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3G Optimisation Cookbook

3G Optimisation Cookbook

Contents
Cell Selection Parameters ..............................................................................................................................4 AAL2 resources availability in RNC (M800) RNC_602a ...............................................................................4 AAL2 Resource Reservation in RAN05(M800)...............................................................................................5 Performance Measurements for Transport ..................................................................................................6 ISHO vs Failures ................................................................................................................................................7 ISHO Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 11 HSDPA Retainability Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 13 HSDPA Accessibility Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 15 Optimising Iub considering CID congestion .............................................................................................. 18 Check Iub Performance................................................................................................................................ 19 High in call drop rate - WCDMA (Nokia) .................................................................................................... 20 Identify CSSR ................................................................................................................................................. 22 Application throughput downlink ............................................................................................................... 25 Identify CSSR 2nd .......................................................................................................................................... 26 FMCG Parameter ........................................................................................................................................... 29 Export data Nemo to Mapinfo ..................................................................................................................... 33 FMCS Parameter ............................................................................................................................................ 34 HOPS Parameter............................................................................................................................................ 40 ADJS Parameter ............................................................................................................................................ 42 3G HO Basic reporting events ..................................................................................................................... 44 3G Handover Types....................................................................................................................................... 45 RRC connection request .............................................................................................................................. 46 How to avoid ping pong (3G - GSM) ........................................................................................................... 47 2G -> 3G Cell Re / Selection ....................................................................................................................... 47 3G --> 2G Cell Re / selection...................................................................................................................... 49 RAB setup failures for CS voice calls ......................................................................................................... 51 RAB setup failures for PS calls.................................................................................................................... 55 RRC active failures ....................................................................................................................................... 60 RRC access failures ....................................................................................................................................... 63

RRC setup failures ........................................................................................................................................ 64 NEMO - - SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK .................................................................................................... 67 Nemo - - Ploting ............................................................................................................................................ 71 UMTS -- SOFT HANDOVER AND COMPRESSED MODE ................................................................................ 75 UMTS -- PARAMETERS THAT REQUIRE PLANNING..................................................................................... 78 3G - Optimization - Failure analysis .......................................................................................................... 79 UMTS -- INTERFERENCE AND POWER CONTROL ....................................................................................... 80 CDMA Network ............................................................................................................................................... 82 UMTS -- CELL BREATHING AND SOFT CAPACITY....................................................................................... 83 UMTS -- interface dan Architectur nya ..................................................................................................... 85 GPRS Architecture and Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 87 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Overview ..................................................................................... 89 GPRS -- System information messages on BCCH ...................................................................................... 90 GPRS -- Channel Types ................................................................................................................................. 91 EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) .................................................................................. 92

Cell Selection Parameters


QrxlevMin (A_WCEL) Description: The minimum required RX level in the cell. This parameter is also used to create value for the parameter DeltaQrxlevmin to be sent in SIB3/4 when the used value is < -115. Default value : -115 dBm QqualMin (A_WCEL) Description : The minimum required quality level in the cell (Ec/No) Default : -18 db UEtxPowerMaxPRACH (A_WCEL) Maximum UE transmission power on PRACH This parameter defines the maximum transmission power level a UE can use on PRACH. The value of the parameter also affects the cell selection and reselection procedures. The value of the parameter is sent to UE in the Cell selection and re-selection of System Information Blocks 3 and 4 of the serving cell. Default : 21 dBm

AAL2 resources availability in RNC (M800) RNC_602a


AAL2 resource reservation success rate [%] :
The transport resource request success ratio [%] KPI describes the average success rate of the transport resource reservation attempts for all AAL2 type connections AAL2_SUCCEEDED - AAL2 signaling requests which have been successfully executed in A2SP AAL2_REJECTED - AAL2 signaling requests which have failed for any reason. E.g. signaling failed or uplink CAC reject RES_EXT_CAP - Transport resources requests which are rejected by downlink CAC since there is not enough capacity in the external AAL2 path. RES_INT_CAP - Resource reservations which are rejected by downlink CAC since there are no RNCinternal AAL2 processing resources available RES_OTHER - Resource reservations which have failed for any other reason than CAC or signaling (for example route analysis, parameter or DSP resource allocation problem)

AAL2 Resource Reservation in RAN05(M800)


M800 is useful for monitoring success of the resource reservation requests and able to point out different type of failures, such as Lack of Iub bandwidth Lack of RNC capacity AAL2 signaling failure

M800 collects the statistics per AAL2 user plane VCC object, note that there can be several UP VCCs! The resource reservation is performed in such order that all CAC reservations for RNC internal and external (AAL2 path) resources are done before signaling If the CAC actions are successfully completed, the signaling is started and RNC asks BTS to arrange its resources accordingly If the CAC actions fail, the signaling phase is not started at all and the signaling counters are not aware of the connections rejected due to RNC AAL2 layer CAC

There are also dedicated counters for HSDPA connections resource reservations The object of the measurement is the AAL2 path selected with ATM interface ID/VPI/VCI identifiers The statistics for the whole RNC (sum of all configured AAL2 paths counters) are available by selecting the measurement object as interface-0/VPI-0/VCI-0

Also some failure situations, for example digit analysis failure, are updated only for 0/0/0 object because the actual VCI is not known

Performance Measurements for Transport


Counter

ISHO vs Failures
Beberapa penampakan Failure yang ada di KPI ISHO : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_RT UE_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_RT UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXC_ISHHO_NRT UE_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_NRT UNSUCC_IS_HHO_UE_TRX_PWR_RT UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_ECNO_RT UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_RSCP_RT UNSUC_IS_HHO_UE_TRX_PWR_NRT UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_ECNO_NRT UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_RSCP_NRT

1. UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_RT Description: Number of inter-system handover failures for RT due to UTRAN. --- The failure can occur, for example, due to the following reasons: relocation preparation procedure failure in the CN, or relocation resource allocation procedure failure in the target BSC. Updated: When the hard handover attempt fails before the serving RNC sends the handover When the RNC receives an RANAP: RELOCATION PREPATION FAILURE message from the CN, or the RNC does not receive an RANAP: RELOCATION COMMAND message from the CN within a certain time period. This counter is updated only during inter-system handovers.

2. UE_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_RT Description : The number of times when during inter-system handover for RT the source RNC has ordered the UE to use a configuration which the UE does not support. --- If the source RNC instructs the UE to use a configuration that it does not support, the UE will send a failure message to the source RNC. The handover procedure ends and the UE resumes normal operation as if no handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is "configuration unacceptable".

3. UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXC_ISHHO_NRT Description: The number of inter-system handover failures for NRT due to UTRAN. Updated: This counter is never updated.

4. UE_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_NRT Description: The number of times when during inter-system handover for NRT the source RNC has ordered the UE to use a configuration which the UE does not support. --- If the source RNC instructs the UE to use a configuration that it does not support, the UE will send a failure message to the source RNC. The handover procedure ends and the UE resume normal operation as if no handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is "configuration unacceptable".

5. UNSUCC_IS_HHO_UE_TRX_PWR_RT Description: The number of unsuccessful inter-system handovers caused by UE transmission power for RT. --- If the UE fails to establish the physical channel(s) indicated in the handover command, the UE will revert to the configuration prior to the reception of the handover command (old configuration) and transmit a failure message to the source RNC. The hard handover procedure ends and the UE resumes the normal operation as if no hard handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is not "configuration unacceptable". This counter is updated only when the trigger reason is UE transmission power.

6. UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_ECNO_RT Description: The number of unsuccessful inter-system handovers caused by CPICH Ec/No for RT. --- If the UE fails to establish the physical channel(s) indicated in the handover command, the UE will revert to the configuration prior to the reception of the handover command (old configuration) and transmit a failure message to the source RNC. The hard

handover procedure ends and the UE resume the normal operation as if no hard handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is not "configuration unacceptable". This counter is updated only when the trigger reason is CPICH Ec/No.

7. UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_RSCP_RT Description: The number of unsuccessful inter-system handovers caused by CPICH RSCP for RT. --- If the UE fails to establish the physical channel(s) indicated in the handover command, the UE will revert to the configuration prior to the reception of the handover command (old configuration) and transmit a failure message to the source RNC. The hard handover procedure ends and the UE resume the normal operation as if no hard handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is not "configuration unacceptable". This counter is updated only when the trigger reason is CPICH RSCP.

8. UNSUC_IS_HHO_UE_TRX_PWR_NRT Description: The number of unsuccessful inter-system handovers caused by UE transmission power for NRT. --- If the UE fails to establish the physical channel(s) indicated in the handover command, the UE will revert to the configuration prior to the reception of the handover command (old configuration) and transmit a failure message to the source RNC. The hard handover procedure ends and the UE resumes the normal operation as if no hard handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is not "configuration unacceptable".

9. UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_ECNO_NRT Description: The number of unsuccessful inter-system handovers caused by CPICH Ec/No for NRT. --- If the UE fails to establish the physical channel(s) indicated in the handover command, the UE will revert to the configuration prior to the reception of the handover

command (old configuration) and transmit a failure message to the source RNC. The hard handover procedure ends and the UE resumes the normal operation as if no hard handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message from the UE, and the failure cause is not "configuration unacceptable". This counter is updated only when the trigger reason is CPICH Ec/No.

10. UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_RSCP_NRT Description: The number of unsuccessful inter-system handovers caused by CPICH RSCP for NRT. --- If the UE fails to establish the physical channel(s) indicated in the handover command, the UE will revert to the configuration prior to the reception of the handover command (old configuration) and transmit a failure message to the source RNC. The hard handover procedure ends and the UE resumes the normal operation as if no hard handover attempt had occurred. Updated: When the source RNC receives an RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE from the UE, and the failure cause is not "configuration unacceptable". This counter is updated only when the trigger reason is CPICH RSCP.

ISHO Analysis
Breakdown ISHO analysis into three phases: Compressed mode performance (RNC_294c/RNC_295c) Inter-system measurement success (RNC_573c/RNC_574c) Inter-system handover success (RNC_300e / RNC_301d) If high ISHO compressed mode start not possible Check busy hour data of PrxTotal , PtxTotal and M1000C22 AVE_PTXTOT_CLASS_4 and M1000C20 AVE_PTXTOT_CLASS_3 for AC rejection

If Low ISHO Measurement Success Rate (RNC_573c/RNC_574c) Check ADJG neighbour list for missing neighbours or existing neighbour performance (RNC_905a/RNC_902a) Check parameter discrepancy (BSIC) or BSIC collision due to too tight reuse Check Compressed mode parameter set Check ISHO triggering Threshold too slow triggering Check EcNo Distribution (M1007C38-M1007C47) or propagation delay counters (M1006) to indicate low coverage / interference problem

If Low ISHO Success Rate (RNC_300e <95% / RNC_301d < 80%) Check missing or wrong 2G parameter in MSC/SGSN (LAC, CellId, BCCH) Check discrepancy of Cell information in RNC Check 2G cell GPRS/EGPRS data congestion

May require further troubleshooting with ICSU logging to determine root cause of failure

HSDPA Retainability Analysis


1. Identify root cause failure distribution and main contributor of low retainability RSRAN079

2. If high HSDPA Radio Link Failures (NRT) dominant cause Compare to Cell Update ATT due to Radio link Failure (M1006C39) and Cell Update ATT due to RLC Recoverable Error (M1006C40) Check Serving Cell Change failure rate (KPI RNC_733a) - high SCC failures lead to radio link failure -------> RSRAN079

Check CQI distribution (M5000C8-M5000C39) or EcNo distribution for bad coverage issue (M1007C38-M1007C47) --> RSRAN039

Check HSDPA FMCS Mobility Control Parameter (handover or SCC too late) Check call re-establishment T315 timer due to radio link failure

3. If high HSDPA Non- Radio Link Failures (NRL)


UE responding with some failure message or not responding to some message but no RL failure (timer expiry) --> RSRAN038

Check RB reconfiguration, physical channel reconfiguration, NBAP RL reconfiguration failure rate Required ICSU log for further troubleshooting

HSDPA Retainability Failure Cause Analysis Flowchart

HSDPA Accessibility Analysis


1. Identify root cause of failure distribution and main failure contributor in Services RSRAN073

2. If high HSDPA Access Failure _max user fails --> check RSRAN067

3. If high HSDPA Access Failure_UL DCH check Rejected HS-DSCH return channel due to lack of radio power resource Check M1002C521 or M1002C522 or M1000C144 (RAS06) only when HSDPA static allocation Check Cell resource PrxTotal, PtxTotal Check scrambling code congestion

