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Submitted by

Abhishek Dhawan b.e.(Mechanical) 4th year Sg 9904

















I deem it as my proud privilege to express my sincerest regards and gratitude to Mr. Goyal , GM , Bhushan Power And Steel Limited (BPSL) for providing this valuable opportunity to pursue this work .

I would like to record with in deep sense of gratitude to: Mr. Harkamal Preet Singh H.O.D of B.E. (MECHANICAL) , PUSSGRC , Hoshiarpur.

My humble and sincere thanks to all the technicians and workers for their unstilted guidance and direction , which helped in increasing my practical knowledge.

I wish to express my thanks to all staff members of BPSL for their cooperative attitude and valuable suggestions during the course of the project work .


Bhushan Power & Steel Limited (BPSL), is a fully integrated 2.8 Million TPA Steel Making Company having turnover of INR 5020 Crores (USD 1000 Million) FY11. The Company is certified to ISO 9001:2008 & TS-16949 Quality Standards and ISO 14001:2004 Environment Management Standards. BPSL is a leading manufacturer of flat and long products and have state-of the-art plants at Chandigarh, Derabassi, Kolkata and Orissa in India. These plants manufacture value added products covering entire steel value chain right from Coal Mining to manufacturing Pig Iron, DRI, Billets, HR Coils, CR Coils, GP/GC Sheets, Precision Tubes, Black Pipe/GI Pipe, Cable Tapes, Tor Steel, Carbon and Special Alloy Steel Wire Rods and Rounds conforming to IS and international standards. The Company have successfully commissioned a 2.8 Million TPA Greenfield Steel and Power Plant in Orissa with HR Coil making facility - First in Private Sector in the State of Orissa. For this plant, technology and equipment were sourced from leading world-renowned companies viz., Lurgi, ABB Ltd., SMS Siemag, SMS Meer Danieli, LOI Tenova, Kocks etc. BPSL has a wide marketing network in both India (comprising 35 sales offices) and abroad for selling its value added product range. The rock-solid foundation combined with continuous up gradation and innovation has enabled the Company to surpass its goals constantly. BPSL's end-to-end portfolio has enabled it to offer a wide spectrum of products at superior quality consistently surpassing customers' specifications. In addition to export thrust, BPSL cater to the domestic steel requirements of fastgrowing sectors like automotive, white goods, construction / infrastructure, furniture, fasteners, telecommunication, power etc. With a view to make its presence in a big way in Special Alloy Steel Long Product business, BPSL has commissioned a most modern state of the art Wire Rod-cum-Bar Mill and is commissioning a host of downstream finishing facilities viz., Heat Treatment facilities, Bright Bar manufacture etc.


Our Mission is to achieve clear identity and leadership globally in Steel production and distribution by integration of complete chain of production starting from captive iron ore to end user Steel products. Our revolution in Steel production has helped us to carve a niche unique only to a market leader. Every year passes by with new value additions and more accolades from our customers - Locally and Globally. Our rising chart in respect of all-important parameters of production and finance is a testimony to our claim. In pursuing our mission, we at Bhushan Power & Steel Ltd. are guided by the following values Quality - To be the best in quality. We aim and achieve excellence. Technology - State of the art technology and product enrichment by continuous Research and Development. Customer Friendly - Our products are world class and more and more clients are appreciating and using our products. We also undertake customized products with values addition and enhancement. Corporate Governance - We comply with all applicable laws and regulations. We believe in maintaining clean environment and conservation of natural resources. We contribute towards betterment of our staff and provide them with best of facilities. Environment Protection and Practice - We are adopting and implementing pollution control measures as a matter of policy. (All our efforts are in accordance with the laid down norms of Central Pollution Control Board for Industrial and Mixed use areas).

To improve the quality of our products and complete integration of various stages of production.

To be conscious towards quality and pricing of our products. We strive by continuous research and development to make our products world class, having distinct identity and uniqueness. Our customers get best value for their money. To run the company profitably year after year. A workforce motivated, skilled and well looked after. A workplace safe, secure and hygienic. To make our Environment Clean, Healthy and Hospitable.


