for biology and architecture the structure should be built for the purposes of the organism it surrounds. Robert F. Curls life is an example of how parents and teachers can exert a positive influence on a young persons life. His father was a minister who traveled around to different churches in various towns in Texas. At the age of nine Curls father became a church administrator and finally settled in one place. At that time, his parents gave him a chemistry set and a short time later Curl decided on a career as a chemist. He excelled in most subjects, but mainly in science. However, he was unable to take a class in chemistry until high school where his teacher recognized his outstanding interest and ability in this field. Curl was so far ahead of his class that his teacher assigned him special projects that he devoured. One of his early projects was a working model of a Cottrell precipitator, which is used in industrial

smoke stacks to eliminate minute particles from the exhaust. He chose Rice University in Houston for its programs for students like himself, and his parents approved his choice because Rice did not charge tuition. He enjoyed his professors and did well in his first and second year and by his third year he was deeply involved in physical and organic chemistry, taught by some outstanding professors. He did his graduate work at the University of California at Berkeley with several outstanding professors. Curl said that his years at Berkeley were his most happy years. This is also when he met and married his wife. He did experimental as well as theoretical work on silicon oxides. Following Berkeley, Curl was appointed to a postdoctoral position at Harvard. Harvard was followed by an appointment as assistant professor at Rice University where he continued research in physical chemistry. Curl collaborated with several outstanding people who contributed to the discovery of fullerenes (Buckyballs). As a result of this research, Robert Curl, Rick Smalley, and Harry Kroto were awarded the 1996 Noble Prize for Chemistry. Cuviers Theories of Anatomy and Taxonomy 109 Cuviers theory of evolution: Organic evolution cannot exist because any change in an organisms structure would upset the balance of the whole organism, and thus it would be

unable to survive in its environment. Cuvier rejected Darwins theory of organic evolution based on natural selection that results in changes in species and the emergence of new species over long periods of time. Cuvier believed similarities between and among different organisms are due to common functions of their parts, not evolutionary changes. However, he did believe that catastrophic events occurred on Earth (he preferred the term periodic revolutions). Natural disasters such as floods, fire, and earthquakes caused massive extinction of animals and provide situations for the arrival of new species. Niles Eldredge and the late Stephen Jay Gould revived the catastrophic theory as punctuated evolution. Cuviers theory of fossils: Fossils represent ancient species that became extinct due to period revolutions in their environment. In his study of fossils, Cuvier recognized some fossils were found deeper in the strata of rocks and earth and that the depth of the strata could determine their age. He used a similar classification system for fossils as his four phyla for living animals. Cuvier also recognized the detailed structure in some fossils, particularly the structure of wings. He was the first to identify the fossil of a flying reptile he named pterodactyl. Cuvier has been referred to as the founder of paleontology. See also Buffon; Darwin; EldredgeGould; Gould; Lamarck; Wallace 110 Cuviers Theories of Anatomy and Taxonomy D DAGUERRES CONCEPT OF HOW TO FREEZE IMAGES MADE BY THE CAMERA OBSCURA: Chemistry: Louis-Jacques-Mand_e Daguerre (17891851),

France. A light sensitive plate exposed to mercury vapors will change a latent image to a visible image. Daguerre was a French chemist as well as an artist who is sometimes credited with the discovery of photography, although several other competitors worked on the process contemporaneously. Daguerre and his assistants painted large scenes (14 _ 22 meters) to use in dioramas for stage productions. The term diorama was coined by Daguerre in 1822. It refers to a rotating three-dimensional model or display of a landscape that depicts historical events, but with a faulty perspective. Changing the lighting as well as the scenes produced illusions of famous landmarks. These shows were famous in Paris and London and were in great demand. Initially, Daguerre traced images made by a camera obscura (a pin-hole camera that produced an upside-down mirror image of a scene) to copy for their dioramas. Because this was time-consuming work, he theorized that there must be a method of freezing the cameras image, thus eliminating the laborious process of tracing. After some experimentation, Daguerre silver coated a copper plate. At the time, it was known that some salts of silver, such as silver iodide, were light sensitive. During one such experiment he left an exposed plate in a cabinet with a broken mercury thermometer. Later when he retrieved the plate, he observed that the latent image was now visible, but as a reversed, and more-or-less, negative image. Later experiments indicated that an image could be formed after just a few minutes exposure and that these images could be fixed in seawater. When left in daylight, the image faded, so Daguerre and

his assistants attempted to secure the image in a fixer chemical known as hyposulfate of soda or hypo. (The same form of hypo is still used today to dissolve the unexposed silver salts from the negative film or paper print so that it is no longer light sensitive.) The result was the daguerreotype positive image, which had to be enclosed in a glass frame with an inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent further fading. Some of these images still exist. By the early 1800s daguerreotype photography had spread to the United States where it became popular with the masses as an inexpensive portraiture process. There were several disadvantages to daguerreotype photographs. They produced a positive and reversed image. It required a few minutes exposure. The image was not particularly permanent, nor could copies be made of the image. Even though Daguerre received patents for his process in England and Wales, the French government purchased the process from him and then gave it to the world without charge. At the same time William Henry Fox Talbot (18001877) of England (sometimes given credit as the discoverer of modern photography) was also working on a similar process for use as an entertainment medium. Other processes, such as the ambrotype, tintype, and collodion, of the mid-1800s were improvements over the daguerreotype. However, it was the introduction of the system that could produce a negative on a thin glass plate by the wet collodion process developed by Frederick Scott Archer (18131857) that was the beginning of the end of daguerreotypes. Archers process produced a negative that, when developed and fixed, could be used to make positive prints that were superior to

daguerreotypes. The improvement of this negative-to-positive process of photography proved the demise of daguerreotypes. Photography has progressed from the pinhole camera to the daguerreotype, to negative/positive films and paper, to cameras of today that produce digital images that require no negative film. Figure D1. How to make a simple box camera. 112 Daguerres Concept of How to Freeze Images Made by the Camera Obscura DALES THEORY OF VAGUS NERVE STIMULI: Biology: Sir Henry Hallet Dale (18751968), England. Sir Henry Hallet Dale and Otto Loewi shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Chemical and electrical stimuli are responsible for affecting nerve action. While at the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories in England, Henry Dale discovered that the dangerous ergot fungus contained the chemical acetylcholine, a pharmacologically active extract that acts as a neurotransmitter. Later, along with the German American physician and pharmacological researcher Otto Loewi (18731961), Dale demonstrated that acetylcholine could stimulate and affect the parasympathetic nervous system that is responsible for controlling various organs. Acetylcholine is an alkaloid that poisons animal tissue. Eating spoiled grain that contains this fungus can result in a serious disease called ergotism. The symptoms are a burning sensation in the limbs that may lead to gangrene, hallucinations, and convulsions. It has been known to cause epidemics among poorer populations who eat rotting rye grain. Outbreaks of ergotism in the Middle Ages were called St. Anthonys fire. Along with the plague and scurvy, it caused psychic epidemics, with symptoms of dancing manias and mass madness where people claimed to be possessed by the devil, often ending in the killing of Jews, children, and women who were called witches.

Dr. Loewi identified a chemical substance extracted from the vagus nerves of frogs that he called vagusstoffe. Dale recognized that it was similar to acetylcholine produced by ergot, which he associated as the same chemical resulting from the electrical discharge that stimulates the nervous system. Dale hypothesized that the electrical stimulation and acetylcholine were involved in controlling the heartbeat rate of humans and the nerve responses for other organs. This discovery that acetylcholine is a chemical released from autonomic nerve endings led to a better understanding of the electrochemical nature of the nervous system and the development of drugs similar to acetylcholine to control heart abnormalities. Dale also explored the physiological affects of histamines and similar substances and their effects on human allergies. His work later led to the development of antihistamines used to relieve symptoms from hay fever and similar allergies. DALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE OF FLUID DYNAMICS: Mathematics and Physics: Jean le Rond dAlembert (17171783), France. The sum of the differences between the generalized forces acting on a solid or fluid system and the time derived from the motion of the system along an infinitesimal displacement of the system is zero. DAlemberts principle, a classical mechanics and dynamic systems concept, is somewhat difficult to understand without knowledge of mathematics and the concepts of internal force and internal torque, both static and in motion (as in fluids). Any moving body is subjected to internal forces and torques caused by its rotation. This can be considered as something like an extension of Newtons third law of motion (where

every action has an equal and opposite reaction) and Newtons law of angular acceleration that is only measured from the center of a mass. The difference is that for DAlemberts Principle of Fluid Dynamics 113 DAlemberts principle the inertial torque can act at any point within the mass, not just from the center as for Newtons law of angular acceleration. The sum of torques (including the inertial moment and force) as applied to any point is expressed in the equation S T 0, where S is the sum, T is the torque, and 0 is zero. DAlembert was the illegitimate son of a rather well-known French army officer, the chevalier Louis-Camus Destouches. After his birth, his mother abandoned him at a church. He was later sent to an orphanage. Soon after, he was adopted by a workman and his wife who raised and educated him with funds secretly provided by DAlemberts natural father. Educated by a religious group, he rebelled against an ecclesiastical career and chose instead a career in law, graduating as an advocate in 1738. He had broad interests and explored medicine and mathematics. In 1739 he pointed out mistakes in computations and equations he found in a popular mathematics publication. In 1740 he published his work in fluid mechanics that also explained his ideas on refraction, as well as his more famous DAlemberts paradox that describes that the drag on a solid body that is within an incompressible fluid will be zero. He made one great error in the field of statistics when he published his argument that the probability of a tossed coin landing heads increases for every time that it comes up tails. His system led to a belief that when gambling one should bet less as one is winning and bet more if losing. Today, it is rather common knowledge that the statistics related to probability states that the odds of an honest coin coming up heads or tails is 50% for each side of the coin for each and every time the coin is tossed. This does not mean that the results

might come up several heads or tails over several tossesbut rather each toss has a 50/ 50 chance of ending as heads or tails. DAlembert made several other contributions to mathematics, mainly writing most of the mathematics and scientific articles as editor of the huge twenty-eight-volume Denis Diderots Encyclopedia. He also developed a theory of partial differential equations, a theory of winds, and the harmonics of vibrations. He also published eight books on his mathematical studies. DAlembert was in poor health later in life and died of a urinary disease. Because early in life he had rebelled against his religious education and background, he became a life-long nonbeliever and thus was buried in a common grave. DALTONS LAWS AND THEORIES: Chemistry: John Dalton (17661844), England. Daltons law of partial pressure: At an initial temperature, the individual gases in a mixture of gases expand equally as they approach a higher temperature. Another way to say this is that all gases in a mixture of gases expand equally when subjected to equal heat. Because this relationship cannot be observed directly, it was established as a viable law by Daltons observations and calculations dealing with his study of the atmosphere, humidity, dew point, and vapor pressure. This concept that all gases behave in a similar manner under similar temperatures led to other gas laws and Daltons theories of the atom. Daltons atomic theory for elements: 1) The smallest particles of all matter are atoms; 2) Atoms are indivisible particles that cannot be either created or destroyed; 3) Atoms of the same element are the same; 4) Each element has its own type of atoms; 5) Atoms of one element cannot ever be changed into atoms of another element.

Daltons atomic theory was based on Democritus philosophical concepts. A main difference was that Dalton was more empirical and documented his observations. He 114 Daltons Laws and Theories based his ideas about the atom on concepts developed by the gas chemists, such as Avogadro, Boyle, Charles, and Gay-Lussac. Daltons theory for compounds: 1) Chemical reactions occur when atoms of different elements are separated or arranged in exact whole-number combinations, and 2) compounded atoms (molecules) are formed by the joined atoms of the elements that make up the compound. Dalton used his observations and measurements to assert his theory of compounds. Although molecules were not yet identified, his concepts of atoms combining by weight and whole numbers remain essentially correct. Daltons law of definite proportions: A specific chemical compound always contains the same elements at the same fixed proportion by weight. Dalton rationalized these laws were based on his theories for elements and compounds and on what was known about atomic weights at the time. The law of definite proportions led to his law of multiple proportions. Daltons law of multiple proportions: When two elements form more than one compound by combining in more than one proportion by weight, the weight of one element will be in simple, integer ratios to its weight when combined in a second compound. This means that atoms of one element can combine in different ratios, by weight, with atoms of another element. Daltons laws were in essence correct. The problem he had at the time his laws were formulated was that accurate atomic weights of elements

were not known, nor was the concept of valence for atoms forming molecules. Regardless, his insight enabled him to formulate two major laws of chemistry: the laws of definite and multiple proportions. Dalton conceived these laws from his knowledge that oxygen and carbon can form two different compounds with different proportions of oxygen and carbon. For example, CO2 (carbon dioxide, with a 2:1 ratio of oxygen) contains twice the amount of oxygen than CO (carbon monoxide). Dalton assumed the composition and ratio of elements in all compounds would be the simplest possible. This led to a mistake when he tried to apply his law to the compound water molecule. He assumed the ratio was 1:1 for hydrogen to oxygen (HO). This error occurred because at this time in history oxygen was given the atomic weight of 7, while hydrogen was given the arbitrary weight of 1, because it was the lightest of the elements. Once water molecules were separated by electrolysis, it became obvious there was twice as much hydrogen gas (by volume) derived than oxygen gas. Therefore, the water molecule had to be composed of two molecules of hydrogen (by volume not weight) to one molecule of oxygen (2H O) or (H2O). Daltons atomic theory was a combination of old and new ways of looking at the chemical nature of the world. His concept of atomic weights and the combination of atoms by whole numbers laid the foundation for further research into the makeup of matter. His experimental approach to studying chemicals and systems provided important information for future scientists. Also, his empirical and experimental techniques and the habit of recording his results showed others how to proceed in a rational manner. Dalton used some old symbols for chemicals known from the days of ancient Greece, and he added some of his own which were later replaced by the symbols now

used for the elements (see Figure D2). Not all of Daltons laws were well received until other chemists rediscovered Avogadros theories dealing with particle relationships of gases, and Dmitri Mendeleevs Periodic Table based on the atomic weights of the then-known elements was accepted. Daltons Laws and Theories 115 (The Periodic Table of Elements was later revised according to the atomic numbers rather than the atomic weights of the elements.) Daltons laws have been refined and improved over the years, but his work formed the central basis for modern chemistry. He is considered one of the fathers of modern chemistry. See also Atomism Theories; Avogadro; Cannizzaro; Democritus; Dumas; Lavoisier; Thomson DANAS THEORY OF GEOSYNCLINE: Geology: James Dwight Dana (1813 1895), American. A geosyncline is a gradual deepening of the oceans basins that formed troughs or dips filled with sediments that were then compressed and folded to form mountain chains as the earth cooled and contracted. There are two kinds of geosynclines: 1) miogeosynclines (meaning somewhat like a geosyncline) are formed in shallow water at the edges of continents and are formed by sediments of sandstones, shales, and limestone that increase the thickness of continents. And 2) eugeosynclines (meaning real geosynclines) are rock formations in deeper ocean environments caused by submarine lavas from volcanoes erupting on the seafloor, and the formation of rocks such as slates, tuffs, cherts, greywackes, as well as igneous rocks formed from what are known as plutons. Many features of modern geology and mineralogy are built on Danas scientific theories

and concepts that are, for the most part, obsolete. These up-dated theories include midocean rifts and plate tectonics, revised concepts for the building of mountain ranges, volcanism, and similar geologic theories and concepts. Dana was born into a middle-class family in the early 1800s. His father owned a hardware store in New York State. At a young age he had the collecting bug and Figure D2. Ancient chemical symbols used by John Dalton. 116 Danas Theory of Geosyncline spent much of his free time gathering rocks, insects, and plants. He attended Yale and studied under his future father-in-law Benjamin Stillman. At the age of 25 he was fortunate to be hired as one of several scientists on an expedition of six ships to explore and chart islands in the Pacific under Captain Charles Wilkes. At that time, the U.S. government needed to explore the Pacific for possible way stations for American merchant ships just as they needed to explore Antarctica for the whaling ships that ventured to this remote continent. This is one of the first examples of the government supporting a scientific venture. The expedition lasted five years and made many stops at the seemingly countless islands of the Pacific, including a visit to an active volcano of Kilauea in Hawaii. Soon after his return he married his former professors daughter, the nineteen-year-old Henrietta Stillman. Dana learned much on this voyage that he expanded and incorporated into the many scientific papers and books that he wrote throughout the rest of his life. His best known are System of Mineralogy (1837), Manual of Mineralogy (1848), Manual of Geology (1862), Manual of Mineralogy and Lithology (1887), Corals and Coral Islands (1872), and Characteristics of Volcanoes (1890). Several of these publications became wellknown textbooks. One interesting publication in 1849 focused on the geology of the

Sacramento Valley in northern California and the Umpqua River in Oregon where he mentioned the possibility of gold in these regions. It is said that this publication is partly responsible for the great gold rush of that period of history. DANIELLS CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL CELL: Chemistry: John Frederic Daniell (17901845), England. A two-fluid battery (cells) will produce a more reliable constant source of electricity over a longer period of time than will a single-fluid battery (cells). Figure D3. Examples of the two kinds of geosynclines: Miogeosynclines (means like a real geosyncline) and Eugeosynclines (meaning a real geosyncline). Daniells Concept of the Electro-Chemical Cell 117 John Daniell was not the first to try to artificially produce electricity by the wet method. Luigi Galvani thought he discovered flowing electricity when he hooked up a dissected frogs spinal cord and legs with a copper hook that suspended the end of one of the legs to an iron railing. He mistakenly thought he had discovered animal electricity because the frogs legs moved. Later, Alessandro Volta was unable to find any electricity in the legs of frogs and then went on to disprove Galvanis claim of discovering current electricity. Volta dipped a disk of copper and a disk of zinc into a container of salt solution that acted as an electrolyte. He reasoned that by placing alternate disks of the two metals separated by cardboard that was soaked in salt solution and then attaching a wire on each end, he could increase the flow of an electric current. This was the first battery composed of several cells. The term volts refers to the electrical potential or the pressure behind the electric current (amps). The

major problem with the Volta cell/battery was that the electrolyte emitted hydrogen gas that collected at the copper disk (the positive pole) and soon formed a screen-like barrier that prevented the flow of current. Improvements were made including the use of dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as the electrolyte. However, after one use the Volta battery had to be dismantled to stop its chemical reaction. The Daniell cells were a great improvement in the development of portable sources of small amounts of electricity. They were not only more reliable but safer. Daniell cells are also referred to as gravity cells and a crowfoot cell when a particular shape of electrodes are used. The Daniell cells electrolytes are zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4). The chemical reaction that takes place produces about 1.1 volts of electricity. There are various designs for gravity-type Daniell cells, but basically the cell is composed of a central zinc metal cathode that is placed into a porous pot containing a zinc sulfate Figure D4. The Daniell cells were an improvement over voltaic cells by delivering a constant flow of current by separating the electrolytes in porous pots, thus preventing bubbles of hydrogen from forming on the electrodes. 118 Daniells Concept of the Electro-Chemical Cell solution. This porous pot is then placed into a solution of copper sulfate that is inside a copper container that acts as the anode. The purpose of the porous pot is for it to act as a barrier to separate the two solutions to prevent depolarization that would be caused by bubbles of hydrogen gas collecting at the anode. Unlike the Volta cell, the Daniell gravity cell can produce a continuous flow of electricity. Another version is known as the crowfoot cell that uses the difference in specific gravity (density) of the two solutions

with the zinc sulfate layer over the copper sulfate solution. Each separated layer of electrolyte had its own electrode shaped like a crows foot suspended in the solutions. Several versions of the Daniell cell were developed before the days of the dry cell (see Figure D4 for two modern versions of Daniell cells). Although best known for his improved wet cell to produce electricity, John Daniell also had a career in meteorology. He invented the dew-point hygrometer known by his name, a pyrometer, and a water barometer. He also devised a way to produce gas that could be used for lighting purposes from a mixture of resin with turpentine. He wrote several articles on meteorology, climate, and chemical philosophy before his untimely death from apoplexy (stroke) at a meeting of the Royal Society in London in 1845. See also Galvani; Volta DARLINGTONS THEORY OF CELL NUCLEAR DIVISIONS: Biology (Genetics): Cyril Dean Darlington (19031981), England. Chromosomes in the first stages of normal cell division are divided by the process of mitosis, whereas the chromosomes are undivided in early stages of meiosis prior to gamete formation in the sex cells of male and females. Mitosis is the process of cell division in soma (body) cells whereas meiosis is the halving of the number of male and female chromosomes in their sex cells before recombining in the zygote. This concept was important for the understanding of how chromosomes split in the nuclei of cells. Darlington is sometimes referred to as the man who discovered chromosomes. One of his contributions to the scientific theory of evolution was his discovery of exactly

how chromosomes cross over during fertilization of the ovum (egg) cells by the sperm cells during meiosis. A stern schoolteacher father and a firm bitter mother raised Darlington in a small town in Lancashire, England. He did not enjoy school, but as a six-foot three-inch young adult, he applied to an agricultural college, was turned down, but did receive a position as an unpaid technician. After the publication of his first scientific paper, he was hired by the John Innes Horticultural Institution of Merton, England. His mentors, the British geneticist William Bateson (18611926) and the British cytologist Frank Newton (d.1927) died within a year of each, and J.B.S. Haldane became head of the Innes Institute. Soon after, Haldane and Darlington became friends. As a consequence, Darlington became less hostile to authority and more self-confident in the academic environment and soon made his contributions to genetics. His first book the controversial Recent Advances in Cytology was published in 1932. It was not well accepted at first but later became known as containing the definitive science that described the mechanism of evolution observable at the chromosomal level. In 1937 he became director of the Innes Institute, and also a Fellow of the Royal Society. Darlingtons Theory of Cell Nuclear Divisions 119 Near the end of his career he cultivated an interest in the differences between races and how genetics might be applied to human history. He became involved in science and politics and condemned Russia for its practice of Lysenkoism over Mendelian genetics. During the last twenty-five years of his life he published a trilogy on genetics and humans, Genetics and Man (1953), The Evolution of Man and Society(1969), and The Little Universe of Man (1978).

See also Haldane; Lysenko; Mendel DARWINS THEORY OF EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION: Biology: Charles Robert Darwin (18091882), England. Environmental pressures on organisms, such as climate and availability of natural resources such as food, act to select, by natural processes, those individuals better adapted to survive and who thus will pass viable traits related to survival to subsequent generations. In other words, natural selection is the force responsible for the development of advantageous traits in animals and thus plays the major role in the development of species. Modern concepts of evolution are as follows: 1. Different species of plants and animals vary in form and behavior. This variation is a basis for inherited characteristics. 2. Most species of plants and animals produce many more offspring than their environment can support. 3. Selected individuals of a species are better adapted to their environmental conditions than others and thus survive (survival of the fittest). Therefore, those individuals with the most favorable genes for survival will be the most fit for reproduction and pass these survival genes to offspring. 4. Thus, the genes for the most favorable characteristics are passed to future generations. 5. The naturally selected offspring will lead to new species by mutations and genetic changes. Darwin was not the first to theorize about the nature of animals and how humans

and animals exhibit some similar characteristics of structure, for example, four limbs, head end, tail end, head with mouth and eyes, similar internal organs, and so forth. Aristotle based his observations of plants and animals on specific anatomical differences and obvious characteristics and from these observations placed groups with common features on ascending steps of his scala naturae or ladder of life with man being on the top step (see Aristotle). Platos concept of life was that each living organism possessed something that was unique to that type of organism. To Plato these essences, although abstract, were what made all the differences in the types of organisms that were separate from other types of living things. This concept did not leave much room for the development of slow variations (evolution) or rapid changes (catastrophism) in organisms. During the Dark and Middle Ages the Roman Catholic Church based differences in living organisms on a hierarchy of Gods creation where humans were below the angels while other creatures were below humans. Some adherents of religion 120 Darwins Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection believed this then, as well as today, as a part of Gods grand design. Carolus Linneaus designed a classification or taxonomic system of organisms that grouped them by major characteristics into categories. In a sense, this was an elaboration of Aristotles ladder of life. Linnaeus used scientific names in a hierarchical system ranging from most general to the specific as phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Things began to change at the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the period of Enlightenment with the study of Earths geology. The age of Earth was greatly extended from the Biblical estimation of a few thousand years to a more realistic age of several billion

years as determined by scientific studies. This extended period provided adequate time for slow variations within species to appear and even new species to emerge. Nicolaus Steno was the first person to realize that in a sequence of sedimentary rocks the oldest strata lay at the bottom and the younger strata are at the top. Scientists soon realized that fossils found in various strata of Earths crust lived at different periods and that changes occurred over many years, as indicated by the depth of the layers of rock in the earth. Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace that outlined the same theory of natural selection as Darwin was developing. Because Darwin formulated the theory first, he is credited, along with Wallace, with the concepts of organic evolution. Darwins book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) caused much debate in the general public and among religious groups. Although Darwin didnt emphasize the evolution of humans from lower forms of animals, it was the natural conclusion to be drawn from the theory. Because the concept of genetics and heredity was unknown to Darwin, he relied on the mistaken Lamarckian idea of inheriting acquired characteristics to explain the transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring. Many years before Darwins time, Gregor Mendel had proposed the general concept of inherited characteristics. It was only after Darwins death that Mendels work was rediscovered and applied to organic evolution. Since then, the role of random genetic mutations (and RNA and DNA molecules) is better understood as to how these inheritable changes can equip living organisms to survive in their environments and thus produce more offspring with similar traits. Even today there are substantial numbers of people who believe the development of

species required some type of intelligent design by a supernatural designer because they believe that organic life is just too complex to have been formed and altered by the processes of evolution. To help counteract this antiscientific screed the National Academies of Science published In Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Science in 1999 that outlined the following evidences for evolution: 1. Paleontology: Ancient bones and other fossils provide clues about what organisms of the past looked like and when they lived. 2. Anatomy: The structures of different organisms are based on similar plans, with differences reflecting their requirements for survival in different surroundings. 3. Biogeography: The myriad kinds of organisms on Earth and their many specialized niches are best explained by natural selection for useful adaptations. 4. Embryology: The embryos of very different animals, such as chickens and humans, look remarkably similar at certain stages in their development. Common ancestry seems to explain the similarities best. 5. Molecular biology: DNA is very similar in all organisms, especially in those that are closely related. The same twenty amino acids are used in building all kinds of Darwins Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection 121 life. Some stretches of DNA represent excess baggage carried from ancestors but not used in their descendants. See also Dawkins; Dobzhansky; Elton; Lamarck; Linneaus; Lysenko; Mendel; Steno; Wallace DAVISSONS THEORY OF DIFFRACTION OF ELECTRONS: Physics: Clinton Joseph Davisson (18811958), United States. Davisson shared the 1937 Nobel Prize for Physics with George P. Thomson.

Charles Darwin, familiar with the principles of population proposed by the English demographer and political economist Thomas Malthus, also recognized that these theories are applicable to humans. Darwin was also knowledgeable of the book Principles of Geology by the English geologist Sir Charles Lyell who questioned the then-held concept of catastrophic evolution that proposed that animal species were created separately and were unchangeable forever. Lyell, as a geologist, was aware that Earths surface changes constantly as natural forces act on it over long periods of time. Darwins observation on the voyage aboard the H.M S. Beagle seemed to agree with Lyells idea of general uniformatarianism where present geological events occur similar to past geological events.

Darwin based his new theory of natural selection on his years of observing the lands he visited and the great variations in geology. He associated this information with the great variety of plants and animals he collected and studied on this voyage. He spent five years, much longer than he anticipated, aboard the Beagle as he visited islands and coastal areas of South America. He recognized that the environment could affect the selection of individuals within species and could, over long periods of time, alter these same species, including the appearance of new characteristics and species. Darwin used the term descent with modifications instead of biological evolution as we think of it today. Figure D5. A map of Darwins trip on the H.M.S. Beagle. 122 Davissons Theory of Diffraction of Electrons The angle of reflection of electrons from the surface of a crystal surface depends on the crystals orientation. (In other words, electrons can be diffracted similar to light

waves, i.e., photons.) This theory was confirmed in 1927 by an experiment called the Davisson Germer Experiment. Davisson in cooperation with the American physicist Lester Germer (18961971), who was a colleague at Bell Labs, built a vacuum box containing a heated filament that produced electrons that were accelerated at high voltage. They focused this electron light beam of known energy (momentum) at an angle to the surface of polished nickel metal. They were then able to determine that the reflected (or diffracted) angle of the electron beam from the nickel surface was the same as an electrons wavelength. This experiment was somewhat accidental and due, in part, to a patent suit involving Western Electric Company Laboratory, the former name of Bell Telephone Laboratory, and Irving Langmuir of the General Electric Company. An accident in Davissons lab in 1925 resulted in the serendipitous result of light particles scattering at a particular angle. Davisson and Germer then enacted the famous 1927 experiment to confirm Davissons earlier discovery that was used to confirm Louis de Broglies 1924 experiment on wave/particle duality.

The wave characteristics of an electron is also known as the de Broglie wave and is expressed by the equation l h /p where l is the electrons wavelength, h is Plancks constant, and p is the electrons momentum (energy). Later Albert Einstein confirmed the particle nature of light waves (photons). The particlewave duality of electrons became a debate of exactly what is the nature of electromagnetism and the underlying ideas of quantum mechanics. Davisson, de Broglie, and others believed in the concept of determinism in physics and that there was and is still more to be learned about the fundamental nature of matter. Later, Einstein confirmed the particle nature of light waves (photons). The particlewave duality of electrons became a debate of concerning the exact nature of electromagnetism and the underlying ideas of quantum mechanics. DAVYS CONCEPT THAT ELECTRIC CURRENT CAN BE USED TO SEPARATE ELEMENTS: Chemistry: Sir Humphry Davy (17781829), England. The process of electrolysis can be used to separate alkaline earth metals from their mineral ores. Clinton Davisson was born in 1881 in Bloomington, Illinois. In 1902 after graduating from the local high school he enrolled at the University of Chicago. Due to the lack of funds he left the university and sought employment in various jobs until returning to Chicago to receive a BS degree in 1908. He entered graduate school at Princeton University and received his PhD in 1911. He sought enlistment in the U.S. Army in 1917 but was turned down. Soon after that he sought employment at the Western Electric Company, that later

became Bell Telephone Labs. He spent the remainder of his career at Bell Labs experimenting with electron diffraction and how to apply his theories of the electron to engineering. After retiring in 1946 he spent a few years as visiting professor of physics at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia. In addition to his Nobel Prize, he received the following awards in his lifetime including The Comstock Prize by the National Academy of Sciences, the Elliott Cresson Medal awarded by The Franklin Institute, as well as medals from the London Royal Society, and the University of Chicago Alumni. Davisson also held honorary doctorates from several universities. Davys Concept That Electric Current Can Be Used to Separate Elements 123 Humphry Davy was familiar with the experiments that produced electricity by electrochemical experiments conducted in the past, especially Galvanis frog tissue, the Voltaic pile, and Daniells gravity cell. It was well known in the early 1800s that water could be separated into hydrogen and oxygen gases by using Voltas pile, and that some solutions of salts could be decomposed in a similar manner. Davys concept was based on the idea that electrical forces held together the different elements found in chemical compounds. In 1806 Davy gave a lecture on this topic titled On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity. Using this concept he theorized that passing a current through molten oxides of metals would decompose these substances. His first success was when

he passed a current through a mixture of molten potash and sodium chloride (salt). When he placed several small pieces of metallic potassium metal in water, a gas was produced. The gas from these particles ignited with a bluish flame as the potassium earth metal reacted with the water. The gas was hydrogen that was ignited by the heat of the reaction of the potassium with the water (H2O 2K fi K2O H2). From there Davy went on to discover magnesium, strontium, and boron. Several chemists of the day considered oxygen to be a major ingredient of all acids. Davy experimented with what was known as oxymuriatic acid which was thought to be composed of oxygen. Davy created a reaction of chlorine with ammonia that produced only muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) and nitrogen gas, but not oxygen (3Cl2 2NH3 fi 6HCl N2). Later, he also proved that muriatic acid (also known as marine acid) was only composed of the elements chlorine and hydrogen, with no oxygen. Davy taught himself chemistry and became an expert in applying the scientific method when performing many experiments. He was considered an excellent qualitative chemist but lacked the training as a quantitative chemist, meaning he was an excellent experimenter with some good ideas, but a bit unreliable with his measurements. He experimented with oxides of nitrogen as well as other gases. His data on the oxides of nitrogen (NO2; NO, and N2O) was used to confirm John Daltons atomic theory that atoms combine in whole numbers when forming compound molecules. He was famous for his lectures and demonstrations that became popular social events. The demonstrations where he and other chemists demonstrated the effects of nitrous oxide on members of the audience became very popular. Davy himself had inhaled nitrous oxide gas (known as laughing gas) and became intoxicated. Davy became temporarily

blinded when one of his experiments exploded. He hired an assistant, Michael Faraday, who had attended most of Davys lecturers and showed an interest in Davys research. As Davys health failed from inhaling the gases he produced, Faraday became a valued assistant and friend. Faraday went on to become a successful experimenter in his own right. Davy was responsible for developing many scientific ideas and devices. One of his major accomplishments was the invention of the miners safety lamp that could be used in mines without causing explosions by igniting mixtures of coal gas and air. He demonstrated that when two pieces of ice or any substance with a low melting point were rubbed together, they would melt without the addition of heat. This led to a better understanding of heat that eventually became known as the atomic kinetic theory rather than the then accepted caloric theory of heat. He also developed a method for using a gel of silver nitrate on a sheet of glass to produce a picture as a negative image. This was before tintypes were popular (see Daguerre). Davy developed a new chemistry approach to the study and practice of agriculture that was based on experimentation. He applied his knowledge of chemistry to develop an improved method for tanning leather and used his knowledge of electrochemistry to protect copper-bottomed ships 124 Davys Concept That Electric Current Can Be Used to Separate Elements by placing zinc plates on the copper. Toward the end of his life Davy became jealous of Faraday and twice opposed his membership in the Royal Society. However, in 1824 Faraday was finally made a Fellow of the Royal Society. Davy, in poor health from breathing his experimental gases, retired to Rome. He died of a heart attack in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1829. DAWKINS THEORY OF EVOLUTION: Biology: Richard Dawkins (1941),

England. Hierarchical reductionalism occurs in genes and the DNA molecules, which are the basic units of natural selection responsible for the evolution of organisms. Richard Dawkins applied knowledge of genes and heredity to Darwins theory of organic evolution. The genetic and molecular materials in the DNA base pairs of nucleotides are the fundamental units of natural selection. Dawkins refers to them as the replicators, while the entire organism is the vehicle containing the genetic DNA replicators. In his book The Selfish Gene (1976), Dawkins described his theory by stating that only the genes and molecules of DNA are important for natural selection to maintain the species. The individual organism is just a means of maintaining and replicating the DNA. How successful the species is depends on how well the replicating factors build the vehicles (bodies of plants and animals) that store and reproduce the DNA genetic material through natural selection. Dawkins expands his theory to include a form of sociobiology or social Darwinism he refers to as kin selection rather than individual selection as being responsible for the behavior that results in passing on the organisms genes. He claims that kin selection explains many social and altruistic behaviors of some organisms. To expand and define this concept, he coined the term meme as the unit for cultural or social inheritance, with memes responsible for the evolution of ideas through natural (human) selection. Memes are also regulated by evolutionary processes in the sense that families, tribes, and social, and cultural groups create human environments that evolve with their culture. Memes, as units of

cultural inheritance, evolve just as genetic material, through the process of natural selection. Dawkins also contends that current living organisms, including humans, are random accidents. Dawkins basic idea of evolution states that by following a few rules of physics and starting at very simple points (energy, amino acids, self-replicating organic molecules, etc.), life can evolve. Thus, under natural conditions, a variety of complex organisms and their cultures can evolve, but not necessarily in any one given direction. Dawkins believes no supreme being is required to start or direct the process. There has been, and still is, much controversy over Dawkins concept of hierarchical reductionism as applied to evolution. It is usually used by physicists to explain the structure and behavior of atoms in terms of elementary particles, molecules in terms of atoms, and so on, up the ladder to the structure and behavior of living cells as related to their component atoms and molecules. Sociobiology continues the hierarchical model to include not only the structure but also the behavior of humans and what species might follow humans based on the most elementary of quanta of energy and matter. Note that it is system-involving feedback. In other words, hierarchical reductionism also states that small, individual parts made up of differentiated cells and tissues evolve into an entire organism whose structure as well as behavior (culture, Dawkins Theory of Evolution 125 society, psychology) is expressed in a hierarchical sense in terms of the most basic particles such as quarks and leptons, superstrings, membranes, and finally energy. In addition to The Selfish Gene (1976) Dawkins has published The Extended Phenotype (1982), The Blind Watchmaker (1986), River out of Eden (1995), and a number of scientific papers. More recently he wrote The God Delusion (2006). He is the professor for the understanding of science at Oxford University.