4. If high HSDPA Access Failure_UE Check RB reconfiguration failure rate ICSU log for UE types troubleshooting

5. If high HSDPA Access Failure_BTS Lack of UL channel resources (check CE resource utilisation using M5001 counters at BH) Too high SHO overhead all branches must have enough CE capacity if UE is in SHO when HS-DSCH allocation is started

6. HS-DSCH return channel setup fail due to Iub transport Breakdown the failure distribution (64,128,384,MAC-d) Evaluate number of reconfiguration failure due the transmission Check M1005C128 CANC_ADD_SRNC_TRAN_STP_FAIL Check RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_IUB_AAL2, M1001C531-C533 Check Iub Utilisation / max CID / avg CID

Optimising Iub considering CID congestion


Following performance indicators are proposed:
M550: Average utilization of AAL2 connections - includes R99, SRB, HSDPA and return channels SUM_AAL2_CONNECTIONS / NBR_SAMPLES/ CID MAX = C4/C7/248 M550: Max utilization of AAL2 connections during measurement period MAX_AAL2_CONNECTIONS/CID MAX = C6/248 CID Utilization Monitoring Process The maximum CID utilisation is followed and forecasted to future so that there is enough time to introduce the new configuration before CID congestion occurs. Average CID utilisation helps in interpreting if a peak in the maximum value is normal growth or just load variation. CID congestion is usually a problem of special events when there are a lot of voice calls and SMS CID congestion is probable in DCH&HSDPA, DCH and RT_DCH VCCs Unlikely in others

CID Optimisation Actions and RU10 Features The CID congestion needs to be solved by adding a VCC DCH&HSDPA (former shared) UP VCC Likely to cause performance degradation to HSDPA if transmission capacity is not increase - HSDPA rates are limited to VCC PCR - UBR+ is not recommended with DCH&HSDPA VCC Path Selection CID congestion in RT VCC - Introduce a 2nd RT VCC - If additional capacity is not available then each VCC will get PCR_RT_NEW = PCR_RT_OLD/2 - Capacity fragmentation may cause increased probability for AAL2 CAC blocking, with AMR the impact should not be big

Check Iub Performance


# counter yg diambil m550 (reservasi- atm), 530 (utilisasi-atm), m800(aal2 resservasi) # data2 tsb yg aslinya per 15 minit diubah jadi perjam, ditampilin jd grafik (utilisasi, CAC reservasi, CID utilisasi) # nah kasus yg biasa terjadi, kalo di rf ada masalah accesibility terus due to nya iub, biasanya kalo kita lihat cid utilisasi dah full (max 248) -- MAX_AAL2_CONNECTIONS (M550C6) --> M550 # kasus yg lain biasanya seputar descrapensy N2N xconnectnya (no vc, no vp) dari setting di node-b kemudian tellabs dan coco/rnc, utk yg satu ini biasanya ceknya masih manual ketika ada laporan node b misal hsdpa gk ada trafik kita cek di node b, lalu dari coco dump cek, kemudian cek di tellabs, biasanya kita minta berupa show running config, bentuknya berupa txt Nah itu tadi di atas utk iub yg masih atm & hybrid, kalo yg sudah nativeIP,monitor utilisasinya ngandelin reporting suite RSRAN98 & 99 utk cek reservasi, utilisasi, truoghput, dan utk yg native ini masigh rada ngambang, paling masalahnya ada laporan perfomace node b jatuh kita liaht utilisasi & reservasi dah mentok kita propose upgrade ajeh

High in call drop rate - WCDMA (Nokia)


1. Check high call drop cells and its neighbouring cells of any faulty alarms 2. Identify call drop root cause failure distribution and main failure contributor (radio, Iu, BTS, Iur, MS, RNC) Services -> RSRAN079

3. Check SHO KPI if performance < 90% ( leads to radio failure) Check if cells are at RNC border (check Iur capacity and SRNC relocation problem) Detect badly performing neighbours using HO success rate per adjacency counters (M1013) High incoming HO failure rate in all adjs check sync alarms Assessing neighbor list plan and visualization check with map Evaluate HO control parameters and trigger threshold

4. Check ISHO KPI if RT ISHO < 90% or NRT < 80% (leads to radio failure)

Check missing neighbour (M1015), GSM frequency plan neighbour RNC and MSC database consistency audit, check alarm of reference clock in 3G or in 2G, check 2G TCH congestion Check RRC Drop ISHO RT / NRT

5. Detecting DL or UL path loss problem if RAB drop due to radio (dominant call drop cause > 50%) Check UL Lost Active KPI from Iub counters (active L1 synchronization failure) to check UL/DL path loss problem Check ASU failure rate (UNSUC_ASU) which link to NO RESPONSE FROM RLC Mapping radio failures with Tx power and CPICH related parameters -> CPICHToRefRABOffset, PTXDPCH MAX Check Call reestablishment timer -> T315 EcNo distribution for bad coverage issue (M1007C38-M1007C47)

6. Check core network parameter setting if RAB_ACT_FAIL_XXX_IU Check SCCP SGSN/RNC IuPS Tias/Tiar if RAB_ACT_FAIL_BACKG_IU

7. If high RAB_ACT_FAIL_XXX_BTS Check if any BTS faulty alarm (7653 cell faulty alarm) If no alarms, COCO detach/attach

8. If high RAB_ACT_FAIL_XXX_MS Check physical channel reconfiguration failure rate (IFHO, ISHO, code optimisation)

Identify CSSR
CSSR affected if any of the followings take place :

RAB Setup Access Fail RRC/RAB Setup & Access Analysis Process Flow Chart

RRC Conn. Setup Fail RRC Conn. Access Fail RAB Setup Fail

1. Check the problem cells and its neighbouring cells of any faulty alarms 2. Identify root cause failure distribution using Service Report -> RSRAN073 3. RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_AC Check UL Interference, DL Power & Code occupancy if there is need to upgrade radio capacity

UL Power Spikes -> Disable UL Admission Control to if the number of failures is critical

M1002C1 CH_REQ_LINK_REJ_UL_SRNC ----> Evaluate Prx Resource Problem M1002C2 CH_REQ_LINK_REJ_DL_SRNC ----->Evaluate Ptx Resource Problem 4. RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_BTS Evaluate NBAP counters (radio link reconf. Failures) and KPIs for troubleshooting BTS resources Check BTS configuration in terms of WAM and CE allocation Use Channel Element (5001) Counters in order to evaluate lack of Channel Elements Expand the Capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site In case BTS is not responding delete and re-create COCO

5. RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_TRANS Evaluate Number of reconfiguration failure due the transmission Check COCO Configuration Use AAL2 Mux in case of two WAM Expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site

6. RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC

Typically RNC fault or Incoming SRNC Relocation Failure (inter-RNC border) Required ICSU log tracing if no RNC fault or SRNC relocation problem

7. RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNTI ALLO FAIL RNC decides to reject RRC connection request due to RNTI allocation failure caused by RRMU overload 8. RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_IUB_AAL2_TRANS Updated when there is shortage or blocking of AAL2 resource A subset of RRC_CONN_FAIL_TRANS which include ERQ/ECF fail due to some reason such as DMPG problem in RNC + ERQ/ECF fail due to transport resource needed in RNC between RNC/MGW

9. RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO Dominant failure causes Perform drive test to detect if UL or DL coverage UL Coverage -> Tune Cell Dominance if the cause is UL interference DL Coverage -> Tune SCCPCH Power if UE does not receive the RRC Setup Message -> If UE does not synchronize, reduce N312 from 2 to 1 (depends on UE model) or tune CPICHToRefRABOffset vs Qqualmin (or Qrxlevmin) 10. RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_MS UL Coverage -> Tune Cell Dominance (or CPICH) in order to balance UL and DL (if UL interference if not the cause) 11. If RRC setup/access failure due to Radio/MS, it is also possible to check whether UEs are located at distance area or close to cell edge area Propagate delay counters from RRC measurement M1006C128-C148 reports call setup distance during RRC connection request or cell update This give hints that either cells has large coverage area (tall sites with over-shooting) or nonoptimum cell coverage from neighbouring cells

RAB setup & Access Fail - Root Cause Analysis


1. Check the problem cells and its neighbouring cells of any faulty alarms 2. Identify root cause failure distribution and main failure contributor using Services -> RSRAN073 3. RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_AC Check UL Interference, DL Power & Code occupancy if there is need to upgrade radio capacity REQ_CS_VOICE_REJ_UL_SRNC -> Evaluate Prx cell resource REQ_CS_VOICE_REJ_DL_SRNC -> Evaluate Ptx cell resource NO_CODES_AVAILABLE_SF128/SF32 -> Evaluate AMR voice / PS64 code congestion

4. RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_BTS Evaluate NBAP counters (radio link reconf. Add failures) and KPIs for troubleshooting BTS resources Check BTS configuration in terms of WAM and CE allocation Use Channel Element (5001) Counters in order to evaluate lack of Channel Elements Expand the Capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site In case BTS is not responding delete and re-create COCO 5. RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_TRANS Evaluate Number of reconfiguration failure due the transmission Check M1005C128 CANC_ADD_SRNC_TRAN_STP_FAIL Check RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_IUB_AAL2, M1001C531-C533 Check COCO Configuration 6. RAB_ACC_FAIL_XXX_UE Evaluate Cell resource Prx and Ptx (for example high uplink interference) Check RB reconfiguration failure ration ( If ATO setting is insufficient recommmended is 500ms ) 7. RAB_ACC_FAIL_XXX_RNC Typically RNC fault or Incoming SRNC Relocation Failure (inter-RNC border) Required ICSU log tracing if no RNC fault or SRNC relocation problem

Application throughput downlink


1. 2. 3. 4. Open logfile STATIONERY, biasanya menggunakan MS 3 (.3) Join ke folder PS di window folder contents -- klik kanan folder PS -- Statistics -- Packet data statistics dari hasil dilihat sheet "Application throughput downlink" dan bisa dilihat data average PS

Identify CSSR 2nd


Berikut beberapa measurement yang diperlukan untuk analisis CSSR

FMCG Parameter
GSMcauseCPICHEcNo : This parameter indicates whether a handover to GSM caused by low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No of the serving cell is enabled. When the handover to GSM is enabled, the RNC shall set up an intra-frequency CPICH Ec/No measurement in order to monitor the absolute CPICH Ec/No of the serving cell. The measurement reporting criteria of the intra-frequency CPICH Ec/No measurement are defined by the Intra-frequency Measurement Control parameters (FMCS object). Rec: Enabled (1) GSMcauseCPICHrscp : This parameter indicates whether a handover to GSM caused by low measured absolute CPICH RSCP of the serving cell is enabled. When the handover to GSM is enabled, the RNC shall set up an intra-frequency CPICH RSCP measurement in order to monitor the absolute CPICH RSCP of the serving cell. The measurement reporting criteria of the intra-frequency CPICH RSCP measurement are defined by the Intra-frequency Measurement Control parameters (FMCS object). Rec: Enabled (1) GSMcauseTxPwrDL : This parameter indicates whether a handover to GSM caused by high downlink DPCH TX power is enabled. Downlink DPCH TX power threshold for the handover to GSM is determined on service-byservice basis. Rec: Disabled (0) GSMcauseTxPwrUL : This parameter indicates whether a handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled. UE TX power threshold for the handover to GSM is determined on service-by-service basis. Rec: Disabled (0) GSMcauseUplinkQuality : This parameter indicates whether a handover to GSM caused by bad uplink DCH quality is enabled. Rec: Disabled (0) GsmDLTxPwrThrAMR : This parameter determines the downlink DPCH TX power threshold for a CS voice connection. When the handover to GSM caused by high DL DPCH TX power is enabled, the RNC starts

inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode if the DPCH TX power of a single radio link reaches the threshold. The DL DPCH TX power threshold is relative to the allocated maximum transmission power of the DPCH. Rec : '-3 dB, internal_value = gui_value * 2 GsmDLTxPwrThrCS : This parameter determines the downlink DPCH TX power threshold for a CS data connection. When the handover to GSM caused by high DL DPCH TX power is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode if the DPCH TX power of a single radio link reaches the threshold. The DL DPCH TX power threshold is relative to the allocated maximum transmission power of the DPCH. Rec : '-3 dB, internal_value = gui_value * 2 GsmDLTxPwrThrNrtPS : This parameter determines the downlink DPCH TX power threshold for a non-real time PS data connection. When the handover to GSM caused by high DL DPCH TX power is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode if the DPCH TX power of a single radio link reaches the threshold. The DL DPCH TX power threshold is relative to the allocated maximum transmission power of the DPCH. Rec : '-1 dB, internal_value = gui_value * 2 GsmDLTxPwrThrRtPS : This parameter determines the downlink DPCH TX power threshold for a real time PS data connection. When the handover to GSM caused by high DL DPCH TX power is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode if the DPCH TX power of a single radio link reaches the threshold. The DL DPCH TX power threshold is relative to the allocated maximum transmission power of the DPCH. Rec : '-3 dB, internal_value = gui_value * 2 GsmMaxMeasPeriod : The maximum number of periodical inter-RAT (GSM) measurement reports determines the maximum allowed duration of the GSM measurement. If the RNC is not able to execute the handover to GSM, it stops the GSM measurement after the UE has sent the predefined number of measurement reports to the RNC. Rec : 20, internal_value = gui_value GsmMeasAveWindow : This parameter determines the maximum number of periodical interRAT (GSM) measurement reports (maximum size of the sliding averaging window) from which the RNC calculates the averaged GSM RSSI values for the handover decision algorithm. Rec : 6, internal_value = gui_value