These Tubes are widely used for Power and Industrial boilers, Transformers, Super heaters, Automobiles and Bicycles, Railway Electrification, Furniture and General Engineering Applications etc. Cable Tapes GP Coils Steel Coils GP coil sheets Corrugated sheets Cold Rolled Sheets Narrow CR coils Galvanised Pipes Black Pipes Precision Tubes

With the introduction of most technologically advanced special and alloy steel long product rolling complex for manufacture of value added bars and coils, a new dimension has been added in BPSL's long history in the steel business. The Long Product Rolling Complex consists of a most modern 0.5 million TPA multiproduct

Wire Rod and Bar Mill (18 pass Horizontal & Vertical Continuous Mill) supplied by Danieli Morgardshammar, Italy and KOCKS, Germany (4 pass mill). Wire rod bar and mill Mill Product Range Raw and Finished Products Dimensions and Quality Plant facility Mill Special Features

Sponge iron is a basic raw material for making primary steel products. Production is at our Orissa Project.

A product in solid (lumpy) form obtained upon solidification of hot metal in pig casting machine. Pig Iron is used for production of cast iron casting and steel. Pig Iron is manufactured at our Orissa Plant.

376 MW Power Plant is operational at our Orissa Plant. The excess power generated is being sold through state power grid.


Cold rolled steel coils

Thickness (mm) Width (mm) Coil Weight (MT) Surface finish Grades JIS/BIS/ASTM/EN standards 0.10-4.00 10-1700 (Max) Upto 30 MT (7-18 Kg/mm width) Super bright, Bright, Dull and Matte Specifications- As per

ERW TUBES OUTER DIAMETER 6.00 TO 127.00 MM (MM) THICKNESS(MM) LENGTH APPLICATIONS 0.40. TO 6.00 UPTO 12 MTRS. Automotive, Boiler & Heat Exchangers ,Air Heater, GEN. EGG., Bicycle & Propeller Shafts

CEW TUBES 09.00 TO 110.00 MM 0.80 TO 6.00 UPTO 12 MTRS. Automotive, Boiler, Shock Absorbers, Textiles, General Engg. Propeller Shafts, Cylinder bore tubes for special applications & front fork tube for two wheeler.

Entry pass Edge Forming The most common and most simple roll design to form tubing is known as Simple Radius. In this process a cylinder is formed in a series of rolls having single radius contours in which the radius decrease progressively.

Precision welded tubes are manufactured by high frequency induction welding process. Welding is done continuously by passing of electric current of high frequency that is 4,50,000 cycles/second across the butting edges. The outside bead is trimmed off by Tungsten carbide tool.

After the welding station is usually a scarfing stand with or without an accompanying iron pass following by an overlying guide to guide the tube into the first sizing pass with three driven passes and idlers between each. After the sizing is the single or double Turks head for straightening.

The clod saw flying cutting machine has the capacity to cut the tubes to desired lengths with tolerance of +/- 1.55 mm. The tube ends generated by the flying saw machine are absolutely straight (90 degree) and do not require any de-dimpling.


The tube division is fully equipped with advanced integrated quality control system to produce tube matching the national and international standards. The quality control system is backed by an advanced testing laboratory for advanced physical and chemical tests. Laboratory is equipped with: Spectrometer Universal testing machine Vickering hardness tester Rockwell hardness tester Carbon Sulphur determination apparatus

Microscope Eddy current tester Hydraulic press for weld ability test Flattening test

Time study is a direct and continuous observation of a task, using a timekeeping device (e.g., decimal minute stopwatch, computer-assisted electronic stopwatch, and videotape camera) to record the time taken to accomplish a task .Here we face the problem of lost mill time during operations and changeovers. A lot of time is lost during the loading and unloading of the coil. Despite the use of accumulator, still a major fraction of time is lost during loading and unloading, tool changeovers. During my study here a lot of reasons have been found out during the time study of tube mill which lead to excessive downtime which are:

There are no written procedures for setup. All mills should have fixed written procedures for operators to follow. It is important to control the time of the process There is no setup chart. Tweaking the mill during setup loses valuable setup time. Operators must work the tooling as required. Hence setup chart should be there. There is lack of formal training. Training helps operators perform procedures for tube mill in the same way. If the tube mill has been setup according to the written procedures and setup chart, the operator can write down numbers from the digital readout on the single point adjustment unit (SPA) allowing the next operator to setup from where the first left. It saves about 75% of the total setup time. If the mill is in poor condition it costs valuable time and scrap during setup and operation. Tube misalignment, inaccurate setup accounts for 95% of all problems faced during tube production. If tooling is in poor condition, much time is wasted. Running the tool until it cannot produce more tubing that is beyond its tool life wastes valuable time. Hence measures are needed to be undertaken to reduce this time during loading/unloading and changeovers so that the efficiency of mill is increased. To improve all these factors, study is being done.