See also Darwin; De Vries; Dobzhansky; Wallace DE BEERS GERM-LAYER THEORY: Biology (zoology): Sir Gavin Rylands De Beer (18991972), England. The development of animal cartilage and bone cells originates in the ectoderm of animal embryos. Up to this time, the accepted germ-layer theory stated that bone and cartilage cells were formed in the mesoderm (the middle layer of tissue) rather than the ectoderm, the outer layer of embryonic tissue. De Beers theory contributed to the knowledge of how the vertebrae are developed in reptiles, birds, and mammals. Recent research used genetically engineered cells implanted in chicken embryos to produce a protein that determines the bone structure of a birds wing. This led to the knowledge that similar genes shape the human arm, as well as the general skeletal structure and organs of all animals, including humans. De Beer also demolished Haeckels law of recapitulation (also known as the biogenic law), which states that ontogeny (embryo development) recapitulates the phylogeny (evolutionary history) for each individual. In other words, each embryo undergoes all the stages of development that resemble all the stages of ancestral evolution of that organisms species. The law of recapitulation is an oversimplification of embryology as well as evolution and is no longer considered viable. Instead, De Beer framed his argument on the concept of pedomorphosis, which is the evolutionary retention of some youthful characteristics by adults. He also proposed the concept of gerontomorphosis where juvenile tissues are somewhat undifferentiated and are able to undergo further evolution, while more highly specialized tissues are not as likely to change through evolution. De Beer also came up with an

explanation called clandestine evolution based on evidence of sudden evolutionary changes in fossil records, rather than gradual transformation as proposed in Darwins concept of evolution. De Beer used his study of the fossils of Archaeopteryx, the earliest-known prehistoric bird, to account for the obvious gaps in evolutionary changes in animals. According to De Beer, these gaps are due to the nonsurvival soft tissues in the fossils of animals. He referred to this as piecemeal evolution changes that explained the similarities between structures such as teeth, and feathers for reptiles and birds. He expressed his ideas by the statement that each ontogeny is a fresh creation to which the ancestors contribute only the internal factors by means of heredity. Between 1924 and 1972 De Beer authored 17 books ranging from growth, embryology, zoology, evolution and Darwin, and unsolved problems in homology. After his retirement, De Beer moved to Switzerland where he published his work on Darwin and completed his massive Atlas of Evolution. See also Darwin; Haeckel; Linnaeus; Wallace 126 De Beers Germ-Layer Theory DE BROGLIES WAVE THEORY OF MATTER: Physics: Prince Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie (18921987), France. De Broglie was awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery that electrons exhibit wave characteristics. A particle of matter with momentum (mass _ velocity) behaves like a wave when the wavelength is expressed as l h /p. (l wavelength, h Plancks constant, and p is the particles momentum.) In the macro world (large masses), when a body, such as an automobile is moving

(the p in the formula), its energy or momentum is very great. Therefore, because Plancks constant (h ) is a very small number, and thus the value of the wavelength (l) is so small, the wavelength behavior of the automobile cannot be discerned. However, in the nano or submicro world (very small particles of mass), such as electrons and protons, the particle will have little momentum (due to miniscule mass but great velocities), and therefore the particles wavelength is easily detected and measured. The effects of interference demonstrate the evidence for this theory (see Figure Y1 under Young). If a beam of submicroscopic particles is divided into two parts as it passes through two slits in a screen (diffraction), the small particles with minimal mass will arrive at different points on a target screen. The results can be measured, and the results are the same as they are for a similar experiment done with light photons and waves. The characteristics of constructive interference resulting from the split screen for the particles of matter are the same as the characteristics of wave motion. Two other scientists experimentally determined the wave-like behavior of minute particles. George Thomson and Clinton J. Davisson independently discovered the same principle. De Broglies wave theory of matter supported and helped Erwin Schrodinger explain the theories of relativity, as well as wave and quantum mechanics. See also Bohr; Born; Davisson; Einstein; Heisenberg; Schrodinger; Young DEBYEH UCKEL THEORY OF ELECTROLYTES: Chemistry: Peter Joseph William Debye (18841966), Netherlands/United States, and Erich Armand Arthur Joseph Huckel (18961980), Germany. In concentrated solutions, as well as dilute solutions, ions of one charge will attract

other ions of opposite charge. Up to this time, the Arrhenius theory of ionic conductivity was correct only for very dilute solutions (see Figure A7 under Arrhenius). This theory, formulated in 1923, initiated the use of electrolysis for the separation of ions in very concentrated solutions (e.g., brine), for the extraction of sodium and chlorine, and led to the industrial production of gases, such as bromine, fluorine, and chlorine, as well as the extraction of some metals from their ores. Using X-ray diffraction, Debye and his assistant, Erich Huckel, determined the degree of the polarity of covalent bonds and the spatial structures of molecules, which disproved earlier theories of conductivity in strong electrolytes. DebyeHuckel Theory of Electrolytes 127 Peter Debye was an electrical engineer who received a PhD in 1910 in physics at Zurich University. This was followed by a series of administrative positions in universities and institutes in Germany and Switzerland. He moved to the United States in 1940 where he became a professor of chemistry at Cornell University in New York State. He became an American citizen in 1946. Throughout his career he was essentially a theoretician who considered varied problems related to the structure of matter, mainly how to apply experimental physics to solving problems of molecular structure. His early work involved the electron diffraction by gases, the formation of X-ray diffraction patterns from molecular substances, how to determine the degree of polarity and angles of covalent bonds in molecules, and how to use X-ray spectra to determine the spatial configuration of molecules. But his most famous work was the 1923 DebyeHuckel theory of electrolysis. See also Arrhenius; Huckel

DEHMELTS ELECTRON TRAP: Physics: Hans George Dehmelt (1922), United States. Dehmelt shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Physics with Wolfgang Paul and Norman Foster Ramsey. By isolating an electron in an electromagnetic field, it is possible to suspend it, thus providing a means of continuously and accurately measuring its characteristics. Hans Dehmelt constructed what was then known as the penning trap, a combination of a strong magnetic field combined with an electric field. Both fields are contained in a vacuum inside a closed unit containing two negatively charged electrodes and one positive electrode that are used to isolate and suspend a single electron so it could be studied. He accomplished this by reducing the kinetic energy (motion) of the electron by cooling it, enabling him to measure the suspended single electron accurately. Dehmelt and his colleagues were also the first to isolate and detect individual protons, antiprotons, positrons (positive electrons), and ions of some metals. The penning trap could be used to analyze particles that had either negative or positive charges. When light was shone on a suspended single metal ion, it could be seen without the aid of instruments and appeared as a very

small, bright, star-like light. See also Ernst; Franck; Heisenberg; Hertz; Pauli; Ramsey; Rutherford; Stern; Thomson Dehmelt and his assistants were the first to view what is known as the quantum leap, a very, very small bit of energy. This occurred when a single electron of a barium atom absorbed extra energy and was forced to a higher energy orbit. When the energized electron jumped back to its normal lower energy state (orbit), it emitted the tiny bit of energy that it had gained when forced to the higher energy orbit. This jump of the electron to a lower energy state is evident by the release of a quantum bit of energy that is detected as a photon (a particle of light). The media and others often refer incorrectly to a large increase in something as a quantum leap, meaning something big. A quantum leap is really a very, very small amount of energy that becomes visible when an energized electron jumps to a lower energy orbit (see Figure D6). Dehmelts work led to confirmation of quantum mechanics theory and a better understanding of the physics of subatomic particles. 128 Dehmelts Electron Trap DELBR UCKS AND LURIAS PHAGE THEORY: Molecular Biology: Max

Delbruck (19061981) and Salvador Edward Luria (19121991). Delbruck was born in Germany, Luria in Italy, but both moved to the United States. Along with Alfred Hershey (19081997) from the United States, they shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The phage theory states: Bacteria develop resistance to phages by spontaneously mutating. Phage, a Greek word meaning devour or eat, is the simplest genetic system known. Phages are simple viruses composed of plain strands of nucleic acid with a more complex head that contains DNA material. The phage that infects bacteria is referred to as bacteriophage. Delbrucks and Lurias research sought to ascertain how phage could multiply so rapidly in bacteriaup to one hundred phage particles are produced in just a few minutes. Delbruck did the mathematical and statistical work on the problem, while Luria conducted the experiments. Along with Alfred Hershey, they investigated and determined the genome of phage virus. The genome is the entire DNA, including the DNA in the genes that are contained in the structure of an organism. Delbruck and Luria demonstrated that the phage virus inserts itself into the host bacteria and replaces the bacterias DNA with the phages own DNA, in essence cloning itself and resulting in mutation of the bacteria. Delbruck and Luria published Mutations of Bacteria from Virus Sensitivity to Virus Resistance in 1943 in which they speculated that bacteria Figure D6. The quantum leap is based on Niels Bohrs idea of electrons being similar to planets orbiting the sun and with specific energy levels. The leap occurs when a electron, which cannot revolve around the nucleus in just any orbit (energy level), jumps from an inner

orbit (higher energy level) to an outer, lower-energy-level-orbit, emitting a photon (a tiny packet/quanta of light). The energy level of the photon is equal to the difference in the energy levels of the two orbits of the electron, which is expressed as Plancks hypothesis E h v where h is Plancks constant and v is the angular momentum of the electron. Delbrucks and Lurias Phage Theory 129 could acquire resistance to lethal phages. They realized that the growth of bacteria would be different for each kind of bacteria within a colony of bacteria because in such numbers a resistant strain would be found. This led to their discovery that bacteria underwent mutations, just like other organisms. They also determined some genetically mutated bacteria develop a resistance to the destructive bacteriophage. The three Nobel Prize winners are credited with founding the field of molecular biology. See also DHerelle; Northrop DEMOCRITUS ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER: Chemistry: Democritus of Abdera (c. 460370 BCE), Greece. see Atomism theories. DESCARTES THEORIES AND PHILOSOPHY: Philosophy: Ren_e du Perron Descartes (15961650), France. Descartes theory of light and reflection: White light is pristine light that can be reflected at an angle equal to the angle at which it strikes a mirrored surface. Descartes believed that pristine (white) light produced colored light only when there was a spinning sphere of light. He also stated that the angle of incidence is the angle formed between the perpendicular to

the surface and the ray of light striking the surface. This was a simple way of explaining the law of reflection because the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, which was later developed and became known as Snells law. Descartes concept of light and matter was more metaphysical than empirical. Descartes concept of motion: The force of motion is the product of mass times velocity. Today we refer to his force of motion as momentum (mass _ velocity). This concept was accepted by Newton but opposed by Leibniz. Leibniz incorrectly assigned the force of a body as the product of mass times the velocity squared, which later developed into the idea of kinetic energy. This dispute led to conflicts in different schools of philosophy. Descartes mathematical concepts: 1) a systematic approach to analytic geometry (combining algebraic and geometric functions); 2) the invention of exponential notation; 3) a rule for determining the positive and negative roots for algebraic equations; and 4) the development of equations to describe specific curved lines and curved surface area. All were important to the development of calculus, a branch of mathematics that combines differential and integral functions used to determine the area within a curved surface. Descartes was the first to relate motion to geometric fields. He saw a curve as being described by a moving point. As the moving point describes the curve, its distance from two fixed axes will vary according to that particular curve. This is known as the Cartesian coordinate system, which lends itself to the study of geometry by algebra as a

means of interpreting graphs with the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) coordinates that compare two variables. Graphs have become a major geometric and analytic tool for all sciences. All of these concepts contributed to later developments by other mathematicians. Figure D7. An artists conception of a typical T4 bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria cells. It consists of two major parts, nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) in the head and a coating (capsid) made of protein to protect the nucleic acid. A specific bacteriophage infects only a limited range of bacteria species. 130 Democritus Atomic Theory of Matter Descartes philosophy and system of knowledge: 1) Nothing is true until a foundation (evidence) has been established for believing it to be true. 2) Start with a priori assumptions (first principles), proceeding by mathematics to deductions that use physics and mathematics. One cannot have complete knowledge of nature because there is always doubt; one is never

certain of the nature of nature. In addition, reason deceives us. Therefore, a person can be certain only of doubting (not knowing for sure). Note: These philosophical ideas of Descartes are also the basis of the modern scientific approach to research and knowledge. These philosophical concepts led to his famous phrase, which summed up Descartes total philosophy as I think, therefore I am, which he asserted as justification of self and God. Descartes greatest contributions were in mathematics and philosophy, and he believed there was great unity in the study of these two sciences. His application of algebraic methods to geometry was a major step in the progress of mathematics as well as other sciences. See also Euclid; Leibniz; Newton DE VRIES PANGENES THEORY OF EVOLUTION: Biology: Hugo De Vries (18481935), Netherlands. 1) Organisms consist of large groupings of physical characteristics. 2) Each characteristic is attached to particles inside the nuclei of cells. 3) Although invisible, these hypothetical particles were referred to as pangenes by Darwin, which he theorized as units controlling heredity. De Vries equated them to the concept of chemical atoms. 4) Theoretically, when pangenes combine, they cause the appearance of unique characteristics for each species. 5) The more pronounced a particular character or feature of a species, the greater are the number of pangenes. 6) Pangenes may be dominant or latent (recessive and not visible in the organism ). 7) During meiosis, pangenes may split, each causing new features or possibly new species. 8) When splitting or mutating, pangenes are responsible for the formation of new pangenes, which produce new mutants.

Hugo De Vries rejected the idea that natural selection over long periods of time could produce new species and/or variations in existing species, as Darwins theory of evolution proposed. De Vries believed new characteristics or species could come about only by genetic changes (mutations) in cell nuclei or organisms. His theories were not all correct, but they did explain that mutants have extra sets of chromosomes in their nuclei (triploids and tetraploids). Although the term pangenes is no longer accurate or used, De Vries explanations give a reasonable account of how variations, later determined to be due to genetic mutations and natural selection, occur in the evolution of species. See also Darwin; Dawkins; Dobzhansky; Lamarck; Mendel DEWARS CONCEPT OF LIQUEFYING GASES: Physics and Chemistry: Sir James Dewar (18421923), England. Increasing the pressure while reducing the temperature of a contained gas, and then rapidly releasing the pressure, will cause the gas to be liquefied. James Dewar was a chemist and physicist who worked in several fields but is best known for his work with low-temperature applications. In one sense, Dewar was more of a Dewars Concept of Liquefying Gases 131 scientific inventor who discovered some important and practical processes using known physical and chemical phenomena. James Dewar was born in Scotland and educated at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, where in 1869 he taught chemistry at that institutions

Royal Veterinary College. He later became professor of experimental natural philosophy at the University of Cambridge, England, in 1875, and in 1877 he became a professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution in London where he did most of his experimental work. He used a known apparatus to successfully liquefy oxygen in commercial amounts but had no way to store oxygen in liquid form because it would quickly boil into gaseous oxygen. This problem led to his invention of the Dewar flask which is a specialized bottle to store liquefied gases (see the sidebar for details). Some of Dewars other accomplishments are: 1. Dewar is best known for his scientific work of the nature of matter at near absolute zero degrees temperature (0 kelvin [K] or _273_C). He was successful in lowering temperatures to 14 kelvin. It was some years later when helium gas was liquefied at 2.2 K that a lower temperature was achieved. 2. He developed the chemical formula for benzene (C6H6) through his long-time

use of the spectroscope (see Kekule). 3. In 1889 Dewar in cooperation with the English chemist Sir Frederick Augustus Abel (18271902), invented smokeless gunpowder, now known as cordite. 4. He identified the specific heat of hydrogen gas and became the first person to liquefy hydrogen gas in 1898, and to produce solid hydrogen in 1899. 5. In 1905 he perfected a way to cool charcoal that can be used to create a high vacuum in an enclosed environment. This discovery has been useful in the study of atomic physics. DHERELLES BACTERIOLYTIC THEORY: Biology: Felix dHerelle (18731949), Canada and France. When bacteria are infected by viruses and the resulting fluids are filtered, the filtrate contains no live bacteria, but this filtered fluid can still infect bacteria. Because the James Dewar is known not only for his work on liquefying gases, but also for devising a special container for storing and transporting liquid gases. This container is known as the Dewar flask and is constructed as a metal or glass bottle-within-a-bottle that has a silver coating on the inside and outside. The thin-walled flask is a double-layered jar with one container inside the other and a dead air space between them, usually with most of the air removed so that there is a vacuum seal between the two containers. The only opening is at the neck of the bottle with a plug device designed to release the pressure as the liquid gas slowly

boils forming a gas under pressure. The reflective surface, particularly on the inside of the inner container is important to prevent heat radiation. When the Dewar flask is to be used to transport liquefied gases, the outside container is usually made of metal with a reflective surface. The more common form of the Dewar flask is known as a Thermos bottle used to keep hot liquids hot and cold liquids cold. The name Thermos is a trademark for three independent companies, one in the United States, one in England, and one in Canada. German glassblowers manufactured small Dewar flasks and held a contest to name the device. The name Thermos won. It is derived from the Greek word therme, meaning heat. Today, it is one of the most widely known and popular devices used from the Arctic and Antarctic regions to the equator. 132 DHerelles Bacteriolytic Theory infection agents are smaller than bacteria, they are thus filterable viruses that can still act as parasites on live bacteria. After attending school in Paris, Felix dHerelle returned to Canada, his birthplace, where he enrolled and graduated from the medical school of the University of Montreal. He started his work in bacteriology in Mexico in 1907 but returned to France in 1911 to accept a position at the Pasteur Institute. From there he moved to the Netherlands to the University of Leiden as a temporary professor, followed by a stint as a bacteriologist

in Egypt, and ending up as the chairman of the Department of Bacteriology at Yale University where he remained until 1933. Throughout his career dHerelle traveled extensively to Argentina, Guatemala, Indochina, India, and in 1934 to Soviet Georgia. He wrote The Bacteriophage and Phenomenon of Recovery while working at the Tbilisi Institute. He dedicated his book to Joseph Stalin. However, due to Stalins tyrannical rule, dHerelle was forced to flee the country just as World War II began. He and his family returned to Paris. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize a total of 30 times but never won. In the early 1900s while working in the Yucatan in Mexico Felix dHerelle discovered the bacteriophage, which is a type of virus that infects and destroys bacteria (Virus is the Latin word for poison. See Figure D7 under Delbruck). After filtering this virus from a mixture of infected bacteria, he discovered that the filtrate could still infect and kill bacteria. He referred to this filterable virus as a bacteriolytic agent. He continued his work with cultures of dysentery bacilli and found that a filterable parasitic virus also kills these types of bacilli. In 1921 he wrote a monograph The Bacteriophage, Its Role in Immunity where he advocated using bacteriophages to treat diseases such as cholera and bubonic plague. Although he claimed some successes in India and Egypt, others using his techniques could not achieve the same level of successful treatments. His experiments and conclusions were not well accepted by those investigating bacterial-viral problems because it was not understood how, once filtered, the virus could still infect bacteria. The term bacteriophages and the importance of the filterable viruses in the field of bacteriology later became significant under Delbrucks phage group of researchers.

See also Delbruck; Northrop; Pasteur DICKES THEORY OF THE BIG BANG: Physics: Robert Henry Dicke (19161997), United States. The universe started about eighteen billion years ago (Note: the current estimate is thirteen to fifteen billion years as the age of the universe) as a tiny point of energy (singularity) exploding in an ever-increasing three-dimensional spread of energy at extremely high temperatures that soon formed elementary matter and radiation. The big bang theory proposes that the formation of the universe originated with an infinitely dense pinpoint of compressed energy that, at the first fraction of a second of expansion, formed hydrogen and helium and, later, other matter which, under the influence of gravity, became stars and the planets and other objects found in the universe. This explosion was the source of all the energy and mass in the universe and was forceful enough to overcome the gravity of the expanding particles that are still expanding after billions of years. Dickes Theory of the Big Bang 133 The big bang theory is explained by considering a number of related physical phenomena: 1. A cataclysmic explosion occurred thirteen to sixteen billion years ago. 2. Within a few seconds the temperature reached about 10 billion _C. 3. This high temperature caused intense radiation to spread outward in all directions. 4. Soon after the initial explosion, particles of elementary matter were formed and radiated outward. 5. As the explosion expanded, it lost energy through both heat and radiation. 6. Cosmology confirms that this expansion is still taking place, and possibly

accelerating. 7. Although it took place billions of years ago, remnants of this radiation should still be detectable. 8. If such residual radiation exists today, it should be detectable as black body radiationradiation, such as X-rays from deep space, emitted from a black body at a fixed temperature. These eight phenomena provide the basis for the origin of the big bang as a condensed, very small, extremely hot mass of energy. Several different wavelengths of radiation, in addition to visible light, have been detected. For example, radio waves, X-rays, and microwaves have been detected as originating from deep space and are used to further our knowledge of the cosmos and support of the big bang theory. Calculations determined that the residual temperature from the big bang in the universe is about 3 kelvin (_270_C), and such radiation was later detected as background microwaves of about 7 cm. These factors led cosmologists to conclude the big bang theory is correct. The question remaining is: What was there before the big bang, and where did it all come from? This is more of a metaphysical question than a part of the theory that assumes infinity in time as well as space in both directionsbefore and after the eventjust as it is possible to calculate infinity as negative and positive numbers. See also Gamow; Hoyle; Weinberg DIESELS CONCEPT OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: Physics (Engineering): Rudolf Christian Carl Diesel (18581913), Germany. By using the compressed heat inside an engines cylinder to ignite the fuel and drive the piston of an engine rather than using an external source of heat as in a steam

engine, greater efficiency can be achieved. Born in Paris, Rudolf Diesel and his parents, who were Bavarian immigrants, relocated to London during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. Soon after, he moved back to Germany where he received a scholarship to the Munich Institute of Technology. Upon graduation, he worked in Switzerland and Paris as a thermal and refrigeration engineer. Diesel was not only an engineer who understood the theory of thermodynamics but was also a linguist who spoke three languages. He was also interested in the technology of the engine. This interest was partially responsible for his work to devise a more efficient source of power to reduce the size of engines and the cost of fuels, thus 134 Diesels Concept of an Internal Combustion Engine enabling the smaller independent craftsman to compete with larger corporations. After thirteen years of working on a design for a compression engine, he developed a model that consisted of a 10-foot-long single cylinder that had a rotating flywheel at one end. This was the first working model of a diesel compression engine. After receiving a patent in 1893 for his engine, he continued to make improvements to the engine and spent much of his time attempting to produce it commercially. It was known as the diesel cycle compression engine that could use almost any kind of combustible liquid as fuel, even powdered coal dust. In 1900 he demonstrated his engine at the Worlds Fair using peanut oil for fuel. By the end of the nineteenth century Rudolf Diesel was a multimillionaire from selling franchises for the production and sales of his engine. It became widely used in all kinds of industries and production plants. As the diesel engine starts to run, it compresses the incoming air and atomizes fuel, raising the temperature in the cylinder to the point where the combustible mixture explodes, thus rapidly and forcibly expanding

the hot gas driving the piston outward to suck in a new mixture of air and fuel. This is an excellent example of the combined gas law as well as the law of thermodynamics. There were two problems with the early diesel engines use in automobiles. First was the need for a governor to control the speed of the engines cycles of intake-compressioncombustion-expansion-exhaust. The other factor was that most diesel fuels thicken when cold, and this higher viscosity does not enable fuel to flow freely to the engine. Heating the fuel tanks, lines, cylinder blocks, or reformatting the fuels to maintain fluidity at low temperatures has solved this problem. Many users of large diesel construction equipment in the Arctic allow the diesel engines to run, sometimes continuously, between periods of use. The size and weight of the modern diesel engine has been reduced as the efficiency has been increased to about 80% (whereas the steam engine is only about 10% efficient). There are basically two kinds of diesel engines: the two-stroke and the four-stroke varieties. Most engines are of the four-stroke, six-cylinder-in-line type of engines. There are also four-cylinder and eight-cylinder versions. Greater efficiency is partly achieved due to the high internal temperature of about 700 to 900_ Celsius that increases the compression rate to 25:1 (as compared to about a 10:1 ratio for a gasoline engine). Automobiles obtain about 40% more miles per gallon with cars using turbo-diesel engines. Modern diesel engines are also used in trains, buses, heavy equipment, and to power manufacturing industries as well as in automobiles and trucks. New fuel mixtures and fuel injection systems are being developed to help reduce the pollution created by the spark-ignited and pressure/heat-ignited fuels in internal combustion engines. Later in life Rudolf Diesel experienced financial and severe health problems and suffered from headaches and depression. In 1913 while on the London to Antwerp mail

ferry, and after finishing a pleasant meal with friends, he was found missing. Later his body was spotted in the English Channel by another ship but left at sea. See also Boyle; Carnot; Calvin; Clausius; Ideal Gas Law; Maxwell DIRACS RELATIVISTIC THEORIES: Physics: Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902 1984), United States. Diracs quantum mechanics: The physics of electromagnetic radiation and matter should interact on the micro subatomic, very small scale of nature, as well as at the macro, very large scale. Diracs Relativistic Theories 135 For almost three centuries, fundamental Newtonian mechanistic laws for classical physics were accepted. These laws explained the stability of atoms and molecules but could not explain the small packets of energy emitted by excited atoms. Albert Einstein developed the special and general theories of relativity, and Edwin Schrodinger developed the wave equation representation of quantum mechanics. Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac revised and improved the concept for quantum mechanics by incorporating Einsteins calculations for relativity into the equation and making some corrections in the energy levels of spinning atoms which resulted in the FermiDirac statistics. This statistic was designed to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle required to account for the behavior of particles with half-integer spins. Diracs theory of negative energy: Energy exists below the ground state of positive energy. To explain his theory, Dirac claimed that areas below ground state (normal positive charge) were already filled with negative energy, and if a light photon tried to enter this area, it would become an observable electron, leaving behind a vacant

hole representing a potential similar to a positive charge. This theory led to a new understanding about the nature of matter (see Diracs theory of antimatter, which follows). This positive electron was named a positron (e) and was confirmed by Carl Anderson in 1932. It proved to be a new way to look at the universe, which now included antimatter somewhat as a mirror image of matter. If there were exactly the same number of electrons (_e) as positrons (e) in the universe, they would collide and destroy each other, resulting in energy with no matter left over. The reason that matter exists in the universe and there are more electrons than positrons is that more electrons (photons/electromagnetic radiation) were produced at the beginning of time. This theory has led to speculation of a sister universe based on antimatter (see also Anderson). Diracs theory of antimatter: 1) Each negatively charged particle (called an electron) has a counterpart. 2) These counter particles are positively charged electrons called positrons. 3) A positron must always occur in conjunction with an electron (but not the other way around). 4) Their collision destroys both. Thus, 5) electromagnetic waves (radiation) are released, producing more electrons than positrons. Diracs theoretical positron was discovered later by Carl Anderson, who confirmed Diracs concept of antimatter as applying to all matter. Diracs theory was an explanation of the dual nature of light where in some instances light behaves as a wave (as indicated by interference and diffraction). In other cases, light resembles particles called photons, which are matter similar to electrons with measurable energy, as indicated by their frequency and momentum. Thus, the concept of particlewave duality is dissimilar to the Newtonian classical mechanics concept of matter.

Diracs theory of large number coincidences: There is a 1 to 1040 ratio that is constant in the universe. It is exhibited in various physical phenomena and represents a model of the universe. Diracs mathematics revealed this phenomenon as a relationship between natural physical constants and the quantification or natural properties: 1) The ratio of gravitational attraction and electrostatic attraction between electrons and protons is 1040, 2) Earths radius is 1040 that of the electrons radius, and 3) the square root of the number of particles in the universe is 1040. Dirac considered there was a universal relationship between the ratios of the radii of all objects (e.g., Earth) and all forces (e.g., gravity). He also theorized that as the universe continues to expand with age, this force 136 Diracs Relativistic Theories ratio would not change, even when the distance between objects increases. Rather, the gravitational constant will change; thus the effects of gravity become less as time and space increase (expand). The theory that the gravitational constant is decreasing over time is no longer accepted. On the other hand, to explain the increased rate of expansion of the outermost galaxies in the universe, some cosmologists are suggesting that antigravity might exist at the horizon of the universe. This is not the same as Diracs theory for the change in the gravitational constant, but both concepts end up with the same conclusion about the expanding universe. See also Anderson (Carl); Born; Einstein; Fermi DJERASSIS THEORY FOR SYNTHETIC ORAL CONTRACEPTION: Chemistry: Carl Djerassi (1923), United States.

Physical methods can be used to determine the structure of organic molecules leading to the translation of this knowledge into the production of synthetic organic steroids related to female sex hormones that control contraception. Carl Djerassis father was a physician in Bulgaria and his mother was from Vienna, Austria. He and his parents moved to the United States during World War II in 1939 when Carl was a young teenager. Carl was an exceptional student who graduated from Kenyon College in Ohio with a BS degree at age 18 and received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin by the time he was 22 in 1945. This is the same year he became a U.S. citizen. He recalls that he admired Eleanor Roosevelt, the presidents wife, and wrote her a letter stating that he needed a scholarship. Her secretary replied, and he did receive a scholarship. Following graduation he secured a job with CIBA Pharmaceuticals. Then in 1949 he joined Syntex located in Mexico City where he worked with a team that was attempting to identify and extract the steroid cortisone from plants. His team of chemists at Syntex was the first to successfully extract cortisone (C21H28O5) from Mexican yams. Following this success, the team started work on synthesizing the steroid hormone progesterone, known as natures contraceptive. The team did encounter one problem, however. Hormones produced from the urine, testicles, or ovaries of animals proved to be very expensive. In addition, if taken orally it would lose its effectiveness. In the 1950s Djerassi and his team were successful in the synthetic production of progesterone, which caused a huge drop in cost of the drug. To make this synthetic oral steroid more effective, Djerassi altered the structure of progesterone (C21H39O2) by removing a methyl group (CH3) from the formula. He also added a bit of the male hormone, testosterone, to the formula to make it more effective

as a contraceptive. After some more manipulations of the formula, he received U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) approval in 1962 for this synthetic steroid to be used as a contraceptive. From this date the story of how the pill has affected lives all over the world by liberating women from unexpected and unplanned pregnancies is well known. In 1951 Dr. Djerassi resigned his post at Syntex but continued his career at several universities and was involved with other business interests. He developed a unique form of insect control by applying a biodegradable spray with a hormone that prevents young insects from maturing. Djerassi is a prolific writer and has published many scientific papers, five novels, including Cantors Dilemma, some poetry, short stories, essays, two autobiographies, and a memoir. Djerassis Theory for Synthetic Oral Contraception 137 DOBEREINERS LAW OF TRIADS: Chemistry: Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner (1780 1849), Germany. When considering three elements with similar characteristics and with atomic weights within the same range, the central (middle) element will have an atomic weight that is the average of the total atomic weights of all three elements. Johann Dobereiner was interested in chemical reactions that involved catalysts, which are chemicals that either speed up or slow down chemical reactions but are not changed or consumed in the reaction. One of his discoveries was that hydrogen gas would ignite spontaneously when passed over powdered platinum. Using this concept, he developed the Dobereiner lamp, which uses metal platinum as the catalyst. (The catalytic converter in the exhaust systems of modern automobiles uses platinum as the catalyst to convert toxic exhaust gases to less harmful compounds.) In his experiments involving catalytic actions, he observed how the atomic weights changed incrementally

for elements with similar compositions. This led to his law of triads proposed in 1829. An example is the triad for the nonmetals chlorine (atomic weight 35.5), bromine (atomic weight 80), and iodine (atomic weight 127). When calculating their average atomic weight, 242.5 3 80.8 the approximate atomic weight of bromine, the middle element of the three examples, is attained. A second example is the triad for three metals: calcium, strontium, and barium. This triads average atomic weight calculates as 265 3 88.3, which is the approximate weight of the middle element, strontium. This relationship of atomic weights to characteristics of similar elements was an important discovery that Dmitri Mendeleev used in designing his Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements (see Figure M5 under Mendeleev). Being aware of this phenomenon provided Mendeleev a means to leave vacant spaces in his table that could later be filled. He called yet-to-be-discovered elements eka elements. He predicted these eka elements would fit into specific blank spaces where the other two elements in the triad, with known atomic weights, were directly above and below the missing eka element. For example, in Group IVA (14) the yetto-

be-discovered element germanium was named eka-silicon to fill in the vacant space. His eka-predicted elements were very accurate as far as atomic weights were concerned, but they were not always correctly arranged according to specific characteristics of elements in groups. Later, his periodic table was corrected to Johann Wolfgang Dobereiners life and education is a good example of bringing yourself up by your bootstraps. His family was not wealthy, and his father, a coachman, did not contribute to his early education. At fourteen years of age he was apprenticed to several apothecary (pharmacy) businesses where he developed an interest in chemistry which he pursued the rest of his life. Leopold Gmelin (17881853), a well-known German chemist, whom Dobereiner met in Strasbourg, encouraged him to continue his study of chemistry. Despite his limited finances, he tried starting several businesses. Although they failed, he was soon given the position as assistant professor of chemistry at the University of Jena, which is now located in Germany. His first success in the field of chemistry was his discovery

that when hydrogen gas passes over a spongy-type of platinum, ignition would spontaneously take place. This phenomena of catalytic activity, which he pursued the rest of his life, led to the development of his first successful business venturethe manufacture of the Dobereiner lamp. His interest in chemistry led to his theory of the law of triads where the average atomic weight of three related elements will approximate the atomic weight of the middle element of the triad. 138 Dobereiners Law of Triads represent the elements arranged by their atomic numbers (protons) rather than atomic weights. See also Dalton; Mendeleev; Newlands DOBZHANSKYS THEORY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY: Biology: Theodosius Dobzhansky (19001975), United States. Populations with a high genetic load of debilitating genes confer an advantage to organisms by providing more versatility within changing environments. Theodosius Dobzhansky believed species that have a wide variety of genes, even recessive dormant debilitating genes, will be more successful by providing the entire species with greater genetic diversity. This diversity is related to the evolution of race and species and provides more effective adaptation to changing environments. Historically, this meant that those species that survived over long periods of time were the ones with the greatest pool of genes. When these genes no longer provided an advantage in overcoming environmental conditions, natural selection contributed to their extinction over time.

Dobzhansky made detailed studies of the fruit fly (Drosophila, that has yielded extensive genetic information) and proved his theory that there is considerable genetic variation within a population. Those species that had the greatest genetic variety survived, including lethal genes, which prove to be even more important for survival in changing environments. By all standards, the dinosaurs must have had a very wide and diverse genetic load because there were so many different types of dinosaurs that successfully survived for millions of years. Despite this, they became extinct about sixty-five million years ago. Humans arrived many millions of years after the dinosaurs extinction. Prehuman types of beings existed about five million years ago, followed by prehistoric humans, and later modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens), who have existed for fewer than one hundred thousand years. Over 98% of all plant and animal species that ever lived are now extinct due to many natural causes. How long present species of plants and animals can or will survive, including modern humans, may depend on the extent of their genetic load, which may mean that humans are at the end of their evolutionary evolvement as a species. Dobzhanskys theories were important in understanding the mathematical relationships of natural selection, as well as Mendelism (also known as Mendelianism). Born in Russia, Dobzhansky received his BS from Kiev University in 1921 followed by a few years of teaching. He moved to the United States in 1927 on a fellowship at Columbia University in New York City. He soon accepted a position teaching genetics at the California Institute of Technology and became a citizen of the United States in 1937. He wrote several books. The best known is Genetics and the Origin of Species in 1937. See also Darwin; Dawkins; De Vries; Mendel; Wallace DOMAGKS CONCEPT OF DYES AS AN ANTIBIOTIC: Chemistry: Gerhard Domagk (18951964), Germany. Gerhard Domagk received the 1939 Nobel Prize in

Physiology or Medicine. Because of World War II, he was unable to receive the award until 1947. By adding sulfonamide compounds to selected dyes, bacterial infections can be controlled. Domagks Concept of Dyes as an Antibiotic 139 It is not known who first considered using new types of synthetic dyes to treat diseases, but Domagk based his ideas on research done by Paul Ehrlich and several other scientists. These scientists had some degree of success in using dyes to treat conditions caused by some large organisms, such as protozoa, but were unsuccessful in treating infections caused by small cocci (ball shaped), bacilli (rod shaped), and spirochete (spiral shaped) types of bacteria. After years of research, Paul Ehrlich, a German medical researcher, developed in 1909 an arsenic based compound that was known as 606 because it was the 606th trial for the drug he called arsphenamine that proved to be the

first effective drug for the treatment of syphilis which is caused by a bacterium known as the spirochete. (Salvarsan, the trade name for arsphenamine, was first marketed in 1910.) There was still a need for an effective drug to use against many types of bacterial infections and diseases. In 1927 the large German chemical company I.G. Farben, for whom Domagk was the director of laboratory research, decided to explore the medical possibilities of the dyestuff it was producing at the time. Because most dyes strongly attach to the protein molecules of cotton and wool fibers (they become fast), Domagk theorized that some dyes might also attach themselves to the protein molecules that composed infectious bacteria. Domagk added a chemical called 4-sulfonamide-20, 40-diaminoazobenzene hydrochloride to an orange-red dye. He infected rats and rabbits with streptococci bacteria and treated them with the new dye. It did not kill the animals, thus it was nontoxic, while killing the bacteria. For the first time in history, a chemical was found that would combat bacterial infections in humans without poisoning the patient. The drug was first given the name streptozoan but was later changed to prontosil, the first sulfa drug. Although the drug was not used commercially for several years, it has been reported that Domagk used prontosil to cure his daughter of a streptococcal infection following a pinprick in her arm, saving

her arm from almost certain amputation. Sulfonamide compounds soon proved effective in treating streptococcal diseases, such as gonorrhea and epidemic meningitis, as well as staphylococcal infections. They were extremely effective in treating erysipelas (an acute inflammatory disease of the skin and underlying tissue), urinary tract infections, and undulant fever due to bacilli. Sulfa drugs saved many lives during For many years physicians sought drugs that could cure patients, particularly those with bacterial infections, such as gonorrhea, meningitis, pneumonia, childbed fever known as puerperal septic (a blood poison), urinary infections, and so forth. Over the centuries alchemists (see Paracelsus) treated patients with many toxic drugs including mercury, arsenic, lead, and gold. Their treatments were just as likely to kill the patient as cure their ailments, but some successes occurred. Once bacteria became known as the source of many diseases, the concept of using toxic substances to cure specific diseases became even more urgent. From the late 1930s into the early 1940s the production and use of sulfa drugs increased rapidly. It was used in 1936 to treat President Franklin Roosevelts son for a streptococcal infection. Sulfa drugs were responsible for saving the lives of many servicemen wounded or suffering from dysentery during the early years of World War II. During the war Churchill was treated with sulfa drugs for pneumonia.