GsmMeasRepInterval : This parameter determines the measurement reporting interval for periodical inter-RAT (GSM) measurements. Rec : 0.5 s, range 0.5 s (2) | 1 s (3) | 2 s (4) | 3 s (5) | 4 s (6) GsmMinHoInterval : This parameter determines the minimum interval between a successful inter-RAT handover from GSM to UTRAN and the following inter-RAT handover attempt back to GSM related to the same RRC connection. Rec : 10 s, internal_value = gui_value GsmMinMeasInterval : This parameter determines the minimum interval between an unsuccessful inter-RAT (GSM) measurement or handover procedure, and the following GSM measurement procedure related to the same RRC connection. Rec : 2 s, internal_value = gui_value GsmNcellSearchPeriod : This parameter determines the number of periodical inter-RAT (GSM) measurement reports, starting from the first report after the measurement setup, during which a handover to GSM is not possible. This period allows the UE to find and report all potential GSM neighbour cells before the handover decision. Rec : 0, internal_value = gui_value GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff : In the CELL_DCH state the UE physical layer measurement period for UE TX power measurements is 1 slot. The Filter Coefficient parameter controls the higher layer filtering of physical layer UE TX power measurements before the event evaluation and measurement reporting is performed by the UE. Rec : 10 ms (8), range : Filtering period approximates 10 ms (8) | Filtering period approximates 15 ms (9) | Filtering period approximates 30 ms (10) | Filtering period approximates 60 ms (11) | Filtering period approximates 120 ms (12) | Filtering period approximates 240 ms (13) | Filtering period approximates 480 ms (14) GsmUETxPwrThrAMR : This parameter determines the UE TX power threshold for a CS voice connection. If the handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode when the UE TX power reaches this threshold. The UE TX power threshold is relative to the maximum TX power level an UE can use on the DPCH in the cell (or the maximum RF output power capability of the UE, whichever is lower). Rec : '-3dB as default , -60dB only on 3G congested site defined by TSEL to force AMR to 2G, internal_value = gui_value GsmUETxPwrThrCS : This parameter determines the UE TX power threshold for a CS data connection. If the handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode when the UE TX power reaches this threshold. The UE TX power threshold is relative to the maximum TX power level an UE can use on the DPCH in the cell (or the maximum RF output power capability of the UE,

whichever is lower). Rec : '-3 dB, internal_value = gui_value GsmUETxPwrThrNrtPS : This parameter determines the UE TX power threshold for a nonreal time PS data connection. If the handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode when the UE TX power reaches this threshold. The UE TX power threshold is relative to the maximum TX power level an UE can use on the DPCH in the cell (or the maximum RF output power capability of the UE, whichever is lower). Rec : '-1 dB, internal_value = gui_value GsmUETxPwrThrRtPS : This parameter determines the UE TX power threshold for a real time PS data connection. If the handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode when the UE TX power reaches this threshold. The UE TX power threshold is relative to the maximum TX power level an UE can use on the DPCH in the cell (or the maximum RF output power capability of the UE, whichever is lower). Rec : '-3 dB, internal_value = gui_value GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst : If the handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode when the UE TX power reaches a predefined threshold. If the UE TX power goes down again (after the UE TX power threshold has once triggered), the UE TX Power Time Hysteresis determines the time period during which the UE TX power must stay below the UE TX power threshold before the RNC calls off the GSM measurements caused by the high UE TX power. Rec : 320 ms (11) GsmMinSLHOInterval : This parameter defines the minimum interval between a successful service- or load-based inter-RAT handover from GSM to UTRAN and the next service- or loadbased inter-RAT handover attempt back to GSM, related to the same RRC connection. This parameter is effective if the original handover reason is known to be a service- or loadbased one. Rec : 30, internal_value = gui_value, unit s, Recommeded value is only applicable if GSM ==> UTRAN IRAT HO is available AMRDirReCell : This parameter enables and disables the use of Directed Retry of AMR call Inter-system Handover. If the value is 'Enabled', then AMR calls are directed to the GSM network in case of UTRAN congestion, in order to improve the setup of AMR calls. If the value is 'Disabled', then AMR calls are rejected in case of UTRAN congestion. Range : Disabled (0), Enabled (1)

DLDPCHTxPwrClOffset : This parameter defines the cancellation threshold (DL_DPCH_TXPWR_THRESHOLD+DLDPCHTxPwrClOffset) for the DL DPCH TX Pwr. Def : -3 dB ISHOClcauseCPICHEcNo : This parameter indicates whether an inter-system handover cancellation caused by a CPICH Ec/No exceeding the cancellation threshold is enabled or not. If the value is '0', the ISHO cancellation due to CPICH Ec/No is disabled. If the value is '1', the ISHO cancellation due to CPICH Ec/No is enabled. ISHOClcauseCPICHrscp : This parameter indicates whether an inter-system handover cancellation caused by a CPICH RSCP exceeding the cancellation threshold is enabled or not. If the value is '0', the ISHO cancellation due to CPICH RSCP exceeding the cancellation threshold is disabled. If the value is '1', the ISHO cancellation due to CPICH RSCP exceeding the cancellation threshold is enabled. ISHOClcauseTxPwrDL : This parameter indicates whether an inter-system handover cancellation caused by a low measured Downlink DPCH Transmission power level is enabled or not. If the value is '0', the ISHO cancellation due to low measured Downlink DPCH Transmission power level is disabled. If the value is '1', the ISHO cancellation due to low measured Downlink DPCH Transmission power level is enabled. ISHOClcauseTxPwrUL : This parameter indicates whether an inter-system handover cancellation caused by UE Transmission power decreasing below the reporting threshold is enabled or not. If the value is '0', the ISHO cancellation due to UE Transmission power is disabled. If the value is '1', the ISHO cancellation due to UE Transmission power is enabled.

Export data Nemo to Mapinfo


Cara export data Nemo ke Mapinfo adalah sebagai berikut : Setelah kumpulan logfile (idle atau dedicated) di UMTS --> UMTS Map Sumary, alangkah enaknya kalau kita bekerjanya di Mapinfo, krn lbh mudah untuk proses plot. di sheet Ec/No atau RSCP atau SC, klik kanan di window layers pilih export to MapInfo.

FMCS Parameter
ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient : Active Set Weighting Coefficient (W) is used to weight either the measurement result of the best active set cell (M_best) or the sum of measurement results of all active set cells (M_sum) when the UE calculates the reporting range for the events 1A (cell addition) and 1B (dropping of cell). The formula is: W * M_sum + ( 1 - W )* M_best. Def : 0 AdditionReportingInterval : When a monitored cell enters the reporting range and triggers event 1A (cell addition), the UE transmits a Measurement Report to the RNC. If the RNC is not able to add the monitored cell to the active set, the UE continues reporting after the initial report by reverting to periodical measurement reporting. The parameter Addition Reporting Interval determines the interval between periodical measurement reports when such reporting is triggered by the event 1A. Def : 2 --> 0.5 s AdditionTime : When a monitored cell enters the reporting range (addition window), the cell must continuously stay within the reporting range for a given period of time before the UE can send a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to add the cell into the active set (event 1A). The length of this period is controlled by the parameter Addition Time. Rec : (11) 320 ms ==>RT, (11) 320 ms ==> NRT, (13) 1280 ms ==>HSDPA AdditionWindow : Addition Window determines the relative threshold (A_Win) used by the UE to calculate the reporting range of event 1A. The threshold is either relative to the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the best active set cell (M_best), or to the sum of active set measurement results (M_sum), depending on the value of the parameter Active Set

Weighting Coefficient (W). When the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of a monitored cell (M_new) enters the reporting range, the UE transmits a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to add the monitored cell into the active set: M_new >= W * M_sum + ( 1 - W )* M_best - A_Win Rec : (8) 4dB ==> RT, (5) 2.5dB ==> NRT, (0) 0dB ==> HSDPA DropTime : When an active set cell leaves the reporting range (drop window), the cell must continuously stay outside the reporting range for a given period of time before the UE can send a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to remove the cell from the active set (event 1B). The length of this period is controlled by the parameter Drop Time. Def : 640 ms (12) DropWindow : Drop Window determines the relative threshold (D_Win) which is used by the UE to calculate the reporting range of event 1B. The threshold is either relative to the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the best active set cell (M_best) or to the sum of active set measurement results (M_sum), depending on the value of the parameter Active Set Weighting Coefficient (W). When the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of an active set cell (M_old) leaves the reporting range, the UE transmits a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to remove the cell from the active set: M_old <= W * M_sum + ( 1 - W )* M_best - D_Win Def : (12) 6dB ==> RT, (8) 4dB ==> NRT, (8) 4dB ==> HSDPA EcNoFilterCoefficient : In the CELL_DCH state the UE physical layer measurement period for intra-frequency CPICH Ec/No measurements is 200 ms. The Filter Coefficient parameter controls the higher layer filtering of physical layer CPICH Ec/No measurements before the event evaluation and measurement reporting is performed by the UE. Def : 3 (600 ms) HHoEcNoCancel : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No is enabled, the RNC starts the inter-frequency or GSM measurement in compressed mode when all active set cells have triggered the reporting event 1F for CPICH Ec/No. The RNC cancels the event 1F of an active set cell if the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the active set cell becomes better than or equal to the threshold HHoEcNoCancel and the UE transmits the corresponding event 1E triggered Measurement Report to the RNC.

Note that once the RNC has started the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurement for the purpose of hard handover due to low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No, the RNC does not break off the ongoing measurement, even if one or more active set cells trigger the reporting event 1E for CPICH Ec/No. Rec : -11dB ==> RT, -12dB ==> NRT, -15dB ==> HSDPA MaxActiveSetSize : This parameter determines the maximum number of cells which can participate in a soft/softer handover. Reporting deactivation threshold indicates the maximum number of cells allowed in the active set in order for the event 1A to trigger. The RNC calculates the deactivation threshold from the parameter MaxActiveSetSize: Reporting Deactivation Threshold = MaxActiveSetSize -1 Reporting Deactivation Threshold parameter is part of System Information Block 11/12. Replacement activation threshold information element indicates the minimum number of cells allowed in the active set in order for the event 1C to trigger. The threshold equals to the maximum size of the active set which is controlled with the parameter MaxActiveSetSize. Replacement Activation Threshold parameter is part of System Information Block 11/12. Def : 3 HHoEcNoCancelTime : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No is enabled, the RNC starts the inter-frequency or GSM measurement in compressed mode when all active set cells have triggered the reporting event 1F for CPICH Ec/No. The RNC cancels the event 1F of an active set cell if the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the active set cell becomes better than or equal to the threshold HHoEcNoCancel and the UE transmits the corresponding event 1E triggered Measurement Report to the RNC. The parameter HHoEcNoCancelTime determines the time period during which the CPICH Ec/No of the active set cell must stay better than the threshold HHoEcNoCancel before the UE can trigger the reporting event 1E. Note that once the RNC has started the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurement for the purpose of hard handover due to low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No, the RNC does not break off the ongoing measurement, even if one or more active set cells trigger the reporting event 1E for CPICH Ec/No. Rec : (6) 100 ms ==> RT, (6) 100 ms ==> NRT, (6) 100 ms ==> HSDPA