Six Sigma is a business process improvement strategy, which essentially checks that a business is doing what its customers require, that the process employed is the most effective known and that variation is removed from that process to provide significantly improved consistency. Much of the initial success in the application of Six Sigma was based on manufacturing applications; however, Six Sigma can also be applied in the services and also banking industries. As clients place a high value on consistent business processes, which have been proven to be efficient, Six Sigma would meet their requirements as it is a proven methodology for delivering consistent incremental improvement. By reducing process variation, Six Sigma allows the organization to focus on improving process capability and as Sigma levels increase, the cost of poor quality decreases and profitability increases. The principal purpose of this project is to review the Six Sigma implementation process and emphasize the importance of this methodology in the quality area. For this reason, its main framework is based on the description of the Six Sigma process. The second chapter describes the significance of Six Sigma, its statistical interpretation, the team members and their responsibilities and some of the benefits and limitations of this methodology. The third chapter illustrates the implementation process and the tools, which can be used in order to achieve high-quality results. The fourth chapter is centered on showing the benefits and difficulties that can occur in the implementation process in some published case studies. In order to show that Six Sigma can be used in different sectors, the last chapter presents the application of Six Sigma in the financial services industry, with a focus on banking.


In order to introduce a Six Sigma definition it is necessary first to state the meaning of sigma: For a manufacturing process, the sigma capability is a metric, which indicates how well the process is performing. Sigma capability measures the capacity of a process to develop without defects. A defect means an unsatisfied customer. The quality scale of Six Sigma measures the number of sigmas between the interval defined by the specification limits. The greater the number of Sigmas between the specification limits the smaller will be the value of Sigma and the lower the number of defects. The difference between the Upper Specification Limit (USL) and the Lower Specification Limit (LSL) is divided by the standard deviation to give the Sigma Level, z. The capability of a process for a Six Sigma Level is two, obtained by dividing the difference between the USL and the LSL by Six Sigma.

Figure 1. Relationship between sigma, DPM, yield and the number of sigma.

Figure 1(a) shows a line with negative slope representing the relationship between the standard deviation (sigma) and the number of sigmas between the

specification limits. As the sigma value increases, the number of sigmas reduces and vice versa. The relationship between the number of sigmas and the yield (%) is shown in Figure 1(b). It has a positive slope indicating that as the sigma level increases the process yield also increases. Figure 1(c) shows the relationship between the value of sigma and the number of defects per million. It also has a positive slope, indicating that when sigma increases, the number of defects per million also increases. Figure 1(d) displays a line with a negative slope, which indicates that the number of defects per million decreases, when the yield (%) Z increases. Sigma measures demand a clear definition of what the customer requirements are. This helps the company to realize what is important and what need to be improved. With their focus on defects and defect opportunities, sigma measure can be used to analyses and compare different process inside an organization or between organizations. Once that have been identified the opportunity area and the requirement, the organization can define the defect and the sigma level which wants to reach. Table 1 lists the sigma level against the number of defects per million of opportunities, it shows that the number of defects decreases exponentially as the sigma level increases.


Six Sigma statistical tools work like magic to uncover what you dont know. Yet you dont have to be a statistician to use them: You focus on selecting tools, using them, and analyzing data and let the specific software do the calculations. The five-phase process of DMAIC, described earlier in this chapter, uses a collection of tools and is a logic filter to lead you to the vital few factors affecting your process outcomes: Define Determines the project goals and deliverables to customers (internal and external). Measure Identifies one or more product or service characteristics, maps the process, evaluates measurement systems, and estimates baseline capability. Analyze Evaluates and reduces the variables with graphical analysis and hypothesis testing and identifies the vital few factors for process improvement. Improve Discovers variable relationships among the vital few, establishes operating tolerances, and validates measurements. Control Determines the ability to control the vital few factors and implements process control systems.

Process for the study

Till date, the following steps of the study have been completed : Process Study This includes the study of the overall process of manufacturing of tubes and pipes. Component Study Each component of the study has been analyzed and studied separately. Thorough study has been done on each component. Data Collection This step includes the collection of various data and the parameters which are required for the further process. This step has been followed with fixed time intervals.

In the further study, following steps will be completed : Data Study Six Sigma Application