By 1942 over ten million pounds of the drug were being produced. Some problems developed with the use of sulfa drugs partially due to their poor solubility, which means crystals of the drug could build up in the kidneys. In addition, some strains of bacteria developed a resistance to sulfa. By the end of World War II a new, more effective antibiotic, penicillin, became available. Today there are numerous varieties of antibiotics, as well as antiviral drugs, available to treat the seemingly growing number of known bacterial and viral diseases. 140 Domagks Concept of Dyes as an Antibiotic World War II until about 1944 when penicillin, a superior antibiotic, became available See also Ehrlich; Fleming (Alexander); Paracelsus DOPPLERS PRINCIPLE: Physics: Christian Johann Doppler (18031853), Austria. Doppler arrived at his principle as it related to sound. In essence: the Doppler effect applies to any source of sound (as well any source of electromagnetic frequencies, such as light, radio, and radar frequencies) moving away from or toward an observer that will change in frequency with reference to the observer. Another way of stating the principle is: The observed frequency of a wave depends on the velocity

of the source relative to the observer, or the observer to the source of the sound or electromagnetic wave. Christian Doppler originally applied his effect as it relates to waves of air particles (sound). Later it was experimentally determined to apply as well as to electromagnetic waves such as light. Doppler arrived at his equation about frequency related to velocity of waves based on a unique experiment with sound. He reasoned that when the source of a sound is coming toward an observer, the sound waves that reach the ear are compressed and arrive at shorter intervals and thus at a higher pitch frequency. Although the opposite is also trueas the source of sound waves (or the observer) moves away from each other, the waves that reach the ear are spread out and arrive at longer intervals, therefore, at a lower (pitch) frequency. Doppler placed a

group of trumpet players on an open train car and had them play loudly as the train moved away. As the train moved closer, he noted the change in the tone and pitch (frequency of the sound waves) of the trumpet notes. Almost everyone has experienced the Doppler effect. For example, when a train rapidly approaches, its whistle is shrill or high pitched due to the The Doppler principle provided astronomers with a valuable tool. Armand Fizeau, who determined the speed of light with a unique instrument, also applied the Doppler effect to light waves. This principle when applied to light is sometimes referred to as the Doppler Fizeau shift. The Doppler principle is much more important in the field of astronomy. It was first used to measure the rotation of the sun on its axis. As the sun rotates, the light spectrum on the side of the sun rotating toward Earth is slightly compressed, which makes the light appear bluer. Conversely, the light from the side of the sun rotating away from Earth spreads its spectrum, and thus the suns light looks more reddish. This principle is also used to measure the motion of stars. If the star

appears reddish, it may be receding from us, as its light spectrum spreads out to the red area of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is known as the redshift that is due to the shift toward the longer infrared frequency of light waves as stars move away from us. Conversely, if stars are approaching us, they appear bluer due to the compression of the electromagnetic spectrum toward the shorter-frequency blue area of the spectrum. (Basically, most stars are receding from us, but at different rates.) The Doppler principle enables astronomers to measure the distances of stars and galaxies and is used as one of the arguments for an ever-expanding universe. During World War II, British engineers designed radar (radio detection and ranging), which was based on the Doppler effect. It used a specific radio wavelength that could be bounced off a moving object. The returning wave was at a different wavelength from that of the transmitting wavelength. The different frequencies between the sent and the returning wave that was bounced off the target object was used to determine the objects position, altitude, and the rate it was approaching or receding from the radar operator who picked it up. It was also used to develop more accurate bombsights. Since that time, radar has become a valuable

scientific tool for navigation, meteorology, and astronomy. Dopplers Principle 141 compressed sound waves, which increase the sound waves frequency. The reverse takes place as the train recedes from the receiver because the sound waves are less close together, and thus at a lower pitch (frequency). Although Doppler predicted that a similar effect would apply to electromagnetic waves, he did not have much success using his principle with light waves. However, using his principle, other scientists demonstrated a color shift of light waves (frequencies) under the same conditions of motion as there was for sound waves. See also Fitzeau; Olbers; Watson-Watt DOUGLASS THEORY OF DENDROCHRONOLOGY: Astronomy: Andrew Ellicott Douglass (18671962), United States. Climate and environmental history can be determined by examining the formation of the rings in the cross sections of tree trunks. Andrew Douglass first interest was in trying to decipher the eleven-year period of high sunspot activity to the period of low sunspot activity as measured on Earth. (The eleven-year high to the low in a cycle is just one-half of the cycle. A full cycle is from high to high.) The actual complete cycle is twenty-two years from one crest to the next crest in the complete cycle. Douglass initially tried to relate the sunspots high-to-low part of the cycle to the distinct rings in trees that represent yearly growth. He also hypothesized that there might be a correlation between the rate of growth of other vegetation and Earths climate and the sunspot cycle. He did not find a correlation

between the two but determined the rings were a more interesting area for study as a means of dating the past. Dendrochronology, Greek for time-telling by trees, is defined as the study of the rings of growth in mature trees to verify historic climate, weather, temperature change, rainfall, insect populations, diseases, and so on. For instance, it has been determined there were periods of devastation of plant growth due to insect plagues and volcanic eruptions, as well as extended droughts, long before todays pollution problems. The time period during which these events occurred are easily ascertained by carefully examining and counting the rings and their sizes in the cross sections of older trees. Douglass goal was not only to learn about prehistoric chronology of climate but also to use dendrochronology as a means of predicting future climatic changes, particularly global climate changes. There are some limitations to dendrochronology as a dating tool for historical conditions. Living trees have a definite age; thus you can go back only so far, whereas fossil tree rings can be read back to prehistoric times. Also, using tree rings to correlate global or even hemispheric climate changes has proved to be very inaccurate due to the lack of correlation between the growth rings of trees located in different parts of the same continent and the wide distribution of trees worldwide. More accurate methods for determining past and future climate changes are now available. THE DRAKE EQUATION: Astronomy: Frank Donald Drake (1930), United States. The Drake Equation states that: N R* _ fp _ ne _ fl _ fi _ fc _ L, where N is the number of possible civilizations that might be found in the Milky Way galaxy that may, at any time, communicate with us; 142 Douglass Theory of Dendrochronology

R* is the rate of star creation in our galaxy (estimated by the National Aerospace and Space Administration [NASA] at 6/yr); fp is the fraction of those new stars that may have planets (about 0.5); ne is the average number of planets (or satellites) that can support life (about 2); fl is the number of the above planets that actually develop life (1); fi is the fraction of those that will develop intelligent life (0.01); fc is the fraction of planets with intelligent life willing to communicate with us (0.01); L is the expected lifetime of these civilizations (ten thousand years). The Drake equation is also known at the Green Bank equation or the Sagan equation (after the popular astrophysicist Carl Sagan who, based on the huge numbers of star systems, assumed that statistically there must be life on planets similar to Earth in some of these systems). This equation is associated with the fields of astrosociobiology, xenobiology, and Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Interested in science from an early age, at eight years of age Frank Drake considered the possibility that life existed on other planets. (He never mentioned this idea because of the religious atmosphere at school and home.) After high school, he enrolled at Cornell University and studied astronomy. After a brief hitch in the U.S. Navy, he entered graduate school at Harvard University to study radio astronomy. He did his research in this field at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia, and later at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In 1960 Drake formed the project known as Ozma, which was the first radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence. After conducting extensive searches, no evidences of such signals

were found. However, Drake refused to give up and was convinced that sooner or later either radio or light contacts were coming to us from outer space. In 1961, in cooperation with J. Peter Pearman and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences, they organized a conference at Green Bank that became known as SETI where he first introduced his equation. The N in the equation is an example of a large range of outcomes estimated to be between 1 and 1,000,000. The implications of this are that intelligent life on Earth may be a one-time cosmic event or the universe actually holds many such sites of intelligent life. As Carl Sagan stated, there are billions, and billions of suns with planets out there and some of them statistically will support intelligent life. Frank Drake remains involved in a SETI project known as Project Phoenix. He served as director of the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, now known as the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), from the mid-1960s until 1984. From 1984 to 1988 he was professor of astronomy and astrophysics and Dean of Natural Sciences at the University of California, at Santa Cruz, California, where he is currently Professor Emeritus. DRAPERS RAY THEORY: Chemistry: John William Draper (18111882), United States. Electromagnetic rays, absorbed by some chemical substances, can cause chemical changes in that substance. In addition, the rate of chemical change is proportional to the intensity of the radiation. The daguerreotype field of photography was based on exposing silver salts to light, which caused the image on the surface of a glass plate coated with silver salts to darken

Drapers Ray Theory 143 at the points where the greatest amount of light occurred. The problem was that the silver salt continued to darken as it became exposed to more light outside the camera. Draper solved this problem when, after exposure, he dissolved the unexposed silver from the glass plate with a solution of sodium thiosulfate, also known as hypo. This chemical is still in use today to fix the photographic image by dissolving the unexposed silver salts in the emulsion coating the film and paper prints. Draper determined that electromagnetic rays (visible light, X-rays, etc.) cause a chemical reaction when absorbed by some light-sensitive chemicals (e.g., silver nitrate) and that the amount of light and time of exposure are proportional to the chemical changes. Draper was the first scientist to apply the new field of daguerre-type of photography to his work. He was the first to realize that not all electromagnetic rays (including light) were involved in chemical changes, but that only those rays that were absorbed would cause changes. He explained in a scientific paper that the amount of chemical change was related to the intensity of the radiation multiplied by the time of exposure to the radiation. He built cameras out of cigar boxes and perfected the process to the point that he was able to take short exposure photographs of the moon in 1840 and to take the first pictures through a microscope. He was also the first to record the solar spectrum photographically through a prism (see Figure F8 under Fraunhofer.) In addition, using his sister as a model, he was the first to take a successful, short-exposure portrait that is still in existence. Draper experimented with the size of the aperture for the lens, which, if enlarged, would reduce the time of exposure required to expose the image. See also Daguerre

DULBECCOS THEORY OF CANCER CELL TRANSFORMATION: Biology: Renato Dulbecco (1914), United States. Renato Dulbecco shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Howard Temin and David Baltimore. Normal cells, when mixed with cancer-producing viruses in vitro, will kill some of the cells, while other cells are changed by the virus and will continue to grow and multiply as cancerous tumors. Renato Dulbecco refers to this theory as protective infection. The significance of Dulbeccos concept is that it is possible to grow in the laboratory cells that have been infected by tumor-causing viruses. This simplifies the process of understanding the nature of malignancy and experimenting with possible treatments. It is easier to experiment with different chemical treatments using cancer cells in vitro than in the human body. His theory and laboratory techniques advanced cancer research. In 1986 Dulbecco published a paper A Turning Point in Science that appeared in the magazine Science. Dulbecco pointed out that to learn more about the science of cancer it will be necessary to know more about the human cellular genome. This paper was published shortly after a group of scientists met in 1985 to discuss the possibility of sequencing the complete genome of humans. This was a huge task spurred on by this important paper that was completed in 2003. Dulbecco moved back to Italy in 1993 where he became director of the National Council of Research in Milan. In early 2006 he left Italy and retired, at the age of 92, to La Jolla, California. He continues to follow the latest advancements in cancer research, primarily at the Salk Institute located in La Jolla. See also Baltimore; Gallo; Temin 144 Dulbeccos Theory of Cancer Cell Transformation

DUMAS SUBSTITUTION THEORY: Chemistry: Jean Baptiste Andr_e Dumas (18001884), France. An atom or radical can be replaced by another of known quantity that will produce the same result. Jean Dumas believed that organic chemistry was similar to inorganic chemistry as related to the formation of radicals of the same types. Organic chemistry involves the element carbon in the construction of large molecules found in living tissues, such as large protein molecular compounds. Inorganic chemistry involves the reactions between and among all types of elements that form inorganic (nonliving) compounds. Radicals might be thought of as molecules that contain an electrical charge (similar to inorganic ions) and can act as units when combining with other elements or compounds, regardless of whether they are organic or inorganic. An example is the hydroxyl radical OH_, which is part of the water molecule with a negative charge and is thought to have some effect on the aging of cells. Dumas contended that the site of these radicals is where replacements of atoms of one type for another take place. He showed that several different compounds that were composed of the same atoms or radicals exhibited similar characteristics. His famous example demonstrated that trichloroacetic acid was a similar compound to acetic acid. Dumas contributed to the advancement of chemistry with his work with atomic weights based on whole numbers as multiples of hydrogen as 1, and thus carbon as 12. This led him to his theory of types, which today is referred to as functional groups of elements. Historically, the credit for the theory known as the theory of types was disputed between Dumas and Auguste Laurent.

See also Dalton; Laurent DYSONS THEORY OF QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS: Physics: Freeman John Dyson (1923), United States. Quantum theory can explain the relationships and interactions between minute particles and electromagnetic radiation. Quantum electrodynamics, known as QED, is a theory that is relativistic in the sense that the subatomic particles in a field are rapidly changing their values (sometimes referred to as the jitters) due to their constantly changing movements at their small submicroscopic scale. This leads to problems of measurement of exactly where they are at any particular moment and exactly how they are moving. This involves many possibilities and requires the use of mathematical probabilities as the only way to arrive at a single outcome. In other words, there is uncertainty introduced when measuring a particles position (location) and momentum (unending movement) when being observed. In the 1920s and early 1930s this problem led to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics that solved this problem by using mathematical probabilities to describe the realm of atoms and subatomic particles. By the late 1920s quantum mechanics that dealt with single particles was expanded to include quantum fields as well. By the 1940s this research led to combining particles and fields that is known as QED. Those involved in the research at that time were Richard

Feynman, Freeman Dyson, Julian Schwinger, and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. (All but Dyson received a Nobel Prize for this work.) QED was the first viable quantum description of a physical field that involved quantum particles that can calculate observable quantities at this physical scale. Dysons Theory of Quantum Electrodynamics 145 Freeman Dyson combined several related theories into a general theory that described the interactions between waves and particles in terms of quantum concepts (see Planck for a description of quantum, which means how much). This single theory enabled scientists to better understand quantum electrodynamics based on the traditional ingredients of particles and fields that synthesize waves, particles, and the interactions of radiation with electrons and atoms. This theory is also known as the quantum theory of light or radiation. See also Dehmelt; Einstein; Feynman; Planck; Schwinger 146 Dysons Theory of Quantum Electrodynamics E EDDINGTONS THEORIES AND CONCEPTS: Astronomy: Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (18821944), England. Eddingtons star equilibrium theory: For a stars equilibrium to be maintained, the inward force of gravity must be balanced by the outward forces of pressure caused by both the gas and radiation produced by the stars fusion reaction. Sir Arthur Eddington also developed the system indicating that heat that was generated inside stars was not transmitted outwardly by convectionas heat could be on Earthbut rather by a form of radiation. This theory of equilibrium not only explained

why stars do not usually explode, but also provided a much better understanding of the internal structure of stars. It was William Higgins who determined that the sun (also a star) as well as all stars, and presumably the entire universe, are composed of the same basic elements as is Earth, with carbon being the most important of the first elements formed whose atoms were larger than hydrogen and helium. Our sun consists of several layers that are not sharply divided. The inner layer or core of the sun is about 250,000 miles in diameter and consists of hydrogen undergoing fusion to form helium, resulting in great quantities of energy in the form of radiation. The cores temperature is about 27,000,000_F; its pressure is about 7,000,000,000,000 pounds per square inch. (The air pressure on the earths surface is less than 15 pounds per square inch.) The next layer or shell is the convection zone that surrounds the core, which transmits the radiation generated in the core to the outer layers. The photosphere, which means, sphere of light, is the surface layer where the radiation is converted to light and heat as we know it on Earth. It is about five hundred miles thick, with a temperature of almost 10,000_F. Light and heat as well as other forms of electromagnetic radiation are constantly sent outward in three dimensions from the convection zone to the photosphere. The chromospherethe outer shell or layeris about two thousand miles thick with a variable temperature ranging from about 8000 to 90,000_F. The outermost layer is called the corona, which is a low-density collection of ionized gases. This layer forms the spikes that shoot out from the suns surface and can be seen during an eclipse. As Eddingtons theory of equilibrium states, if this arrangement becomes imbalanced, a star could explode. Exploding stars, which are extremely bright, were recorded in ancient history. Today, a very bright star that lasts only a few days or a week is called a

nova, or supernova (see also Higgins). Eddingtons theory of star massluminosity relationship: The more massive (very dense) the star, the greater its luminosity. The brightness of a star is determined almost entirely by its density (mass per unit volume). It is a fundamental principle of astronomy that for stars of constant mass, their luminosity is also constant. The mass of a star is related to its density but not necessarily to its size. Therefore, a small, high-density star is also massive in the sense that it may contain more matter than a star that is larger but less dense. A small, dense star may be much brighter than a very large star of low density. Up to the time of this concept, only masses of binary stars could be directly calculatedthat is, a pair of stars close enough in proximity that their mutual gravity causes them to rotate around a common, invisible center of gravity. This led to the theory that stars, even of different spectral classes, with the same masses also had the same luminosities. This relationship of mass to brightness was of great significance in not only determining the nature of stars but also their distance from Earth. Using this mass-luminosity theory, along with the gravity-equilibrium theory, Eddington calculated there was a limit to the size of stars which is about ten times the mass of our sun. Any star forty to fifty times the mass of the sun would be unstable due to the excessive internal radiation. Eddingtons mathematical equations are considered fundamental laws of astronomy and provide a new way to look at the evolution of stars, including our sun. EddingtonAdams confirmation of Einsteins special theory of relativity: Albert Einstein predicted light from distant bright stars would be bent by the gravity of another star

as it passed by that star. Eddington reported that during a total eclipse, the light from several bright stars was slightly bent as their light came past the sun. This demonstrated that light exists as quantum bits called photons as predicted by Einstein, as well as waves of electromagnetic radiation that are affected by the gravity of the sun (see Figure E1 under Einstein). Eddingtons work confirmed Einsteins theory of special relativity. The American astronomer Walter Sydney Adams (18761956) further tested the theory by measuring the shift in the wavelength of light from Sirius B, a very dense white dwarf with strong gravity. Einstein predicted the light from a massive star would shift to the red end of the spectrum. Thus, as the light from a massive star was slowed due to that stars gravity, a reddish shift occurs in the stars light (not to be confused with the Doppler effect for the redshift, which is based on the lengthening of the frequency for light waves from a star that is rapidly receding from us) (see also Doppler; Einstein). Eddingtons constants for matter: The total number of protons and electrons in the universe is 1.3 _ 1079, and their total mass is 1.08 _ 1022 masses of the sun. Eddington arrived at these figures after considering the concept of an ever-expanding universe with curved space as theorized by Einstein. This theory was based to some extent on the tremendous velocities of nebulae. Eddington extended this theory and combined it with the theory for the atomic structure of matter to calculate his constants by theory alone. These are considered fundamental constants of science, which are important for the concept of an expanding universe.

148 Eddingtons Theories and Concepts Eddingtons physical theory of the big bang: The universe started to expand in all directions when a small, very dense point of energy (and possibly matter) exploded with tremendous force. Eddington was not the first to come up with a cosmic egg concept of the origin of the universe. This egg, about the size of a marble or less, was assumed to be extremely dense as it contained all the mass-energy in the universe. Eddingtons contribution was in developing the mathematical equations to explain the physics of the expanding universe. The concept goes back thousands of years, but it was Willem de Sitter (18721934), the Dutch mathematician/physicist/astronomer, who first developed a viable cosmological model based on the theory of an expanding universe. In 1964 Robert Woodrow Wilson and Arno Penzias of the Bell Telephone Laboratories detected cosmic microwave remnants of a hot primeval fireball as evidence of the big bang. Although some of the details of the big bang are still elusive, the concept of an inflationary universe is now accepted by most astronomers. It theorizes that at the time of the bang, all the original particles and energy could defy the speed of light and expand at any speed. Several other scientists have contributed to the cosmic egg/big bang/inflationary universe concept. There are still questions as to the origin and state of the nascent universe: What existed before the big bang? Is the universe really expanding? If so, do we really know the rate of expansion? Will it continue to expand forever? Will it reach equilibrium, then contract and start all over again? Will it regenerate or is it continually generating new matter? Is it static?

See also Dicke; Gamow; Hale; Hubble; Lematre EDISONS THEORY OF THERMIONIC EFFECT: Physics: Thomas Alva Edison (18471931), United States. Thermions (negatively charged electrons) generated at the hot cathode filament (of the light bulb) will jump to a cooler wire some distance from the filament. This is commonly referred to as the Edison effect and is the only physical theory Edison developed. All of Edisons other accomplishments were inventions that led to the development of important industries. In developing his light bulb, Edison followed the lead of Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (18281914), the English physicist and chemist, who developed the first light bulb and was the first to use a carbonized (charred) thread as a filament. Swans bulb did not work very well because he could not produce a good vacuum inside the bulb, nor could he develop a battery to produce a strong enough current to cause the carbonized thread to incandesce (glow white hot and give off light). Just one year before Edison announced his invention, Swan refined his carbon filament incandescent bulb and demonstrated it to the public. Given this set of circumstances, Swan should really have been given credit for the invention because he demonstrated his light bulb before Edison perfected his model. Even so, Edison is generally credited with the invention, although sometimes Swan is listed as a coinventor of the incandescent light bulb. Edison was the first to explain that electric current flows in only one direction from the filament to the electrode, and not the other way around. He experimented with several hundred different types of materials to act as filaments as he developed his incandescent light bulb. In 1883 he inserted a metal wire next to the filament, but not Edisons Theory of Thermionic Effect 149

connected to it or the source of electricity. His expectation was that such a cold piece of metal would reduce the amount of air, thus improving the vacuum and prolonging the life of his filaments. He noticed that some electrons (he called them thermions because the filament was hot) flowed across the space gap in the bulb to the cooler metal wire, producing a noticeable glow. He patented his Edison effect but did not exploit it. Later, this arrangement of the filament next to a metal grid proved to be a valuable design for the development of the electronic vacuum tubes used in radios and early television sets before the days of semiconductors and transistors. His two-filament tube was called a diode. Later others added a small grid of wires between Edisons hot negative filament and the cool positive metal plate. This design became known as a triode. Over the years the Edison effect has been

redesigned using semiconducting metals (instead of hot glass tubes) to construct small triode-like chips used in the integrated circuits for computers and other electronic devices. See also Bardeen; Esaki; Tesla; Shockley EHRLICHS DESIGNER DRUG HYPOTHESIS: Chemistry: Paul Ehrlich (1854 1915), Germany. Paul Ehrlich was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Using the molecular structure of synthetic compounds, specific pharmaceutical drugs can be designed and produced to treat specific disease. Aware of the aniline dyes (coal tar dyes) developed by the English chemist Sir William Henry Perkin (18381907) and how different dyes could stain animal fibers (e.g., wool and hair), Paul Ehrlich assumed these dyes could also differentially stain human tissue, cells, and components of cells. Using an aniline dye, scientists saw for the first time the chromosomes of cells, which Ehrlich called colored bodies. Other scientists identified specific germs that caused specific diseases. Ehrlich then hypothesized that because specific dyes will stain specific tissues selectively, it might be possible to design a chemical to attack specific types of germs that are also composed of specialized living material. This led to the theory that certain substances could act as magic bullets One of Thomas Edisons major contributions to research was his establishment of private, independent research laboratories. His first was in Menlo Park, New Jersey, that contained a large library and expensive equipment

and was staffed by over twenty technicians, including mathematicians and physicists. This laboratory produced many inventions that led to new industries and products that are widely used to this day. One for which he was internationally famous was the phonograph. His original model was a cylindrical device that recorded sound with a needle that formed the sounds imprints on tinfoil. Edison is also credited with the invention of many other devices, including moving pictures, types of office equipment, the storage battery, and many more. He received over one thousand patents in his lifetime and is considered the icon of inventors (although Nikola Teslas inventions are equally important in todays world). After coinventing the incandescent light with Swan, he raised enough money to form the Edison Electric Light Company that was limited to small sections of New York City because his system generated direct current unlike the alternating current system devised by Tesla that could send current over long distances. Teslas system was the beginning of todays large-scale power stations and national electric distribution systems. In 1887 Edison moved his laboratory to a larger facility in West Orange, New Jersey, and later established another laboratory outside of Fort Myers, Florida.

150 Ehrlichs Designer Drug Hypothesis and attack specific disease-causing organisms while not attacking normal healthy cells in the body. He also formulated his side-chain theory of immunity, which led to the development of synthetic chemical compounds designed specifically to attack microorganisms, and thus enable the body to establish immunity to those specific microorganisms. Although many coal tar dyes can cause disease, including some cancers, the large dye molecules can be manipulated to attack specific types of bacteria, such as those that cause sleeping sickness and syphilis. However, drugs derived from coal tars were not effective for treating other diseases, including streptococci and cancer. Ehrlich demonstrated that toxinantitoxin reactions are not only a chemical reaction but, like most chemical reactions, these specific types of reactions can also be accelerated by heat or retarded by cold. He also was able to develop a standard for which antitoxins could be more accurately measured. His work in immunology provided Ehrlich the information necessary for him to arrive at his theory for side-chain immunity. Paracelsus, the sixteenth-century alchemist, was known as the ancient founder of chemotherapy; Ehrlich is known as its modern founder. See also Koch; Domagk; Elion; Paracelsus EIGENS THEORY OF FAST IONIC REACTIONS: Chemistry: Manfred Eigen (1927), Germany. Manfred Eigen shared the 1967 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with George Porter and Ronald Norrish. Ionic solutions in equilibrium (same temperature and pressure) can be disarranged out of equilibrium by an electrical discharge or sudden change in pressure or temperature

resulting, within a short time, in the establishment of a new equilibrium. Manfred Eigen used the relaxation technique along with ultrasound absorption spectroscopy to determine that this reaction occurred in 1 nanosecond (one-billionth of a second). Using this information and his techniques for measuring fast reactions, he ascertained how water molecules are formed from the H (hydrogen ion) and the OH_ (hydroxide ion) to form H2O, or (H-O-H). He continued to use his fast reaction theory to explain complex reactions and characteristics of metal ions and, later, more complex organic biochemical reactions and nucleic acids. The theory of fast ion reaction is important to the understanding of chemical reactions in all types of living organisms. Understanding the steps involved in a series of mechanisms of fast reaction led to the development of the theory for the understanding of acid-base reactions. Following his work with fast reactions Manfred Eigen turned his attention to problems dealing with biochemistry, particularly with the chemistry involved with the storage of information in the central nervous system. EINSTEINS THEORIES, HYPOTHESES, AND CONCEPTS: Physics: Albert Einstein (18791955), United States. Albert Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. Einsteins theory for Brownian motion: The motion of tiny particles suspended in liquid is caused by the kinetic energy of the liquids molecules. In 1827 the Scottish botanist Robert Brown (17731858), while using a microscope, observed that pollen grains suspended in water were in constant motion, which he Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts 151 believed was caused by some life in the pollen. He added minute particles of nonliving

matter to water and observed the same motion. This phenomenon was not explained until the kinetic theory of molecular motion was discovered. Albert Einstein derived the first theoretical formula to explain why these small particles moved in a liquid when the particles themselves were not molecules. His equation was based on the concept that the average displacement of the particles is caused by the motion resulting from the kinetic energy of the molecules in the liquid. This resulted in a better understanding of the atomic and molecular activity of matter, and thus heat. Einsteins theory of the nature of light: Electromagnetic radiation propagated through space (vacuum) will act as particles (photons) as well as waves since such radiation is affected by electric and magnetic fields, and gravity. James Clerk Maxwell developed an equation stipulating that electromagnetic radiation can travel only as waves. This concept disturbed Einstein, as did the experiments by Philipp Lenard who had observed the photoelectric effect of ultraviolet light kicking electrons off the surface of some metals. It was determined that the number of electrons emitted from the metal was dependent on the strength (intensity) of the radiation. In addition, the energy of the electrons ejected was dependent on the frequency of the radiation. This did not jibe with classical physics. This dilemma was solved by Einsteins famous suggestion that electromagnetic radiation (light) flows not just in waves but also as discrete particles he called photons. Max Planck referred to these as quanta (very small bits). Using Plancks equation, E h v, where E stands for the energy of the radiation, h is Planks constant, and v is the frequency, Einstein was able to account for the behavior of light as massless particles with momentum (photons)

that have some characteristics of mass, for example, momentum (mass _ velocity), as well as characteristics of waves. It resulted in Einstein being awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics. Einsteins concept of mass: The at-rest mass of an object will increase as its velocity approaches the speed of light. When a body with mass is not moving, it is at rest as far as the concept of inertia is concerned, meaning it is resistant to movement by a force. An analogy would be sluggishness, inertness, or languidness in a human being. Once an at-rest mass is in motion (i.e., velocity), it attains momentum (mass _ velocity). When there is an increase in its velocity, there is also an increase in the bodys mass. Thus, if a mass attained the speed of light, it would not only require all the energy in the universe to accomplish this, but also would equal all the mass in the entire universe. Therefore, it is impossible for anything with mass (except electromagnetic radiation, i.e., light) to attain the speed of light. This is one reason that light must be considered as being both a wave and a particle. Newtons three laws that relate to mass and motion represent a classical, mechanistic concept of the universe. Newtons laws are deterministic based on the conservation of mass that states that matter cannot be created or destroyed. Although weight is proportional to mass, the weight of an object varies as to its position in reference to Earth (or other body with mass in the universe) and thus gravitational attraction, whereas the mass of an object is independent of gravity. The mass of an object (matter) is the same regardless of its location in the universe and thus is independent of gravity. At

the same time, one might say that in deep outer space, mass has near zero weight. Einsteins theories of relativity ultimately changed the Newtonian concepts of mass and motion. In modern physics, the mass of an object changes as its velocity changes, 152 Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts particularly as the velocity approaches the speed of light. This phenomenon is not noticeable on Earth because our everyday velocities are far less than that of light. For instance, the at-rest mass of an object will double when it attains a velocity of 160,000 miles per second. This is approaching the speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second, and even a very small mass is incapable of attaining the speed of light. When masses with extremely high velocities interact, nuclear reactions can occur, where mass can be converted into energythus the famous Einstein equation, E mc2, where E is the energy, m is the mass of the object, and c2 is the constant for the velocity of light squared. Einsteins theory of special relativity: 1) Physical laws are the same in all inertial reference systems. 2) The speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant. 3) Measurement of time and space are dependent on two different events occurring at the same time. 4) Space and time are affected by motion. An inertial reference system is a system of coordinates (anywhere in space) in which a body with mass moves at a constant velocity as long as no outside force is acting on it. From this concept, other components of the special theory of relativity follow. Albert Einsteins special theory of relativity provides an accurate and consistent description of events as they take place in different inertial frames of reference in the physical world, with the provision that the changes in space and time can be measured.