ReplacementReportingInterval: When the number of cells in the active set has reached the maximum, and a monitored cell becomes better than an active set cell, the UE transmits a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to replace the active cell with the monitored cell (event 1C). If the RNC is not able to replace the active cell with the monitored cell, the UE continues reporting after the initial report by reverting to periodical measurement reporting. The parameter Replacement Reporting Interval determines the interval of periodical measurement reports when such reporting is triggered by the event 1C. Def : 2 (0.5s) HHoEcNoThreshold : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No is enabled, the UE transmits an event 1F triggered measurement report to the RNC when the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of an active set cell becomes worse than or equal to an absolute CPICH Ec/No threshold. The parameter HHoEcNoThreshold determines the absolute CPICH Ec/No threshold which is used by the UE to trigger the reporting event 1F. When the measured CPICH Ec/No of all active set cells has become worse than or equal to the threshold in question, the RNC starts inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode for the purpose of hard handover. Rec : -14dB ==> RT, -15dB ==> NRT, -18dB ==> HSDPA ReplacementTime : When the number of cells in the active set has reached the maximum, and a monitored cell enters the reporting range (replacement window), the monitored cell must continuously stay within the reporting range for a given period of time before the UE can send a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to replace an active set cell with the monitored cell (event 1C). The length of this period is controlled by the parameter Replacement Time. Def : 320 ms (11) HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No is enabled, the UE transmits an event 1F triggered measurement report to the RNC when the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of an active set cell becomes worse than the threshold HHoEcNoThreshold. The parameter HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis determines the time period during which the CPICH Ec/No of the active set cell must stay worse than the threshold HHoEcNoThreshold before the UE can trigger the reporting event 1F. When the measured CPICH Ec/No of all active set cells has become worse than the threshold in question, the RNC starts inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode for the purpose of hard handover. Rec : (6) 100 ms ==> RT, (6) 100 ms ==> NRT, (6) 100 ms ==> HSDPA

ReplacementWindow : When the number of cells in the active set has reached the maximum specified by the parameter MaxActiveSetSize and a monitored cell becomes better than an active set cell, the UE transmits a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to replace the active cell with the monitored cell (event 1C). The parameter Replacement Window determines the margin by which the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the monitored cell (MNew) must exceed the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the an active set cell (MInAS) before the UE can send the event 1C triggered Measurement Report to the RNC: MNew >= MInAs + ReplacementWindow / 2 Def : 4 (2dB) HHoRscpCancel : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured absolute CPICH RSCP is enabled, the RNC starts the inter-frequency or GSM measurement in compressed mode when all active set cells have triggered the reporting event 1F for CPICH RSCP. The RNC cancels the event 1F of an active set cell, if the CPICH RSCP measurement result of the active set cell becomes better than or equal to the threshold HHoRscpCancel and the UE transmits the corresponding event 1E triggered measurement report to the RNC. Note, that once the RNC has started the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurement for the purpose of hard handover due to low measured absolute CPICH RSCP, the RNC does not break off the ongoing measurement, even if one or more active set cells trigger the reporting event 1E for CPICH RSCP. Rec : -102dBm ==> RT, -105dBm ==> NRT, -105dBm ==> HSDPA HHoRscpCancelTime : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured absolute CPICH RSCP is enabled, the RNC starts the inter-frequency or GSM measurement in compressed mode when all active set cells have triggered the reporting event 1F for CPICH RSCP. The RNC cancels the event 1F of an active set cell, if the CPICH RSCP measurement result of the active set cell becomes better than or equal to the threshold HHoRscpCancel and the UE transmits the corresponding event 1E triggered measurement report to the RNC. The parameter HHoRscpCancelTime determines the time period during which the CPICH RSCP of the active set cell must stay better than the threshold HHoRscpCancel before the UE can trigger the reporting event 1E. Note, that once the RNC has started the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurement for the purpose of hard handover due to low measured absolute CPICH RSCP, the RNC does not break off the ongoing measurement, even if one or more active set cells trigger the reporting event 1E for CPICH RSCP. Rec : (6) 100 ms ==> RT, (6) 100 ms ==> NRT, (6) 100 ms ==> HSDPA

HHoRscpFilterCoefficient : In the CELL_DCH state the UE physical layer measurement period for intra-frequency CPICH RSCP measurements is 200 ms. The Filter Coefficient parameter controls the higher layer filtering of physical layer CPICH RSCP measurements before the event evaluation and measurement reporting is performed by the UE. The CPICH RSCP measurement reports can be used to trigger off inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurements for the purpose of hard handover. Def : 200 ms (0) HHoRscpThreshold : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by a low measured CPICH RSCP is enabled, the UE transmits an event 1F triggered measurement report to the RNC when the CPICH RSCP measurement result of an active set cell becomes worse than or equal to an absolute CPICH RSCP threshold. The parameter HHoRscpThreshold determines the absolute CPICH RSCP threshold which is used by the UE to trigger the reporting event 1F. When the measured CPICH RSCP of all active set cells has become worse than or equal to the threshold in question, the RNC starts inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode for the purpose of hard handover. Rec : -105dBm ==> RT, -110dBm ==> NRT, -110dBm ==> HSDPA HHoRscpTimeHysteresis : If the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) handover caused by low measured CPICH RSCP is enabled, the UE transmits an event 1F triggered measurement report to the RNC when the CPICH RSCP measurement result of an active set cell becomes worse than the threshold HHoRscpThreshold. The parameter HHoRscpTimeHysteresis determines the time period during which the CPICH RSCP of the active set cell must stay worse than the threshold HHoRscpThreshold before the UE can trigger the reporting event 1F. When the measured CPICH RSCP of all active set cells has become worse than the threshold in question, the RNC starts inter-frequency or interRAT (GSM) measurements in compressed mode for the purpose of hard handover. Rec : (6) 100 ms ==> RT, (6) 100 ms ==> NRT, (6) 100 ms ==> HSDPA DropReportingInterval : When an active cell enters the reporting range and triggers event 1B (cell deletion), the UE transmits a Measurement Report to the RNC. If the RNC is not able to remove the active cell from the active set, the UE continues reporting after the initial report by reverting to periodical measurement reporting. The parameter Drop Reporting Interval determines the interval between periodical measurement reports when such reporting is triggered by the event 1B. This parameter is part of System Information Block 11/12. Def : 0.5 s (2)

HOPS Parameter
EcNoAveragingWindow : This parameter determines the number of event triggered periodic intra-frequency measurement reports from which the RNC calculates the averaged CPICH Ec/No values.|Def : 8 EnableInterRNCsho : Parameter indicates whether the neighbouring cell can participate in a soft handover, if it is controlled by a RNC other than the local RNC.|Range : No (0) Yes (1).|Def:Yes (1) EnableRRCRelease : When the intra-frequency neighbour cell in question enters the reporting range and triggers either event 1A (cell addition) or event 1C (cell replacement), the UE shall transmit a Measurement Report to the RNC in order to add the neighbouring cell to the active set. If the RNC is not able to add the neighbouring cell to the active set, the parameter Enable RRC Connection Release indicates whether a RRC connection release (excluding emergency calls) is required in order to avoid excessive uplink interference due to non-optimum fast closed loop power control.|Range :No (0) Yes (1). |Rec: No ==> RT, No ==> NRT, Yes ==> HSDPA HHOMarginAverageEcNo : This parameter determines the maximum allowed difference between the averaged CPICH Ec/No of the neighbouring cell and the averaged CPICH Ec/No of the best active cell in situations when an inter-RNC soft handover is not possible between these cells. If the difference between the averaged CPICH Ec/No values exceeds the value of the parameter, the RNC performs an intra-frequency hard handover in order to avoid excessive uplink interference due to non-optimum fast closed loop power control.|Def: 10 HHOMarginPeakEcNo : This parameter determines the maximum allowed difference between the CPICH Ec/No of the neighbour cell and the CPICH Ec/No of the best active cell in situations when an inter-RNC soft handover is not possible between these cells. If the difference in CPICH Ec/No values exceeds the value of the parameter, the RNC performs an intra-frequency hard handover in order to avoid excessive uplink interference due to nonoptimum fast closed loop power control.|Def : 4 AdjsHCSpriority : Defines the priority level of the neighbouring cell in the hierarchical cell re-selection procedure. 0 indicates the lowest HCS priority and 7 indicates the highest HCS priority. Lower HCS priority values are meant for larger macro cells and higher HCS priority values are meant for smaller pico/micro cells.| Def : 0 AdjsHCSthreshold : Defines the threshold level which must be exceeded by the CPICH Ec/No of the neighbouring cell before the hierarchical cell re-selection becomes possible.|Def : 0 AdjsPenaltyTime : Defines the time period during which the Temporary Offset 1/2 is applied in the cell re-selection procedure for the neighbour cell in question.|Def : 0

AdjsQoffset1 : This parameter is used in the cell re-selection and ranking between WCDMA cells. The value of this parameter is subtracted from the measured CPICH RSCP of the neighbour cell before the UE compares the quality measure with the cell reselection/ranking criteria.|Def :0 AdjsQoffset2 : This parameter is used in the cell re-selection and ranking between WCDMA cells. The value of this parameter is subtracted from the measured CPICH Ec/No of the neighbour cell before the UE compares the quality measure with the cell reselection/ranking criteria.|Def : 0 AdjsQqualMin : Determines the minimum required CPICH Ec/No level which must be exceeded by the measurement result of the neighbouring cell before the cell re-selection becomes possible.|Def: -20 AdjsQrxlevMin : Determines the minimum required CPICH RSCP level which must be exceeded by the measurement result of the neighbouring cell before the cell re-selection becomes possible.|Def : -58 AdjsTempOffset1 : This parameter is used in the cell ranking between GSM and WCDMA cells when the neighbour cell has the same HCS priority level as the serving cell. If the neighbour cell has a different HCS priority level, the offset value is applied for the HCS cell re-selection between GSM and WCDMA cells. The offset is subtracted (during Penalty Time) from the measured CPICH RSCP of the neighbour cell. The alternative values are the following: 3 dB, 6 dB, 9 dB, 12 dB, 15 dB, 18 dB, 21 dB and 'Infinity'.|Def : 0 AdjsTempOffset2 : This parameter is used in the cell ranking between WCDMA cells when the neighbour cell has the same HCS priority level as the serving cell. If the neighbour cell has a different HCS priority level, the offset value is applied for the HCS cell re-selection between WCDMA cells. The offset is subtracted (during Penalty Time) from the measured CPICH Ec/No of the neighbour cell. The alternative values are the following: 2 dB, 3 dB, 4 dB, 6 dB, 8 dB, 10 dB, 12 dB and 'Infinity'.|Def : 0 ReleaseMarginAverageEcNo : This parameter determines the maximum allowed difference between the averaged CPICH Ec/No of the neighbouring cell and the averaged CPICH Ec/No of the best active cell in situations when the RNC is not able to perform a soft handover between these cells. If the difference between the averaged CPICH Ec/No values exceeds the value of the parameter, the RNC releases the RRC connection in order to avoid excessive uplink

interference due to non-optimum fast closed loop power control.|Def : 25 ReleaseMarginPeakEcNo : This parameter determines the maximum allowed difference between the CPICH Ec/No of the neighbour cell and the CPICH Ec/No of the best active cell in situations when the RNC is not able to perform a soft handover between these cells. If the difference between CPICH Ec/No values exceeds the value of the parameter, the RNC releases the RRC connection in order to avoid excessive uplink interference due to nonoptimum fast closed loop power control.|Def : 7

ADJS Parameter
AdjsScrCode : The downlink scrambling code of the Primary CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) of the intra-frequency neighbour cell. NrtHopsIdentifier : This parameter defines the parameter set (HOPS object) which controls the intra-frequency handover of a non-real time (NRT) radio bearer to the neighbouring cell. RtHopsIdentifier : This parameter defines the parameter set (HOPS object) which controls the intra-frequency handover of a real time (RT) radio bearer to the neighbouring cell. HSDPAHopsIdentifier : The parameter identifies the parameter set (HOPS object) controlling the intra-frequency handovers of a user having HS-DSCH allocated. RTWithHSDPAHopsIdentifier : This parameter identifies the parameter set (HOPS object) controlling intra-frequency handovers of a user having HS-DSCH allocated simultaneously with AMR speech CS RAB. AdjsDERR : This parameter indicates whether the neighbouring cell is forbidden to affect the reporting range (addition/drop window) calculation, if it belongs to the active set. | Range and Step : No (0) Yes (1) | Def : 0 AdjsEcNoOffset : The CPICH Ec/No Offset determines an offset value, which the UE adds to the CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the neighbouring cell before it compares the Ec/No value with the reporting criteria. | Default : 0 dB, -> nilai ditambah (+) berimpact attempt ke neighbor tersebut bertambah AdjsTxDiv : This parameter indicates whether the Primary CPICH of the intra-frequency neighbour cell is broadcast from two antennas. If the Primary CPICH is broadcast from two antennas, the UE measures the received code power from each antenna separately and sums the measurement results together in order to get the total received code power on the Primary CPICH. | Range and Step : Tx Diversity not used (0), Tx Diversity in use (1) | Def : 0