He developed the special theory of relativity to account for problems with the classical mechanistic system of physics. Many people had (and still do have) difficulty understanding his theory. In essence he is not describing the nature of matter or radiation, although he recognized their association. His theory describes the world or event, as it might look to two individuals in different frames of reference. For example, in classical Earth-bound physics, a person in a car going in one direction at 50 miles per hour (mph) meets a car approaching from the opposite direction going 100 mph. This describes how the speeds of the two cars are observed and judged (measured) independently by another person standing by the side of the road and not moving. But this does not apply to the drivers of two approaching cars. The driver in a car going 50 mph would perceive a car approaching him from the opposite direction at 100 mph, as going at 150 mph. Conversely, a driver who is going just 50 mph and is passed by another car going 100 mph in the same direction will perceive the passing car as going just 50 mph. This is just common sense and can be proved with classical equations of adding and subtracting velocities, which is known as Galilean transformations. However, this is not how it works with electromagnetic radiation waves such as the velocity of light. Einsteins theory states that the time between the two events (of the cars) is dependent on the motion of the cars. The special theory states that there is no absolute time or space. According to experiments by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley, the speed of light is independent of the motion (velocity) of its source or the observer. For instance, if both cars are traveling at astronomical speeds in space and one car is going twice as fast as the other car and both turned on a spotlight toward the approaching car, the light would travel the same speed in both (either) directions. One driver would not perceive the light as coming toward him at a greater speed than would the other driver

because they would judge the combined speeds of 50 and 100 mph of the two cars on earth. In contrast to Earth-bound car drivers, Einstein stated that despite how fast you are going, the speed of light will be constant for all frames of reference. The drivers of the two space cars, regardless of how fast they are going, will be in two different frames of reference of both time and space, but the speed of light will remain constant. Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts 153 Thus, from their individual frames of reference (points of view), they will not be aware of Earth-bound commonsense differences in their speeds. No matter how fast you go, the speed of light will always be the same, even if you are speeding in the same direction as the light being propagated. The theory later included the concept of the three Euclidean coordinates of spacewidth (x), height, (y), and depth (z)with the addition of the coordinate of time to arrive at a space-time continuum as developed by Hermann Minkowski. There is much confusion about the word relativity. In science, it is used as something relative to something else that can be measured mathematically or statistically. Specifically, Einsteins special theory of relativity is related to frames of reference as measured for the four coordinates of space and time (see also Minkowski). Einsteins principle of gravity: Gravity is the interaction of bodies equivalent to accelerating forces related to their influence on space-time. Gravity measurably affects the space-time continuum. There are two related concepts of gravity: the Newtonian classical concept and the Einsteinian concept related to his theories of relativity. Newtons law states that the gravitational attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of

the masses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, as expressed in F G m1m2 d2. Following is an example that relates acceleration to the force of gravity on Earth. If you are in a train or car that is traveling on a perfectly smooth surface and cannot see out the windows, you cannot tell if you are going backward, forward, or not moving at all if the vehicle is traveling at a uniform speed. But if the vehicle accelerates or decelerates, your senses will react as if gravity is affecting you. A person also becomes aware of G forces (simulated gravity) when a car or airplane rapidly accelerates. To sum this up, classical physics stated that all observers, regardless of their positions in the universe, moving or stationary, could arrive at the same measurement of space and time. Einsteins theories of relativity negate this concept because the measurements of space and time are dependent on the observers relative motions regardless of their inertial frames of reference within space coordinates. Einstein combined the ideas of several other physicists and mathematicians that dealt with non-Euclidean geometry, the space-time continuum, and calculus to formulate his gravitational theory. In essence, Einsteins concept of gravity affected space and time, as in his theory of general relativity. Even so, Einsteins concept of gravity was not quite correct because he did not take into account the information developed by quantum theory for very small particles and their interactions, even though these subatomic particles are much too small (or even massless) to be affected by Earths gravity. His concept dealt with the macro (very large) aspects of the universe. As with all other laws of physics, the laws concerning gravity are not exact. There still is room for statements that more precisely interpret the properties of nature. For Einstein, the interactions of bodies are really the influence

of these bodies (mass) on the geometry of space-time. For many decades, scientists have tried to explain gravitational waves in relation to the theories of relativity or some other principle. How gravity acts on bodies (mass) can be described, but exactly what gravity is or why it is has not been discerned. Another hypothesis is based on the theoretical particle called the graviton, proposed by quantum theory. Gravitons behave as if they have a zero electrical charge and zero mass. Although assumed to be similar to photons, they do have momentum (energy). The concepts of gravity waves and gravitons are still under investigation. Recently, there have been several experiments designed to detect the graviton. The space 154 Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts satellite Gravity Probe B was launched in 2004 and lasted until 2005 when the data analysis started. It was designed to measure general relativitys predicted framedragging effect by measuring the space-time curvature near the Earth. Also, National Science Foundation (NSF) has funded two land-based installations designed to directly detect gravity waves on Earth. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two installations, one in Hanford, Washington, and the other in Livingston, Louisiana, that operate in unison as a single observatory. Other experiments to detect and measure gravity waves and gravitons are planned. Einsteins theory of general relativity: The interactions of mass (as related to gravitational force) are really the influence of bodies (masses) on the geometry of space and time. Space and time are affected by gravity. This theory is based on two main ideas: that the speed of light is a universal constant in all frames of reference and that gravitational fields are equivalent to acceleration

for all frames of reference within the space-time continuum. The first proofs of the general theory of relativity came from astronomy. It explained the previously unknown reason for the variations in the motions of the planets. The theory then was used to predict the bending of starlight as it passed massive bodies, such as the sun, and as it was detected during a total eclipse. The theory also predicted that electromagnetic radiation in a strong gravitational field would shift the radiation to longer wavelengths. This was demonstrated by using the Mossbauer effect, which predicts the effects of a strong gravitational field on radiation. An experiment using a strong source of gamma radiation was set up just seventyfive feet above Earth to measure the gamma rays as they approached the surface of Earth. A minute lengthening of gamma rays (very short wavelength electromagnetic radiation) caused by the gravity of Earth was detected, thus confirming the theory. Einsteins unified field theory: A simple general law combining the four forces of nature (the electromagnetic force, gravitation, the strong force, and the weak force): 1. An electromagnetic force is exerted between electrical charges and magnetic fields. 2. Gravitational force is related to mass and acceleration and can affect electromagnetic radiation. Figure E1. Einstein predicted that light from stars located behind the sun can be viewed during an total eclipse. As the stars light passes the sun, it is bent toward Earth by the suns gravity, indicating that light has momentum (mass x velocity) and thus is affected by gravity leading to the theory that light is composed of minute packets (quanta) (i.e. photons). (The actual bending of the light is less than depicted in the diagram.) Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts 155

3. The gluon of the strong force holds the nuclei of atoms together. The positive protons and quarks in an atoms nucleus would repel each other and fly apart if it was not for the glueballs of the strong force that bind the quarks and protons. 4. The weak force is responsible for the slow nuclear processes that produce radiation, such as beta decay of the neutron to generate high-speed electrons. Albert Einstein spent the last thirty years of his life attempting to combine these four fundamental forces and the equations incorporating them into a general unified theory (GUT). He never achieved this goal. Einstein did not completely accept the new quantum theory, which did not lend itself to his concept for a unified field theory. One reason for not completely accepting quantum mechanics was because of the concept of indeterminacy where the exact position and momentum of a particle could not be determined at the same time. Thus, he considered that the fuzziness of matter was inconsistent with his concepts of relativity and the real world. Toward the end of his life and later, physicists used particle accelerators to separate and identify numerous particles and forces from atoms and their nuclei, which made the unified field theory impossible. But the idea is not completely dead. Today there are several efforts to combine or find symmetry between various theories of matter and energy. Some examples follow: The grand unification theory (GUT): an attempt to derive an equation to combine the strong and weak forces and explain how the particles of matter were dispersed from each other at the time of the big bang at speeds greater than the speed of light. The GUT has led to another concept referred to as the inflationary universe. The theory of everything (TOE): an attempt to state that there is only one simple

force and one ultimate particle in the universe. They have not been found. The string theory: a mathematical concept to explain everything in the universe with just one theory, based on the premise that all elementary subatomic particles are really strings that are single-dimensional loops, sometimes described as a doughnut folded over itself several times. Presumably the string theory has as few as ten or as many as twenty-six dimensions (not the three coordinates plus time with which we are familiar). Thus, it may not be related to the real universe but is an intriguing concept for mathematicians and theoretical physicists. When various mathematical equations and techniques are used to combine other mathematical equations into one final statement, the results always seem to come out as noise or lead to infinity. Even before his work on relativity and gravity he published several important papers before and during 1905 that addressed areas of theoretical physics that changed many scientific concepts of physics. In summary, these papers addressed the following topics: 1. One of his first papers dealt with the atomistic nature of the new science of thermodynamics. He considered the mechanical (Newtonian) view of the world intricately related to the second law of thermodynamics. 2. His next paper was the use of this concept to explain the Brownian motion of microscopic particles suspended in a fluid that led to the concept of the kinetic theory of motion and heat. 156 Einsteins Theories, Hypotheses, and Concepts

3. At the age of sixteen he wrote a paper explaining how time and motion are related to the observer if the speed of light is constant. This paper might be called the seed of his theories of relativity. 4. He published several papers that addressed why the Newtonian and Galilean laws of gravity, time, and space required an inertial frame of reference, as well as the compatibility of Maxwells equations and relatively. 5. He proposed a quantum hypothesis, particularly for light (photons). Even though this led to the development of quantum mechanics, and so forth, he had some difficulty in trying to incorporate relativity, gravity, quantum theory, and other ideas into an overall grand unification theory (GUT). Scientists are still trying to arrive at a theory of everything (TOE). See also Eddington; Galileo; Minkowski; Newton

EINTHOVENS THEORY THAT THE HEART GENERATES AN ELECTRIC CURRENT: Biology: Willem Einthoven (18601927), Netherlands. Einthoven was awarded the 1924 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. An accurate measurement of the electrical responses of the human heart can be made by viewing the magnetic lines of force that are proportional to the strength of the current that is produced by the heart, and thus indicating specific conditions of the heart. Willem Einthoven was not the first to consider that the living tissue of animals produces an electrical current that can be measured. In the eighteenth century Luigi Galvani experimented by touching a frogs leg with a discharge from a static electric machine. He then tried clamping a dissected frogs spinal cord and leg with a brass hook onto an iron railing during an electrical storm. The frogs muscles twitched. His deduction, which proved incorrect, was that the electricity was produced by the frogs tissue. Alessandro Volta, a contemporary of Galvani believed Galvanis theory to be flawed and set out to test the hypothesis. Volta demonstrated that, in actuality, a slight current was generated when two dissimilar metals (brass and iron of Galvanis original experiment) were brought together under moist conditions irrespective of the frogs tissue. In the late 1800s Augustus Waller (18561922), the French-born cardiologist, was the first to detect, as well as the first to attempt to measure, the electric current generated by the heart. Waller used a special type of meter to measure millivolts produced As a young boy Albert Einstein was shy but curious even though he did not talk until he was three years of age. He did not do particularly well in school except when he was introduced to subjects dealing with nature. He

had an ability to understand mathematical concepts and taught himself Euclidean geometry at twelve years of age. He left school at age fifteen but later entered a school in Switzerland. However, he disliked the methods of formal education and spent much of his school years studying physics on his own and playing his violin. He passed his graduation exams by studying his classmates notes but was not recommended for graduate education. He spent two years tutoring students and later was hired as an examiner in the Swiss patent office in 1902. He was married in 1903, had two sons, was divorced, remarried, and reportedly had ten mistresses later in life. He received his doctorate from the University of Zurich in 1905. He believed it important to simplify and unify the system of theoretical physics. Einthovens Theory that the Heart Generates an Electric Current 157 by the beating heart. His device was complicated to use as well as inaccurate unless the electrodes were actually placed directly on the heart. Wallers device also required a series of mathematical calculations. In 1901 Einthoven developed a series of prototypes that were called string galvanometers. They were complicated, but they worked. His string devices used a thin conductive wire filament suspended between a strong electromagnet. When a small current was passed through the wire in the magnetic field, the wire filament would move

slightly. By shining a light on the wire string a shadow would be cast that could make an image on a moving roll of photographic paper. His original string galvanometer weighed six hundred pounds, was water cooled to keep the powerful electromagnets cool, and required five people to operate it. Despite all these drawbacks, it was the first machine that could, with some degree of accuracy, measure the condition of the heart through the chest wall without attaching electrodes directly to the heart. Einthoven used his galvanometer to study and describe many cardiovascular disorders. The early string galvanometer was, over the years, improved to what we now call an electrocardiogram or electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) machines that are relatively small, portable diagnostic devices that can accurately determine many possible conditions of the human heart. See also Galvani; Volta EKMANS HYPOTHESIS OF THE CORIOLIS EFFECT ON OCEAN CURRENTS: Geology (Oceanography): Vagn Walfrid Ekman (18741954), Sweden. The effect of Earths rotation as well as other factors on ocean currents is more evident at the poles than at the equator. In the 1890s the Norwegian Arctic explorer Fridtjof Nansen (18611930) made an important observation. While sailing in the Arctic regions, he noted that drift ice did not move in the direction of the wind but rather deviated 45 degrees to the right. Ekman used this information in a 1905 publication On the Influences of the Earths Rotation on Ocean Currents in which he described the complex forces responsible for ocean currents. After observing ocean currents near the equator and the Arctic Circle, Ekman noted that near-surface water moves in the opposite direction to the motion of

the surface water resulting in a movement of water at right angles to the wind directions. In the Arctic the motion of the ice floes were determined by the currents that in turn were produced by a complex interaction between the forces of the surface wind, the friction between the different layers of water in the oceans, and most important, the rotation of the earth. The results of these complex forces creating variations of water velocity with depth of forces became known as the Ekman spiral. The Ekman Spiral is also a good example of the Coriolis force interacting with other forces. Sir George Biddell Airy based his theory of internal waves and dead water on the work of Vagn Walfrid Ekman. The region of dead water in the oceans is caused by a thin layer of freshwater that is produced by melting Arctic freshwater ice spreading over the sea that forms waves between the layers of fresh and saltwater that are at different concentrations, thus at different densities. This phenomenon has been known to slow down or even stop a sailing ships progress. In 1903 Ekman developed what is known as the Ekman current meter to detect and measure the differences in ocean 158 Ekmans Hypothesis of the Coriolis Effect on Ocean Currents currents. It could also measure the strength and direction of ocean currents. Over the years it was improved. Today, high-precision instruments are used to measure various factors affecting ocean currents. See also Airy; Coriolis ELDREDGEGOULD THEORY OF PUNCTUATED EVOLUTION: Biology: Niles Eldredge (1943) and Stephen Jay Gould (19412002), United States. Evolution of species and individuals by natural selection results from pressure brought about by relatively rapid changes in the environment. The paleontologists Eldredge and Gould found 1) patterns in the fossil records indicate

the abrupt appearance of new species, 2) evidence suggests the relatively stable morphology of present species, 3) there is wide distribution of transitional fossils, 4) there are apparent differences in the morphology between older parent species and current daughter species, and 5) distinct patterns can be found in extinct species. All of this evidence led to their theory of punctuated evolution. Punctuated evolution is also referred to as punctuated equilibria or, at times, as catastrophism. Although still accepting many of the tenets of slow organic evolution, such as natural selection, their theory claims the evidence indicates that long periods of slow evolution were punctuated by very rapid environmental changes. Presumably, earthquakes, volcanoes, meteors or asteroid bombardments, or other catastrophes altered the atmosphere and thus the food supply and hastened other rapid changes in the Figure E2. Several forces (surface winds, Coriolis Force, layers of water, etc.) create complex variations of water velocity and direction at various depths. EldredgeGould Theory of Punctuated Evolution 159 environment. In other words, the abrupt appearance of a new species is the result of ecological succession and dispersion. One possible example is a 10-kilometer asteroid that impacted about sixty-five million years ago in Chicxulub, located in Mexicos Yucatan, which exploded dirt and other matter into the atmosphere, blocking sunlight. It is generally accepted as causing the elimination of most plant life on Earth. Once plant life was eliminated, so were the dinosaurs and many other animal species. Some primitive forms of life, such as bacteria, minute multicellular organisms, seeds, and small animals,

survived and continued to evolve into new species. There are a number of large gaps in the fossil records of early organisms that indicate that evolution may not have been a continuous slow process, but new species were derived from the survivors of catastrophic ecological events. On the other hand, some of these gaps in the fossil records could be an indication that soft-bodied organisms were not fossilized during certain periods of Earths development. Today most scientists accept the concept that the continuing evolution of species is driven by natural selection. However, there is disagreement concerning the mechanisms of how and why new species appear, and how long it takes for genetic mutations and environmental changes to appear in organisms. One of the problems is paleospecies which makes a distinction between the classifications of ancient fossils as compared to the classification of the remains of species found in more recently observed populations. An incomplete fossil record may be created by several factors including geological and geographic changes, such as continental drift, mountain building, overlapping of stratified sedimentary layers of Earth, and other forces that have altered Earths surface over time and amplifies the problem of paleospecies. See also Buffon; Darwin; Gould; Lamarck; Wallace ELIONS THEORY FOR CELL DIFFERENCES: Biochemistry: Gertrude Belle Elion (19181991), United States. Gertrude Elion shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George Herbert Hitchings and James Whyte Black. Nitrogen-based molecular compounds (purines) found in the nucleic acid of abnormal cells can be altered to cause death to the abnormal cells without causing death to normal

cells, thus, a drug can be designed to kill the abnormal cells that cause normal cells to die. Gertrude B. Elion was born, raised, and educated in New York City during a period when few women joined the ranks of physicians yet alone research scientists. After receiving a degree in chemistry from Hunter College at the age of 19, she was unable to get into graduate school primarily because of financial considerations brought about by the Depression. However, she had a variety of jobs to pay for a masters degree in chemistry. She was the only female in the class of 1941 in New York Universitys masters degree program. During World War II when many men went off to war, a job opened at Burroughs Wellcome Laboratory working with Dr. George Hitchings (19051998) who allowed her to conduct her own basic research in virology and immunology. At this time she began her studies for a doctorate but never finished, which she always regretted. While at Wellcome, she began studying nucleotides and purines and how they might be chemically altered and used as drugs for specific diseases. This was some years before James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA. 160 Elions Theory for Cell Differences The team of Elion and Hitchings developed several compounds designed to cure leukemia. They were tested on mice but proved to be too deadly for use on humans. By rearranging the structure of purine compounds, they developed the drug called 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) that was approved for use with patients with terminal leukemia. It proved to be effective when used

as part of a treatment with other drugs. Since 1988 about 80% of children suffering from acute leukemia can be considered as cured. During the mid-twentieth century organ transplants were performed, but many of the transplanted organs were rejected by the recipients own immune system. The immune system produces antibodies in white blood cells called lymphocytes that are designed to fight infections. Organs that were transplanted from one person to another were seen as foreign to the immune system (with the exception of organs from identical twins). Elion improved on the drug she called 6-MP so that it was more effective in controlling the production of the white blood cells. Thus, the immune system would not reject the implantation of the organ of one person to another. This made possible the thousands of organ implants performed today. Elion, Hitchings, and the Scottish pharmacologist James Black (1924) realized that a form of their designer drug 6-MP was altered in the body by an enzyme that also was responsible for the formation of uric acid. When the body produces an excess of uric acid, it results in a painful condition known as gout. A compound called allopurinol would block the production of uric acid and proved very effective for the control of excess uric acid and thus the relief of gout. Today, with modern medications gout is one of the easiest human conditions to treat successfully in a short period of time. Research at the Burroughs Wellcome laboratory continued to develop other designer drugs. Some were variations of the original 6-MP version designed specifically to control

high blood pressure (Propranolol), gastric ulcers (Tagamet), and AIDS. Upon retirement, Gertrude Elion worked for the World Heath Organization. Although she never received her PhD, she did receive many honors and several honorary doctorate degrees. ELTONS THEORY OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY: Biology: Charles Sutherland Elton (19001991), England. As more species arrive in a given area, space and resources become a limiting factor, restricting the habitat and resulting in the extinction of some species while other species adapt to their limited (changed) environment. Charles Elton, an early student of the science of ecology, performed many of his animal ecology studies on Bear Island off the coast of Norway. Elton named his concept packing, evidenced by the islands limited number of existing species, which resulted from specialized evolution within the islands limited environment. He surmised that a Figure E3. Elion and Hitchings altered a dangerous drug so it could be used to fight leukemia. They changed the structure of a purine compound to form a new drug called 6-MP that was more effective. Eltons Theory of Animal Ecology 161 species place in the ecological environment is directly related to the availability of food as well as its predators. This idea led Elton to advance for the first time the concept of an interactive food chain, called a food cycle and often referred to as the food

web. Bear Islands geology was suited to a limited number of plant species, which became food for the islands birds. The birds then became food for a limited number of the islands mammal species, which completed the islands community of species, and food chain. Because the mammals and most other species of organisms on the island could not migrate to escape any limitations of the packing imposed by environmental conditions, they would be subject to different evolutionary pressures than would exist if the animals were located in much larger, diverse environments. Animals living in an environment with a widespread limited number of species can practice environmental selection by migrating to change their habitat. Eltons theory of how a limited environment affects the types and distribution of plant and animal species is considered an important contribution to the theory of evolution. However, some question its applicability to humans despite humans ability to change their environment to make it more suitable for habitation. See also Darwin; De Vries; Dobzhansky; Haeckel; Wallace ENDERS THEORY FOR CULTIVATION OF VIRUSES: Microbiology: John Franklin Enders (18971985), United States. John Enders, Frederick C. Robbins, and Thomas H. Weller shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Viruses can be cultivated in test tubes by using selected live cells from animals with the addition of the penicillin antibiotic that will prevent bacterial growth in the culture, thus producing a safe and effective vaccine. John Enders, the son of a wealthy banker, attended Yale and Harvard Universities. While in college, he had difficulty in deciding on a career. In 1917 he left college to become a flight instructor during World War I. He later became a real estate agent and

then entered Harvard to study languages. While at Harvard, he became interested in biology and changed his major to microbiology after entering Harvard Medical School. Prior to 1948 whole live chick embryos, as well as the nerve cell tissues of live monkeys, were experimentally used to develop treatments for human viral diseases. However, the results were unsatisfactory. It was inconvenient and cumbersome to use live chick embryos, and live monkey nerve tissue created problems of rejection in the human body. John Enders established an Infectious Disease Laboratory in 1946 at The Boston Childrens Medical Center and was the first to use just the living cells and not the entire living embryos in the development of viral cultures. In 1948, along with two other Americans, Frederick C. Robbins (19162003), a pediatrician and virologist, and Thomas H. Weller (1915), also a virologist, he cultured the mumps virus using chick embryo cells mixed with ox serum and some added penicillin. He hypothesized that by adding penicillin to the viral culture, it would result in an attenuated virus, and thus a more effective treatment for several viral diseases would be possible. This was a continuation of the work on the mumps virus that he, along with several others, had begun in 1941. A similar improved technique was used to cultivate the poliomyelitis virus in 1949 and later in 1950 the measles virus. Enders, Robbins, and Weller received the Nobel Price in 1954 for their work on the poliomyelitis virus, an especially crippling 162 Enders Theory for Cultivation of Viruses and deadly disease of young children. Through their research, large quantities of the polio virus were produced and analyzed. Eventually this led to the mass manufacture and distribution of Sabin and Salk polio vaccines. It should be noted that the time period between the successful cultivation of a viral vaccine and its actual introduction

into the general population is significant and not without setbacks. A successful polio vaccination program was not established until 1963; measles and mumps vaccine programs were developed in the late 1960s. Research on improvements to all these vaccines continued for sometime even after their widespread use. See also Robbins; Sabin EOTV OS RULE (LAW): Physics: Baron Roland von Eotvos (18481919), Hungary. There is a measurable relationship that relates surface tension, temperature, density, and the molecular mass of a liquid. This law explains why surface tension causes water to rise on the inside walls of a capillary tube (a capillary tube is a glass tube with a very small diameter hole through its length). This action is due to the rounded shape of drops of water that causes them to slightly rise on and cling to the inside surface of the glass tube forming a concave surface on the water. The same force applies to the shape of the surface water in a drinking glass, but it is not as noticeable. Evotos devised a unique technique and device called the reflection method that made it possible to compare and measure the surface tension of various liquids. Using this sensitive reflection device, he was able to determine the surface tensions of several liquids and thus calculate their molecular weights. This relationship became known as Eotvos rule that, in essence, states: The rate of change of molar surface energy with temperature is a constant for all liquids. This rule is so fundamental to all liquids that it is compared to the universal gas law. During the last decades of his life, Eotvos conducted detailed studies of gravity, magnetism, and geophysics in general. In 1888 he developed an instrument, called the

torsion balance, designed to measure and to determine any difference between inertial and gravitational forces. It was constructed as a bar with two weights made of different materials attached at the end of the bar by a thin torsion fiber (this is similar to Cavendishs experimental instrument used to measure gravity). Eotvos decided to use this instrument on the smooth surface of a large frozen lake so as to minimize topological features that might interfere with sensitive measurements on land. By 1903 he had collected measurements from forty different locations. Later, his torsion balance data from the lake measurements were used to determine that the lakes axis was parallel to a tectonic line. This was the first time such geological data was established by use of a torsion balance and is now considered the birth of the field of geophysics research. Eotvos also developed an instrument called the gravity compensator, which was somewhat similar to a variometer that is curved with deflectors at both ends. The instrument could be rotated around a horizontal axis with the deflectors oriented in a vertical position to measure a zero balance. By changing the position of the deflectors, gravity could be measured with some accuracy. He also was concerned with the two forces that affect massthe inertial force that is apparent when a force accelerates a mass, and the gravitational force that the mass experiences due to attraction to another mass. He determined that the difference between inertial to gravitational mass is very small, something like 1 to 20,000,000. Eotvos Rule (Law) 163 The Eotvos effect was experimentally demonstrated by considering the motion of boats in the water, as well as the effects of gravity on the boats. This effect was based

on his experiments that indicated the weight of a moving body on Earths surface is dependent on its direction and speed. In other words, the weight of the boat on Earths surface changed as a result of the direction and speed at which they were proceeding. This experiment was conducted by observing one boat heading east and one west. This Eotvos effect is important in the study of gravity. Eotvos was also interested in measuring magnetism. Using his torsion balance he determined the declination and inclination of Earths magnetic field at various points on Earth. Evotvos attempted, however unsuccessfully, to determine Earths magnetic inclination in past eons of time. Today it is known that the geo and magnetic poles have shifted since the beginning of Earths existence. See also Cavendish ERASISTRATUS THEORY OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: Biology: Erasistratus of Chios (c.304250 BCE), Greece. A three-way network of veins, arteries, and nerves supplies every organ and other tissues of the body with vital fluids; and the brain is composed of two sections with many folds and convolutions. Erasistratus of Chios (or Kos), which is an island off the coast of Greece in the Aegean Sea, founded an independent medical school for the study of anatomy and physiology of the human body. As with all the ancients, Erasistratus ideas were mixed with both correct and incorrect assumptions. For instance, he rejected the humoral theory and incorrectly believed that air was pulled into the body by the blood as the blood moved upward in the body. He rejected the belief that the body was filled throughout with three kinds of vessels (veins, arteries, and nerves), and in the extremities of the

body these vessels became so fine that they were invisible (today, they are known as capillaries). He was correct in his general theories of how organs in the body functioned, but his concepts of the actual physiology were often wrong. The many mistaken concepts of anatomy and physiology of these ancient times were the result of the acceptance of the writings of others, theosophical reasoning, or simply inaccurate observation. One example was his correct belief that the veins transported blood, but that the arteries and nerve tissues transported animal spirits. Erasistratus was the first person to make a distinction between the main parts of the brain. He identified the cerebrum as the larger portion and the cerebellum as the smaller part. He was also the first to note that the human brain had more folds or convolutions and thus more surface area than did the brains of other animals. From this he correctly concluded that this larger surface area was partially responsible for the greater intelligence of humans when compared with animals. His theory that the brain was the seat of intelligence was at odds with Aristotle who considered intelligence to be in the heart. Erasistratus also disavowed the occult and its forces. Rather, he explained the existence of matter in terms of atoms (as proposed by Democritus of Abdera). An example: To explain bleeding from arteries, he believed that a vacuum was formed in the artery as the blood flowed out and that the artery was filled with blood again by the connecting veins. In other words, a vacuum cannot existit must be filled with something (atoms of 164 Erasistratus Theory of Anatomy and Physiology blood), and in this case more fluid from the veins. In addition, Erasistratus concept of disease was opposite of the long-held beliefs of Hippocrates. Erasistratus concept of disease

was mechanistic in the sense that the blood, fluids, spirits, food, and so forth provided a means of blocking any inflammation of the vessels in the human body. See also Aristotle; Democritus; Galen; Hippocrates ERATOSTHENES MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS: Astronomy: Eratosthenes of Cyrene (c.276 BCE194 CE), Greece. Eratosthenes theory of prime numbers: From a list of ordered numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,) strike out every second number after 2, every third number after 3, every fourth number after 4, and so on. The remaining numbers in the original list will be prime numbers. Eratosthenes of Cyrene, a poet, historian, and mathematician, developed the system of filtering, which became known as the sieve of Eratosthenes. Using his sieve procedure, the prime number is a positive integer that has no divisors except the integer itself and the first number selected. For example, select 2, for which the next two numbers are 3 and 4. Strike out 4, which is an integral multiple of the original number 2. A prime number is a positive integer having no divisors except itself and the integer (where the integer is any number, except zero, used for counting). Eratosthenes concept of measuring the circumference of Earth: At the summer solstice (June 21) when the sun is at its zenith in the city of Syene (Aswan), it will be 1/50th of a full circle when measured by the angle of the sun at the city of Alexandria at the same time on the same day. Eratosthenes of Cyrene knew that on June 21 the sun cast no shadow in the bottom of a water well in Syene. Therefore, on this date and at this point, the sun was at its zenith. At the same time, he measured the angle of the shadow from a stick placed upright in the ground at the city of Alexandria, which he knew was five thousand stadia

from Syene (stadia is the plural for the Greek stadium, the unit of measurement based on the length of the course in a stadium. It is equal to about 607 feet). Eratosthenes knew how many stadia a camel can walk in one day, so to estimate the distance between the cities he multiplied the distance a camel walks in one day by the number of days it took a camel caravan to make the journey. We now know that Syene (now called Aswan) is about 800 kilometers or 500 miles southeast of Alexandria in Egypt. On June 21 at Alexandria the angle of the sticks shadow was 7_12, which corresponds to about 1/50th of a 360_ circle. Multiplying 5,000 stadia by 50 equals 250,000 stadia as Earths circumference. Eratosthenes calculation was very close to todays accepted equatorial circumference of 24,902 miles. Using similar measurements Eratosthenes was able to calculate the tilt of Earth to its axis (the ecliptic, which is the inclination of Earths equator to its orbital plane) as 23_5120, which is also close to the modern figure of 23.4 degrees. Modern calculations still use Eratosthenes geometric and algebraic methodologies to arrive at the current figures. Using his method it was also estimated that the distance between the earth and the sun was 804,000,000 stadia and the distance to the moon was 780,000 stadia. ERNSTS THEORY OF THE MAGNETIC MOMENT OF ATOMIC NUCLEI: Chemistry: Richard Robert Ernst (1933), Switzerland. Richard Ernst received the 1991 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Ernsts Theory of the Magnetic Moment of Atomic Nuclei 165 Atomic nuclei have a magnetic moment that will align with strong magnetic fields, thus submitting the nuclei to specific pulsating frequencies of radio waves that can alter

the nucleis magnetic moment. In the 1940s the AustrianAmerican physicist Isidor Rabi, Swiss physicist Felix Bloch (19051983), and the American physicist Edward Purcell developed the technology of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to probe and study characteristics of the nuclei of simple molecules. Nuclei have a natural polarity that align themselves with strong magnetic fields. By exposing them to selected frequencies of radio waves, nuclei realign themselves in a new energy state. When the radio waves are removed, they return to their original energy state, giving off specific radiation that can be used to identify the nuclei. Richard Ernst subjected larger protein (organic molecules) to pulsating high-energy radio waves, which provided a means to produce images of living tissue. The process was originally called nuclear resonance because it excited the nuclei of atoms. However, the name was changed because people still mistakenly connect the nuclei of atoms resonated by NMR with the nuclear energy released by the atomic bomb. Once the process was improved, with better imaging techniques that could view cross sections of the human body, a similar process became known as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is still based on the magnetic moment of atomic nuclei). Magnetic resonance imaging provides a better series of images than X-rays. With no danger of radiation exposure, MRI is safer than X-rays because the radio radiation used is of a much longer wavelength and lower frequency than X-rays. The improved images have greatly assisted diagnostic procedures for the medical profession because of its ability to detect various abnormalities in the body more accurately than X-rays. See also Mansfield

ESAKIS THEORY OF TUNNEL DIODES: Physics: Leo Esaki (1925), also known as Esaki Reona or Esaki Leona, Japan. Leo Esaki shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson. By doping semiconductors with selected impurities, the quantum wave-like nature of electrons could tunnel through barriers resulting in diode-like properties. In effect as the voltage increases, the flow of electrons in a circuit will decrease, and vice versa. Some background on Esakis theory of tunnel diodes may help explain the theory and the tunneling device and how it works. When Thomas Edison was experimenting with his light bulbs, he observed that carbon from the filaments would darken the inside of the glass bulbs. He experimented with several solutions. One was to place a piece of metal alongside the filament (close, but not touching each other) with the expectation that the metal strip would collect the carbon rather than its being deposited on the inside of the glass bulb. This piece of metal was called a plate, and when it received a positive charge (the filament was negatively charged by the battery), the current continued to flow even though there was a small space between the plate and filament. However, he noticed that if the plate received a negative charge instead of a positive charge, there was no flow of current. This phenomenon was later called the 166 Esakis Theory of Tunnel Diodes Edison effect and was the only new scientific principle he discovered. Edison patented this phenomenon but never exploited his discovery. Later, others used this effect in devising what is known as the cathode ray tube where a hot filament gives off electrons. When a positive plate was introduced into the tube, the electrons

would flow toward the plate similar to a completed electrical circuit even though there was no connection between the filament and plate. If the plate was negatively charged, there would be no flow of electrons to it by the filament, thus it would act as an on-off switch to control the flow of current (see Figure C6 under Crookes). In the 1880s John Ambrose Fleming rediscovered the Edison effect and called the device a valve. Because it had two partsthe filament and plateit was also called a diode because it had two elements and soon became familiar as the old-fashioned radio vacuum tube. In 1906 Lee De Forest (18731961), the American inventor, added a third filament made of fine wires in the form of a grid placed between the two-diode elements. This third filament grid could be supplied with its own flow of electrons and thus act to control the flow of electrons between the two filaments. Thus, the vacuum tube with three filaments became known as a triode. In a diode, the electrons either flow or do not flow, similar to an on-off switch, whereas in a triode the flow of electrons can be modulated enabling the triode vacuum tube to act as an amplifier of current electricity, and as a receiving device to pick up and amplify radio and TV signals. Herein lies the gist of the next phase of the story of how the Edison effect led to the development of the tunneling diode switch at the quantum level by Leo Esaki. In 1958 Esaki doped the element germanium. Doping is a process of adding specific impurities to elements that alter their semiconducting characteristics at the quantum level. Thus, as the voltage increases, the current (amount of electricity) decreases, thus allowing the flow of electrons to tunnel through what is known as the narrow p-n (positive-negative) junction barrier created by the electrons valence state. Classical mechanics states that wave-like matter cannot pass through such barriers, but by

doping the semiconductors with selected impurities the quantum wave-like nature of electrons could tunnel through this barrier resulting in diode-like properties. In effect as the voltage increases, the flow of electrons in the circuit will decrease, and vice versa. In other words the semiconductor now acts as a diode, but with several advantages over the vacuum radio tube. The tunnel diode is much, much smaller than the vacuum tube (today this type of diode is known as a semiconducting chip). They consume much less power, produce much less heat, and are much more reliable and last much longer. Other improvements in quantum-level microchips, transistors, and integrated circuits, and so forth have made the concept of tunneling diodes indispensable for todays many types of electronics with fast speeds, small sizes, and reduced internal noise created by the circuits as they use much less electric power. See also Bardeen; Edison; Shockley EUCLIDS PARADIGM FOR ALL BODIES OF KNOWLEDGE: Mathematics: Euclid (c.330260 BCE), Greece. It is postulated that all theorems must be stated as deductions arrived at as selfevident propositions or axioms for which a person can use only propositions already proved by other axioms. Euclids Paradigm for All Bodies of Knowledge 167 First, some definitions: A paradigm in geometry is the general plan for the development of the logical statement. In science, it is referred to as a ruling theory or a dominant hypothesis.

A postulate claims something is true or is the basis for an argument, such as in geometry. Euclid set out five postulates: 1) A straight line can be drawn between two points. 2) A straight line can be drawn in either direction to infinity. 3) A circle can be drawn with any given center and radius. 4) all right angles are equal. 5) A unique line parallel to another line can be constructed through any point not on the line (parallel lines never meet). A theorem in mathematics is a proven proposition. Deduction is a method of gaining knowledge. A deduction is inferred in the statement if-then (from the general to the specific). A proposition is a statement with logical constraints and fixed values (e.g., if proposition A is true, then proposition B must also be true). An axiom is a self-evident principle that is accepted. Several equivalent synonyms for axiom are primitive proposition, presupposition, assumption, beginning postulate, and a priori. An example of one of Euclids axioms is 1) things that are equal to the same thing are equal to each other; 2) if equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal; 3) if equals are subtracted from equals, the remainders are equal; 4) things that coincide with one another are equal to one another; 5) the whole is greater than any one of its parts. These five axioms can be summarized as, The whole is equal to the sum of its parts. Euclids paradigm for knowledge led to his great achievement in the field of plane geometry. He brought together the many statements related to geometry into a logical, systematic form of mathematics. Euclids elements, written in about 300 BCE, included thirteen books of what was then known in the field of geometry to which he applied his paradigm. It is still valid today.

EUDOXUS THEORY OF PLANETARY MOTION: Astronomy: Eudoxus of Cnidus (c. 400350 BCE). To account for the irregular motion of the planets, earth must be at rest and surrounded by twenty-seven celestial spheres. Eudoxus of Cnidus was one of the first ancient astronomers to attempt to account mathematically for the irregular motions of the planets and still maintain Earth as the center of the universe. His system required not only a motionless Earth, but also twenty-seven crystal-like celestial spheres. The sun and moon each had three spheres, and each of the known planets required four spheres to account for their motions. The outermost twenty-seventh sphere contained all the fixed stars; beyond that were the heavens (see Figure P5 under Ptolemy.) Eudoxus was able to describe mathematically the rising of the fixed stars and constellations over the period of one year. See also Aristotle; Euclid; Ptolemy 168 Eudoxus Theory of Planetary Motion EULERS CONTRIBUTIONS IN MATHEMATICS: Mathematics: Leonhard Euler (17071783), Switzerland. Eulers three-body problem: The motions of an object moving three ways simultaneously can be predicted using Newtons three laws of motion. One example of how a body can move in three different directions at the same time is Earths rotating on its axis, revolving about the sun, and proceeding as part of the solar system toward a distant galaxy. Leonhard Euler, interested in determining the motions of the moon, used analytical techniques that could be applied to the problem

to derive a form of mechanics. He also devised a system to analyze how the three Newtonian laws of motion and gravity affected objects that exhibited three-way movements. Eulers equation was based on Newtons dynamics called the mass point, for a body that contains mass and is rotating about a point. Eulers equations of motion state that a set of three different equations will express the relationships between the 1) force of moments, 2) angular velocities, and 3) angular accelerations of a rigid but rotating body (e.g., Earth). From this he developed two theories for the motion of the moon that proved to be an asset for sea navigation. These motions of the moon were used before dependable clocks became available to determine longitude (see also Newton). Eulers theory of notations: It is possible to use notations such as sines, tangents, and ratios when the radius of a circle equals 1. Euler introduced notations in algebra and calculus that Lagrange, Gauss, Leibniz, Einstein, and others followed. He developed an infinite series of numbers that included notations such as ex sin x, and cos x and the relation of eix cos x i sin x. Euler also wrote the first text on analytical geometry that explains such concepts as prime number theory, differential and integral calculus, and differential equations. The contributions made by Leonhard Euler are numerous, including several important mathematical equations, formulae, methods, constants, criteria, correlations, and numbers that were important to the development of mathematical theories by other mathematicians. See also Einstein; Eratosthenes; Leibniz EVERETTS MULTIPLE-UNIVERSE THEORY OF REALITY: Physics: Hugh Everett III (19301982), United States.

The wave function of quantum mechanics describes alternate outcomes of events in the same universe. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, as proposed by Niels Bohr, the quantum mechanical wave function states that only a statistical probability is possible for any explicit event to occur. This traditional interpretation applies only to submicroscopic particles, not to the Newtonian macro world. Even Einstein had a problem with the quantum principle of uncertainty of determining a particles position and momentum at the same time because at this level the principle of causeandeffect may not apply. Hugh Everett proposed a different interpretation. He suggested that every possible outcome that may occur as an event could actually do so in the same universe, or possibly in multiple universes. Everetts interpretation, also referred to as the many world interpretation or the relative-state model, discounts the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum wave function. His concept relates to as Everetts Multiple-Universe Theory of Reality 169 many large and small events and as many outcomes as one could possibly arrive at when measuring the universe. Some scientists discount his theory, but others are attempting to develop a new quantum theory that eliminates the special role of an observer from the process. It seems the observer may account for Heisenbergs uncertainty principle of indeterminacy. Therefore, if the observer is eliminated so might the uncertainty. Another possible means of justifying Everetts concept of a many-worlds universe is to use probability theory. The main objection to his theory is that it either requires many different outcomes from the same cause in one universe or it requires many parallel universes that do not communicate with each other.

See also Bohr; Feynman; Hawking; Heisenberg; Schrodinger; Schwarzschild EWINGS HYPOTHESIS FOR UNDERSEA MOUNTAIN RIDGES: Geology: William Maurice Ewing (19061974), United States. The thin crust of the ocean floor enables the sea floor to spread, producing the upward movement of basalt rock and the formation of massive, long, worldwide underwater mountain ridges. William Ewing, a geophysicist and oceanographer, employed seismic reflection technology to determine that the crust of the ocean floor is only 3 to 5 miles deep, as compared to the depth of 25 to 60 miles for the land crust. He was also aware that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge had been detected in 18651866 when the intercontinental communication cable was laid across the ocean floor. His theory extended the ocean ridge system to over 40,000 miles of underwater mountains worldwide. Ewing and the American geologist Bruce Charles Heezen (19241977) discovered the Great Global Rift, a split in one of the major submerged ranges that created a gap deeper and wider than the Grand Canyon. His theory led to the concept for the movement of continents and the six major tectonic plates, of which five support the continents while the sixth plate forms the Pacific Ocean, causing earthquakes and volcanoes to occur along the boundaries where these plates meet. Today the concepts of plate tectonics, continental drift, and midocean ridges and rifts are well-established phenomena which indicate that Earth is a dynamic planet. EYRINGS QUANTUM THEORY OF CHEMICAL REACTION RATES: Chemistry: Henry Eyring (19011981), United States. It is possible to determine the rate at which molecules break up and form new molecules

by calculating the surfaces of the atoms and molecules involved as related to the temperature of the chemical reaction by using statistical quantum mechanics. It had been known for many decades that the rate at which a chemical reaction takes place is dependent on temperature (as well as some other factors). This relationship can be expressed by the following formula: k Ae E/RT, where k is the frequency rate of the chemical reaction, Ae is the energy involved in the reaction, and T is the temperature of the reaction. Henry Eyrings extensive work as a creative chemist was most evident in the field of chemical kinetics as related to quantum mechanics. Based on the work of other 170 Ewings Hypothesis for Undersea Mountain Ridges scientists who indicated that a relationship between energy levels of molecules and their surfaces could be calculated using quantum mechanics, Eyring determined that the energy required to start a chemical reaction must be overcome to begin the reaction. The formula that explains this concept is very complex and mainly involves temperature, but other stress factors may be plugged into the formula that determines the rate at which a particular chemical reaction will occur.

The Eyring theory has become known as the Eyring model because it can be applied in many situations involving multiple stresses. It can also be used to determine the degradation and failure date of systems, and how temperature is related to failed materials and mechanisms. One drawback of the Eyring model is that it does not directly address other stress factors. Thus, many simplified versions of the formula have been devised to address specific types of stress other than temperature. Henry Eyring, the son of American Mormon missionaries who became Mexican citizens, was born and raised on a cattle ranch in Juarez, Mexico. During one of Mexicos many revolutions, the family was forced to cross the border to El Paso, Texas, and soon moved to Pima, Arizona, where the young Henry finished high school. He entered the College of Eastern Arizona and in 1919 received a fellowship to the University of Arizona, receiving a degree in mining engineering and chemistry. He was an affable young man with great curiosity and high intelligence who decided to work on a PhD in chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1931 to 1949 he was an instructor, and later in 1938 a professor of chemistry at Princeton University. His last appointment was as dean of the Graduate

School at the University of Utah where he remained until retirement in 1966. Eyrings Quantum Theory of Chemical Reaction Rates 171 F FABRICIUS THEORY OF EMBRYOLOGY: Biology: Girolamo Fabrizio (1537 1619), Italy. The chalazae (spiral threads that suspend the yolk inside the egg) produce the chick embryo, while the sperm, yolk, and albumen of the egg merely furnish nourishment for the forming embryo. Although Fabricius theory about the formation of the chick embryo was incorrect, he based his ideas on direct, but misconstrued observations. He did, somewhat accurately, describe the development of the chick embryo in the egg from the sixth day of fertilization. However, he did not realize the importance of male semen in the fertilization process or the earliest periods of embryonic development. He also studied the early developmental stages of eggs and placenta tissues of many vertebrates including mammals, reptiles, and sharks, in addition to birds and chicken embryos. His research led to the publication of two books: De formato foetu (On the formation of the fetus) in 1600, and De formatione ovi et pulli (On the development of the egg and chick) in 1612. These books contained well-drawn, descriptive illustrations based on his many observations and are considered to be the beginning of embryology as a field in the biological sciences. As was common in the past, he had several names. Fabricius Hieronymus was his Latin name; Fabrizo dAcquapendente is the name he was given for the town in which he was born, and his Italian name was Geronimo Fabrizio. Fabricius was not only a student of the great anatomist Gabriello Fallopius but he succeeded him as head professor

of anatomy at the University of Padua, teaching there for fifty years. While at Padua, he built the first known anatomy theater that was used for demonstrations and the teaching of anatomy. It still exists today and continues to be used for surgical demonstrations. He was also the mentor to William Harvey, the renowned English physician and anatomist. Some of Fabricius research involved studies of the larynx, esophagus, respiration, muscle reactions, the stomach and intestines, the eye, and ear, all of which were done with animals rather than humans. At this time in history, dissections on human cadavers were extremely limited, often unlawful, and rare. He was the first to demonstrate the existence of valves within veins, although he had no idea of the function of these folds of tissue within veins. His student William Harvey followed up on this discovery and became noted for his study and description of the bodys circulatory system. Although Fabricius retired from his position at Padua after fifty years as professor of anatomy, he continued his research until he died at age eighty-six. FAHRENHEITS CONCEPT OF A THERMOMETER: Physics: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (16861736), Germany. The temperature required to reach the boiling point for a liquid varies as to the atmospheric pressure. Thus pressure affects the temperature reading. Daniel Fahrenheit, glassblower and maker of scientific instruments, knew of Galileos thermoscope, which used the change in the volume of air (density) to indicate changes in temperature (see Figure G3 under Galileo). The thermoscope was inaccurate because it relied on the effects of atmospheric pressure on the water encased in the

instrument. The first closed water thermometer was designed in the mid-1600s by either Ferdinand II, the grand duke of Tuscany, or the astronomer Olaus Romer. Romer improved the design by using wine rather than water that provided some alcohol to prevent freezing when ambient temperatures were below the freezing point of water. These designs responded to temperature changes, but not atmospheric pressure, as did Galileos air thermometer. Another problem was that the water and alcohol mixture still created internal pressure changes and froze and boiled at temperatures just beyond normal ranges, thus reducing its precision and usefulness. In 1714 or 1715, Fahrenheit improved the design by enclosing mercury in a glass tube, similar to todays mercury thermometers. He also devised an improved scale by selecting one without fractional units. His design placed the mercury in a vacuum within a sealed glass tube, which eliminated the effects of atmospheric pressure, as well as normal freezing and boiling problems. Fahrenheit then combined ice and salt to determine 0_ on his scale, which had each degree divided into four divisions. He then placed it in his mouth to determine human body temperature as 96_, eventually corrected to 98.6_. Later, his thermometer and scale were calibrated to establish 212_ as the boiling point and 32_ as freezing of water at sea level. The Fahrenheit scale is used only in English-speaking countries, particularly the United States. Scientists worldwide use the more appropriate metric Celsius and Kelvin scales. See also Celsius; Kelvin FAIRBANKS QUARK THEORY: Astronomy: William Fairbank (19171989), United States. Quarks originate from high-energy cosmic rays. Therefore, their electrical charge can be detected and measured.

174 Fahrenheits Concept of a Thermometer In 1964, Murray Gell-Mann, a particle physicist, postulated the existence of quarks that are strange, basic, subnuclear particles composed of protons and neutrons. Each had an antiquark and needed fractional electrical charges of either _1/3 or 2/3 to produce other particles. Also, they were thought to be not artificially producible because they were beyond the energy range of particle accelerators. In 1977, using a sensitive device similar to the Millikan oil drop experiment (see Millikan), Fairbank determined the electric charge of an electron. He placed a tiny ball of the element niobium (about 0.25 mm in diameter) between two charged metal plates that were kept at a temperature near absolute zero. As a cosmic ray passed through this device, a small electrical charge formed on the ball, which could be measured as a change in the electrical field between the plates. The strength of the charge was extremely small (_0.37) and may have been caused by sources other than cosmic rays. There is one theory that says quarks cannot be produced because they are not free. The question of magnitude of the charge on a quark is still being investigated. Twelve different types of quarks have been discovered, and now physicists believe the quarks in protons and neutrons are confined or held together by the strong force of gluons. See also Friedman; Gell-Mann; Glashow; Nambu FAJANS RULES FOR CHEMICAL BONDING: Chemistry: Kasimir Fajans (1887 1975), Poland and United States. Rule #1: When the number of electrons increases for an atom, its ions obtain a higher charge and thus are difficult to form. Therefore, they are more likely to form covalent bonds

rather than ionic bonds. Rule #2: Large cations are more likely to form ionic bonds with smaller anions rather than covalent bonds. These two rules apply to the similarity of elements that are close neighbors on the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. The rules explain the difficulty and the ease with which atoms gain or lose electrons, as the atoms become ions. It is almost impossible to form large highly charged ions. Therefore, covalent (sharing) bonds with another ion are more likely as the number of electrons to be removed or donated increases. Conversely, ionic bonds are more likely to form as the number of electrons to be removed or donated from large atoms becomes greater. This results in the rarity of highly charged ions. The second rule is more self-evident in that it states that ionic valences are more likely to form between large cations (positively charged ions or radicals that are attracted to the positive anode in electrolysis); and small anions (negatively charged ions or radicals that are attracted to the positive cathode in electrolysis). Two examples evident on the Periodic Table are the Earth metals located in the upper left-hand area of the table, namely 1) Groups I and II [Lithium (Li), Berylium (Be), and Magnesium (Mg)] and 2) Groups III and IV [Boron (B), Aluminum (Al), and Silicon (Si)]. Fajans law that was conceived in 1913 states that elements that emit alpha particles (positive helium nuclei) will decrease in their atomic numbers (and weights) and thus become positive ions as well as isotopes, whereas elements that emit beta rays (highspeed negative electrons) will gain electrons and thus become negative ions. He also formulated the law explaining how radioactivity moves. This law explained valence in chemical bonding and was later independently discovered by the British chemist

Fajans Rules for Chemical Bonding 175 Frederick Soddy. It became known as the SoddyFajans Method. In cooperation with Otto Gohring (1879 1968), Fajans discovered the radionuclide of the new element protactinium in 1913. Fajans and Gohring also jointly discovered the formula that defined the conditions for the precipitation of radioactive materials that could be used to separate small amounts of radioactive substances. FALLOPIUS THEORIES OF ANATOMY: Biology (Anatomy): Gabriel Fallopius (15231562), Italy. In Italian, his name was Gabriele Fallopio of Modena. The female reproductive anatomy includes the ovaries that connect into trumpet (tuba) shaped tubes leading to the uterus. The detailed anatomical examinations of the female reproductive organs that were

done by Fallopius led to better understanding of how this system functions. The tubes through which the eggs pass became known as the fallopian tubes. Although Fallopius did not understand exactly the functions of these organs, he did realize that they were related to the reproductive process. He was also the first person to describe in detail the clitoris, and he coined the term vagina which he knew received the sperm from males during copulation. He was the first person to record experimental tests of different type sheaths made of linen and parchments designed to fit over the penis that could prevent syphilis during sexual intercourse. One might say he was the first to scientifically conduct research of the efficacy of condoms. His main concern was not contraception but rather the prevention of disease. Several hundred years would pass before it became known and understood how ova (eggs) form in the ovaries and pass through the fallopian tubes to the uterus to become an embryo and develop into a fetus. There are many specific parts of the female reproductive anatomy that have acquired his name, such as, fallopian aqueduct, fallopian canal, fallopian arch, fallopian ligament, fallopian neuritis, fallopian pregnancy, aqueducts fallopii, and tuba fallopiana. Gabriel Fallopius became a greater anatomist than his famous teacher, Andreas Vesalius, the famous Belgian anatomist. Fallopius writings explain his work with the skull and, in particular, the ear and auditory system. Fallopius introduced the terms cochlea and labyrinth. He also described the larynx, respiration, and how muscles perform within the body.

Kasimir Fajans was born in Warsaw, Poland, and educated at several institutions located in Heidelberg, Zurich, and Manchester, England. He emigrated to the United States in 1936 to serve as professor of chemistry at the University of Michigan. Fajans experience with the Nobel Prize Committee is an example of the fickleness in which that institution occasionally operates. In 1924 Fajans was a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physics and was expected to be a winner by all concerned. Even a Swedish magazine asked Fajans for a photograph to be used with the announcement of his award. On the day before the winners were announced, the magazine had already published an article that Fajans had won the prize. The next day the Committee changed its mind and announced there would be no winner in this category for 1924, ostensibly because the Committee wanted to chastise the magazine for its indiscretion in printing the article. In future years Fajans was again a candidate several times but never did win a Nobel Prize even though Frederick Soddy did receive the Nobel Prize for Chemistry and Physics in 1921 for his research related to Fajans discoveries related to radioisotopes. In future years, Fajans received many awards from other institutions

and academies. 176 Fallopius Theories of Anatomy FARADAYS LAWS AND PRINCIPLES: Physics: Michael Faraday (17911867), England. Faradays laws of electrolysis: 1) equal amounts of electricity will produce equal amounts of chemical decomposition and 2) when using an electric current, the quantities of different substances deposited on an electrode are proportional to their equivalent weights. Michael Faraday, who was Sir Humphry Davys laboratory assistant, continued Davys work on the electrolysis of chemical substances by passing electricity through chemical solutions. Davy demonstrated that sodium and potassium metals were deposited on the two electrodes in a solution of sodium chloride and potassium chloride (both salts) through which an electric current was passed (see Figure A7 under Arrhenius). Faraday went one step further and measured the amount of electric current being used and its effect on the deposition of either the sodium or potassium on one or both electrodes. His hypothesis was that the chemical action of a current is constant for a proportional amount of electricity. The equivalent weight of a chemical is the gram formula weightthe sum of the atomic weights of the elements as expressed in the formula, related to a gain or loss of electricity (electrons). The amount of electricity required to cause a chemical change of one equivalent weight is the unit named a faraday. The faraday constant is equivalent to 9.6485309 _ 104 coulombs of electricity. Faradays laws of electrolysis have been used over the past one hundred years to produce all kinds of chemicals. For example, electrolysis can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen gases by breaking down water molecules in a weak electrolytic solution. No relationship exists between Faradays laws of electrolysis and the cosmetic process of

electrolysis for hair removal. Faradays principle of induction: An electric current can produce a magnetic field; conversely, a magnetic field can produce an electric current. Oersted and Amp_ere had previously demonstrated that when electric current flows through a wire placed over a compass, the magnetic needle of a compass is deflected. Faraday rejected the then-current belief that electricity was a fluid, and with great insight, he saw electricity as one of several uniting forces of nature, which he included with magnetism, heat, light, and chemical reactions. Faraday recognized a connection between the actions of electrical lines of force and the magnetic lines of force. He devised an iron ring with a few turns of wire wrapped around opposite sides of the ring. The wires did not touch each other because he used twine to keep them separated. First, he connected a battery to the two ends of the wire on one side and a galvanometer to the two ends of the wire on the other side. When the electrical connection was made on the side with the battery, the needle on the galvanometer on the other side of the iron ring moved. Next, he tried the same experiment without the electric battery by passing a bar magnet through a ring that had a coil of wire wrapped around it. Again, the needle of the galvanometer

moved when attached to the ends of this coil. His interpretation was that lines of tension, as he called the lines of force of the magnetic field, created an Figure F1. When the magnet is moved into and out of a coiled wire, an electric current is induced in the coil by the influence of the moving magnetic field. This is known as the dynamo effect. Faradays Laws and Principles 177 electric current as the magnet moved through the ring (coil) of wire. Thus, an electric current was induced in the wire by the moving magnet (see Figure F1). Faraday was not an accomplished mathematician. Others, particularly James Clerk Maxwell, developed the mathematics required to make Faradays concept of induction into a viable field theory. By all and any scientific landmarks, recognizing electromagnetic induction was one of the most important human insights. The concept of induction resulted in the development of the dynamo, or electric generator, which produces electricity by mechanical means, and thus led to the modern age of electricity. Induction (brushless) electric motors have many modern applications, including the small induction motors that run the hard drives of personal computers (see also Edison; Henry; Tesla). Faradays principle of dielectrics: The conductivity of different substances has different specific inductive capacities for the dissipation of electrical power. The inductive capacity refers to how much permeability and permittivity a substance exhibits; the dissipation of electrical power is the rate of heat loss within the system.

This principle states that some substances are very poor conductors of electricity and that induction of electricity relates to the dielectric nature (the degree of insulating properties) of the substance. The dielectric strength (permittivity) of a substance is related to how much electricity can be passed through it without breaking down the material. Being able to calculate the dielectric nature of a substance is very important for many industrial uses, including the manufacturing of semiconductor computer chips. As an example, materials with high dielectric constants make excellent capacitors, which are important in the electronics industry because they can be made very small and still do the job. Knowing the dielectric properties of substances becomes important when looking for material suitable to make insulators, capacitors, and microelectronic components. Faraday rotation effect: The plane of polarization of polarized light will be rotated when passed through a magnetic field. Faradays work with electricity and magnetism led him to explore relationships between light and magnetism. He demonstrated that polarized light can be altered when influenced

by magnetic fields of force. This Faraday effect was developed for instruments used to study the molecular structures of many compounds and later was useful in explaining magnetic fields in the other galaxies of the universe. Faradays other contributions include the discovery of benzene (C6H6) and two new chlorides Michael Faraday was an excellent thinker and experimenter with the ability to relate his abstract ideas into understandable presentations for his audiences during his famous lectures. His most famous were his popular seasonal Christmas-time lectures for children that he began in 1826; the tradition has been continued ever since and attracts a full audience of young people. As a young scientist, Michael Faraday was basically a theoretical and experimental chemist. When he was twenty-nine years of age, he synthesized several new chlorine compounds C2Cl6 and C2Cl4, and several years later he discovered benzene C6H6. However, the shape of the benzene molecule eluded him (the ring shape of the benzene molecule was later discovered by Fredrich Kekule; see Figure K1 under Kekule). Faradays

concepts related to electrolysis were based on his ability to theorize the process of electrolysis, but he also used experimental research to measure chemical and physical changes on the electrodes (cathode and anode). An important concept of electricity is related to how much is required to liberate one mole of individually charged ions. This led to what is known as the Faraday constant which is expressed as: F NA e, where F is the Faraday constant, NA is the Avogadro constant, and e- is the electrical charge on a single electron. 178 Faradays Laws and Principles of carbon, as well as the system for liquefying several common gases, including chlorine. See also Amp_ere; Maxwell; Oersted FERMATS PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES: Mathematics: Pierre de Fermat (1601 1665), France. Fermats combination theory: Combinations of units are based on the concept of probability. Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal are credited with developing theories of probability. Probability is the ratio of how many times an event will occur as related to the total number of trials conducted. A famous example of Fermats theory of combinations follows. In a game where there are just two players, player Allen (A) and player Bill (B), player A wants at least

2 As or more in a combination of four letters to win a point, while player B wants at least 3 or more Bs in a four-letter combination to gain points (Because 3 is greater than 2, Bill felt this higher number would win more combinations). There are 16 possible combinations for these two letters: AAAA, AAAB, AABA, AABB, ABAA, ABAB, ABBA, ABBB, BAAA, BAAB, BABA, BABB, BBAA, BBAB, BBBA, and BBBB. Every time an A appears at least two times or more in a combination, Allen will score a point. At the same time, player Bill requires B to appear at least three times or more within a combination to win a point. Note that there are eleven wins based on two or more A appearances within the sixteen combinations for player A; while there are only five cases containing at least three or more B appearances within the sixteen combinations for player B. The odds for Allen (A) winning the game over Bill (B) are eleven to five. Also, it is most likely (statistically probable) that A would win the game after only four random selections of combinations. Fermats last theorem: For the algebraic analog of Pythagoras theorem for a right triangle, there is no whole number solution for the equation an bn cn (e.g., 32 42 52; or 9 16 25) for a power greater than 2. Integers are positive or negative whole numbers that have no fractional or decimal components and can be counted, added, subtracted, and so forth. Pythagoras theorem

states that the square of the length of the hypotenuse in a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides of the triangle (see Pythagoras). Although Fermat had an interest in the theory of numbers, as well as making several contributions to this field, Fermats record keeping was poor. The equation for the last Pierre de Fermat did not publish much of his work during his productive years. Although a few fellow mathematicians knew about his ideas, his most important work did not become known until after his death. Proof of his last theorem, also known as the great theorem, obtained a reputation of insolvability that has intrigued amateur as well as professional mathematicians for ages. In the early 1900s over one thousand proofs were presented for his theorem; all were proven incorrect. After computers became available for number crunching, an English mathematician Andrew Wiles (1953) presented a proof that looked promising. Unfortunately, his proof had some problems that were finally worked out with assistance from a mathematician

from Cambridge, England. Finally, in 1995 Wiles derived a version of the proof for Fermats last theorem that seems to be correct. Wiles does not believe that Fermat had a secret proof that, for unknown reasons, he chose not to have published. Rather, at that time in history, neither the knowledge nor tools to solve the problem were available. Fermats Principles and Theories 179 theorem was written as: an bn cn (or as xn yn zn), and if the n is an integer greater than 2, there is no whole number solution. Fermat professed to have solved this problem, but his solution has not yet been found. For almost four hundred years, scholars have attempted to solve this mathematical conundrum. It seems that when n is 2, it is possible to express the value for a, b, or c, but once whole numbers greater than 2 are used for n, it cannot be calculated. Some claim to have arrived at a proof for n 3, n 4, n 5, and n 7, or even n 14, but only when using prime and complex numbers. Fermats least time principle for light: Electromagnetic waves (light) will always follow the path that requires the least time when traveling between two points. In addition, light will travel slower through a dense medium than one less dense. Fermat related light to mechanics in the sense that light followed mechanical principles, such as expressed in geometry and the physics of his day. For instance, the principle of least action, originally postulated by Aristotle as the economy of nature, was also used by Fermat to describe the behavior of light under different circumstances. He based his theory on analytical

geometry, which showed that the path of light reflected from a flat surface always took the shortest distance, but for an elliptically curved surface, it took the longest path. Fermats theory was later restated as the wave theory of light during the period when the principle of least action was applied to wave mechanics and quantum mechanics. See also De Broglie; Descartes; Hamilton; Schrodinger FERMIS NUCLEAR THEORIES: Physics: Enrico Fermi (19011954), United States. Enrico Fermi was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize for physics. Fermis theory for slow neutrons: Since slow neutrons have no charge and less mass than alpha particles, they are capable of overcoming the positive charge on atomic nuclei, thus allowing them to enter (react with) the atomic nuclei to increase their atomic weight but not their charge, thus producing isotopes. Neutrons are found in the nuclei of atoms and have approximately the same atomic weight as protons but no electrical charges. Both protons (with 1 charge) and neutrons (with 0 charge) belong to the group of particles known as baryons that consist of quarks (see Gell-Mann). Neutral neutrons can be stripped from certain types of nuclei and used as particles to combine with other target nuclei, thus increasing the atomic weight and instability of the target nuclei. Alpha particles are the nuclei of helium atoms

composed of two positive protons (He). Thus, an alpha particle is approximately twice the weight of a single neutron. An isotope of an element whose atomic nucleus is composed of a specific number of protons is also defined by the number of neutrons in the nuceli. Thus, isotopes of an element have the same atomic number (protons) but different numbers of neutrons, thus different atomic weights. Figure F2. Enrico Fermi predicted that when a neutron disintegrated, the products formed were a proton, an electron, and a very small unknown particle with less than 1 percent the mass of an electron, or possibly no mass at all. This new particle was named the neutrino (the little one) that became known as the ghost particles. In 1956, Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan confirmed the existence of the neutrino. 180 Fermis Nuclear Theories Enrico Fermi considered using the neutron as the bullet to bombard atomic nuclei to produce isotopes since it has no charge and therefore little resistance to target elements. At that time he could not produce adequate numbers of neutrons for this action. On a hunch, he placed a thin sheet of paraffin (petroleum wax) between the neutron source and the target. To his astonishment, the production of neutrons increased about 100-fold

because they were being slowed by the hydrocarbon molecules in the paraffin, and thus were more easily detected. Because more neutrons were produced and, more important, were slowed down, they would not bounce off the target nuclei, as did high-speed neutrons. Thus, it provided a better opportunity for the neutrons to interact with the nuclei of the target and produce isotopes of that element by adding neutrons to the target elements nuclei, thus increasing the elements atomic weight as well as creating an isotope of that element. Fermi used his new technique to produce numerous radioisotopes of several elements. His theory of slow neutrons was of extreme importance to the new field of nuclear science, which soon led to the nuclear bomb, production of electricity by nuclear power plants, and the production of radioisotopes used in industry and medicine. Fermis theory of beta decay: When a neutron decays, it is converted into a positive proton plus a negative electron and an antineutrino. The equation for this reaction is: (n fi p e_ v) where n is the neutron; p is the proton, e an electron, and v the antineutrino (see Figure F2). This reaction led Fermi to speculate on a new force he named the weak force or weak interaction, which is responsible for the beta decay process of the neutron. Beta decay occurs when the nucleus emits or absorbs an electron or positron, either

increasing or decreasing the elements atomic number but not its atomic weight. The beta decay phenomenon resulted in additional research and discoveries related to the structure of the nuclei and radioactivity. Fermis theory for a self-sustaining chain reaction: A self-sustaining chain reaction can be produced by stacking uranium oxide (uraninite ore) and graphite blocks (carbon as a moderator) into an atomic pile to produce slow neutrons that will interact with the small amount of fissionable uranium-235 (U235) in the refined ore. After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, a number of scientists began to work with nuclei, neutrons, other elementary particles, and nuclear fission reactions. Familiar with this On December 6, 1941 (one day before the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese), this ultra-secret Manhattan Project was tasked with demonstrating that a selfsustaining

chain reaction was possible and could be used to convert a small mass of uranium into tremendous amounts of energy, as theorized by Einsteins famous equation, E mc2. For this purpose, an atomic pile was constructed beneath the stands at the University of Chicagos football stadium. It was designed to slow the neutrons to the extent they would produce adequate fission of the nuclei, which at some unknown point would enable the reaction to sustain itself. The pile was extra large to determine the amount of U-235 needed to reach a critical mass, resulting in fission of the U-235. The scientists had one problem. If this critical mass was reached, what would prevent the pile from becoming an exploding bomb? To solve this problem, Fermi and his colleagues devised a means of inserting cadmium rods into the pile to absorb the neutrons before the whole thing became unstable. As the rods were slowly removed, the number of slow neutrons needed to react with the U-235 could be controlled. There were also so-called delayed neutrons produced that kept the pile from going out of control by providing a brief period of safety before the rods needed to be reinserted. This happened on December 2, 1942. Then the neutron-absorbing rods were reinserted, and history

was made. Fermis Nuclear Theories 181 science, Fermi was charged with the supervision of the Manhattan Project that was composed of a group of physicists attached to various universities. They became volunteer consultants who advised the U.S. government on the Manhattan Project and on the development of the atomic bomb and other classified military projects. Today we know it takes only about 15 pounds of the rare form of U-235 to reach a critical mass, and less than 10 pounds of fissionable plutonium Pu-239 is required to form a self-sustaining chain reaction, and thus an explosive device. Enrico Fermi went on to assist other scientists with the construction of the atomic (nuclear fission) bomb and the H-bomb (thermonuclear fusion bomb). See also Hahn; Meitner; Pauli; Oppenheimer; Steinberger; Szilard; Teller FESSENDENS CONCEPT OF THE THERMIONIC DIODE: Physics: Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (18661932), Canada. The heated negative cathode and the positive cool anode that make up a diode can accommodate a third electrode between them to form a triode. The third electrode can be used to modulate the amplitude of a wireless carrier signal. The concept of thermionic emission within diodes was referred to as tubes in the United States and valves in England. The word diode is derived from the word dielectrode meaning two electrodes. The di-electric vacuum tube rectifier was first invented by the English electrical engineer and physicist Sir John Ambrose Fleming (18491945) in 1904. In essence, when the negatively charged metal cathode electrode

inside a vacuum tube is heated and the positively charged anode is kept cool, the electrons that are boiled off the cathode form a cloud of electrons around the heated cathode that are attracted to the anode. This boiling off of electrons is called the thermionic emission because the electrons from the metal electrode are produced by the heat. Reginald Fessenden inserted a third electrode that could vary the flow of electrons from cathode to anode and thus vary the amplitude of a steady high-frequency radio signal. Thus the frequencies of sound waves could be modulated to correspond with the frequencies transmitted over the radio waves. This third electrode in the triode made it possible to modulate the flow of electrons from the cathode to the anode so the signal could act as a carrier wave for audio (sound) transmissions. From early childhood Fessenden was interested in the possibility of a wireless telegraph and eventually developed an oscillating triode system that was the basis for his first successful self-sustaining wireless system that was a two-way (sending and receiving) system. On Christmas Eve in 1906 he transmitted the first historic audio radio broadcast from Brant Rock, Massachusetts. Reginald Fessenden was somewhat of a child prodigy and as a youngster became interested in how to send Morse code without the use of wires. He also witnessed a demonstration of Alexander Graham Bells invention, the telephone. After training

as an electrician, Fessenden worked with Thomas Edison in an attempt to find better insulations for electrical wires. He was Figure F3. An artists depiction of a simple diode. 182 Fessendens Concept of the Thermionic Diode a professor of electrical engineering at several universities, worked for the U.S. Weather Bureau, and tried to exploit his own inventions without much success. Fessenden formed the National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO) with two businessmen that provided him an opportunity to continue his research and the development of devices for wireless transmission of sound. A lifelong impediment to a more widespread recognition of his accomplishments was his personality that did not lend itself to compatibility. He had a fear, some say, of being robbed of his ideas and inventions. Eventually, his backers at NESCO fired him. Fessenden sued them and was awarded over $400,000 that resulted in the companys bankruptcy. Fessenden had many ideas and was a prolific inventor with over five hundred patents in his name. See also Edison; Esaki; Tesla FEYNMANS THEORY OF QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (QED): Physics: Richard Phillips Feynman (19181988), United States. Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physics. Quantum electrodynamics joins three seemingly unrelated physical phenomena: Einsteins concepts of relativity and gravity, Plancks quantum theory, and Maxwells electromagnetism. This theory is also known as the quantum theory of light, which synthesizes the

wave and particle nature of light with the interaction of radiation and electrically charged particles. Richard Feynmans theory grew out of the problem presented with the interactions between electrons and photons of light in which the strength of the charge on the electron mathematically came out to zero, while in actuality the basic unit of electricity is the electron. This did not coincide with known properties of electrons, so a new approach was required. Feynmans concept was based on the probability that if something does happen, it can also happen in many different ways. Thus, the probability of locating an electron in any particular space is like saying it would be in all the places it probably could be. To assist in understanding his version of the quantum theory, he designed what are known as Feynman diagrams, which are simple sketches, similar to vector diagrams, that can be used to trace and calculate the paths of subatomic particles generated in nuclear bombardments that produce new particles and radiation. At the age of twenty-four, Richard Feynman was the youngest scientist to work on the atomic bomb project during World War II. One of his

main contributions took the form of four questions he proposed to the In addition to being a creative and excellent scientist, Richard Feynman was adept in explaining advanced physics concepts to the nonscience public. He presented many popular lectures which were published in 1963 as Feynman Lectures on Physics. Later in 1985 he presented a series of TV lectures followed by a book titled Surely Youre Joking Mr. Feynman. This book made him a celebrity. He believed that science is not an impersonal enterprise, but rather follows rules, procedures, processes, and experimental testsit is the results of these tests that are the sciencenot the individual involved. Even so, science is a rather recent human activity designed to explore the nature of the entire universe. He also was interested in and worked on other problems of physics besides the strong nuclear interaction. He explored superconductivity that led to a new model for the structure of liquid helium. Feynmans Theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) 183 senior scientists on the project for which answers were needed to make the goals of the project achievable: 1) How much fissionable material is needed to achieve a critical mass? 2) What type of material would best make a reflector, or lens, to focus neutrons

on the uranium? 3) How pure must the uranium be? 4) What would be the expected extent of the damage the explosion would cause (by heat, shock waves, and radiation)? His questions focused the direction of the project and saved time and money in designing the final A-bombs. See also Bethe; Fermi; Oppenheimer; Teller; Ulam FIBONACCIS NUMBERING SYSTEM: Mathematics: Leonardo Fibonacci (c.1170 1250), Italy. (Fibonacci was a nickname. His real name was Leonardo Pisano, and he also went by the name Bigollo.) Fibonacci was one of Leonardo Pisanos nicknames, albeit his most famous one. Pisano called himself Fibonacci, short for fillio Bonacci (Bonaccios son). His fathers name was Guglielmo Bonaccio, also a nickname, meaning a good, stupid fellow. Leonardo was also known as Bigollo which comes from the Italian word bighellone meaning loafer or wanderer. The Fibonacci sequence of numbers was based on the breeding of rabbits. If each pair of rabbits gives birth to another pair, and in one month this pair gives birth to another pair, and this pair gives birth to another pair in one month, and so on, and so on, and they are all alive after a reasonable time, the number sequence would look as follows: Fn represents the Fibonacci numbers F0 0 F1 F2 1 Fn Fn-1 Fn-2

F(-n) (-1)n-1 Fn The Fibonacci numbers are easier to understand when expressed as a series of numbers in which each successive number is the sum of the preceding two numbers, such as: 1 1 2; 1 2 3; 2 3 5; 3 5 8; 5 8 13; 8 13 21; 13 21 34; etc. This way of calculating Fibonacci numbers for the sequential birth of rabbits can be depicted in a visual graph that shows the exponential nature of the sequence. This problem was first published in 1202 along with several other books that introduced solutions to problems in mathematics. Fibonnacci is credited with introducing the Hindu/Arabic decimal numbering system to Europe (1 to 9 plus 0). Up to this time calculations in European countries were accomplished with Roman numerals, which by any standard are difficult to use even in solving simple problems in arithmetic. He most likely learned the Arabic/Hindu numbering system as he traveled widely over the Byzantine Empire with his father who was a customs officer and merchant. Fibonacci spent the rest of his life studying mathematics and writing several important books, including Liber abbaci (1202, 1228); Practica geometriae (1220/1221); Flos (1225); and Liber quadratorum (1225). Because this was before the invention of the printing press, his books had to be copied by hand, which makes it unusual that some of these original volumes still exist. An interesting mathematical property of the Fibonacci sequence of numbers is the ratio between the numbers, that is, 1/1; 2/1; 3/2; 5/3, and so on (by dividing the first 184 Fibonaccis Numbering System number by the second. Two examples: 5 divided by 3 1.666; or 25 13 1.615), which as the sequence increases the ratio become close to the number 1.618 that is known as the golden ratio.

The golden ratio is defined as an irrational number that is approximately 1.618. It is the ratio of a diagonal of a pentagon to its side and appears in numerous metrical properties of 12- and 20-sided polygons, just as the square root of 2 appears in the metrical properties of a 6-sided square or cube. Euclid included the first calculation of the golden ratio in his book Elements written in about 300 BCE. The golden ratio essentially defines the balance between symmetry and asymmetry in various shapes in nature and is used in art design, as well as in psychology, metaphysics, and history to represent those forms that are aesthetically pleasing, particularly in Western culture. There are a number of examples in nature where this ratio is exhibited, for example, petals on flowers, seeds on sunflowers, and the ratio of your height to the distance from your belly button to the ground. It is also found in areas of science including symmetry as a constant in physical laws (e.g., cosmology). Admirers of Fibonacci and his mathematics founded a society in 1962 that publishes The Fibonacci Quarterly that seeks solutions to mathematical problems using Fibonaccis methods. See also Euclid; Fermat; Riemann FICKS LAWS OF DIFFUSION: Physics and Physiology: Adolf Eugen Fick (1829 1901), Germany. Ficks first law of diffusion: The flux (J) of a fluid with the concentration (C) across a membrane is proportional to the concentration differential across the plane of the membrane. (Note: flux is the rate of flow across a given area perpendicular to the flow.) Diffusion is really the intermingling of a number of particles of a substance (or units of electromagnetic radiation). Diffusion may be thought of as a mechanism by which

individual types of particles in a mixture are moved within the mixture by means of random molecular movement known as the Brownian motion (see Einstein). On the other hand, permeability is the ability of a substance to pass through a body based on its diffusion coefficient (D) as well as its solubility coefficient. If there is no volume change on either side of a barrier plane, the rates of diffusion are equal and opposite. For high-density substances across a fixed barrier, the rate of diffusion is low and thus only one equation is needed. The equation for Ficks first law of diffusion can be expressed in various forms. One of the easiest to understand follows: Jx D dC/dx: where Jx is the flux of the two types of diffusing fluids, and D is a proportional constant or diffusion coefficient, and dC/dx equals the changes in the concentration in relation to the distance between the fluids. Ficks second law of diffusion: The rate of change of the concentrations and volumes of a membrane in the diffusion field is expressed as t for the time involved in the exchange. The temperature or kinetic energy factor greatly influences the rate for the entire diffusion process as an increase in temperatures results in a speeding up of the molecular motion within the different types of diffusing substances. Fick introduced the law of diffusion as a way to understand how gas is diffused across a fluid membrane that he used in 1870 to measure cardiac output. Since then, the equations for Ficks law have been adapted to measure the transport process of foods, Ficks Laws of Diffusion 185 polymers, pharmaceuticals, and as a means of controlling the doping of semiconductors to increase their efficiency.