AdjsTxPwrRACH : This parameter indicates the maximum transmission power level that a UE can use when accessing the neighbouring cell on the RACH. The UE uses the parameter in the cell re-selection procedure. If the maximum output power of the UE is lower than the value of the parameter, the UE adds the power difference (dB value) to the minimum required CPICH Ec/No level, which the measurement result of the neighbouring cell must exceed before the cell re-selection is possible. | Def : 21 AdjsCPICHTxPwr : This parameter indicates the transmission power level of the Primary CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) of the intra-frequency neighbour cell. | Def : 330 AdjsSIB : The parameter indicates whether the intra-frequency neighbour cell is included in the System Information Block 11&12&18 for the cell selection and re-selection procedures. The intra-frequency neighbour cell is included in the system information when the value of the parameter is "SIB". The intra-frequency neighbour cell is included in the extended system information when the value of the parameter is "SIBbis". The total number of intra-frequency, inter-frequency and GSM neighbour cells, which can be included in the System Information Block type 11 (SIB11), is 47. When HCS is used, the capacity is limited to 35 cells. System Information Block type 11bis (SIB11bis) increases the maximum number of adjacencies to 96. SIB11bis can only be decoded by the UEs which support 3GPP R6. If the total number of intra-frequency, inter-frequency and GSM neighbour cells, which are included in the System Information, exceeds the physical size of SIB data, the NBAP interface is not able to pack the neighbour cell information into the SIB data and the scheduling of the system information blocks fails. The cell is blocked by the system and an alarm 7771 WCDMA CELL OUT OF USE (BCCH scheduling error) is reported for the cell. Note: The parameter AdjsSIB does not affect intra-frequency measurements in CELL_DCH state of connected mode. That is, all intra-frequency neighbour cells are monitored for the soft(er) handover regardless of the value of the parameter AdjsSIB. | No (0), SIB (1), SIBbis (2) | Def : SIB (1)

3G HO Basic reporting events


Intra frequency events 1A: Primary CPICH enters the reporting range (Ncell addition), If active set of UE is full, UE stops reporting 1A event 1B: P-CPICH leaves the reporting range (Ncell deletion) 1C: Non-active P-CPICH becomes better than an active PCPICH 1D: Change of current best cell with new P-CPICH 1E : The measurement value of a primary pilot channel exceeds the absolute threshold 1F : The measurement value of a primary pilot channel is lower than the absolute threshold Inter frequency events 2A : The best frequency changes 2B : The quality of the current cell frequency is lower than a certain threshold, but that of the non-used frequency is higher than a certain threshold 2C : The estimated quality of the non-used frequency is higher than a certain threshold 2D : The estimated quality of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold 2E : The estimated quality of the non-used frequency is lower than a certain threshold 2F : The estimated quality of the used frequency is higher than a certain threshold Inter system events 3A: The estimated quality value of the used UTRAN frequency is lower than a certain threshold, and that of the other system is higher than a certain threshold 3B : The estimated quality value of the other system is lower than a certain threshold 3C : The estimated quality value of the other system is higher than a certain threshold 3D : The best cell in the other system changes

3G Handover Types
Intra-Frequency Handovers 1. Softer Handover Handover between sectors of the same Node B (handled by BTS) No extra transmissions across Iub interface Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in both the UL & DL 2. Soft Handover UE simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different Node Bs) Extra transmission across Iub, more channel cards are needed (compared to non-SHO) Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) DL/UE: MRC & UL/RNC: Frame selection combining 3. Hard Handover Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported or Iur congestion Decision procedure is the same as SHO (MEHO and RNC controlled) Causes temporary disconnection of the (RT) user

Inter-Frequency Handover Can be intra-BS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO) Decision algorithm located in RNC

Inter-RAT Handover Handovers between WCDMA and GSM (NEHO) or GAN (WLAN)

RRC connection request

If admission control rejects the RRC connection request, the RNC sends the RRC: RRC Connection Reject message to the UE. The message includes mandatory IE Wait time. The user equipment waits at least the time stated in the parameter before sending a new RRC: RRC Connection Request message. The value of the Wait time is defined with the Wait time in RRC connection request rejection (WaitTimeRRC) management parameter

How to avoid ping pong (3G - GSM)


When UE is camped on 3G -> GSM measurements start when CPICH Ec/Io of serving cell is below Ssearch_RAT + QqualMin When UE is camped on GSM -> cell reselection to 3G is possible if CPICH Ec/Io of the candidate is above FDD_Qmin FDD_Qmin >= QqualMin+Ssearch_RAT

2G -> 3G Cell Re / Selection


QsearchI (A_BTS) With this parameter you define the threshold for dual mode mobiles in idle state to search for and to measure UTRAN neighbour cells introduced in 3G Cell Reselection list when a running average of the received downlink signal level (RLA_C) of the serving cell is below (07) or above (8-15) the threshold. This parameter is broadcast only on BCCH. If the parameter value is 7, dual mode mobiles in idle state measure always neighbour UTRAN cell(s). If the parameter value is 15, dual mode mobiles in idle state do not measure any of the neighbour UTRAN cells. GPRS-capable mobiles do not use this parameter if NCCR is active in the serving cell QsearchP (A_BTS) With this parameter you define the threshold for GPRS capable dual mode mobiles to search for and to measure UTRAN neighbour cells introduced in 3G Cell Reselection list when a running average of the received downlink signal level (RLA_C) of the serving cell is below (07) or above (8-15) the threshold. This parameter is broadcast on BCCH. In case this parameter is broadcast on BCCH it shall be used only if GPRS cell re-selection parameters for one or more cells are sent to the MS in a Packet Cell Change Order or Packet Measurement Order message If the parameter value is 7, GPRS-capable multi-RAT MSs measure always neighbour UTRAN cell(s). If the parameter value is 15, GPRS-capable multi-RAT MSs do not measure any of neighbour UTRAN cells.

GPRS-capable mobiles use this parameter only if NCCR is active in the serving cell fddQOffset (A_BTS) With this parameter you define a UTRAN cell reselection offset for non-GPRS capable dual mode mobiles which are in the idle state. The mobiles add the offset to the running average (RLA_C) of the received signal level of the serving GSM cell and non-serving GSM cells. After that the mobiles compare the measured RSCP values of UTRAN cells with signal levels of the GSM cells. -32 db = minus infinity dB range: -28..28 dB, step 4 dB FDD_GPRS_Offset FDDQmin (A_BTS) This parameter defines a minimum Ec/Io threshold which must be exceeded before a nonGPRS capable dual mode mobile is allowed to make a reselection from the serving GSM cell to an adjacent WCDMA RAN cell that is using frequency division duplex (FDD) type access technology/mode FDD_REP_QUANT defines the reporting quantity for UTRAN cell 3G_Search_PRIO Is used to inidicate to the MS if 3G cells can be looked for when BSIC decoding is required. (0=no, 1=yes, default: 1)

3G --> 2G Cell Re / selection


Cell Re / selection Criteria S di define sbb : Squal = Qqualmeas Qqualmin Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - Qrxlevmin - Pcompensation where : Squal : Cell Selection quality (dB) Qqualmeas : Measured cell quality value Qqualmin : Minimum required quality level in the cell (dB) Srxlev : Cell Selection RX level value (dB) Qrxlevmeas : Measured cell RX level value Qrxlevmin : Minimum required RX level in the cell (dBm) Pcompensation : max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0) in dB "UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH" : Maximum TX power level an UE may use when accessing the cell on RACH (dBm) P_MAX : Maximum RF output power of the UE (dBm) Cell Re / selection Criteria S akan terpenuhi jika : Squal > 0 Srxlev > 0 Asumsi tidak menggunakan HCS maka : If Squal > Sintrasearch, UE need not perform intra-frequency measurements If Squal <= Sintrasearch, perform intra-frequency measurements If Squal > Sintersearch, UE need not perform inter-frequency measurement If Squal <= Sintersearch, perform inter-frequency measurements If Squal > SsearchRAT m, UE need not perform measurements on cells of RAT "m" If Squal <= SsearchRAT m, perform measurements on cells of RAT "m" ex : Sintrasearch = 4 dB: Equate to 16dB Ec/No Sintersearch = 2 dB: Equate to 18dB Ec/No SsearchRAT m, = 0dB: Equate to 20dB Ec/No Parameter untuk Cell Re/Selection 3G --> 2G adalah : HCS_PRIO : Defines the HCS priority level for a cell (def:0) (A_WCEL)

NCr : Defines the maximum number of cell reselections (def:8) (A_WCEL) QHCS : Quality threshold level for applying prioritised hierarchical cell re-selection for a cell (def:WCDMA : -24) (A_WCEL) Qhyst1 : Qhyst1 is used for TDD and GSM cells, and for FDD cells when cell selection and reselection quality measure is set to CPICH RSCP (def:4) (A_WCEL) Qhyst2 : Qhyst2 is used for FDD cells when cell selection and re-selection quality measure is set to CPICH Ec/No (def:4) (A_WCEL) QqualMin : The minimum required quality level in the cell (Ec/No) (def:-20) (A_WCEL) QrxlevMin : The minimum required RX level in the cell (def: WCDMA -115, GSM 105) (A_WCEL) SHCS_RAT : The RAT specific threshold for inter-RAT measurement rules (def:1) (A_WCEL) Sintersearch : The threshold for inter-frequency measurements, and for the HCS measurement rules (def:2)(A_WCEL) Sintrasearch : The threshold for intra-frequency measurements, and for the HCS measurement rules (def:4)(A_WCEL) Slimit_SearchRAT : Threshold for skipping inter-RAT measurement rules in HCS (def:2) (A_WCEL) Ssearch_RAT : The RAT-specific threshold for inter-RAT measurement rules (def:0) (A_WCEL) SsearchHCS : Threshold for intra- and interfrequency measurement rules in HCS (def:1) (A_WCEL) TCrmax : The duration for evaluating the allowed amount of cell reselections (def:60sec) (A_WCEL) TCrmaxHyst : Cell reselection hysteresis for reverting from UE high-mobility measurements (def:0sec)(A_WCEL) Treselection : The UE triggers the reselection of a new cell if the cell reselection criteria are fulfilled during the time interval Treselection (def:0) (A_WCEL) UseOfHCS : Indicates whether the serving cell belongs to a Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS), or not (def:0)(A_WCEL)

RAB setup failures for CS voice calls


RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO AC FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_AC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by admission control for CS voice. When the RNC decides to reject the CS voice RAB request because the admission control entity reports a failure (excluding frozen BTS reason). This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO BTS FOR CS VOICE

NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_BTS

Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by BTS for CS voice.

When the RAB assignment fails due to radio link setup or reconfiguration failure. The failure can happen either in the Iub or in the Iur interface.

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO TRANSPORT FOR CS VOICE

NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_TRANS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by transport for CS voice.

When the RNC decides to reject the CS voice RAB request due to transport failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO RNC FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RNC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by RNC for CS voice.

When the RNC decides to reject the CS voice RAB request due to RNC internal failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO FROZEN BTS FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_FROZBS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by frozen BTS for CS voice.

When the RNC decides to reject the CS voice RAB request because the admission control entity blocks the radio link establishment to ensure the setup of high priority calls. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE.

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO IUB AAL2 TRANS FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_V_IUB_AAL2 Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by Iub AAL2 transport resource shortage for CS voice.

When the RNC decides to reject the CS voice RAB request due to Iub transport resource shortage between RNC and WBTS. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message is sent to the UE

RAB SETUP FAILURE CS VOICE WPS NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_WPS Description: The number of RAB setup failures for CS voice calls using Wireless Priority Service. Also some other RAB SETUP FAILURE counter is updated along with this counter.

When allocating resources for Wireless Priority Service CS Voice RAB fails and blind InterSystem handover to GSM is not possible for example due to no neighbour cell available. In this case RNC responds to CN with RANAP: RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE("No Resource Available").