Fick is also credited with making and using the first contact eye lens in 1887. He made an afocal scleral contact shell-shaped lens made of heavy brown glass that he first tested on rabbits. He then wore a pair of lenses himself before finally using his new invention on a group of volunteers. FISCHERS PROJECTION FORMULAS: Chemistry: Emil Hermann Fischer (1852 1919), Germany. Emil Fischer was awarded the 1902 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Projection formulas can be used to describe the spatial relationships of atoms in large organic molecules that have the same structural formula. Emil Fischer demonstrated he could separate and identify sugars, such as glucose, mannose, and fructose, having the same empirical formula. In other words, once he determined the molecular structural formula for one type of organic substance, he could then project this information to synthesize other similar large organic molecules. In addition to his work with carbohydrates (sugars), he contributed to the understanding of the structures of purines, peptides, proteins, and caffeine alkaloids. Fischer used this theory to synthesize polypeptides that contained 18 amino acids. He also devised the lock and key explanation for high-molecular-weight compounds such as enzymes. Because Fischer did comprehensive groundbreaking work in the fields of purines, sugars, and peptides, which are the basis for biochemistry, he became known as the father of biochemistry. In 1882, based on his knowledge of structural formula for various organic compounds, he synthesized a number of important substances including several types of sugars. FITZGERALDS CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC

CONTRACTION: Physics: George Francis Fitzgerald (18511901), Ireland. When the light from a body is moving relative to an observers position, the light contracts slightly in the direction of the observers motion. George Fitzgerald and Hendrik Lorentz independently concluded that a fast-moving body appears to contract according to its velocity as measured by an instrument (or observer). This effect, known as the Emil Fischer was somewhat of a child prodigy who excelled in school to the extent that he did not need to take the schools exit examination. Afterwards, because he was too young to enter the university, he worked for his uncle in the timber industry. His father was a jolly fellow who ran the family grocery store, spinning mill, and brewery, and it seems Emil took after his fathers personality. His family thought Emil was not smart enough to be a businessman so they assumed he should just be a student. Emil set up his own chemistry laboratory

where he worked during the day. In the evenings he played the piano and drank excessively. He, in essence, was self-taught in organic chemistry and performed important research in purines, sugars, dyes, and indoles (crystallized perfume compounds). Some of his chemicals caused terrible odors that were imbedded in his clothes that made him repulsive to people. He continued to smoke and drink to the point where he had to take time off each year to recuperate. He later became a professor in Berlin, which interfered with his research. After twelve years he returned to his research that led to the second Nobel Prize awarded in chemistry in 1902. 186 Fischers Projection Formulas LorentzFitzgerald contraction, described the effect the ether (in space) had on the electromagnetic (light) forces binding atoms together. Fitzgeralds research was concerned with the study and understanding of electromagnetism based on James Clerk Maxwells equations, as well as the existence of radio waves as predicted by Heinrich Hertz. The LorentzFitzgerald contraction theory proposed to explain the observations made by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley that the speed of light did not depend on the motion of the detector. Therefore, this idea could not be used to determine the speed of movement of Earth through space. The LorentzFitzgerald contraction was an opposite and alternate explanation to Einsteins theory of relativity. Einstein used this altered version of the contraction of light concept in developing his special theory of relativity. His theory accepted the concept of space as a vacuum; as such, matter, even

ether could not exist in space. The concept differs somewhat from the classical Doppler effect and the redshift. See also Doppler; Einstein; Fizeau; Maxwell; Schmidt FIZEAUS THEORY OF THE NATURE OF LIGHT AS A WAVE: Physics: Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (18191896), France. If the speed of light is known, it can be demonstrated that light travels faster in air than in water or substances denser than air. Armand Fizeau was the first to measure the speed of light using something other than subjective observations or astronomy. After constructing a device consisting of a rotating disk into which two teeth or gaps were cut, he set up a mirror on one hill to return the light sent from another hill about 5 miles distant upon which the toothed disk instrument was placed. He sent a light through the gaps in the disk, which acted like a rapid on-off switch that dissected the light into small bits, similar to a series of light dots. As Fizeau increased the speed of the rotating disk, the reflected light from the mirror on the other hill was blocked off by the solid portion of the disk, but some light would shine through the toothed gap. The faster the disk rotated, the dimmer the light became, until it was blocked entirely by the solid parts of the slotted disk. Conversely, as he slowed the disk, the light would again brighten. By measuring the speed of rotation and the brightness of the light coming through the disk and knowing the distance between the two hills, he calculated the speed of light in air (see Figure M5 under Michelson). Fizeau and Jean Foucault are credited with proving that light behaves as waves. With an improved instrument, they measured the speed of light in water and compared it with the speed of light in air to confirm that light travels more slowly in denser mediums (see Figure F5 under Foucault). Fizeau also used his instrument

to determine that the Doppler effect is the change in the wavelength of light relative to speed. This is known as the DopplerFizeau shift. See also Doppler; Einstein; Fitzgerald; Foucault; Maxwell; Michelson; Schmidt FLEISCHMANNS THEORY FOR COLD FUSION: Chemistry: Martin Fleischmann (1927), England. Nuclear fusion can be achieved at room temperatures by the process of electrolysis using palladium as an electrode in an electrolyte of heavy water. Fleischmanns Theory for Cold Fusion 187 In 1989 while at the University of Utah Martin Fleischmann and the American electrochemist Stanley Pons (1943) announced they had sustained a controlled fusion reaction in a laboratory setting at room temperatures that produced 100% more energy than was used by the electrolytic process. If this proved to be possible, it was estimated that the discovery would be worth at least $300 trillion and provide an unlimited supply of energy to the world. Other laboratories around the world tried to duplicate this experiment. All failed. Fleischmann claimed other scientists were not using the correct materials or procedures and that he was not going to reveal the exact nature of his experiment. The majority of scientists do not believe cold fusion is possibleat least at this time and at the current state of technology. Nuclear fusion requires an extremely high temperature and pressure such as is achieved in the sun and thermonuclear H-bombs to fuse the light hydrogen nuclei to form heavier helium nuclei, producing a great deal of energy in the process. The debate continues, but only a few scientists believe Fleischmanns cold nuclear fusion can take place as he described the process. Pons and Fleischmann parted ways in 1995. Reportedly, Pons is no longer in the research field, and Fleischmann now works in the private sector.

See also Bethe; Teller; Ulam FLEMINGS BACTERICIDE HYPOTHESIS: Biology: Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 1955), England. Sir Alexander Fleming, Baron Florey, and Ernst Boris Chain shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. If the Penicillium notatum mold growing in a laboratory dish can destroy staphylococcus bacteria, then it can be tested to destroy other selected harmful bacteria. Sir Alexander Fleming, a bacteriologist in the Royal Army Medical Corps, was familiar with the use of chemicals in the treatment of wounds. He devised lysozyme, an enzyme found in human tears and saliva, which proved to be a more effective bactericide than the chemicals available to him at the time. Even so, lysozyme was limited in its effectiveness. A few years later while examining a dish containing a culture of staphylococcus bacteria, he noticed several clear areas where the bacteria did not grow due to the presence of a mold identified as Penicillium notatum, which seemed to kill the harmful bacteria. Based on his experience with bacteria, Fleming recognized the potential for a new antibiotic but, at first, neglected to follow up on this discovery. It had been known for many years that some molds kill germs, but no one had acted on it until Fleming finally recognized the importance of this phenomenon. Flemings mold was isolated, developed, and tested for effectiveness by other scientists in Great Britain. By 1943 Flemings discovery led to the production of limited amounts of penicillin, which saved the lives of many wounded Allied servicemen and women during World War II. Since then, a large number of similar molds have been identified and produced to provide a wider selection of antibiotics useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases.

See also Florey FLEMINGS RULES FOR DETERMINING DIRECTION OF VECTORS: Physics: John Ambrose Fleming (18491945), England. Flemings right-hand and left-hand rules: The right-hand rule (also known as the generator rule) is related to the Cartesian coordinate system for the three-dimension x, y, and z 188 Flemings Bactericide Hypothesis axes for electric dynamos; while the left-hand rule (also known as the motor rule) is used to determine similar x, y, and z dimensions for electrical motors (see Figure F4). Essentially, Flemings right-hand and left-hand rules were conceived as easy-toremember representations of electromagnetism and a means for determining 1) the direction of the flow of the electric current, 2) the direction of the field around the conductor carrying the electric current, and 3) the direction of the force involved in the operation of electric motors and electric generators. As shown in Figure F4, if the forefinger, second finger, and thumb of the right hand are extended at right angles to each other, the forefinger indicates the direction of the field, the second finger the direction of the current, and the thumb the direction of the force and in the dynamo (electric generator). Conversely, the left hand illustrates the same positions of the fingers and represents the same characteristics, except for electric motors. In other words, a persons hands are convenient tools to help remember the vectors associated with the directions of flow of current, the currents field, and force for the motor and dynamo. The diagrams help visualize the directions of magnetic forces and fields produced by conductors

carrying electric currents. Although the motor and dynamo are similar electrical devices, they perform opposite functions. The dynamo uses mechanical force to turn an armature to cut through the magnetic fields to produce a flow of an electric current, whereas a motor uses electric current to turn an armature in the magnetic field to produce a mechanical force. Figure F4. The right-hand and left-hand rules are designed as an easy way to remember the direction of the current, the magnetic field generated, and the motion of either the electric motor or generator. In early life, John Ambrose Fleming showed evidence of being a child prodigy when, at the age of thirteen, he gave his first lecture on electricity and magnetism. He was educated primarily at the University College in London, the premier college of London University where he received his BS degree in 1870. He taught school for a few years to support his continuing education and later studied under the famous British physicist James Clerk Maxwell at Cambridge University. In 1885 he created

and headed a new department of electrical engineering at University College in London. Fleming was a popular lecturer and consultant, who also conducted research for wireless signal transmissions across the Atlantic Ocean. He designed the transmitter that made the first successful wireless transatlantic transmission in 1901. Flemings Rules for Determining Direction of Vectors 189 Flemings theory for rectifying alternating current (AC) to direct (DC) current: By adapting and using the Edison effect (see Edison) to construct a two-electrode vacuumtube rectifier to act as an oscillation valve (also called a thermionic valve, vacuum diode, kenotron, and thermionic tube), it is possible to convert an alternating current into a direct current. The Fleming valves were the beginning of the electronic age and were used in early radio and radar instruments. The American inventor Lee De Forest added a third electrode to the Edison/Fleming diode that acted as a grid that could be used to control the flow of electrons across the gap from the hot negative electrode to the cool positive electrode. This formed what was known as a triode that could be used to amplify electronic signals as well as modulate sound signals that led to long-distance wireless communication systems of today, including radio, television, radar, computers and, the Internet. FLEROVS THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS FISSION: Physics: Georgii Nikolaevich Flerov (19131990), Russia. Uranium nuclei will fission spontaneously, and the process requires no bombardment of the nuclei by neutrons to accomplish the splitting of the nuclei.

In 1941 Flerov observed spontaneous fission where the nuclei of uranium nuclei break into nuclei of smaller, lighter elements. This fission occurs naturally without the bombardment of the uranium nuclei by additional neutrons. Flerov was familiar with scientific journals that indicated that scientists from other countries were working with this natural fission, as well as attempting to cause artificial fission by bombarding nuclei of heavy elements with slow neutrons to cause them not only to fission, but also to cause a chain reaction. He urged the Soviet government to initiate a research program to investigate this phenomenon. Georgii (or Georgy) N. Flerov was the Soviet Unions leading nuclear physicist and soon became the leader of a team of scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at Dubna in Russia. In 1942 he wrote to Joseph Stalin, the infamous Communist leader of the Soviet Union, about the progress being made in developing a nuclear bomb in the United States and Germany. His efforts eventually led to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) production of their own atomic bomb. Flerovs team at Dubna claimed in 1967 to have isolated the isotopes of the elements with the mass number (atomic weights) of 260 and 261 by bombarding the isotope americium-243 with the isotope neon-22 ions. They had created the element with an atomic number of 105 (number of protons in the nucleus), for which they suggested the name nielsbohrium in honor of the Danish physicists Niels Bohr. The reaction follows: 95Am-243 10Ne-22 fi 105 nielsbohrium-260 and -261. The American group under the direction of Albert Ghiorso at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, could not confirm the Dubna results. However, by using different techniques they synthesized an isotope of element 105. They bombarded californium-249 nuclei with nitrogen-15 ions and created an isotope

with an atomic weight of 260 and a half-life of 1.6 seconds, which was long enough to positively identify it as a new element with atomic number 105. It was then named hahnium in honor of the physicist Otto Hahn. Over the next few years two other 190 Flerovs Theory of Spontaneous Fission disputes about the name for element 105 arose. In 1994 a committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named 105 joliotium (Jl-105) after the French physicist Frederic Joliot-Curie. Still later in 1997 an international agreement between Russia and the United States led to the acceptance of the name dubnium (Db or Unp) for the new artificially produced element with 105 protons in its nuclei. This name was decided upon because of the original work done with this element by the Dubna group in Russia. Since then, the Russian and American nuclear laboratories (as well as one in Germany) went on to produce isotopes of additional heavy elements up to and beyond element 118. See also Curies; Hahn; Seaborg FLOREYS THEORY OF MUCUS SECRETIONS: Biology: Howard Walter Florey (Baron Florey of Adelaide) (18981968), Australia. Baron Florey shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Sir Alexander Fleming and Ernst Chain. Mucous secretions that contain lysozyme can destroy the cell walls of bacteria. Following up on Sir Alexander Flemings work with the enzyme lysozyme, Baron Florey determined how this enzyme found in tears and saliva destroyed the cell walls of bacteria. This research led to Ernst Chains (19061979), the German-born British biochemist, and Baron Floreys idea for developing penicillium, an antibiotic discovered earlier by Fleming. Although Fleming discovered penicillium and recognized that it killed

staphylococcus bacteria, he did not pursue its commercial development. Chains and Floreys efforts brought to fruition the success of this and other similar effective antibiotics used to treat numerous types of bacterial infections. Baron Florey continued his work on other antibiotics as well as experimental procedures involving pathology and the lymphatic and vascular systems. Although he lived most of his life in England, in spirit he remained an Australian. See also Fleming (Alexander) FLORYS THEORY OF NONLINEAR POLYMERS: Chemistry: Paul John Flory (19101985), United States. Polymer molecules have a definite size and structure consisting of multiple macromolecules with different chain lengths that are branching as well as linear. Macromolecules are an aggregate of two or more molecules that are not combined by regular chemical bonds, but rather by intermolecular forces acting between the molecules themselves (see the Van der Waals force). A distinction between regular smaller molecules and macromolecules is that smaller molecules are easily dissolved in a liquid whereas macromolecules need some type of assistance to dissolve. Rarely do macromolecules occur individually, but they are more likely to assemble into macromolecular complexes. However, proteins are considered subunits of such macromolecular complexes. The IUPAC (the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists) prefers the term macromolecules for grouping of individual molecules. The term polymer is something that consists of many macromolecules with either a linear or multiple Florys Theory of Nonlinear Polymers 191

branching structures. There are many polymers whose molecules consist of many thousands of atoms formed into long linear chains. But not all polymers are linear. Most polymers are branched chains where both ends of the branched chains are attached to a backbone chain of separate molecules, and it is possible for backbone chains to become attached to each other to form very large polymer molecules. Some of these are cross-linked polymers that are groups of molecules large enough to pick up in your hand, such as synthetic rubber. Liquid crystals and DNA are examples of polymer-type macromolecules. For example, chromosomes of DNA can be tens of millions of base pairs in length. Paul John Flory used statistical methods to determine the length and branching of chains of molecules from which he developed his theory of cross-linking between molecular chains to form linear chains as well as branching liquid macromolecules that became known as polymers. Most plastics, artificial rubber, and other materials are composed of polymers. For example, bowling balls are considered a single polymer macromolecule, whereas computer cases, telephones, tires, and many other everyday items, including synthetic motor oil, artificial blood, and new types of liquid crystals used in screens for some electronic instruments, are all forms of branching polymer macromolecules. FOUCAULTS THEORIES OF LIGHT AND EARTHS ROTATION: Physics: Jean Bernard Leon Foucault (18191868), France. Foucaults wave theory of light: If light is a wave, it will travel faster in air than in water; if light is a particle, it will travel slower in air than in water. To test his theory, Jean Foucault required a more accurate means of determining the

speed of light than resulted from Armand Fizeaus rotating toothed disk device experiment conducted some years earlier. He devised a system using a rotating mirror, which provided a measurement very close to that later achieved by Albert Michelson. Foucaults mirrors were located on hills 22 miles apart. This greater distance made his measurements more accurate. The turning mirror reflected the light back at a slightly different angle to another mirror. This slight angle of reflection could be measured and compared with the rate of rotation of the mirror to give the approximate speed of light. The formula is v c n, where v is the speed of light through a particular medium, c is the constant for the speed of light in a vacuum, and n is the index of refraction of the medium through which the light is being measured. He repeated a similar procedure with light projected through water and found that the reflection angle, and thus the speed of light through water, is less than when it travels through air (see Figure F5). For instance, the speed of light is approximately 186,000 miles per second, or exactly 299,792,458 kilometers per second in a vacuum. To find the velocity of light through water, divide 186,000 by the index of refraction of water, that is 1.33, which results in the speed of light through water at about 140,000 miles per second. This was the proof he needed to arrive at his theory for the wave nature of light, which upset many scientists of his day because of their belief in Newtons theory that light was composed of minute particles (photons). Later scientists accepted the duality of light as having both a wave and particle nature (see also Fizeau; Huygens; Michelson). Foucaults theory for the rotation of Earth: Because a pendulum swings in an unchanging plane, its apparent progressive movement out of the plane must be caused by the rotation of the earth beneath the pendulum.

192 Foucaults Theories of Light and Earths Rotation Jean Foucault was familiar with the work of Galileo, who applied the periodic motion phenomenon of a pendulum to measure time. Galileo used his heart pulse to time the frequency of the pendulum bob, which he determined is inversely proportional to the length of the string suspending the bob. This means that the shorter the string, the greater the frequency of the swinging bob, and conversely, the longer the string, the lower the frequency. Needing an accurate timing device to measure the speed of light, Foucault considered a pendulum. He knew the pendulum executed a form approximating simple harmonic motion where the force that drove it was outside the system (i.e., gravity). He noticed the pendulum appeared to stay in the same plane (compass direction) even when the platform holding the pendulum apparatus was rotated. Recognizing the significance, he determined that because the pendulum always moves in the same plane, it must be Earth beneath the swinging pendulum that turns. He performed a demonstration during which he suspended an iron ball weighing 28 kilograms from a 67-meter wire attached to the top of the inside of Le Pantheon in Paris. Sand was spread out on the floor under the pendulum and a needle was attached to the bottom of the ball weight of the pendulum. When set in motion, the needle slowly inscribed a pattern in the sand, proving that Earth was moving under the pendulum. This was the first Earth-based demonstration that proved that Earth actually rotates on its axis, but not at the same rate at all latitudes. For instance, at the equator, an east-west swinging pendulum will show no rotation motion of earth because Earth and

pendulum are moving in the same east-west direction while Earth rotates once every Figure F5. Light rays are refracted as they pass through substances of different densities at an angle to the normal (the line perpendicular to the surface). They will change directions when going through the boundary between the two different substances according to their angle of entrance to the boundary. The index of refraction is the ratio of lights speed (in a vacuum) to its speed in a given material. Foucaults Theories of Light and Earths Rotation 193 twenty-four hours. Also, at the North Pole, Earth makes a complete rotation every twenty-four hours under a pendulum swinging in the same plane. Thus, an east-west swinging pendulum will stay in the same plane while the Earth turns under it. The effect differs with the latitude from the equator to the poles. The formula for determining the period of rotation at latitudes other than at the Earths poles or at the equator is P 23h 56m sin (latitude). The pendulum used to measure Earths rotation is called Foucaults pendulum. Pendulums are also used to measure acceleration due to gravity and velocities (the ballistic pendulum), as well as for accurate clocks. Seventy years after Galileos study of the pendulum, Christiaan Huygens incorporated it into an accurate timekeeping instrument. Called the grandfathers clock, it used a weight system to continue the force to overcome friction and thus maintain the pendulums constant swing. There is also a compound pendulum where a rigid body swings around a central point. One model, designed by the British physicist Henry Kater (17771835), measured acceleration due to free fall, which can then be used to calculate the force of gravity. See also Galileo; Fizeau; Hooke; Huygens

Figure F6. Foucaults Pendulum. 194 Foucaults Theories of Light and Earths Rotation FOURIERS THEORIES OF HEAT CONDUCTION AND HARMONIC WAVE MOTION: Physics: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph, Baron Fourier (17681830), France. Fouriers theorem of heat conduction: The rate at which heat is conducted through a body, as related to that bodys cross section area, is proportional to the negative of the temperature gradient existing in that body. Baron Fourier worked out the mathematical expression for conduction of heat through different types of solid materials. The theory explains why excellent heat conductors are also good electrical conductors. Conduction relates to the motion of free electrons in solid matter when a temperature difference exists from one end of the matter to the other. The proportionality constant of his equation is referred to as the thermal conductivity of the solid. For instance, glass, wood, paper, and asbestos all have thermal conductivities of a much lower value than metals. They are referred to as insulators of heat and electricity. Conversely, most metals have a high value of thermal conductivity and are excellent conductors of heat and electricity. Conduction is one of three forms of heat transfer described in physics. The other two are convection and radiation. Modern technology and industry use the mathematics of heat transfer and the temperature differential for various materials. Fouriers theory was the beginning of dimensional analysis, which requires any expression of unit quantities to be balanced in equations just as are numbers. One of his main contributions was the establishment of linear partial differential equations that are used as a powerful tool in mathematics and to determine boundary values

in physics problems such as heat conduction in different substances. Today, computers calculate the equations for these properties of different substances. Fouriers harmonic analysis: Any periodic motion (wave pattern) can be separated mathematically into the individual sine waves of which the pattern is composed. Robert Hookes law of elasticity states that the change in size of an elastic material is directly proportional to the stress (force applied per unit area) applied to the material. Hooke applied this concept to thermal expansion and wave motions of metal spiral springs. Baron Fourier believed that complicated wave motions were not all that complex and could be solved mathematically. His work, referred to as wave analysis, is applied to music. Pythagoras was the first to determine that certain musical notes blend together to produce pleasant sounds. He also ascertained these notes represent a ratio of small whole numbers. Pythagoras used strings of different lengths to define nice sounds (e.g., 1:2; 2:3; and 3:4 string-to-length ratios). Musical sounds consist of a number of separate sine waves that, when combined, display some order of interrelationship. These ordered sets of sine waves, which may or may not reinforce each other, produce musical notes. If the sine waves are randomly selected and combined or interfere with each other it results in dissonance we call noise. Fouriers wave analysis techniques established a firm physical and mathematical basis for modern music and the development of musical instruments. See also Hooke; Pythagoras FOWLERS THEORY OF STELLAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS: Physics: William (Willy) Alfred Fowler (19111995), United States. Willliam Fowler shared the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Thermonuclear fusion reactions in stars produce enough kinetic energy to overcome

the electrostatic repulsion of hydrogen nuclei to form helium nuclei. Additional fusion Fowlers Theory of Stellar Nucleosynthesis 195 reactions produce even more kinetic energy to overcome the repulsion between other nuclei, thus producing the heavier elements. A number of scientists, including Georges Lema^tre, George Gamow, and Sir Fred Hoyle have proposed their versions of the big bang theory. William Fowler expanded on this theory, which propounds that the explosion of a tiny seed, point source, or singularity of energy, which created tremendous radiation and energy, forming in less than a few seconds mostly hydrogen atoms, resulted in the formation of the entire universe soon after this singular beginning. None of the scientists have claimed to know what caused the explosion or the origin of the seed, or the singularity of energy/ matter. The big bang theory further states the colossal amount of energy provided the force for two hydrogen nuclei (H H) to combine to form a helium nucleus (He) creating thermonuclear energy in the stars. This reaction occurred at temperatures of about 10 to 20 million kelvin (K). The reaction did not produce enough energy to overcome the mutual electrostatic repulsion of the double-charged helium nuclei (alpha particles); thus this temperature was insufficient to form nuclei of the heavier elements. Following the lead of several other physicists, Fowler developed the theory that this temperature in the core of the sun became much greater, up to 100 to 200 million K, and produced enough kinetic energy to overcome the mutual repulsion of the positive alpha particles, which then combined to form the nuclei of heavier elements. First, a fusion reaction occurred, which combined three alpha nuclei (3 He)

to form a carbon nucleus with 6 positive protons (C). This thermonuclear reaction increased the temperature to over 500 million K, which provided the energy to fuse an alpha nucleus (He) with a carbon nucleus (C) to form an oxygen nucleus (O) with eight protons. These stellar thermal nucleosynthesis (fusion) processes continued, reaching over one to three or four billion degrees, thus forming the other heavier elements that make up Earth and the universe. Fowlers work aided the understanding of the composition of stars, our solar system, and the nature of the universe, that is, its age and future. He and Fred Hoyle cooperated and published an important paper Nucleosynthesis in Massive Stars and Supernovae in 1965 that explained how heavier elements were formed as the temperature increased inside stars. See also Gamow; Hoyle; Lema^tre FOXS THEORY OF PROTEINOID MICROSPHERES: Biochemistry: Sidney Walter Fox (19121998), United States. Using heat, thermal proteins will self-organize into protocell-like microspheres. Since the beginning of time humans have wondered about their biological origins, life, death, and the reason we are on Earth. The Greeks referred to this particular curiosity as abiogenesis, a Greek word meaning a genesis of nonbiological origins. Later in history it was known as the spontaneous generation of life. In the Middle Ages it was thought that rats and mice were generated from grain or old hay that was stored over long periods of time, and that maggots/flies came from spoiled meat and food. Even Aristotle believed that small insects grew out of the dew from the flowers and leafs of plants. These ancient beliefs were not corrected until 1668 when Francesco Redi conducted

an experiment that proved that maggots did not come from spoiled meats. He 196 Foxs Theory of Proteinoid Microspheres placed a gauze barrier over the mouth of jars of meat that prevented flies from touching the meat (see Redi for details of this experiment). Numerous other famous scientists and researchers devised other theories for the generation of life. In the 1930s the Soviet biologist Alesksandr Ivanovich Oparin and others produced molecules that could grow and fuse together and form into daughter cells. John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, the British geneticist and evolutionary biologist, believed that life formed in a soup containing organic substances. Many other scientists theorized about the origin of living things, including Leeuwenhoek, Spallanzani, Darwin, and Pasteur. This concept became known as biopoiesis, which is the formation of biological substances, or as autopoiesis that is defined by

American biologist Lynn Margulis as the self-organizing of living systems that have properties that maintain their own boundaries. The concepts involve the spontaneous formation of simple inorganic chemicals into more complex organic molecules on Earth. The concept of panspermia is the belief that life came to Earth from some other planet or asteroid in the universe. The astronomers Sir Fred Hoyle and the Sri Lankan astrobiologist Chandra Wickramasinghe (1939) believed in panspermia. In 1953 Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey while at the University of Chicago placed a primeval soup composed of water vapor, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen, but no oxygen, in a closed container. They then shot electrical sparks though this soup to represent lightning which they hypothesized might provide the energy required to form organic molecules and thus might represent the environment on the early Earth. They did demonstrate that complex molecules can be formed from simple amino acids, but alas, they did not create life. Sidney Foxs 1958 experiment did produce a type of polymer (long chain of molecules) of amino acids that he called proteinoids by the application of heat. In turn these proteinoids tended to form microspheres that resembled bacteria-like protocells which were about a micrometer in size. These tiny protocells developed a membrane on their surface that seemed to produce buds that, under certain conditions, divided. Since then others have attempted to create life by developing an understanding of the complexity of inorganic substances as they react and interact to form

basic organic type molecules. If the question is whether simple chemicals and substances can form the molecules of life, the answer seems to be yes. However, to date, the spark that is life has not been scientifically identified and found. See also Hoyle; Miller; Urey Sidney Fox was one of several biochemists to have conducted experiments on the origins of life. In 1984, 1985, and 1990, Fox was invited to discuss his work related to the creation of life before Pope John II and other papal scientists in Rome in a forum sponsored by the Italian Academia dei Lincei, IBM, and the National Foundation for Cancer Research. It appeared that the Pope wanted to be as well informed as possible before issuing the Roman Catholic Churchs famous statement in support of the scientific theory of organic evolution. Fox assumed there were three reasons for the Popes interest in his research on the origins of life and subsequent evolution of plant and animal species. Pope John IIs interests appear to be related to where he and everyone else came from, how future evolutionary research might be related to Genesis; and last, the Pope did not want to repeat the mistakes that the early Church made regarding Giordano Bruno (burning at the stake), Copernicus (his book on the heliocentric universe remained on the Index for one hundred and fifty years), and Galileo

(condemned by the Inquisition), as well as other less-famous philosophers and scientists who were either excommunicated or suffered similar fates. Foxs lectures were well received by the Vatican. Foxs Theory of Proteinoid Microspheres 197 FRACASTOROS THEORY OF DISEASE: Biology and Medicine: Girolamo Fracastoro (14781553), Italy. Diseases are transmitted by seedlike entities that are transferred from person to person. Girolamo Fracastoro recognized that invisible seed-like particles transmitted infection. In 1546 Fracastoro wrote On Contagion and Contagious Diseases in which he anticipated the germ theory. In this book he mentioned three types of infection: 1) by direct contact of an uninfected person with a person infected by the disease; 2) by indirect contact with the infected person by some path, such as clothing, infected air, food, or other medium that could carry the infection; and 3) contagion from a distance, where there is no evident contact between the infected person and a noninfected person, such as a fever. In all three cases, the disease is transmitted by seeds of contagion that are capable of reproducing themselves and thus spreading diseases. He also stated that each disease has it own nature of contagion, that is, types of seeds, that have their own rate of multiplying as tiny bodies that carry the disease. Unfortunately, his observations and theory made little impact on the actual status of medicine of his day, although it was influential for several centuries until the early nineteenth century when Agostino Bassi

(17731856), the Italian biologist and bacteriologist, proposed his germ theory in 1825. Before his contagion theory Fracastoro was known for his book Syphilis, or the French Disease published in 1530. This book introduced the term syphilis to Europeans. The Italians called it the French disease. The French called it the Italian disease. And all Europeans believed syphilis was imported from the New World by explorers returning to their homes in Europe. It was more likely in the 1500s that infected sailors and settlers from Europe infected Native Americans than the other way around. See also Leeuwenhoek; Pasteur FRANCKS THEORY OF DISCRETE ABSORPTION OF ELECTRONS: Physics: James Franck (18821964), United States. James Franck and Gustav Hertz shared the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics. Only electrons at specific velocities can be absorbed by a medium (mercury) in precise (quanta) amounts. In 1914 James Franck and the German experimental physicist Gustav Hertz (1887 1975) collaborated to demonstrate experimentally that energy is transferred in selected quantized amounts as it reacts with atoms and other particles. They used electrons at different velocities to bombard mercury atoms and discovered that electrons could be absorbed by the mercury atoms only and exactly at 4.9 electron volts of energy. If the electrons had less energy, they were lost on collision with the nuclei of the mercury atoms. If the energy was greater than 4.9 eV, they were not absorbed. It was only at the discrete 4.9 eV of energy that electrons were permitted to enter the orbits of the mercury atoms. This was the first experimental evidence for the quantum (Latin for how much) theory of energy and was later confirmed for the quantum leap of electrons

for other atoms. A simplified explanation of the quantum leap states that it is a tiny, discrete amount of energy emitted by an electron when it jumps from an inner 198 Fracastoros Theory of Disease orbit to an outer orbit (energy level). The closer an electrons orbit is to the nucleus, the greater is its energy. Therefore, as it jumps from an orbit of greater energy to an orbit of lesser energy (further from the nucleus), it must give up a quantized bit of energy. The energy emitted is a photon (light particle). Conversely, when an atom absorbs a specific level of energy, an electron in an outer orbit can take a quantum jump down to an inner orbit (see Figure D6 under Dehmelt). Francks and Hertzs experimental proof of the quantum theory was an important step in understanding the physics of matter and energy. See also Dehmelt; Heisenberg; Hertz; Planck FRANKLANDS THEORY OF VALENCE: Chemistry: Sir Edward Frankland (18251899), England. The capacity of the atoms of elements to combine with the atoms of other elements to form molecular compounds is determined by the number of chemical bonds on the given atoms. Sir Edward Frankland is considered the father of the concept of valence (Latin for power) that is the number of chemical bonds (connections), atoms, or groups of atoms that can be exchanged or shared with other atoms. In his work with organic compounds, Frankland discovered that atoms of different elements would chemically bond within fixed ratios with other groups of atoms. From this observation in 1852, he developed an explanation for the maximum valence for each element. The theory of

valence explained the relationships of atomic weights with the ratios of atoms combining with each other (see Figure S3 under Sidgwick). Although valence is the combining power of atoms to join with each other to form molecules, the electrovalence of an ion (atoms that lost or gained electrons) is the numerical value of the electrical charge on the ion. The concepts of valence and electrovalence are important for the understanding and advancement of chemistry. Later in 1867 Frankland and his colleague, the British chemist B.F. Duppa (dates unknown), identified and determined that the COOH (Oxatyl) group is a found in all organic acids. This simplified the determination for the structure of many organic compounds. See also Abegg; Arrhenius; Berzelius; Bohr; Dalton; Langmuir; Lewis; Sidgwick FRANKLINS CONCEPT OF DNA STRUCTURE: Physics: Rosalind Franklin (19201958), England. The complex organic DNA molecule is a helix structure with phosphate chemical groups situated on the outer boundaries of the helix spirals. Rosalind Franklin, an expert crystallographer, made X-ray photographs of a form of DNA that clearly indicated the helix nature of its molecular structure. As the story goes, in 1952 James Watson viewed her X-ray photographs and recognized the importance of the obvious helix structure of the DNA substance to the DNA research he and Francis Crick were conducting. Crick obtained copies of Franklins X-ray photographs from her boss Maurice Wilkins (19162004) (some say without her Franklins Concept of DNA Structure 199 permission). These photographs clearly provided the information required for Watson and Crick to develop an acceptable helix structure of the double helix of DNA (see Figure C5 under Crick). Rosalind Franklin later wrote a paper in which she mentioned

the structure for the DNA molecule that consisted of a double-chain helix. Although she did not recognize the complete structure nor did she recognize the inclusion of base pairs of nucleotides, she did indicate that the phosphate groups on the outside of the strands were responsible for holding the units together. In the publication that reported the structure of the DNA molecule, Franklin was not given credit for her important work or her X-ray photographs. The 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Watson, Crick, and Wilkins, but because Rosalind Franklin had died of cancer in 1958 she was ineligible for the award. See also Crick; Watson FRANKLINS THEORIES OF ELECTRICITY: Physics: Benjamin Franklin (1706 1790), United States. Franklins single fluid theory of electricity: Electricity is a single fluid with both attracting and repelling forces. Benjamin Franklin knew of other scientific experiments that demonstrated that when substances (then called electrics, and now are known as insulators) such as amber and glass, were rubbed with wool or silk, static electricity was produced. Conversely, when nonelectrics, (now known as conductors) such as metals, were rubbed, no static electricity was produced. Based on this evidence, scientists concluded that because rubbing different substances could produce a repelling or attracting force, electricity must be composed of two different types of fluid. The French chemist Charles Figure F7. Rosalind Franklins X-ray crystal photograph of the helix structure of the DNA molecule. 200 Franklins Theories of Electricity

Du Fay (16981739) proposed the concept of two kinds of electricity: positive and negative. He called the positive electricity vitreous and the negative resinous, which seemed to confirm the two fluid nature of electricity. In 1747, after experimenting with a Leyden jar, Benjamin Franklin advanced a single fluid concept of electricity, but he still considered it a flowing substance. Franklins concept of electric charges: Because electricity is a single fluid substance, two types of forces must be present to cause attraction and repulsion. Benjamin Franklin, as well as Du Fay, is credited with the terms positive and negative to explain the attraction and repulsion characteristics of fluid electricity. Franklins single fluid electricity was on the right track, even though he interpreted the terms incorrectly. He reasoned that positive would be the direction of the current flow, when in actuality the negative electrons determine the direction of the electric current toward the positive pole, which lacks electrons, and thus has a potential of gaining electrons. This has caused much confusion ever since.

Franklins concept of lightning: Lightning is a form of electricity that is more strongly attracted to points, particularly metal points at high altitudes. For many years, scientists related lightning to static electricity because both produced a jagged spark of light and could cause shock. But there was no proof they were the same phenomenon. Benjamin Franklins experiments with the Leyden jar illustrated that electricity was more strongly attracted to point sources than to flat surfaces. From this concept, he believed it possible to demonstrate that lightning was an electrical discharge by attracting it to a metal tip on the end of kite. The result was his famous kite experiment during a thunderstorm in the year 1752, when lightning was attracted to the kite and was conducted to a silk ribbon attached to a metal key. When he brought his knuckle close to the key, a spark jumped to his hand, producing a mild shock. This was a very dangerous experiment, and several scientists were electrocuted when trying to replicate Franklins demonstration that proved lightning is electricity. However, this experiment forged Franklins development of the lightning rod, which has prevented lightning damage to many homes and commercial buildings. FRAUNHOFERS THEORY OF WHITE LIGHT: Physics: Josef von Fraunhofer (17871826), Germany. White light projected through a prism produces a continuous color spectrum that is crossed by dark lines. Josef Fraunhofer was an expert lens maker familiar with Isaac Newtons studies that proved white light is composed of colored lights when it is projected through a prism. Benjamin Franklin might be considered an eighteenthcentury Renaissance man because of his eclectic interests and endeavors. Not only was he interested in many

areas of science, he was also an accomplished diplomat, politician, publisher, and wit. Two of his famous publications, are the Pennsylvania Gazette from 1729 to 1733, which was followed by the more successful Poor Richards Almanac. He also published works on heat, light, and oceanography. He made measurements of the temperature of the water in the Gulf Stream and determined how this moving body of water affected the northern part of the United States and Western Europe. His data was used to develop accurate maps of the Gulf Stream. Among his many inventions were a new type of home heating stove (now referred to as the Franklin stove,) bifocal eyeglasses, and the rocking chair. He lived a long, productive life. He believed that life should be lived to its fullest potential. Fraunhofers Theory of White Light 201 Fraunhofer was also familiar with the English chemist and physicist William Hyde Wollastons (17661828) observation that dark lines within a spectrum were produced from a white light source. As Fraunhofer permitted light from a very narrow slit to pass through one of his excellent prisms, he observed a series of narrow bands of light of varying wavelengths. Some images of specific wavelengths (colors) were missing and produced the dark lines reported by Wollaston. Fraunhofer did not know what caused them nor did he realize their significance, but they were then, and still are, referred to as Fraunhofer lines. Fraunhofer went on to identify over seven hundred of these dark

lines. Later, Robert Bunsen (inventor of the Bunsen burner) and Gustav Kirchhoff, using a spectroscope, determined that the dark lines were the absorption of specific wavelengths of light by a vapor between the source and the prism. This concept of radiation absorption was used to identify numerous new chemical elements by spectroscopy (spectro analysis). The same concept can be used to study the nature of light from the sun and stars to determine their chemical composition. See also Bunsen; Kirchhoff; Newton FRESNELS THEORY FOR MULTIPLE PRISMS: Physics: Augustin Jean Fresnel (17881827), France. A single beam of light produces multiple interferences when split into multiple beams of multiple prisms. Augustin Fresnel considered light to be similar in nature to sound waves. Based on this concept, he worked out the mathematics for light as transverse waves that explained reflection, refraction, and diffraction, which are related to the longitudinal waves for sound. His work with the interference of the beam of light by a prism caused him to consider what would happen if two prisms were used to split the beam of light into two parts. Fresnel conceived of a series of prisms formed as concentric circles on a Figure F8. An artists rendition of the electromagnetic spectrum produced by a beam of white light passing through a prism. The white light is composed of separated electromagnetic waves ranging from long infrared to short ultraviolet rays. 202 Fresnels Theory for Multiple Prisms circular glass lens. This resulted in the Fresnel lens, which, from the front, looks like concentric circles similar to a bulls-eye on a

target, but from a cross section, these circles appear as a series of sawtooth tiny circular prisms. The Fresnel lens, first developed to concentrate the light from lighthouses, is now used in a multitude of devices, from overhead projectors, to large-format cameras, to other devices with screens too large to make use of a heavy glass convex lens to concentrate light. August Fresnel also used transverse waves to explain the phenomenon of polarization of light. The electric field vector oscillates in directions perpendicular to the direction of light. Light is polarized when the electric field oscillates just up and down or right and left. If the electric vector oscillates in all directions, the light is said to be unpolarized. (Today, sunglasses use lenses that transmit the one-directional polarized light waves, while blocking out most of the light with the opposite polarization.) This seemed to settle the controversy of the nature of light as a wave, at least until the light particle (photon) theory was developed. See also Einstein; Fizeau FRIEDMANS THEORY OF THE QUARK STRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS: Physics: Jerome Isaac Friedman (1930), United States. Jerome Friedman shared the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physics with Henry Kendall and Richard Taylor. The angular distributions of the scattering of electrons from point sources (partons, which are related to gluons and quarks) match the characteristics of Murray GelManns hypothetical quarks.

Experiments that Friedman conducted at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with other colleagues demonstrated that protons that were struck with sufficient energy by deflected electrons were scattered at wide angles. These, as well as other factors resulting from the experiment, verified the nature of the hypothetical quarks. Friedman and other scientists, using the laboratory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, as well as the equipment at MIT between the years 1967 and 1975, detected the scattering of electrons from the protons and neutrons. This provided the first evidence of the quark internal structure of nucleons (the particles within the nucleus, i.e., protons and neutrons). Quarks are a particular type of tiny bits of energy or particulate matter that compose the protons and neutrons of the nucleus of atoms. Note: Baryons (heavy) are three-quark groups that compose protons and neutrons, that when considered together, are called nucleons. Protons and neutrons make up the mass of the nuclei of atoms. They have about the same mass. Each has 1=2 spin, and they can be transformed into each other by giving up or receiving beta particles. Each proton and neutron consists of three quarks. Protons and neutrons are considered stable baryons (see Figure F10). Six types of quarks have been identified and are usually referred to in terms of pairs, as follows: 1) up and down quarks, 2) top and bottom quarks, and 3) charm Figure F9. From the front, the Fresnel lens looks similar to a bulls eye, but from the side it appears as a series of saw-tooth circular prisms.

It is used to concentrate light. Friedmans Theory of the Quark Structure of Nucleons 203 and strange quarks. (Who says physicists dont have a sense of humor?) Protons consist of two up quarks and one down quark, while neutrons consist of two down quarks and one up quark. Unlike the proton with a 1 charge or a neutron with a 0 charge, quarks come with fractional electric charges as integers ranging from 1 to _1. There are several other heavy particles besides proton and neutrons that are composed of quarks. One example is the meson. Quarks are forever bound up inside the heavier particles found in the atoms nuclei and are not found in a free state outside of the heavy subnuclear particles. There is some evidence that mystery particles called gluons are also found in the atoms nuclei. Their role is to hold together all the quarks found in the nucleithus the name gluon. Otherwise all the positively charged protons would repel each other and the nuclei would come apart or just not exist. See also Gell-Mann; Feynman FRIEDMANNS THEORY OF AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE: Astronomy: Alesksandr Alexandrovich Friedmann (18881925), Russia. In opposition to Einsteins theory of a finite volume of an unchanging universe with a saddle shape, Friedmanns theory postulated a changing, and expanding universe with possible curvatures that may be zero, negative, or positive. Alesksandr Friedmann was educated at the University of Saint Petersburg in Russia where he received a degree in applied and pure mathematics in 1913. He became a

manager in an aviation machine shop and later taught mechanics during World War I. After the war he began his career as an astronomer at the Pavlovsk Observatory in Saint Petersburg. He first became known for his work in the physics of the atmosphere and meteorology. He is best known for a paper he wrote in 1922 on his theory for the expanding, growing, changing universe. Figure F10. Quarks are bits of matter that compose the proton (with a 1 charge in an atoms nucleus) and neutrons (with a 0 charge, also found in an atoms nucleus). Together they make up most of the mass of the nuclei of all atoms. 204 Friedmanns Theory of an Expanding Universe His theory grew out of Einsteins theory of relativity to explain cosmology. Einsteins theory stated that the density is constant and thus must have a curvature. In other words, the universe did not change over time and had a limited volume. Friedmann came up with the idea of a universe of unlimited volume and a model of one that would change over time. Contrary to Einsteins theory, Friedmann considered the universe to be isotropic which means that all points in the universe move in all directions at the same rate. Therefore, the average density and size of the universe will change over time. The significance of Friedmans theory is that it later led to the big bang theory as an explanation for the creation and evolution of the universe. Friedmann is also credited with coming up with different models for the shapes of the cosmos. Einstein proposed a saddle shape for the universe, while Friedmann claimed that different cosmological models would result in the curvature of space being either zero, positive, or negative. These various types of models for the universe are known as Friedmann universes. Today, the theory of an expanding universe is

accepted by most cosmologists based on evidence of rapidly receding galaxies, the redshift, and the rapid expansion of the universe since the big bang, rendering Einsteins closed universe theory less likely. See also Dicke; Einstein; Gamow; Hale; Hubble; Lema^tre FRISCHS THEORY OF A CHAIN REACTION: Physics: Otto Robert Frisch (19041979), England. A sustainable nuclear chain reaction can be obtained by using just a few pounds of fissionable isotopes of uranium-235. In the late 1930s, Otto Frisch was involved in research with other scientists who discovered that uranium would decay into lighter elements when bombarded with slow neutrons. This work was confirmed and called nuclear fission, which was seen as a process capable of producing large amounts of energy. Frisch and Rudolf Peierls determined the rare U-235 was more likely to fission than other isotopes of uranium, such as heavier isotope U-238. Their additional calculations determined it would take only a few pounds of U-235 to reach a critical mass that would produce a sustainable chain reaction resulting in a massive explosion. This made the production of the atomic bomb a practical reality. Otto Frisch moved to the United States in the early 1940s to work on the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos, New Mexico. See also Bohr; Hahn; Meitner; Peierls; Teller; Ulam Frischs Theory of a Chain Reaction 205 G GABORS THEORY OF REPRODUCING THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES: Physics: Dennis Gabor (19001979), England. Dennis Gabor (born G_abor D_enes in

Budapest) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971. A coherent light source will produce a two-dimensional holograph image that appears as a three-dimensional object on a photographic plate. Dennis Gabor was educated in Hungary and Germany followed by a career as a research engineer with Siemens & Halske AG, an electrical engineering company headquartered in Munich. One of his first inventions was the high-pressure mercury vapor lamp that is used for street lighting all over the world. With the rise of Adolph Hitler in 1933, Gabor left Germany. After a short period in Hungary, he moved to England where he found employment with the BTH (British Thomson-Houston) Research Laboratory in Rugby in 1934. In 1949 he joined the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, eventually becoming a professor of applied electron physics until his retirement in 1967. Gabor always explained his work as research serendipity because his discoveries were based on previous research of other scientists, and much of the new information he reported grew out of their ideas. He worked on improving the electron microscope that has a higher power of resolution than the light microscope but requires light with shorter wavelengths to be useful in observing things, such as the structure of crystals. To improve the image, Gabor used a method of positioning the light waves cycle and intensity to build a fuller image of the objects being viewed by the electron microscope. He worked with micrographs produced by the electron microscope using coherent light, which is light that consists of wavelengths (frequencies) where the frequencies were exactly in phase and exhibited the same intensities. Therefore, because the light was of the same wavelength, it was a single pure color. He named the process hologram which is derived from the Greek

words holos meaning whole and gamma meaning message. The hologram expressed the idea that the resulting image contained all the information about the object being viewed. He used the mercury vapor lamp as the source of the coherent light even though it does not exhibit a high degree of coherent light (light of a single frequency or color). Gabor learned of the work of the French physicist Gabriel Lippmann (18451921) who experimented with methods of recording the colors of nature so they could be reproduced more realistically than was possible with black-and-white film. In other words, Lippmann experimented with coherent light waves, as did Gabor, but merely to improve the technique of color photography. Gabors work enabled the viewing of flat, two-dimensional photographs as three-dimensional images that acted somewhat like a stereoscopic image that stored all the information on the film, giving it a threedimensional orientation. The problem of finding a pure single frequency light source was solved in 1960 when the laser was developed. Using a ruby crystal the laser produces a pure, intense, single frequency, coherent beam of red light that made the technique of holography a more common reality. In 1962 two engineering professors at the University of Michigan, Emmett Leith (19272005) and Juris Upatnieks (1936), were the first to produce holograms that used laser light. Lasers have found many applications beyond the electron microscope, including side-reading radar, in the production of three-dimensional images that can be sent over wireless systems, laser light displays for entertainment purposes, and the all-important usage in various medical practices that have either replaced or surpassed standard surgical procedures. GALENS THEORIES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: Biology: Galen

(c.130200 BCE), Greece. Galens theory of the circulatory system: The arteries and veins carry blood, not air, and the veins and arteries carry blood. Until Galens time, Erasistratus (c.300260 BCE) theory that the essential body elements were atoms that were vitalized by air (pneuma) that circulated throughout the body by the arteries was accepted. Galen, one of the early experimenters who paid attention to his own observations, studied the structure and functions of organs and attempted to disprove this air theory. Experimenting with various small mammals, he discovered that blood, not air, flowed through the arteries. But Galen considered the liver to be the main organ of the circulatory system, and his theory stated blood was distributed to the outer parts of the body from the liver by the veins, and from the heart by the arteries. Galen also believed blood seeped through the intraventricular septum (central wall) of the heart through minute pores and that the heart had three chambers, each with its own function: the anterior or lateral ventricles (sensory information), the middle or third ventricle (cognition and integration), and the posterior chamber or fourth ventricle (memory and motor motion). He did not understand the role of the lungs in the circulatory system and believed the venous system (not the arteries) responsible for the distribution of food from the stomach to all parts of the body. Galen is considered by some historians to be the first to use the pulse of the heart as a diagnostic aid. Galens theory for the nervous system: The brain controls the nervous system. Through the dissection of animals (never humans, except wounded gladiators),

Galen demonstrated the distinction between sensory nerves (soft) and motor nerves 208 Galens Theories of Anatomy and Physiology (hard) and correctly placed the medulla as part of the brain rather than as part of the arteries. He correctly identified the nerves responsible for breathing and speech and demonstrated that specific nerves in the spinal cord control various muscles. Galens concept of the kidneys: The kidneys, not the bladder, produce urine. Up to this time it was believed the bladder produced urine. By tying off the ureter, Galen proved the bladder did not produce urine but was merely a holding area for it. He also diagnosed several illnesses, including liver disease, by observing the urine of patients. Galens philosophy: Nature does nothing in vain. God endowed every organ with a special purpose to perform special functions.

Although eclectic in his acceptance of the doctrines of earlier philosophers, Galens main beliefs were based on the humoral pathology of Hippocrates (c.460377 BCE) and Aristotle. For example, he based his theory of circulation on a three-part system of the liver, heart, and brain, each with its own spirits: natural, vital, and animal. His concept of preventive medicine was based on hygiene as well as critical days that were days when treatment would be more successful. He believed prevention was better than treatment and thought that diseases could be prevented if the critical days were observed. He was an excellent diagnostician for his era and was able to discern the source of many complaints. In addition to prescribing many different types of drugs, he used cold to treat hot diseases, and hot to treat cold diseases, and often used bleeding, purges, and enemas. See also Hippocrates; Townes GALILEOS THEORIES: Physics: Galileo Galilei (15641642), Italy. Galileos theory of falling bodies: Discounting air resistance, two bodies of different sizes and weights will fall at the same rate. Both will increase in speed of descent and land at the same time. From the time of Aristotle, it was believed a force could not act on a body from a distance. In other words, for an object to continue to move something physical needed to continue to push it; otherwise its movement would cease. In addition, Aristotle and others believed a body of greater weight would fall faster than a body of lesser weight, but they had never experimented with bodies heavy enough to overcome air resistance. Very light objects, such as a feather, would descend more slowly than would a rock, which seemed proof enough. It is most likely a myth that Galileo dropped objects of

Galens philosophical outlook on nature was responsible for his success as a physician and scientist. He believed that the form of an organ was designed by a supreme being to perform a specific function, now known as form follows function. Galens medical knowledge and writings were accepted for over fifteen hundred years. Although his medical knowledge was advanced for this time in history, later physicians accepted his teaching without question and did little further investigating of the human body. Galen was the first to understand and use the pulse beat of the heart as a diagnostic aid. He proposed many theories concerning blood formation and flow, the nervous system, digestion, excretion, and so forth. His written works included over five hundred articles on his medical concepts that were translated by Arab scholars in the ninth century and later used during the Renaissance period in Europe that became the basis of medical theories and practices until the sixteenth century. This is why many historians believe that this respect for Galens authority (the socalled tyranny of Galen) impeded medical progress for several centuries. Galileos Theories 209

different weights from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. It may have been the Flemish mathematician and engineer Simon Stevin (15481620), not Galileo, who first dropped two rocks of different weights simultaneously from the Tower of Pisa to determine if they would land at the same time. What we do know is that Galileo contrived his method of using an inclined plane made from a long wooden board to make accurate measurements and arrive at a reasonable explanation for the phenomenon of free-falling objects. We also know that he could not have dropped the balls from the Leaning Tower of Pisa because his inclined plane experiment was conducted while he was living in the town of Padua, not Pisa. Galileo assembled an inclined plane that allowed two balls of different weights to roll slowly down the incline, which enabled him to measure their rates of descent by using the pulse of his heartbeat. The only other timing devices available at that time were sundials, time candles, and dripping water clocks. None was accurate enough for Galileos purposes. He also ensured that the balls were of sufficient, but of different weights so the resistance of air or the surface of the wooden planks of the inclined plane would minimally affect them. His measurements confirmed that not only did the balls roll down to the bottom of the plank in equal time, but also their rates of descent increased as they passed equally spaced marks on the planks. When he experimented with planks raised higher and lower to form different degrees of inclination, he discovered an interesting factor: No matter at what angle the planks were positioned, the balls covered a single unit of distance on the plank for the first unit of time based on his heartbeat and a water clock that used a slow dripping stream of water. But for the second unit of

time, the balls rolled three times faster than the first units distance. He discovered that the ratio of distances covered by the balls increases by odd numbers. This means that for the total time of descent of four seconds, the balls covered a distance sixteen times greater than is covered in one second. This relationship of the ratio between time and distance is further explained as acceleration acting uniformly on a falling body, where the descending distance covered is directly proportional to the square of the time (see Figure G1). From these data, Galileo formulated the law that states s 1=2 at2, where s is the distance the ball travels, a is the acceleration, and t is the time lapsing of the balls descent. Galileos experimental results illustrated the uniform accelerating force of gravity, which Sir Isaac Newton later developed as part of his concept of inertia and Figure G1. The balls represent the ratio of the distance of their descent to the square of the time of their descent. 210 Galileos Theories the three laws of motion. The other consequence of this experiment was that Galileo was now able to correct the Aristotelian idea that the push of angles was required to maintain planetary motion. Once friction was removed from consideration, the constant pull of the suns gravity sustains the planets orbiting the sun. An interesting bit of modern history: During the 1991 Apollo 15 moon landing, astronaut David Scott dropped a feather and hammer at the same

time, and they hit the surface of the moon at the same time. Apparently he wanted to prove that Galileo was correct. The same experiment with a feather and rock can be performed on Earth within a large vacuum chamber where most of the air has been removed. Galileos concept of the pendulum: The square of the period (oscillation) of a pendulum varies directly with the length of it suspending string. While studying medicine at the University of Pisa, a youthful Galileo was attending church services in the towns cathedral when he noticed that a large chandelier swayed in the breeze. Sometimes the chandelier swayed in longer arcs and sometimes in smaller arcs; the time period of the swing seemingly was the same regardless of the sweep of the chandelier. The pulse of his own heartbeat that he used to count the time that lapsed for each swing provided him with an idea for an experiment. Upon returning home, he designed a pendulum with a bob on a short string and another bob of a different weight on a longer string (see Figure G2). Again timing them with his pulse, he confirmed his theory. He summarized his ideas as follows: 1) Air resistance (friction) prevents the pendulum from returning to its exact starting position. However, if there is no air resistance,

the bob will always return to its original position. Thus, sooner or later, all pendulums come to rest. Pendulums with lighter bobs come to rest sooner than those with heavy bobs. 2) The period of swing or sweep of the pendulum is not related to the weight of the bob. 3) The time period for each sweep of a pendulum is not dependent on the length of its sweep (this observation was later proved incorrect). 4) The square of the period for a pendulum is directly proportional to the length of the pendulum. Once set in motion, a pendulum oscillates with a constant frequency that is inversely proportional to the length of its string. Although Galileo recognized the importance of this phenomenon, he was unable to develop Figure G2. A typical pendulum as used by Galileo to establish his theory of pendulums. Figure G3. An artists depiction of Galileos air thermometer. Galileos Theories 211 his pendulum into a practical timepiece (he continued to use a water clock and his pulse). However, it became an important concept in the design of accurate clocks. Some years later, Christian Huygens fabricated a workable pendulum clock similar to a grandfathers clock that used weights to maintain the movement of the pendulum (see also Huygens).

Galileos concept for the measurement of temperature: There is a direct relationship between the temperatures of air and water and their volumes. From the beginning of time, people understood the concepts of hot and cold, but until Galileo, there was no objective way to measure the exact temperature for either. Galileo devised an air thermometer, or thermoscope, a crude, and not very accurate, instrument for measuring temperature. He used a long, thin, stalk-like tube of glass, open at one end and with a closed bulb at the other end. Placing his hands on the bulb until it was warm; he then inverted the open tube into a pan of water. As the bulb cooled, some water was drawn up in the narrow tube toward the bulb. Also, as the temperature of the surrounding air changed, so did the level of water in the tube. This furnished Galileo the means to measure the level of water in the tube and to make some calculations (see Figure G3). His instrument, however, was quite inaccurate due to the effects of atmospheric pressure on the water in the pan, which was open to the air. Even so, this was the first thermometer, which Galileo later redesigned. He enclosed the water in a sealed tube containing floats constructed of small, hollow glass balls adjusted for different water densities. As the temperature changed, so would the density of the water, causing one or more balls to rise or fall, thus indicating the air temperature. Today these fascinating instruments are sometimes referred to as thermometro lentos (see Figure G4). Galileos astronomy theories: 1) Dark spots on the surface of

the sun appear to move around the sun; therefore the sun must rotate, and so must Earth and other planets revolve around the sun. 2) Jupiter has several of its own moons similar to Earths moon. 3) Saturn has bulges on its side as well as its own moons. 4) The Milky Way is composed of a multitude of stars clustered together. The telescopes that Galileo constructed enabled him to view objects never before seen by humans, and thus he conceived many theories about the planets and stars. The credit for the development of the first telescope is usually attributed to either of two Dutch spectacle makers, Hans Lippershey (15701619) or Zacharias Janssen (15801638). Janssen is also credited with inventing the microscope in 1608. Galileo learned of this secret device and then constructed his own telescope. An excellent lens maker, he improved the curvature of his lenses to reduce optical aberration. Galileo built three telescopes, the last of which was improved to approximately 30-power, or about the power of a good pair of modern binoculars. One of Galileos first telescopic viewings was of the surface of the sun, where he observed the movement of darker areas or spots and concluded the sun must be rotating. Based on Figure G4. A modern version of Galileos Thermometro Lento. 212 Galileos Theories knowledge of moving bodies, he surmised

the planets and Earth are not only spinning on their axes, but are also revolving about the sun in circular paths. This was the first confirmation of the Copernican heliocentric concept of the solar system. (See Figure G5.) Galileo disagreed with, or ignored, Keplers laws that state that planets move in ellipses. Because the concept of gravity was unknown in his time, Galileo believed the paths of planets were based on inertial circular movement. This erroneous concept prevented him from completely developing his law of uniform acceleration into the Newtoniantype laws of motion (see also Copernicus; Kepler; Newton). Using the telescope he constructed, Galileo observed two tiny objects that appeared to move around the planet Jupiter, and he tracked and recorded the changes in their position. Later he discovered two other moons of Jupiter, for a total of four larger moons. (A total of

sixteen satellites of Jupiter have been subsequently discovered.) His records of the eclipses of Jupiters satellites aided sailors in determining longitudes at sea. After viewing Saturn at different times, Galileo noticed bulges on each side of the planet that periodically became larger, then smaller. His telescope was not powerful enough to resolve these bulges into the many rings around the planet that change their apparent shape as the orientation of the planet changes when viewed from Earth. Galileo also identified several of Saturns moons. Always fascinated by the multitude of stars that could be seen with his telescope, Galileo observed that, when aiming it at the Milky Way, it became obvious that this huge area of the sky was composed of many millions of stars. He recorded there were more stars, some very faint, in this area of the sky than in all the other areas combined. Up until this time, the Milky Way was considered to be just a large cloud in the sky. Although Galileo did not completely understand gravity or inertia, he had a firm concept of the mechanics of force, and his theories concerning falling bodies were a forerunner to Newtons three laws of motion. His thermoscope was a precursor to more accurate instruments for temperature and pressure measurements, including the modern mercury thermometers and barometers. His work with fluid equilibrium, as in a working siphon, led to a new concept of pumps. At one time it was believed that by reducing the air pressure above water, the water would be sucked up into the pump (similar to a drinking straw). Galileo understood that normal air pressure outside the pump pushed the water up into the pump

Figure G5. Galileos heliocentric solar system was the first confirmation of Copernicus original concept of a sun-centered solar system. Galileos Theories 213 to the area of reduced air pressure (just as normal air pressure pushes the liquid up a straw used for drinking). He also developed the mathematics that explained the flotation of solids in liquids and studied the magnetism of lodestones that would influence later scientists such as William Gilbert. Galileo was the first to demonstrate that a magnet broken into smaller pieces retained its magnetic properties because each piece, no matter how small, is still a magnet with its own north and south poles. Galileo, along with Janssen, is credited with developing the first practical microscope after adapting his concept of a telescope to produce a crude but workable microscope. In addition, he tried to measure the speed of light by

flashing a lantern positioned on one hill to an assistant who flashed his lantern back from another hill. Although he could not detect the speed of light, nevertheless he was convinced that light travels with great and measurable speed. At six-month periods, as Earth revolved around the sun, Galileo attempted to measure the parallax of stars to determine their distance from Earth. Although his instruments were not accurate enough to accomplish the task, his concept was correct because he used parallax to measure the distance of the moon to Earth. See also Copernicus; Fahrenheit; Gilbert; Kepler; Newton; Ptolemy GALLOS HIV-AIDS THEORY: Biology: Robert Charles Gallo (1937), United States. The HTLV-3 retrovirus suppresses the immune system lymphocytes, thus causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Robert Gallo was familiar with the process of how, when under attack, the bodys immune system produces interleukin-2, which stimulates special lymphocytes identified as T-cells to fight viral infections in leukemia patents. In the early 1980s he surmised a virus was responsible for a similar suppression of the immune system that led to opportunistic (AIDS) infections. Gallo then hypothesized the retrovirus he identified as HTLV-3 was reacting with the immune system in a similar manner as it did for the blood cancer disease leukemia. At the same time, Luc Montagnier, the French virologist and researcher, made a similar deduction and in 1983 sent Gallo a sample of his virus, which he called lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV). Gallos assistant discovered a particular T-cell type that could be invaded but not killed by these viruses, which then could be used to develop a test for the virus in AIDS patients.

Gallo proceeded to secure a patent for his new AIDS test. This resulted in an Most likely Galileo will be remembered for his theory that challenged Ptolemys Earth-centered universe concept, which was then accepted by the Church of Rome. Because of his belief in the theory of a Copernican suncentered system, Galileo was secretly denounced to the Inquisition for blasphemous utterances. He was later forced to recant and was sentenced to house arrest until his death at age seventy-eight. Near the end of the twentieth century, the Roman Catholic Church removed the charges and exonerated Galileo. Galileo was one of the first persons to make a distinction between religious beliefs related to the physical world and the results of experimental evidence related to the nature of the universe. Even today, there continue to be misunderstandings between religious beliefs based on faith and those related to the nature of the universe that are based on experiments and factual evidence. 214 Gallos HIV-AIDS Theory international argument about the discovery of the AIDS virus because the American HTLV-3 and French LAV viruses were the same. It was also claimed that the French LAV virus

was used in Gallos laboratory to develop the test. It was settled in 1986 when Gallo and Montagnier agreed that both their names would appear on the patent document and 80% of all royalties would be given to an AIDS research foundation. The HTLV-3 and LAV virus were renamed the HIV virus by an international committee. Between 1981 and 1990 Gallo published over four hundred papers related to his research on HIV/AIDS. See also Baltimore; Montagnier GALTONS THEORY OF EUGENICS: Biology: Sir Francis Galton (18221911), England. The human race can be improved by selective and controlled breeding, as is done with domesticated plants and animals. As an anthropologist, Francis Galtons extensive travels enabled him to observe varied cultures and races and subsequently to conduct research in the areas of human heredity. Galton knew that since the beginning of farming, humans selected not only the

best grains as seeds to plant, but also selected animals with the most desired characteristics to breed, therefore, improving the quality and quantity of agricultural products, just as can be done today with genetic engineering. He was also aware of the theory of organic evolution proposed by his cousin, Charles Darwin. Based on this background, Galton considered controlled breeding a means to improve the human species just as it had for many species of plants and animals. Galton is credited with coining the term eugenics, meaning good genes or good breeding. The first to study identical twins, he discovered that though identical twins have similar patterns of whorls and ridges in their fingerprints, there are just as many differences. In other words, everyones fingerprints are unique. He also developed the first system for classifying and identifying fingerprints, which expanded the field of forensic science. Using his research on identical twins, he attempted to resolve the distinction between environmental versus inherited factors that influence intelligence. His research, the premise of which was to determine what is most important in the development of intelligencenature or nurture continues today. Evidence indicates that nature may be responsible for over 50% Recently, several scientists have claimed that a vaccine for the HIV virus can be developed. In 1997 Dr. Robert Gallo, now the head of the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Marylands Baltimore campus, questioned the possibility of developing such a vaccine. His concerns are related to the pathogenesis of the HIV virus, including the large number strains of the HIV virus, the lack of good animal models for testing the vaccine,

and the fact that the HIV virus invades basic DNA cells of the immune system. In addition, for such a vaccine to be effective, it must be the only viable vaccine in the patients bodies. Since then, several experimental vaccines have been tested but to date none seem to be 100% effective. More recently it was reported in the September 22, 2007, issue of the New York Times of the failure of AIDS vaccine tests. A much-heralded H.I.V. vaccine has failed to work in a large clinical trial, dealing another serious setback to efforts to stop the AIDS epidemic. Despite this failure, efforts continue to develop an effective AIDS vaccine, although researchers acknowledge that the quest will be difficult and in all likelihood not viable in the foreseeable future. There is continuing debate about how to eradicate HIV infections and AIDS from the human population. Although this disease is preventable and somewhat predictable, human nature is not. Galtons Theory of Eugenics 215 of a persons intelligence, but environmental factors during gestation and after birth are also important to the development of intelligence. Galton

was the first to use new quantitative methods for eugenics research, including statistical correlation coefficient and regression analysis (statistical methods for comparing similarities between variables). His 1888 statistical techniques were sound but somewhat inadequate as compared to the statistics used for data analysis today. Although Mendels work with genetics was not yet rediscovered, Galtons research indicates an understanding of its basic principles. His methods were used mainly for analyzing the results of experimental medical research. His invention of correlation coefficient is probably more important than his work on eugenics. Interestingly, Galtons research led to the development of fingerprinting based on the unique swirl patterns for each individuals fingertips that are used for identifying individuals. See also Darwin; Mendel; Wallace

GALVANIS THEORIES OF GALVANIZATION AND ANIMAL TISSUE ELECTRICITY: Physics: Luigi Galvani (17371798), Italy. Galvanis theory of galvanization: Small electrical currents can be used to coat metals that are easily oxidized (iron rust) with other metals that resist oxidation (zinc). Although Galvani was trained in medicine/anatomy and experimented with electrophysiology, he was honored for his discovery of the galvanization process. He called his discovery the metallic arc because it used an electric current to bind a coating of zinc to iron. Galvanis process is similar to electroplating of metallic and nonmetallic items. Today, galvanized iron or steel also can be produced by dipping the item made of iron into a hot bath of molten zinc or by spraying very small zinc particles onto hot iron or steel. The resulting iron products will be more rust resistant than nongalvanized metal. Andre Amp_ere named the galvanometer, an instrument used to measure small electric currents, after Galvani who is also credited with the discovery of current electricity. Galvani pursued his work with electric currents to include investigating whether animal nerves carry electricity. Galvanis theory of animal tissue electricity: Electricity is present in animal tissue that can be discharged when in contact with two different metals. The science of eugenics has a checkered reputation due to the moral and ethical implications of controlling the selection of who shall be born into the world. Many people associate and relate eugenics with the Nazis

program for developing a super race during the 1930s and early 1940s. Today, ethnic cleansing might also be an application of eugenics. Even so, there are instances where forms of eugenics are used today without that stigma. When a couple (the husband is infertile) who wants to have children select frozen sperm for fertilizing the wifes eggs, they may have the option of selecting the physical characteristics of the sperm donor. The same type of selection can be made when deciding on the implantation of a zygote into the womb of a female. Another example is amniocentesis that is used to determine the genetic health of a fetus, and thus this information can be used to make the decision to abort or continue the pregnancy. Another more negative example is the use of ultrasound to specifically determine the sex of the unborn child that may lead to the abortion of a child of the wrong sex. On a more subtle level, when men and womenconsciously or unconsciouslyselect a mate, they are discriminating as to how that mate should look and behave to make a good parent. 216 Galvanis Theories of Galvanization and Animal Tissue Electricity Luigi Galvanis electrophysiology experiments involved the touching of a dissected frogs leg with a spark from a

machine that produced static electricity. However, he made a famous experimental error with regard to animal tissue electricity. During a thunderstorm, Galvani clamped onto an iron railing the brass hooks that he inserted into a dissected frogs spinal cord. The frogs muscles twitched, as they did also when two different types of metals touched the spinal cord. He incorrectly concluded that the electricity was generated by the frogs tissue, while rejecting the possibility that the electricity that caused the twitching came from another source. Later, Alessandro Volta demonstrated that the electricity was not derived from the tissue but rather from the brass and iron coming into contact with each other under moist conditions. See also Amp_ere; Franklin (Benjamin); Ohm; Volta, Watson (William) GAMOWS THEORIES OF THE UNIVERSE AND DNA: Physics: George Gamow (19041968), United States. Gamows big bang theory: The universe was created more than fourteen billion years ago from a single point source in space and time. Many civilizations over many generations theorized that the genesis of the universe was based on the egg or seed concept, where everything grew from a minute and rudimentary source. Also, persistent through the ages are religious concepts for the origin

of Earth and/or the universe. The big bang theory proposes that an incredible singularity event occurred where a dense point or source of energy exploded and rapidly expanded in all directions in microfractions of a second, to form all the energy and matter in the known universe. There are several current theories for the creation, nature of, and demise of the universethe static universe, the ever-expanding universe, the regeneration concepts, and the possibility of multi-universes of which ours is just one of many. Many scientists proposed theories similar to the big bang for an expanding universe that they based on Einsteins theory of relativity, despite the fact that Einstein proposed a static universe as evidenced by the saddle-shape for his unchanging universe. In 1948 Sir Fred Hoyle proposed that matter was continually generated by existing matter and is continually spread throughout the expanding universe. This is considered the model that George Gamow used to revise earlier theories and advance another based on mathematical concepts. Gamow believed there was evidence not only of an expanding universe but also that if the universe is continuing to expand, it must have had a beginning. In other words, if the universe is forever expanding in all directions, then it must have started at a central point from something extremely small that contained all the energy and matter required to form it, more recently referred to as a singularity. As evidence to substantiate his big bang theory, Gamow answered Olbers paradox, which raised the question of why the sky of the universe appears dark rather than full of light, as does the area illuminated by our sun. Gamow explored several possible answers to this paradox but felt the best is that the universe is ever Figure G6. Andre Amp_ere named the Galvanometer after Luigi Galvani. It is

used to measure small amounts of current electricity. Gamows Theories of the Universe and DNA 217 expanding. Thus, stars cannot shine enough light to fill up all that space because their radiation is not in equilibrium with their surfaces. One of the main factors supporting an expanding universe and opposing a static universe is that a self-contained, nonexpanding universe is incapable of disposing of the energy produced by all the stars that would result in a very hot static universe, whereas an ever-expanding universe would ultimately reach a balance for star energy. Thus, equilibrium would be established and a stable temperature would exist, or there possibly could be a decrease in overall temperature. According to the second law of thermodynamics (entropy), the final temperature would be absolute zero, and an absolute equilibrium would

exist. George Gamow calculated that the leftover uniform background radiation from the big bang explosion is equal to about 5 kelvin. In 1964 two AT&T scientists Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson (1936) discovered this leftover energy by detecting the primordial microwave type radiation. This discovery is the best current evidence for the big bang theory. Even so there are new theories that may lead to a reconsideration of an infinite universe; that an ever-expanding universe is an illusion, and that it is finite after all (see also Doppler; Hale; Hubble; Lematre). Gamows theory for the beginning of life: The amino acids, which form proteins, are constructed from the four nucleic acid bases of DNA. George Gamow based his theory for life on Francis Cricks and James Watsons proposed structure of the DNA double helix. The nucleic acidbased pairs connecting the two sides of the double helix are the nucleotides of adenine plus thymine (A T) and guanine plus cytosine (G C). Gamow realized this sequence of codes for these four nucleotides (A, T, G, and C) could produce only four amino acids, not the twenty or more existing in humans, and thus would be inadequate to produce the multitude of proteins necessary for life. Therefore, he concluded there needed to be at least three sequences of the base pairs present to produce codes necessary for the required number of amino acids. Using this code of the nucleotides, at least sixty-four amino acids could be produced (4 _ 4 _ 4 64). Gamows mathematical code explained the sequencing required for amino acids to produce proteins. Gamows theory of the living cell: Cells in plants and animals are structured to carry out functions analogous to those processes and procedures related to running a factory. George Gamow used the analogy of an industrial factory to explain the functioning