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO LICENCE FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_LIC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by AMR capacity license exceeded for CS voice. When the RNC rejects a CS Voice RAB request due to AMR capacity license exceeded.

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO IUR TRANSPORT FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IUR_TR Description: The number of failed CS voice RAB setups due to Iur transport resources. Also counter M1001C82 is updated with this counter When a CS voice traffic class RAB setup fails due to Iur transport resources.

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO IU-CS TRANSPORT FOR CS VOICE NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IU_CS Description: The number of failed CS voice RAB setups due to Iu-CS transport resources. Also counter M1001C82 is updated with this counter Updated: When a CS voice traffic class RAB setup fails due to Iu-CS transport resources.

RAB setup failures for PS calls


RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO AC FOR PS DATA CONV NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_CONV_AC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by admission control for PS data conversational. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data conversational RAB request because the admission control entity reports a failure (excluding frozen BTS reason). This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO BTS FOR PS DATA CONV NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_CONV_BTS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by BTS for PS data conversational. When the RAB assignment fails due to radio link setup or reconfiguration failure. The failure can happen either in the Iub or in the Iur interface RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO TRANSPORT FOR PS DATA CONV NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_CONV_TRANS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by transport for PS data conversational. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data conversational RAB request due to transport failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO RNC FOR PS DATA CONV NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_CONV_RNC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by RNC for PS data conversational. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data conversational RAB request due to RNC internal failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE.

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO FROZEN BTS FOR PS DATA CONV NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_CONV_FROZBS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by frozen BTS for PS data conversational. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data conversational RAB request because the admission control entity blocks the radio link establishment to ensure the setup of high priority calls. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO AC FOR PS DATA STREAM NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_STREA_AC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by admission control for PS data streaming. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data streaming RAB request because the admission control entity reports a failure (excluding frozen BTS reason). This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO BTS FOR PS DATA STREAM NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_STREA_BTS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by BTS for PS data streaming. When the RAB assignment fails due to radio link setup or reconfiguration failure. The failure can happen either in the Iub or in the Iur interface. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO TRANSPORT FOR PS DATA STREAM NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_STREA_TRANS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by transport for PS data streaming. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data streaming RAB request due to transport failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO RNC FOR PS DATA STREAM

NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_STREA_RNC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by RNC for PS data streaming. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data streaming RAB request due to RNC internal failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO FROZEN BTS FOR PS DATA STREAM NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_STREA_FROZBS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by frozen BTS for PS data streaming. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data streaming RAB request because the admission control entity blocks the radio link establishment to ensure the setup of high priority calls. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO AC FOR PS DATA INTERA NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_AC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by admission control for PS data interactive. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data interactive RAB request because the admission control entity reports a failure (excluding frozen BTS reason). This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO RNC FOR PS DATA INTERA NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_RNC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by RNC for PS data interactive. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data interactive RAB request due to RNC internal failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO ANCHORING FOR PS DATA INTERA NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_ANCH Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by ongoing relocation or hard handover for PS data interactive. When the RNC rejects the PS data interactive RAB assignment request due to ongoing

relocation or hard handover. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO FROZEN BTS FOR PS DATA INTERA NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_FROZBS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by frozen BTS for PS data interactive. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data interactive RAB request because the admission control entity blocks the radio link establishment to ensure the setup of emergency calls. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO AC FOR PS DATA BACKG NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_AC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by admission control for PS data background. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data background RAB request because the admission control entity reports a failure (excluding frozen BTS reason). This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO RNC FOR PS DATA BACKG NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_RNC Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by RNC for PS data background. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data background RAB request due to RNC internal failure. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO ANCHORING FOR PS DATA BACKG NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_ANCH Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by ongoing relocation or hard handover for PS data background. When the RNC rejects the PS data background RAB assignment request due to ongoing relocation or hard handover

RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO FROZEN BTS FOR PS DATA BACKG NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_FROZBS Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by frozen BTS for PS data background. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data background RAB request because the admission control entity blocks the radio link establishment to ensure the setup of emergency calls. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message would be sent to the UE RAB SETUP NOT STARTED DUE TO NOT SUPPORTED PARAMETERS FOR PS NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_NOT_SUPP_PAR Description: The number of occasions when the PS RAB setup attempt is not started due to requested parameters are not supported by the RNC. The RAB setup attempt counter is not updated in this case. The counter is updated when RANAP: RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE with error information is sent to the CN as a result of that the requested parameters are not supported. RAB SETUP NOT STARTED DUE TO UE CAPABILITY FOR PS NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_UE_CAPA Description: The number of occasions when the PS RAB setup attempt is not started due to requested parameters are not supported by the UE. The RAB setup attempt counter is not updated in this case. The counter is updated when RANAP: RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE with error information is sent to the CN as a result of that the requested parameters are not supported. RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO IUB AAL2 TRANS FOR PS DATA STREAM NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_ST_IUB_AAL2 Description: The number of RAB setup failures caused by Iub AAL2 transport resource shortage for PS data streaming. When the RNC decides to reject the PS data streaming RAB request due to Iub transport resource shortage between RNC and WBTS. This happens before the RRC: RADIO BEARER SETUP message is sent to the UE RAB SETUP FAILURES DUE TO IUR TRANSPORT FOR PS STREAMING

NetAct name: RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_STRE_IUR_TR Description: The number of failed PS Streaming traffic class RAB setups due to Iur transport resources. Also counter M1001C102 is updated with this counter. When a PS streaming traffic class RAB setup fails due to Iur transport resources

RRC active failures


RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO IU INT NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_IU Description: The number of RRC active failures caused by Iu-interface related problem. When an Iu interface failure occurs, and the failure causes the release of the RRC connection. After this, the RNC sends an RANAP: IU RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO RADIO INTERFACE NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_RADIO Description: The number of RRC active failures due to radio interface. When a radio interface failure occurs, and the failure causes the release of the RRC connection. After this, the RNC sends an RANAP: IU RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs. RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO BTS REASONS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_BTS Description: The number of RRC active failures due to BTS. When a BTS failure occurs, and the failure causes the release of the RRC connection. After this, the RNC sends an RANAP: IU RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO THE IUR INT NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_IUR Description: The number of RRC active failures due to drift RNC. When a procedure failure in drift RNC occurs, and the failure causes the release of the RRC connection. After this, the RNC sends an RANAP: IU RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs

RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO CIPH FAIL NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_CIPH Description: The number of RRC connection releases after a failed Security Mode Control procedure. When the RNC releases the RRC connection after receiving RANAP: IU RELEASE COMMAND with cause "Requested Ciphering and/or Integrity Protection Algorithms not Supported" from the core network. RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO RNC INTER REASONS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_RNC Description: The number of RRC active failures due to reasons not covered by the other failure counters. When an RNC internal failure occurs, and the failure causes the release of the RRC connection. After this, the RNC sends an RANAP: IU RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs. The possible failure reasons updating this counter are for example RNC internal failure, transmission failure or loss of Frame Protocol synchronization. RRC ACTIVE FAIL DUE TO UE NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_UE Description: Number of RRC active failures due to UE. When the RRC connection is released due to the UE not responding to an RRC message or responding with such failure message that the connection must be released. After this, the RNC sends a RANAP: IU RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs SRB ACTIVE FAILURE CONVERSATIONAL NetAct name: SRB_ACT_FAIL_CONV Description: The number of abnormally released RRC connections with standalone signalling radio bearer before RAB assignment. Both originating and terminating conversational calls are included. When a standalone SRB is released due to some failure, i.e. when it is counted as RRC Active Failure in the old Service Level counters. The counter is updated when the establishment cause in RRC: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST is either Originating Conversational Call or

Terminating Conversational Call. SRB ACTIVE FAILURE STREAMING NetAct name: SRB_ACT_FAIL_STREA Description: The number of abnormally released RRC connections with standalone signalling radio bearer before RAB assignment. Both originating and terminating streaming calls are included. When a standalone SRB is released due to some failure, i.e. when it is counted as RRC Active Failure in the old Service Level counters. The counter is updated when the establishment cause in RRC: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST is either Originating Streaming Call or Terminating Streaming Call. SRB ACTIVE FAILURE INTERACTIVE NetAct name: SRB_ACT_FAIL_INTERA Description: The number of abnormally released RRC connections with standalone signalling radio bearer before RAB assignment. Both originating and terminating interactive calls are included. When a standalone SRB is released due to some failure, i.e. when it is counted as RRC Active Failure in the old Service Level counters. The counter is updated when the establishment cause in RRC: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST is either Originating Interactive Call or Terminating Interactive Call. SRB ACTIVE FAILURE BACKGROUND NetAct name: SRB_ACT_FAIL_BACKG Description: The number of abnormally released RRC connections with standalone signalling radio bearer before RAB assignment. Both originating and terminating background calls are included. When a standalone SRB is released due to some failure, i.e. when it is counted as RRC Active Failure in the old Service Level counters. The counter is updated when the establishment cause in RRC: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST is either Originating Background Call or Terminating Background Call.

SRB ACTIVE FAILURE OTHER NetAct name: SRB_ACT_FAIL_OTHER Description: The number of abnormally released RRC connections with standalone signalling radio bearer before RAB assignment. When a standalone SRB is released due to some failure, i.e. when it is counted as RRC Active Failure in the old Service Level counters. The counter is updated when the establishment cause in RRC: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST is some other cause not covered by counters M1001C635-M1001C638.

RRC access failures


RRC ACC FAIL DUE TO RADIO INT SYNCH NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO Description: The number of RRC access failures caused by radio interface synchronisation failure When the RNC does not receive the RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message from the UE within 6 seconds, and the RNC has not received the NBAP message which indicates that L1 synchronisation has been established between UE and BTS. This counter is updated also in case of inter-system handovers and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC ACC FAIL DUE TO UU INT NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_MS Description: The number of RRC access failures caused by UE. When the RNC does not receive the RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message from the UE within 6 seconds, and the RNC has received the NBAP message which indicates that L1 synchronisation has been established between UE and BTS. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC ACC FAIL DUE TO RNC INTER REASONS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RNC Description: The number of RRC access failures caused by RNC internal reason. When an RNC internal failure occurs before receiving the RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP

COMPLETE message from the UE. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers

RRC setup failures


RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO HC NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_HC Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by Handover Control. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request because the handover control entity reports a failure. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO AC NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_AC Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by Admission Control. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request because the admission control entity reports a failure (excluding frozen BTS reason). After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO BTS REASONS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_BTS Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by BTS. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request due to unsuccessful radio link setup. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers

RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO TRANS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_TRANS Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by Transport. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request due to transport failure. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO RNC INTER REASONS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by RNC internal reason. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request due to RNC internal failure. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO FROZEN BTS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_FROZBS Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by frozen BTS. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request, because the admission control entity blocks the radio link establishment, to ensure the setup of high priority calls. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE. This counter is updated also in case of incoming SRNS relocations, inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handovers RRC CONN SETUP FAIL DUE TO RNTI ALLO FAIL NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNTI_ALLO Description: Number of RRC setup failures caused by RNTI allocation failure When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request due to RNTI allocation failure caused by RRMU overload. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT

message to the UE RRC SETUP FAIL DUE TO IUB AAL2 TRANS NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_IUB_AAL2 Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by Iub AAL2 transport resource shortage. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request due to Iub transport resource shortage between RNC and WBTS. After this the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE This counter is updated also in case of inter-system handovers, and inter-RNC hard handover RRC SETUP REJECT DUE TO EMERGENCY CALL REDIRECTION NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_REJ_EMERG_CALL Description: The number of RRC connections rejected due to emergency call redirection. When the RNC redirects an emergency call to the GSM network by sending an RRC CONNECTION REJECT with redirection information to the UE RRC CONN SETUP FAIL DUE TO ICSU OVERLOAD NetAct name: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ICSU_OVERL Description: The number of RRC setup failures caused by ICSU overload. When the RNC decides to reject the RRC connection request due to ICSU overload. After this, the RNC sends an RRC: RRC CONNECTION REJECT message to the UE.