of a living cell. The managers office represents the nucleus of the cell, whereas the chromosomes are the file cabinets where information, production plans, and diagrams are stored. When a new cell (factory) is to be opened, the secretary and staff produce George Gamow was educated at the University of Leningrad where he received his PhD in 1928. He spent time in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Cambridge, England, before moving to the United States in 1934. He was a professor of physics at George Washington University and later at the University of Colorado. He had wide research interests, including a later interest in molecular biology. In addition to his work with the big bang theory, he determined that the heavier elements were all formed in the hot thermonuclear interior of the stars. He also demonstrated how our sun is warming, not cooling, which may account for the cyclic nature of Earths cool and warm periods. The suns temperature cycles may partially account for todays slight warming of Earths oceans and atmosphere. George Gamow was well known and respected not only as a physicist/cosmologist and microbiologist but also as a popular science writer. He was the author of several excellent easy-to-read books on modern physics that are still in print. 218 Gamows Theories of the Universe and DNA

an exact copy of what is in the file cabinets. As the new factory grows, a new managers office takes over, and the process is repeated. The workers and machinery of the factory are abundant and represent the enzymes, protoplasm, and other cell components. The chromosomes and their genes, which are stored in the file cabinets, are very limited but can be used to replicate the factory and start all over. See also Crick; Einstein GARRODS THEORY OF CONGENITAL METABOLIC DISORDERS: Biology and Medicine: Sir Archibald Edward Garrod (18571936), England. The rare metabolic disorder alkaptonuria is not a bacterial infection of the urinary system but rather a genetic defect related to the lack of an enzyme in the chemical breakdown of a crucial protein. Alkaptonuria is an uncommon disorder where urine turns dark brown when exposed to air. At first it was thought to be due to a bacterial infection, but Garrod demonstrated that it was a genetic disordernot a disease caused by bacteria. This genetic condition is rare in the general public but is common in the offspring of first-cousin marriages. Garrod demonstrated that alkaptonuria followed the pattern explained by inheritance of recessive genes as described by Mendelian genetics. Archibald Garrod, an English physician who discovered the nature of several congenital metabolic disorders, determined that the condition of alkaptonuria was due to the presence of large amounts of homogentisic acid (also known as alkapton) that is excreted in the urine due to a deficiency of several amino acids. In other words, Garrod, who was exploring the field of biochemistry, understood that this condition was due to the lack of an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of a protein that resulted

in the buildup of the chemical that darkens the urine. Garrod was fifty years ahead of his contemporary biochemists understanding of the implications of this theory for the genetic nature of metabolic disorders. Although the conditions of alkaptonuria (dark urine) are visible, not all metabolic disorders are that obvious. Garrod wrote about and gave lectures about these conditions that he referred to as inborn errors of metabolism. His belief that genetics was involved in the process was evident when he wrote that there are many variations in humans that are determined by genetics, and that no two individuals are alike either chemically, biologically, or structurally. Garrod identified several other congenital metabolic disorders including cystinuria (an inborn defect involving an excess secretion of several amino acids), pentosuria (a congenital urinary defect in the oxidation of glucuronic acid that is a condition principally in those of Jewish heritage), and porphyria (a form of inherited insanity that caused the English King George IIIs illness). GASSENDIS THEORIES: Physics: Pierre Gassendi (15921655), France. Gassendis atomic theory: God created the atoms as immaterial souls that could exist and interact in a void. He then gave them to man. Believing that atoms could exist only in a void in which the tiny particles could interact with each other and religious spirits, Gassendi tried to make the atomism of Lucretius, Epicurus, and Democritus agreeable with Christianity, but he opposed Gassendis Theories 219 Aristotelianism regarding these matters. Gassendis concept of a void was very much like the modern concept

of the vacuum of space. He disagreed with Aristotles belief that a void did not, and could not, exist. Gassendi was a believer in the Epicurean views of Lucretius doctrine of atomism. Galileo, Robert Boyle, and later Isaac Newton, as well as other scientists, were influenced by Gassendis Epicureanism philosophy. This corpuscular concept states that for atoms to exist, a vacuum must surround them. Thus, if the atoms were removed, only the vacuum would remain (see also Aristotle; Atomism Theories; Boyle). Gassendis theories for falling bodies, sound, and astronomy: Pierre Gassendi, an early philosopher, propagated his ideas by incorporating his moderate skepticism with some experimentation that influenced his philosophy. Gassendi was the first to test Galileos contention that a ball dropped from the mast of a ship would fall at the base of the mast, not at some distance aft of the mast. Ancient sailors who dropped rigging tools could attest to this fact. Oddly, no empirical

experiment had been conducted prior to Gassendis. It is also reported that Gassendi was one of the first to measure the speed of sound. It is unclear how he made his measurements, but it is assumed he fired a cannon while someone on a far hill at a known distance from the cannon timed the smoke pouring out the barrel until the sound was heard. His figure of 1,473 feet per second was about 50% greater than the current figure of 1,088 to 1,126 feet per second in dry air at sea level. The speed of sound depends on the density of the substance through which the sound is traveling. For example, sound travels at the speed of 4,820 feet per second in water, 11,500 feet per second in brass, and 16,500 feet per second in steel. Gassendi studied comets and eclipses and recorded the first observed transit of Mercury in 1631. He was the first to describe as well as name the northern lights the aurora borealis. See also Descartes; Galileo GAUSS MATHEMATICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM THEOREMS: Mathematics: Karl Friedrich Gauss (17771855), Germany. Gauss theory of least squares: A circle can be divided into a heptadecagon by using Euclidean geometry. Karl Gauss, a child prodigy in mathematics, was considered a human calculator who could solve all kinds of complicated problems in his head. Gauss demonstrated this In 1624 the Paris Parliament passed an ordinance declaring that any person would be put to death if he taught or held any doctrine opposed to Aristotle. In spite of this law, Gassendi published his Dissertations against

Aristotle which attacked many of the ideals and teachings of not only Aristotelianism, but also the many beliefs of scholasticism. Because he was a doctor of theology who was ordained in 1617 and later a professor of mathematics at the College Royal in Paris, he escaped punishment by the Parliament. His views on atomism were expressed in his Observations on the Tenth Book of Diogenes Laertius in which he insisted that atoms were created by God and that God created the void of space so atoms could exist and thus interact with each other. This concept was later expanded to a variety of theories related to the atomic and chemical nature of the universe (see Atomism Theories). Gassendi was interested in astronomy and recorded many viewings of eclipses, comets, and the planets. In his book Mercury in the Face of the Sun he recorded the first transit of Mercury that supported Johannes Keplers theories on the motions of planets. 220 Gauss Mathematics and Electromagnetism Theorems seventeen-sided polygon (heptadecagon) could be drawn using only a compass, ruler, and pen. All seventeen sides were of equal length when laid on arcs of a circle. Earlier Greek

mathematicians could never accomplish this exercise, which was considered an advancement in geometry. Gauss also demonstrated there were a limited number of polygons (manysided figures) that could be constructed using these tools. An example of a polygon that cannot be so constructed is the heptagon (a seven-sided polygon) (see also Archimedes). Gauss theory of errors: Successive observations and measurements made of the same event by the use of instruments are never identical, but their mean value can be calculated. This theory is related to probability. Gauss claimed that the distribution of errors for the mean differences of measurements by observations (particularly astronomical observations) is as accurate as the probability (odds) when throwing dice. This statistical technique has been, and still is, used by most scientists who make a series of measurements and calculate the means of these measurements. They can be reasonably certain that the difference between two means is a meaningful representation of their observational measurements. Gauss work in statistical probability distributions is referred to as Gaussian statistical distribution. This concept is used for the statistical treatment of data for most research experiments. Gauss theory of aggregates: Properties of individual units of populations can be accurately observed and studied in large groups (aggregates).

This is another theory used by most scientists and involves the study of large populations of particles, such as atoms, molecules, chromosomes, and genes. An example is Brownian motion, which is the observed movement of tiny microscopic particles of a solid, such as pollen, that is caused by molecular motion in solution. The concept of aggregates explains the kinetic theory of gases as well as the gene theory for inheritance. Although this theory is based on and accepted as an assumption, it does work (see also Ideal Gas Laws). Gauss law of the strength of electric and magnetic flux: The greater the closeness (density) of the lines of force of an electric field (or magnetic field), the stronger the field. Gauss and the German physicist Wilhelm Weber (18041891) collaborated on studying the nature of electric and magnetic fields. They calculated the number of lines of force and the closeness of those lines, which determine the flux density representing the strength of the electric field. Electrical flux is a measure of the number of lines in an electric or magnetic field that passes through a given area. Gauss law states the relationship between electrical charge and an electrical field. It is easy to picture by considering that the field is stronger if these lines of force are crowed together, and the field will be weaker if the lines of force are further apart. In some ways, his statement for the relationship between an electric charge and an electric field is another way to explain Coulombs law. See also Coulomb; Faraday; Maxwell; Weber The International System of Units (SI) for this flux density is called a gauss in his honor. In the SI, CGS units (using centimeters, grams, and seconds rather than MKS

meters, kilograms, and seconds), a unit area of 1 square centimeter with a flux density of 1 maxwell per square centimeter equals 1 gauss. The gauss is equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter, or 10_4 weber per square meter or 10,000 gauss equals 1 weber. Gauss and Weber developed the magnetic-electric telegraph and a new instrument called the magnetometer. Magnetic field strength is rated in gauss units, an important concept for modern technology utilizing all types of magnets. Gauss Mathematics and Electromagnetism Theorems 221 GAY-LUSSACS LAW OF COMBINING VOLUMES: Chemistry: Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 1850), France. The volumes of gases that react with each other, or are produced in chemical reactions, are always expressed in ratios of small, whole numbers. An example: When one volume of nitrogen gas (N2) is combined with three volumes of hydrogen gas (3H2) the result will be exactly two volumes of the gaseous compound ammonia

(2NH3). Their respective volumes are the exact ratio 1:3:2. Gay-Lussac determined the existence of the law for combining volumes of gases, but he had no idea of why this law applied. An explanation had to wait until Amedeo Avogadro established the law explaining that equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules (at the same temperatures and pressures), regardless of the physical and chemical properties of the gases. In addition to the law of combining volumes, Gay-Lussac discovered that all gases expand equally when the temperature rises. This is a modification of Charles law. Both of these gas laws, including Boyles gas laws, are considered the ideal gas laws because they are really approximations. Gases exhibit only the relationships of P, T, and V (P pressure, T temperature, and V volume) as expressed in the laws, at ordinary (moderate) temperatures. In 1808 Gay-Lussac published his law, usually called the law of combining gases, when referring to chemical reactions where the number of atoms is constant. This law confirmed the work of Dalton, who missed the importance of the relationship between temperature and volume of gases. In essence, the law states that for any gas, the temperature and pressure are directly related at a constant volume for that gas. The equation is P/T K, where P is the pressure directly related to T, the temperature for K, a given constant (i.e., volume). Conversely, if the gas is heated, its volume increases as long as the pressure on the gas is constant; and if the pressure increases, so does the temperature of the gas for a given volume of a contained gas.

Another way to state it is that the volume of gases expands equally when subjected to the same changes of temperature provided that the pressure remains the same. See also Avogadro; Boyle; Charles; Ideal Gas Laws GEIGERNUTTER LAW (RULE) FOR DECAY OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES: Physics: Hans (Johannes) Wilhelm Geiger (18821945), Germany. There is a linear relationship between the logarithm of the strengths of alpha particles and the particles rate of decay from their source nucleus. Gay-Lussac, a French engineer, physicist, chemist, and accomplished experimenter, made several other contributions to science. He collaborated with several other Frenchmen on a number of projects, including one where he used balloon flights for scientific purposes. In 1804 he and Jean-Baptiste Biot ascended 4 miles (about 7 km) in a balloon, the highest altitude attained by humans as of that date. They made the first high-altitude measurements of atmospheric pressure and Earths magnetism. Gay-Lussac discovered the poison gas cyanide (HCN), and in 1815 he made cyanogen (C2N2), a toxic univalent radical used for the production of insecticides. His experiments with compound radicals were a precursor to the development of organic chemistry. GayLussac and the French chemist Louis Jacques Thenard (17771857) produced small amounts of the reactive metals sodium and potassium. When Gay-Lussac mixed

metallic potassium with another element, it exploded, wrecking his laboratory and temporarily blinding him. He also discovered a new halogen similar to chlorine. He named it iode (iodine), which means violet. 222 Gay-Lussacs Law of Combining Volumes A more simple way of stating this law/rule is to say that the short-lived radioactive isotopes emit alpha particles (helium nuclei) more energetically than the longer-lived radioactive isotopes. Hans Geiger worked with Ernest Rutherford as they performed Rutherfords famous experiment on radioactivity and transmutation in the early 1900s. Geigers task (see Rutherford) was to devise a way to detect and count the number of alpha particles resulting from radiation that caused ionization. To accomplish this task Geiger and Rutherford devised a counter in 1908 that was able to count the number of alpha particles as well as other forms of ionizing radiation. Over the next several years Geiger improved the accuracy and sensitivity of his counter and in 1928, with Walther Muller (19051979), a graduate student of his, produced the modern instrument known as the GeigerMuller counter. This instrument has a glass tube with a wire that carries a high voltage running

down the central axis of the tube. It is filled with a gas that becomes ionized when a form of ionizing radiation passes through the tube and ionizes the gas, resulting in Figure G7. The Geiger-Muller Tube contains a high voltage wire that runs down the central axis of a glass tube. It is filled with a gas that becomes ionized, resulting in pulses of electric current that are detected by a sensitive meter and counter that registers continuous readings of the strength of radiation being detected. Hans Geigers birth name was Johannes Wilhelm Geiger. He attended the University of Munich and the University of Erlangen in Germany where he earned a PhD in 1906 for work with the nature of electrical discharges on various gases. During the years 1907 to 1912 he worked with the famous English physicist, Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford made his famous discovery on the structure of the atom based on work done by Geiger and Ernest Marsden (18891970), a physicist from New Zealand, who in 1909 actually set up the experiment that detected the scattering of alpha particles by a sheet of very thin gold leaf. Following his work with Rutherford, Geiger held several administrative positions and by 1925 became professor of physics at Kiel University in Germany.

GeigerNutter Law (Rule) for Decay of Radioactive Isotopes 223 a pulse of electric current that is detected by a sensitive meter connected to the glass tube. See also Rutherford GELLERS THEORY OF A NONHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE: Astronomy: Margaret Joan Geller (1947), United States. A map of the redshifts of the light from galaxies indicates a nonuniform distribution of galaxies in specific sections of the observable universe. By using the Doppler effect, astronomers Margaret Geller and John Huchra (1948) observed the distribution of over fifteen thousand galaxies while at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. They recorded the longer light rays toward the red end of the spectrum, indicating that the galaxies are receding. Light from some of the galaxies started its journey to Earth about six hundred and fifty million years ago, and these galaxies are still receding from us, as well as from each other. According to the big bang

theory of an ever-expanding universe proposed by Lematre, and George Gamow, the universe should be rather uniform, or at least galaxies should be randomly distributed throughout all sections of the heavens. When Geller plotted her data for one section of the sky, she discovered very large groups or clusters of galaxies rather than a random or uniform distribution. Some clusters were many hundreds of millions of light-years across in size. She also noted there were a few galaxies between these clusters, but the clusters contained the majority of all visible galaxies. The implication of this information is unclear, as it relates to future cosmological theory. More recently, superclusters composed of clusters of galaxies have been discovered, which seems to support Gellers theory of a nonhomogeneous universe. Geller suggests a revision may be needed for the current big bang model. See also Doppler; Gamow; Hubble; Lematre GELL-MANNS THEORIES FOR SUBATOMIC PARTICLES: Physics: Murray Gell-Mann (1929), United States. Murray Gell-Mann received the 1969 Nobel Prize for Physics. Gell-Manns quark theory: The heavy particles of atoms (protons and neutrons) are composed of three fundamental entities called quarks. Quarks, as proposed by theoretical particle physicists, are considered the most fundamental building blocks of matter yet discovered. String theory proposes a more basic Margaret Gellers childhood and early education was not typical for a girl raised following the period of World War II. At that time there were not as many women in the fields of mathematics and astronomy as there are today. Currently, there are a higher percentage

of women attending college than men. And, the enrollments of women in prestigious universities, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, Princeton, Cal Tech., and University of California at Berkeley, are now at an all-time high. As a small child, Margaret was interested in mathematics and science. She attended the University of California at Berkeley and later was awarded a PhD at Princeton. Upon completion of her doctorate, she studied astronomy at Cambridge, England, and in 1980 moved to Harvard where she became a professor of astronomy. Margaret Geller is also on the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory where she continues to be involved with research in astrophysics and cosmological theory with the expectation that new models of the universe will be forthcoming. 224 Gellers Theory of a Nonhomogeneous Universe particle, but it has yet to be discovered, and although there is mathematical justification for the extra dimensions required for the string theory, there is no empirical evidence that they exist. Quarks come in groups of threes (originally named red, blue, and green by Gell-Mann), have a fractional electric charge and have not yet been detected in a free, uncombined state in nature but are being investigated by using a supercollider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York. By smashing nuclei of gold atoms together at 99.9% the speed of light, researchers hope to create

some free quarks. Being submicroscopic, quarks have never been observed, but they are also considered to be bound up within the interior of the subatomic particles. For Figure G8. The types of subnuclear particles found in protons and neutrons (baryons). Gell-Manns Theories for Subatomic Particles 225 instance, the two heavy subatomic particles in the nucleus of atoms belong to a class of particles known as baryons (meaning heavy). These two baryons are the positive proton that is composed of two up quarks and one down quark held together by gluons, and the neutral neutron which is composed of two down quarks and one up quark (see Figure G8). Gluons and their quarks are responsible for the strong interactions that hold nuclei together. There are three types of quark pairs (for a total of six types of quarks): the u quark has a charge of 2=3, and the d quark and s quark have a charge of -1=3; thus symmetry is preserved (see Figure G9.) Looking for some way to express the triad nature of these theoretical particles, Murray Gell-Mann borrowed the word quark from James Joyces book Finnegans Wake (1939), Three quarks for Muster Mark! (This might be interpreted as three quarts of ale for Mister Mark for a job well done.) Gell-Mann liked the sound of this, and it seemed to fit the concept of his triplet of quarks: u for up, d for down, and s for strange, which was intended to explain the organization of the myriad subatomic particles. Since the time that Gell-Mann first advanced his three quarks theory, many other subatomic particles have been proposed. The hadrons are a series of heavier quarks, referred to as the c-quark (for charm), which is many times heavier than, but related to, the moderately heavy s-quark (for strange). Hadrons are a group of particles such as the

baryons and mesons that lead to symmetry. Quarks never exist as individual particles but rather in groups called hadrons which, in combinations, are known as quark confinement. Today the six quarks are named up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. The u-up and d-down quarks are thought to be just about massless but make up almost 100% of all the matter (protons and neutrons) in the universe whereas the others, produced in particle accelerators, are unstable and have a very short existence. Gell-Manns theory of strangeness: All fundamental particles are characterized by the property of strangeness. Figure G9. The descriptive names given to the flavors and charges of quarks. 226 Gell-Manns Theories for Subatomic Particles The concept of strangeness evolved because of the odd or strange manner in which some elementary particles strongly interacted. Strangeness is conserved in the strong and electromagnetic interactions of hadrons and the s-quark, but not so for weak interactions. If for ordinary particles we assign S 0, then we can allow S 6 0 to represent strange. Therefore, S equals strangeness. This concept of strangeness led to the development of a new concept for the physical principle of symmetry, used to classify subatomic particles that interact strongly, such as the c- and s-quarks. The new concept of symmetry, also referred to as the eight-fold-way, resulted in the discovery of several new particles, including the omega minus. See also Feynman; Freidman; Glashow; Nambu GERHARDTS TYPE THEORY FOR CLASSIFYING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Chemistry: Charles Fr_ed_eric Gerhardt (18161856), France. Organic chemistry consists of four types or derivatives related to water, ammonia,

hydrogen, or hydrogen chloride. Gerhardts type theory had a revolutionary effect on the field of organic chemistry. Previously Jons Berzelius proposed a dualistic system theory of chemistry that was unsatisfactory in explaining the nature of chemical reactions, whereas, Jean Baptiste Dumas substitution theory was more acceptable, and thus was more-or-less combined by Gerhardt into a theory of types for the structure of organic compounds. Gerhardt did much to reform the system of chemical formulation by stressing the distinctions between atoms, molecules, and equivalents into a single type system. Gerhardt considered that organic chemistry was formulated from four types of inorganic substances: (Type I) H20 (water); (Type II) NH3 (ammonia); (Type III) HCL (hydrochloric acid); and (Type IV) H2 (hydrogen). His theory stated that all organic compounds were derived from these four types of inorganic substances. He further classified other substances

according to these four types as 1) the sulfides, tellurides, oxides, acids, bases, salts, ethers, alcohols, and so forth, belong to Type I, the water types; 2) nitrides, phosphides, arsenides, and other related chemicals belong to the Type II, the ammonia types; 3) the chlorides, bromides, In 1853 Charles Fr_ed_eric Gerhardt, a French chemist, neutralized salicylic acid by buffering it with sodium and acetyl chloride which created acetylsalicylic anhydride, an effective pain reliever now known as aspirin. Up to this time, and as far back as the fifth-century BCE, willow bark was used to relieve pain, fever, and chills. It was later found that when oxidized the extract of the willow bark became salicylic acid. Another extract from meadowsweet flower produced an extract that was just as effective but caused digestive problems. After Gerhardt buffered the extract, he lost interest and had no desire to commercialize the product. Since that time, salicylic acid, better known as aspirin, was marketed by Friedrich Bayer & Co. in Germany along with another pain killer, called heroin, which was much more effective but after some use proved to be addictive. Aspirin

was first sold as a powder and was widely used. In 1915 Bayer & Co. produced aspirin in tablet form as it is used today. Several people and companies have claimed to have invented acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), but Bayer was the company that marketed it most effectively, and Felix Hoffman, a research assistant at the Bayer Co., is generally recognized as its official inventor. The name aspirin was patented but the patent has been abused for years, and aspirin is now considered a common, over-the-counter (OTC) drug. Gerhardts Type Theory for Classifying Organic Compounds 227 iodides, and other halogens belong to Type III, the hydrochloric acid types; and 4) most metals and metallic hydrides belong to Type IV, the hydrogen types. For some time organic compounds were referred to using this classification of system of types. This system was particularly useful when the characteristics of certain organic substances were converted into different, more useful compounds. This was done during the reaction when a specific organic compound had one or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced with an atom different from the hydrogen atom (or a group of different atoms known as a radical.) By replacing the hydrogen atom(s) a different organic compound was created. One of the great advantages of Gerhardts scheme was that unknown, and undiscovered chemical compounds could be created, but predicted by using this theory of classification. This system led to a plethora of the many different organic compounds produced today.

GIAUQUES THEORY OF ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION: Physics and Chemistry: William Francis Giauque (18951982), United States. William Giauque received the 1949 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. By cooling an already cold substance in liquid helium within a magnetic field, and then removing the magnetic field (demagnetization), strong entropy occurs, thus greatly lowering the temperature to near absolute zero of the substance being cooled. William Francis Giauque in 1927 and Peter Debye in 1926 independently arrived at the theory for adiabatic demagnetization as a means for obtaining temperatures that approach a small fraction of absolute zero. The magnetic field is used to control the entropy of a sample substance consisting of paramagnetic salts that are referred to as the refrigerant. The magnetic field aligns the dipoles of the molecules in the refrigerant while it is kept at a constant temperature with what is called a heat sink consisting of liquid helium (a heat sink is any substance that absorbs heat and/or shields something from heat). The heat sink removes most of the heat from the refrigerant and protects it from absorbing more heat. At this point, the magnetic field is turned off which causes a change in the dipole arrangement of the substances molecules positions slowing its molecular motion, thus the temperature of the refrigerant is cooled below that of the liquid helium heat sink with a temperature just 4K, which means it is just four degrees above absolute zero. (Remember, heat is a form of kinetic energy related to the degree of motion of the molecules composing a substance. Reducing the temperature, in essence reduces molecular motion and thus the heat of a substance.) This process increases entropy, whereas the paramagnetic salts molecules are trapped at a lower energy state

(reduced molecular motion) with temperatures as low as 0.0015K, which is just above absolute zero. Zero kelvin is the theoretical temperature point at which all molecular motion ceases. Since the days of William Giauques and Peter Debyes experiments, more elaborate low-temperature refrigeration techniques and equipment have been developed. These are referred to as nuclear demagnetized refrigeration (NDR). This method uses adiabatic nuclear demagnetization instead of electric demagnetization to control the molecules nuclear spin (aligning nuclear dipoles). Temperatures as low as 0.000016 degrees kelvin have been reached as a result of using this system. 228 Giauques Theory of Adiabatic Demagnetization William Giauque, in cooperation with Ohio State University chemistry professor Herrick L. Johnston (18981965), discovered the presence of the oxygen isotopes O-17 and O-18 and that these two heavier isotopes were mixed with the lighter, more abundant O-16 in Earths atmosphere. At one time, physicists set the mass of the oxygen-16 isotope at 16.000 as the base for determining the masses of all other elements. After the discovery of oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 in 1929, the new mass figure for oxygen was set at 16.0044. Although this change in the standard unit for atomic mass was small, it caused many problems because, at the time, scientists were using different scales for atomic weights. In 1961 physicists and chemists compromised and set the isotope carbon-12 as having a mass of 12.0000 as the standard. Under this system, oxygen now has an atomic mass of 15.9994. Today, the atomic mass of an element is considered the average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of that particular natural element (meaning the isotopes of elements that have been on Earth for eons of time). Giauque is also well known for his work in the field of chemical thermodynamics.

He clarified the influence of atomic and molecular structures on entropy and how this related to the laws of thermodynamics. See also Carnot; Kelvin; Maxwell GIBBS THEORY OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS: Mathematics and Physics: Josiah Willard Gibbs (18391903), United States. Mathematics can be applied to determine the interrelationship between heat and chemical reactions, as well as the physical changes of state in the field of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics is the interrelationship of heat with chemical reactions (exothermic and endothermic), and with the physical change of state (solid, liquid, or gas) within the parameters of thermodynamics. In essence, this means that mathematical methods can be used to explain the relationships of heat to chemical reactions. Gibbs was one of only a few famous physical scientists from the United States in the 1700 and 1800s. Others were Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Henry, and Henry Augustus Rowland (18481901). However, Gibbs is considered to be the only truly theoretical physicist and chemist in United States at that time. He was also known as a linguist and mathematician. He received the first PhD in engineering awarded by Yale University. Today, the Gibbs Professorship in physical chemistry at Yale is named after him. His work, in essence, established the fields of chemical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics expressed in esoteric mathematical forms. His research papers were difficult to understand, even for other scientists, and in some ways, he was better known and respected by European scientists than those in the United States. Through writing a series of important papers, Josiah Willard Gibbs established the field of chemical thermodynamics. The paper On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous

Substances written in 1876 expressed his famous Gibbs phase rule that explained the conditions required for a chemical reaction to take place. Later, he published several important papers including his concept of Gibbsian ensembles that explained how a large number of macroscopic entities that have the same heat properties are related statistically. He developed a concept called Gibbs free energy in the field of thermodynamics that is basically a complicated mathematical expression of thermodynamics. He also Gibbs Theory of Chemical Thermodynamics 229 considered that the energy involved in thermodynamic systems is available to do work. It is expressed in the following formula: G H-TS where in metric units: G is expressed in the unit known as joules (Gibbs energy) H is expressed in joules for entropy T is the temperature given in kelvin S is the entropy expressed in joules per kelvin. This equation basically states that every chemical and physical system seeks to achieve a minimum of free energy. It is important for determining the thermodynamic functions of such systems to establish the equilibrium constants. This applies for any reversible chemical reaction, for example, N2 3H2 % 2NH3. (The % double arrow indicates a forward and reverse chemical reaction.) Another example that uses the Gibbs free energy formula is measuring the output voltage from an electrochemical cell. See also Carnot; Giauque; Maxwell

GILBERTS THEORY FOR DNA SEQUENCING: Biology: Walter Gilbert (1932), United States. Walter Gilbert shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Frederick Sanger and Paul Berg. Chemicals can be used to modify DNA by sequencing base pairs of DNA in either single strands or double strands of DNA that then can be used to study the interactions of proteins with the DNA. Walter Gilbert was educated as a physicist at Harvard University and at Cambridge University in England where he received his degree in 1957. After studying the fields of chemistry and physics, he developed an interest in biochemistry, primarily after meeting with and learning of the research and experiments that James Watson (of Crick and Watson fame) was conducting. Consequently he switched to the field of molecular biology in 1960 and in 1968 became a Harvard professor of microbiology and later became department chairman. Gilbert worked in the United States with Allan M. Maxam, a graduate student, while Frederic Sanger worked independently in England to make use of new techniques, such as electrophoresis for the analysis of results achieved by their method of multiplying, dividing, and fragmenting a large section of DNA strands. They used chemicals to break large strands of DNA into smaller fragments along the bases of (A) adenine; (G) guanine, (C) cytosine, and (T) thymine. The main difference between Gilberts method of sequencing DNA and Sangers was that Sangers method only worked with single strands of DNA, whereas Gilberts methods were effective for either single or double strands of DNA (see Figure C5 under Crick for a diagram of the DNA molecule.) The techniques for sequencing DNA devised by Gilbert can be used to read up to thirty thousand base pairs. Over the past fifty years a number of methods for sequencing DNA have been developed.

In addition to chemical sequencing, Sanger developed a chain termination method. Another procedure is the dye terminator sequencing. Just as important as the techniques for sequencing DNA is the improvement for the preparations of the samples and developing automated procedures for the sequencing operations. Currently, 230 Gilberts Theory for DNA Sequencing the number of sequences of short lengths of DNA is limited due to the power of resolution of the systems used. The magnitude of the problem is realized because even simple single-cell bacterium can have a genome of about a million base pairs while the human genome has more than three billion base pairs in their DNA molecules. Recently to overcome these problems, several techniques were developed to get a reasonable reading of the human DNA genome. One technique is to clone a sample and grow copies of the desired DNA at a rate of thousands of pairs at the same time. Another method is called shotgun sequencing that uses small samples of DNA and then assembles them into a connected sequence. No doubt, in the future, improved faster methods will be developed to determine the complete genome of any plant or animal, including a more detailed map of the human genome. See also Crick; Sanger; Sharp; Watson (James) GILBERTS THEORY OF MAGNETISM: Physics: William Gilbert (15441603), England. Gilberts theory for electric and magnetic forces: The amber effect (static electricity), which can attract small particles when certain materials are rubbed with certain types of cloth, such as silk, is not the same phenomenon as natural magnetism, which exists in lodestones

(magnetic iron ore). The phenomenon of rubbing amber with cloth to cause the amber to attract bits of straw and other small particles was known since the days of the Greek philosophers. They related it to some magic or spirit, not to static electricity. William Gilbert experimented with amber to produce static electricity and lodestones to magnetize iron bars. He was the first to distinguish these two forces of attraction and the first to use the terms electric attraction and magnetic attraction to make this distinction. Gilberts theory for the rotation of Earth: Because a magnetized needle will swing horizontally as it points to the poles of Earth and also dip down toward the vertical, Earth must be a giant spinning lodestone. William Gilberts experiments formed his magnetic philosophy, eliminating much of the superstition and false information about magnetism existing at that time. He constructed a globe from a large lodestone to demonstrate how a compass needle behaves on the lodestone and then related this to Earth. Because of the action of a compass needle, he assumed that the soul of Earth was also a spherical lodestone with a north and south pole. In addition, he demonstrated that the compass needle would dip down at different angles as related to the different latitudes, and the needle would point straight down at the north pole of his lodestone globe. Thus, it would do the same for the North Pole of Earth. Sailors had already observed this magnetic dip phenomenon, but Gilbert was the first to relate Earths magnetism to latitudes. Gilbert concluded that Earth acts like a large, spherical bar magnet, which is spinning on its axis

once every twenty-four hours. However, he continued to believe Earth was the center of the universe. His theory was the first reasonable explanation for a rotating Earth, but Gilbert did not go as far as Copernicus, who claimed Earth moved through the heavens around the sun. Up to this time, scientists believed Earth was stationary, and the canopy of stars was in motion. Historically, the magnetic compass was a reliable instrument that aided in navigation. Gilberts magnetic philosophy, which included the belief that Earths magnetic influence affected everything in the solar system, led to the modern concept of gravity. One gilbert (Gb), a unit of electromotive force, named for Gilberts Theory of Magnetism 231 him, is equal to the magnetomotive force of a closed loop of wire with one turn in which the flowing current is 1 ampere. In the CGS (centimeters, grams, seconds) system, 1 Gb is equal to 10/4p ampere turns. See also Amp_ere; Coulomb; Faraday; Maxwell; Oersted GLASERS CONCEPT OF A BUBBLE CHAMBER FOR DETECTING SUBNUCLEAR PARTICLES: Physics: Donald Arthur Glaser (1926), United States. High-energy ionized particles that cannot be detected in a Wilson cloud chamber can be detected by leaving a trail in a depressurized fluid bubble chamber, and the trail representing characteristics of the particles can be captured by high-speed photography. Donald Glaser received his PhD degree in physics in 1950 from the California Institute of Technology. He taught and did research in various areas at the University of Michigan, and was promoted to the rank of full professor in 1957. In 1959 he moved to the Berkeley campus of the University of California where his interests spread to the Figure G10. The super cooled liquid in the chamber will create small bubbles as charged

particles interact with the bubbles to form tracks that are photographed. 232 Glasers Concept of a Bubble Chamber for Detecting Subnuclear Particles area of biology as well as physics. His early work with the Wilson cloud chamber that was used to detect cosmic rays led him to realize that the cloud chamber was an inadequate instrument to detect subnuclear ionized high-energy particles. While at the University of Michigan, he became aware that high-energy particles passing through a superheated fluid would produce small bubbles along a specific trajectory. His design for the bubble chamber consisted of a large cylinder filled with a liquid that was heated almost to its boiling point. The cylinder is surrounded by a magnetic field with a high-speed camera positioned at the top and focused down into the chamber. A piston that can be moved up and down is located at the bottom of the cylinder. As the piston is rapidly lowered, the pressure in the cylinders chamber is reduced and the liquid becomes supercooled. This supercooled liquid will create a series of tiny bubbles as the charged particle interacts with an atom of the liquid. At that moment, the camera captures the image of the bubble track that is then used to determine the decay modes, lifetime, spin, cross section, and other characteristics of the subnuclear particle (see Figure G10 for an artists depiction of a bubble chamber and particle tracks). Todays bubble chambers are much larger than the original one invented by Glaser in 1952. They use liquid hydrogen or liquid helium for the fluid. Another type of bubble chamber that requires heavy liquids to slow down the particles uses organic compounds. But the principle of the cloud chamber and bubble chamber are basically the same. The use of these unique research instruments has resulted in the identification of many new types of elementary particles.

Donald Glaser has received many honors for his contributions in the fields of physics and biology. More recently, Glaser has been interested in applying physics to problems related to molecular biology. His current position is professor of physics and neurobiology in the Graduate School at Berkeley. See also Compton; Millikan; Wilson (Charles) GLASHOWS UNIFYING THEORY OF THE WEAK FORCES: Physics: Sheldon Lee Glashow (1932), United States. Sheldon Glashow shared the 1979 Nobel Prize of for Physics with Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam. The unification of the electromagnetic interactions with the interaction of leptons (electrons and neutrinos) can be extended to include baryons (a heavy particle) and mesons (elementary particles with a baryon number of zero) by establishing a new, fourth charm quark to add to Murray Gell-Manns three-quark theory. Sheldon Glashow was born and raised in Manhattan. He attended the Bronx High School of Science, along with another future famous scientist Steven Weinberg. He attended Cornell University and received his PhD degree from Harvard University in 1959. He was granted a National Science Foundation (NSF) fellowship to Russia but never received the required visa from the Soviet government. Rather he spent his fellowship at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen where he did his original work on the structure of the electroweak theory. Later back in the United States, Glashow and two other scientists predicted that charm would be discovered, as well as realizing that many of the theories related to subatomic particles, forces, and fields were moreorless merging into a future single theory of all universal physical principles. Glashows Glashows Unifying Theory of the Weak Forces 233

research had gone a long way towards advancing this concept of a theory of everything (TOE) by predicting the charm particle as another type of quark (see GellMann). Possibly more important was his contribution to establishing the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces as electroweak interactions that are part of the standard model for particle physics (see Figure G11). Figure G11. The standard model for physics particles. If a way can be found to combine this theory with the theories of universal gravity and the quantum field theory, it could result in a Theory of Everything (TOE) viz., a theory for all energy and matter. 234 Glashows Unifying Theory of the Weak Forces If the standard model for particle physics can be successfully combined with the concepts of universal gravity, relativity, and quantum field theory a grand unification theory (GUT) or theory of everything (TOE) may become a r