NEMO - - SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK


SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK 1 T302/N302 : CELL UPDATE/URA UPDATE (MS timer) T309 : The timer for supervising successful connection establishment incase of an inter-RAT cell re-selection (MS timer) SIB1 T300/N300 : The timer for supervising successful connection establishment incase of an inter-RAT cell re-selection (MS timer). T312 : The timer for supervising successful establishment of a physicalchannel (MS timer used in idle mode). N312 : This parameter defines the maximum number of "in sync"indications received from L1 during the establishment of a physical channel (UE counter used in idle mode)

SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK 3

CellID = RNCID (12bit)+CID(16bit) CellIreselection is based on CPICH EcNo Sintrasearch : 10dB (5*2) Sintersearch : 8dB (4*2) Treselection : 1 sec Max UE Txpwr: 21 dBm

SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK 5

CPICH: 33 dBm PRACH Power ramp step: 2 dB Peambleretransmax: 8 times

SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK 7

Ul Interference

SYSTEM INFORMATION BLOCK 11

Neighbor Cell: Qqualmin=-18dB Qrxlevmin=-115dBm [(2*-58)+1]

Intra Freq Neighbor measurement is based on CPICH Ec/No

Nemo - - Ploting
Cara bikin plot dengan NEMO : Asumsi, menggunakan 3 MS. Logfile MS1 untuk Idle, logfile MS2 untuk dedicated voice, logfile MS3 untuk dedicated video. Kita akan membuat plot Idle Ec/No, Idle RSCP, Dedicated Ec/No, Dedicated RSCP, Serving cell (Scrambling code (idle)). Langkah2nya adalah sebagai berikut : 1. Buka Nemo, buka file measurement (route) MS1 dan MS2. --> klik kanan open, open file2 DTnya

2. Di Organize measurement, select logfile MS1,kemudian klik kanan --> Join, bikin folder Idle. Select juga logfile MS2, klik kanan --> Join, bikin folder dedicated

3. Select folder Idle di Folder contens --> klik kanan --> UMTS --> UMTS Map Summary

4. Di UMTS Map Summary, pilih sheet 1st act, Ec/No and serving cell. --> ini yang akan kita bikin plot Ec/No Idle. Di window layer klik kanan --> properti, pilih symbol (bulat) ukuran (8), dan properti yg lainya sesuai kebutuhan.

5. Klik pilihan Base station, open bts file (nbf). Sebelumnya file bts file di save as jd nbf di notepad. Drag Folder Base station ke window Ec/no. Klik kanan layer BTS -->properti --> atur sesuai kebutuhan (biasanya waran Base station adalah oranye) 6. Klik Maps, open file jalan, drag ke window Ec/No 7. Legend Ec/No dan RSCp bisa di ubah dg cara klik 2x window legend. 8. Setalah di seting sesuai requirementnya, bisa di capture. 9. Langkah ini sama untuk plot Ec/No dedicated, RSCP idle, RSCP dedicated 10. Khusus untuk plot scrambling code properti BTS nya biasanya seperti ini :

UMTS -- SOFT HANDOVER AND COMPRESSED MODE


Jaringan CDMA dapat menggunakan frekuensi yang sama di setiap sel dan pengguna dibedakan melalui kode. Ini berarti lebih mudah bagi UE untuk men-decode sinyal dari lebih dari satu Node B secara bersamaan dengan cara de spreading sinyal radio yang diterima tunggal dengan Menggunakan sejumlah scrambling dan channelisation codes yang berbeda. Teknik ini dimanfaatkan dalam CDMA untuk mendukung fitur yang dikenal sebagai soft Handover, dimana UE dapat berkomunikasi dengan lebih dari satu Node B secara bersamaan ketika bergerak antara sel-sel dalam jaringan. Soft handover memiliki sejumlah keunggulan dibandingkan dengan hard handover yang digunakan dalam sistem FDMA dan TDMA seperti TACS dan GSM, di mana komunikasi simultan dengan lebih dari satu base station tidak diperbolehkan. Keunggulan pertama adalah, soft handover antara sel-sel tetangga bisa lebih reliable, karena memungkinkan UE untuk menjalin komunikasi dengan Node B target sebelum komunikasi dengan original cell dilepaskan -- it is a make-before-break handover. Jika terjadi masalah establishment dengan dengan sel target, UE masih dapat mempertahankan komunikasi dengan jaringan melalui original cell. Dalam sistem, seperti GSM, di mana handover break-before-make, selalu ada kemungkinan bahwa MS tidak mampu untuk membuat link dengan sel target dan karena link ke original cell telah rusak, akan lebih sulit untuk re-establish link dan kemungkinan panggilan bisa drop. Keuntungan lain dari soft handover adalah kemampuan untuk mengeksploitasi macrodiversity gains antara Node B yang berbeda. Kebanyakan sistem seluler menggunakan multi-antena diversity pada penerima base station dan sistem selular yang lebih baru juga dapat mendukung transmit antenna diversity di base station pemancar. Teknik 'microdiversity' ini terutama ditujukan untuk mengurangi efek dari multipath fading dan mereka memiliki dampak yang sangat sedikit pada efek skala yang lebih besar dari shadow fading. Jika MS dapat menjalin hubungan simultan ke Node B yang berbeda, maka, mengingat

pemisahan spasial dari Node B, setiap link kemungkinan akan mengalami karakteristik shadow fading yang berbeda. Dengan menggabungkan informasi yang diterima pada setiap link individu, efek shadow fading dapat dikurangi sampai tingkat tertentu dan ini disebut macrodiversity. Dalam sistem FDD UTRA, soft Handover dikendalikan oleh active set, yang berisi semua Node B yang sedang berkomunikasi dengan UE. Jika active set berisi lebih dari satu Node B, maka UE dianggap dalam soft Handover. Pada downlink, semua Node B di active set UE akan mengirimkan data pengguna yang sama untuk UE. UE akan menerima sinyal dari masing-masing Node B dan menggunakan combining techniques (e.g. maximal ratio combining) untuk menentukan pola data yang ditransmisikan. Pada uplink, UE akan continue mengirimkan sinyal uplink tunggal, tetapi ini akan diterima oleh lebih dari satu Node B saat UE dalam soft handover. Setiap Node B akan men-decode data pengguna dan mengirimkan ini ke RNC. RNC akan memilih data dari Node B dengan kualitas terbaik secara frame-by-frame. Teknik ini dikenal sebagai switched diversity, keuntungannya yaitu dapat digunakan untuk mengurangi daya pancar keseluruhan UE. Jika UE dalam soft handover antara dua sektor dari Node B yang sama, ini dikenal sebagai softer handover dan Node B dapat melakukan maximal ratio combining dengan sinyal uplink diterima pada setiap sektor. Meskipun sistem UTRA FDD dapat mendukung soft handover, juga harus memiliki kemampuan untuk mendukung hard handover. Jenis handover ini diperlukan ketika UE bergerak antara frequency radio CDMA yang berbeda atau antara frequency radio CDMA yang sama (misalnya bergerak dari UTRA FDD ke GSM).

=======
Whilst this approach is relatively straightforward from the network point of view, it adds a level of complexity to the terminal that, in many cases, would be unacceptable. Therefore, a second option exists whereby gaps are opened up in the downlink transmissions to give the UE an opportunity to retune to another radio channel and make a measurement. Unfortunately, the amount of data that must flow between the Node B and the UE in the downlink direction does not necessarily decrease during the periods when these measurements are required and this means that the Node B must transmit at a higher data rate on either side of the measurement gaps to ensure that the same

amount of data can be transferred. This mode of operation is referred to as compressed mode because of the manner in which the data is compressed into the transmission periods on either side of the measurement gap. The simplest way to increase the data transmission rate is to decrease the channel spreading factor. For example, the spreading factor could be decreased from 64 to 32, thereby doubling the channel throughput and allowing the Node B to operate with a 50% transmission duty cycle. Since the decrease in spreading factor leads to a reduction in processing gain on the channel, the Node B will need to increase the transmit power for a particular UE to compensate for this effect. Code puncturing may also be used as a means of increasing the user data rate without changing the spreading code. In this case, some of the coded data bits are not transmitted and the channel decoding process at the receiver is relied upon to recover these lost bits. This is similar to the situation that would occur if errors were imposed on these bits during transmission, but the receiver has the added advantage that it will know which data bits have been removed, whereas it does not usually know which bits contain errors. This puncturing process has the effect of decreasing the error correcting capabilities of the channel coding (i.e. the power of the code) and this has a similar effect to decreasing the processing gain, i.e. the Node B needs to allocate more power to the UE during the puncturing periods. In some cases, it may also be possible to decrease the amount of data that is transmitted between the Node B and the UE during periods when the UE must make inter-frequency measurements. This requires the schedule for compressed mode operation to be communicated to the higher layers in the protocol stack and these higher layers then restrict the amount of information presented to the physical layer during compressed mode operation.

UMTS -- PARAMETERS THAT REQUIRE PLANNING


Parameter yang diperlukan dalam Planning : 1. Signal Path parameter :

penempatan Node B Sectorisasi cell jumlah transmitting dan receiving antena di Node B Ketinggian antena di Node B Beamwidth antena Direction antena Downtilt antena penggunaan tower top amplifier di Node B receiver

2. POWER ALLOCATION 3. SYSTEM SETTINGS: Network acquisition dan access bythe UE Call admission dan radio resource allocation Power Control DL dan UL Handover control radiolink failure control
Reference: Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modelling Planning and Automated Optimisation

3G - Optimization - Failure analysis


Failure analysis : 1. RRC Setup Failures, Evaluate RRC Setup Failure at cell level Evaluate the distribution among failure reason In case the dominant factor is: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC --> at the moment no optimisation action is needed (typically is a fault or Incoming SRNC Relocation failures) RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ AC --> look at UL interference & DL power (-> UL power spikes & need to upgrade radio capacity Solution : Disable UL Admission Control if the number of failures is critical RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ BTS evaluate NBAP counters (radio link reconf. failure) and KPIs for troubleshooting BTS resource use Pool Capacity KPI in order to evaluate lack of channel elements check BTS configuration in terms of WAM and WSP allocation expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site in case the BTS is not responding delete and re-create the COCO RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ TRANS evaluate the number of reconfiguration failure due to transmission Check COCO configuration Use AAL2 Mux in case of two WAM expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site 2. RRC Access Failures Evaluate RRC Access Failure at cell level Evaluate the distribution among failure reasons In case the dominant factor is: RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO --> it should be detected through drive test if UL or DL coverage: UL Coverage --> tune CPICH and cell dominance (if UL interference is not the cause) DL Coverage: If UE does not receive the RRC Setup message --> tune SCCPCH Power

If UE does not synchronised in DL --> reduce N312 from 4 to 1 (tuning depends on UE model) or tune CPICHToRefRABOffset vs Qqualmin (or Qrxlevmin)

RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_ MS --> UL Coverage << DL Coverage tune CPICH and cell dominance in order to balance UL and DL (if UL interference is not the cause)

UMTS -- INTERFERENCE AND POWER CONTROL


capacity dan coverage dalam sistem CDMA secara langsung terkait dengan jumlah interferensi yang dihasilkan oleh B Node dan UE dalam sistem. Interferensi adalah fitur yang melekat pada sistem CDMA dan tidak dapat dihindari, namun mekanismenya harus dipastikan di level minimum yang diperlukan untuk melayani kebutuhan pengguna jaringan. Power control adalah teknik utama yang digunakan dalam jaringan CDMA untuk mengontrol interferensi. Performance sistem CDMA akan optimal jika masing-masing transmiter menggunakan power yang cukupuntuk mendukung kualitas link yang memadai antara dirinya dan penerima. Jika transmit power yang digunakan terlalu kecil, maka kualitas link akan buruk dan ini akan mengarah pada persepsi kualitas sistem yang buruk bagi pengguna. Jika transmit power terlalu tinggi, akan menyebabkan interferensi yang berlebihan untuk pengguna lain dan ini akan menyebabkan penurunan kualitas link pengguna lain. Setiap UE akan transmit dari lokasi yang berbeda dan mekanisme power kontrol uplink harus memastikan bahwa semua UE diterima di Node B pada power yang benar untuk memenuhi nilai target SIR dan perbedaan yang disebabkan oleh redaman saluran radio antara Node B dan UES dihapus. Pada downlink, Power control digunakan untuk mengatur power antara saluran yang berbeda untukmembantu UE yang terkena interferensi dari Node B tetangga dan tidak digunakan untuk mengatasi efek dari saluran propagasi yang berbeda. Pada uplink, mekanisme power control menggunakan kedua teknik loop yaitu open loop and

a closed loop technique. Teknik open loop digunakan ketika UE awalnya mengakses suatu Node B dan tidak ada feedback untuk menerapkan mekanisme loop tertutup.

========== On the uplink, the power control mechanism uses both an open loop and a closed loop technique. The open loop technique is used when the UE initially accesses a Node B and there is no feedback path to implement the closed loop mechanism. In the open loop mechanism, the UE measures the downlink power received from the Node B and uses this to determine its own transmit power. This open loop technique allows the UE to adapt its transmit power to slow changes in the radio link attenuation caused by changes in the distance between the UE and the Node B and the effects of objects causing shadow fading on this link. However, the uplink and downlink use different frequency bands and, as a result, the multipath fading on each link will be different. Therefore, the open loop mechanism cannot be used to compensate for the effects of multipath fading and a closed loop mechanism is used once a bi-directional link between the Node B and the UE has been established to provide a more accurate means of controlling the UE transmitted power. The closed loop mechanism consists of the Node B measuring the SIR on the received uplink dedicated physical channel from the UE. This SIR value is compared with a target value and a power control command is sent by the Node B to the UE based on this comparison. If the measured SIR is below the target SIR, then the power control command will instruct the UE to increase its transmit power. Conversely, if the measured SIR is above the target value, the power control command will instruct the UE to decrease its power. In its normal mode of operation, the UE will respond to the power control commands by either increasing or decreasing its transmit power by the step size, which can be either 1 or 2 dB. More complex power control command processing algorithms are also available that allow smaller step sizes to be emulated and also allow power control to be turned off. The power control commands are sent to the UE once every timeslot (i.e. once every 667 s), which means that the UE can alter its transmit power 1500 times per second. The SIR target at the Node B is set by an outer control loop that operates more slowly than the fast, inner power control loop. In the outer loop, the bit error rate (BER), block error rate (BLER) or frame erasure rate (FER) experienced on the uplink dedicated channel is compared against a target BER/BLER/FER for a given service and, based on this comparison, the target SIR at the Node B is adjusted up or down to bring the measured BER/BLER/FER in line with the target value. Closed loop power control is also supported on the downlink. In this case the UE measures the SIR of the downlink dedicated channel and compares this against a target SIR derived from a higher layer outer loop. If the SIR is below its target, the UE will send a power control command to the Node B

requesting an increase in the power allocated to its dedicated channels. Conversely, if the measured SIR is above the target, the UE will issue a power control command asking the Node B to decrease the power allocated to its dedicated channels

Reference: Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modelling Planning and Automated Optimisation

CDMA Network
Sistem selular generasi pertama (misalnya TACS dan AMPS) frekuensi division multiple access (FDMA) digunakan untuk memungkinkan beberapa pengguna untuk berkomunikasi secara bersamaan dengan Base Station. Dalam FDMA setiap pengguna diberikan frekuensi pembawa sendiri, frekuensi ini hanya akan digunakan oleh user ini selama panggilan terjadi. Frekuensi pembawa dapat digunakan oleh user lain jika jarak antara dua pengguna cukup untuk mencegah interferensi antara mereka dan ini adalah konsep frequency re use. Dalam sistem generasi kedua (AMPS dan GSM digital misalnya), pengguna yang berbeda dipisahkan dalam domain waktu, time division multiple access (TDMA). Dalam sistem TDMA, pengguna yang berbeda dapat berbagi frekuensi pembawa yang sama di daerah setempat yang sama, tetapi hanya satu pengguna yang dapat mengirim atau menerima pada suatu waktu. Dalam jaringan generasi ketiga (misalnya UMTS), pengguna yang berbeda di wilayah lokal yang sama dibedakan dengan cara "spreading code" dan ini berarti bahwa semua pengguna dapat mengakses frekuensi pembawa yang sama pada waktu yang sama.

Proses Spreading

Proses de-spreading

Reference : Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modelling Planning and Automated Optimisation

UMTS -- CELL BREATHING AND SOFT CAPACITY


Cell breathing menggambarkan car perubahan coverage Node B dalam menanggapi perubahan pada load jaringan. Untuk menunjukkan efek ini analoginya adalah : UE dengan transmit power yang tetap berkomunikasi dengan Node B, signal dari UE diterima dan di decode di node B pada keadaan thermal noise saja. Jika UE bergerak menjauh dr Node B, sampai dimana kekuatan sinyal yg di terima Node B hanya cukup untuk mengatasi thermal noise dan mempertahankan quality link yg memadai. Pada titik ini kita bisa berasumsi UE berada di tepi Boundary sel . Jika kita menambah UE aktif kedua, UE ini akan menyebabkan interence di UE pertama di node B. Untuk mengatasi interferensi tambahan ini, UE pertama memberikan daya lebih

untuk Node B, karena UE memiliki daya pancar yang tetap, ini hanya dapat dicapai dengan UE pertama bergerak lebih dekat ke Node B. Ketika UE pertama bergerak lebih dekat ke Node B, akan tercapai titik dimana sinyal kekuatan di Node B hanya cukup untuk mengatasi efek dari thermal noise dan intereference oleh UE kedua. Hal ini secara efektif menjadi batas sel baru. Semakin banyak UE ditambahkan ke sistem, UE pertama semakin ter interference, sehingga sel boundary bergerak lebih dekat ke Node B (menyusut / shrink). Sebaliknya, ketika UE meninggalkan sistem dan interferensi akan turun,dan sel boundary akan berkembang.

UMTS -- interface dan Architectur nya


5 Interface baru di UMTS : Cu : Interface elektris antara USIM dan ME Uu : Interface antara UE dan Node B Iu : Interface antara RNC dengan GSM tahap 2 Iu-CS : untuk circuit-switched data Iu-PS : untuk packet-switched data Iub : Interface antara Node B dan RNC Iur : Interface antara RNC dengan RNC yang lain

Architectur jaringa UMTS

Node B Node B tunggal dapat mendukung baik mode FDD maupun TDD, dan dapat menjadi colocated dengan BTS GSM untuk mengurangi biaya implementasi. Node B terhubung dengan UE melalui interface radio Uu W-CDMA dan dengan RNC melalui interface Iub asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Tugas utama Node B adalah konversi data ke dan dari interface radio Uu, termasuk forward error correction (FEC), rate adaptation, WCDMA spreading/despreading, dan modulasi quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) di air interface.

Node B juga berpartisipasi dalam power control, karena memungkinkan UE untuk menyesuaikan power dengan perintah DL TPC (transmission power control) melalui innerloop power control berdasarkan informasi UL TPC. Radio Network Controller ( RNC ) Fungsinya mirip seperti BSC pada GSM. RNC berhubungan satu sama lainnya dengan interface Iur, sedangkan RNC dengan node B berhubungan dengan interface Iub. Tugas RNC adalah mengontrol beberapa node B, bertanggung jawab pada load dan congestion control, dan hampir semua proses RRM terjadi di sini (layer 3 :RRC), handover,outer loop power control.

Core Network (CN) CN dibagi atas 2 bagian, untuk memproses layanan Circuit Switched (CS) dan Packet Switched (PS). Dimana terjadi integrasi antara CN dari system GSM untuk layanan CS dan CN

GPRS Architecture and Interfaces

Gambar diatas adalah architecture GPRS beserta interface2nya: SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node), Fungsi utama dari SGSN adalah : Mobility Management MS Authentication Chipering Interaction with VLR/HLR Charging and statistic GTP tunnelling to other GSNs

GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node), Fungsi utama dari GGSN adalah: GTP tunnelling to other GSNs Secure interfaces to external networks

Charging & Statistic IP address management

Interface2 dari architecture GPRS diantaranya adalah: Gb (Interface antara PCU dan SGSN) Gd (Interface antara SGSN dan SMS-Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC)) Gf (Interface antara SGSN dan EIR for enquired IMEI) Gn (Interface antara SGSN dan local PLMN) Gp (Interface antara SGSN dan other PLMN when roaming - inbound roaming) Gs (Interface antara SGSN dan VLR --- cordinating conventional GSM network when operating in GSM mode and GPRS Mode) - backward compatible Gr (Interface antara SGSN dan HLR for exchange subscriber information) Gc(Interface antara GGSN dan HLR for exchange location information) Gi (Interface antara GGSN dengan external packet network element / service provider)

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Overview


GPRS mulai diperkenalkan kedalam spesifikasi GSM di Release 97 dan mulai digunakan setelah di approved di Release 98 dan 99. GPRS menawarkan kecepatan data yang lebih tinggi, secara teori kecepatan datanya bisa mencapai 171 kbit/s. GPRS adalah sistem komunikasi data paket yang terintegrasi dengan sistem GSM. GPRS menggunakan teknik packet switch yang berarti resources GPRS radio digunakan hanya jika user mengirimkan atau menerima data. pada paket switch sebuah kanal digunakan secara bersama sama, shg pendudukan kanal menjadi leih efisien. 'GPRS Class Number' menunjukkan kemampuan kecepatan maksimum terminal, yang mungkin biasanya 14 kbit / s dalam arah uplink dan 40kbit / s pada downlink.Terminal mobile diklasifikasikan berdasarkan kemampuan menghandle koneksi simultan GSM dan GPRS. kelas A = keduanya secara bersamaan kelas B = koneksi GPRS terputus selama panggilan GSM, secara otomatis kembali pada akhir panggilan kelas C = pengguna GSM / GPRS modus switching. Berikut ini adalah daftar standar terbaru ETSI untuk GPRS :

GPRS -- System information messages on BCCH


SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 13 : Most important system information message for GPRS Includes GPRS related information (GPRS mobile allocation, GPRS cell options, power control parameters etc.) If PBCCH is present in the cell then only information required to broadcast is where to find PBCCH Refreshed every 30 s

SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 3 : GPRS indicator, if included, indicates that GPRS is supported in the cell

SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 4, 7, 8 : GPRS indicator, if included, indicates that GPRS is supported in the cell

GPRS -- Channel Types


GPRS berbagi air interface dengan sistem GSM standar, Sehingga GPRS menggunakan teknik TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), menggunakan 8 time slot frame structure seperti GSM. Setiap time slot di kanal radio GSM yang dipakai GPRS didefinisikan sebagai Packet Data Channel (PDCH).Setiap PDCH yang digunakan untuk membawa data user disebut sebagai Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH). Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) akan menempati satu time slot di sebuah frame yang diberikan, masing-masing MS dapat menggunakan beberapa PDTCHs pada frequency radio carrier yang sama. Namun, karena MS hanya dapat mengakses satu carrier pada suatu waktu, maka maksimum hanya ada 8 PDTCHs per MS Packet Broadcast Channel (PBCCH) membawa informasi GPRS spesifik untuk sel yang diberikan, seperti physical mapping PDTCHs dan kriteria yang akan digunakan untuk menghitung kapan harus handover ke sel lain. Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) memiliki tiga sub channel utama, masing-masing dengan fungsi sendiri yang spesifik. Fungsi-fungsi ini meliputi: 1. Page MS oleh BSC - Packet Paging Channel (PPCH) 2. Mengalokasikan resource untuk MS - Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH) 3. Request PDTCH oleh MS - Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH) PCCCH sharing time slot dengan PBCCH di multiframe GSM 51, sedangkan PCCCH sharing time slot dengan PBCCH dan PDTCH di multiframe GSM 52. Packet Associated Control Channels (PACCH) membawa informasi signaling antara BSC dan MS, diantaranya: informasi resource re allocation power level dan timing adjusments frequency changes, dll karena masing-masing MS hanya memerlukan satu signaling channel, hanya satu PACCH diperlukan untuk setiap MS, terlepas dari jumlah PDTCHs GPRS tidak memiliki SDCCH, karena SDCCH hanya digunakan selama call setup, dan GPRS telah menghilangkan sebagian besar negosiasi yang terkait dengan call setup. Dalam GPRS,

PACCH membawa informasi signalling, yang hanya digunakan ketika benar-benar diperlukan signaling

EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution)


EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) merupakan pengembangan dari teknologi akses radio GSMTM untuk menyediakan bit rate lebih cepat untuk aplikasi data, baik circuit switched dan packet-switched. Sebagai pengembangan physical layer GSM yang sudah ada, EDGE direalisasikan melalui modifikasi dari spesifikasi layer 1. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) dapat menawarkan data rate 115 kbit/s sedangkan EDGE dapat meningkatkan sampai 384 kbit/s, sebanding dengan tingkat rate untuk implementasi awal dari W-CDMA. Peningkatan data rate dicapai dengan menggunakan teknik modulasi 8-PSK, shg menghasilkan peningkatan tiga kali lipat dibandingkan GPRS dalam hal pengirimian data secara paket. Di daerah yang sensitivity to noise nya tinggi, EDGE menggunakan kombinasi 8PSK dan GMSK. EGPRS /EDGE memperkenalkan 9 macam MCS yang ditentukan oleh jenis modulasi :

THE END