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10. Spermatogenesis
1. Formation of Testes  Germ cells that migrate from yolk sac
Presence of sex-determining region of the Y- during development become spermatogonia
chromosome (SRY gene) directs differentiation of the (stem cells)
indifferent embryonic gonads into testes  Spermatogonia replicate selves throughout
life by mitosis
2. Male Reproductive System  Give rise to haploid sperm by meiosis.
 Pairs of testis  Occurs in wall of STs
 Seminal vesicles  Spermatogonia & primary spermatocytes are
 Penis located outer part of ST
 Prostate gland  Spermatids & mature spermatozoa are
located toward lume
3. Testis has 3 types of cells :  Tails of spermatozoa are in lumen
 Germinal epithelium which produces
gametes 11. Spermiogenesis
 Sertoli cells whose function is essential for  Is maturation & separation of spermatids
proper gametogenesis into mature spermatozoa
 Leydig cells which secrete testosterone  At the end of 2nd meiotic division, 4
spermatids are still interconnected
4. Semen = spermatozoa + seminal fluid
 Sertoli cells phagocytize their cytoplasm &
flagellum & acrosome develop
5. In response to FSH and testosterone, the sertoli cells
 At the end of the spermiogenesis,
support spermatogenesis
spermatozoa are release into lumen
6. In response to LH, the leydig cells produce steroids,
12. Sertoli cell Function
including testosterone
 Autoimmune destruction of developing
7. sperm is prevented by blood-testes barrier
hypothalamus created by sertoli cells
 And by sertoli-secreted FAS ligand that
- -
triggers apoptosis of T cells
Ant pituitary  Spermatogonia & developing spermatozoa
are embedded in & nurtured by adjacent
FSH LH  Sertolis secretes androgen-binding protein
(ABP) into lumen of STs
inhibin testosterone  ABP binds testosterone, concentrating it in
 FSH stimulates spermiogenesis through its
Seminiferus Intestinal
tubules (leydig) cells receptors on sertoli
 Sertolis provide negative feedback on FSH
via production of inhibin

testis 13. Functions of sertolis cells

1) Provided sertoli cell barrier to chemical
in the plasma
8. Testosterone (T) Deravatives 2) Boorish developing sperm
 effect of T in brain are mediated by its 3) Secrete luminal fluid, including
deravatives androgen-binding protein
 T can be converted to DHT & others 4) Respond to stimulation by testosterone
- or can be converted to estradiol and FSH to secrete paracrine agents that
(E) by aromatase stimulate sperm proliferation and
- emediates negatives feedback differentiation
effect of T 5) Secrete the protein hormone inhibin,
which inhibits FSH secretion from the
9. Secretion of T declines gradually & varyingly in men pituitary
above 50 6) Secrete paracrine agents that influence
 Causes un known the function of Leydig cells
 Not due to low GnRH, LH or FSH because 7) Phagocytize defective sperm
their levels are elevated 8) Secrete, during embryonic life, mullerian
inhibiting substance (MIS), which causes
the primordial female duct system to  Ejaculation is forcible expulsion of smen
regress. from urethra out of penis
 Both are stimulated by sympathetic activity
 Which also causes peristalsis of tubular
14. Effect of testosterone in male system, contractions of seminal vesicles,
1) Required for initiation and maintainance prostate, & muscles at base of penis
of spermatogenesis (acts via sertoli cells)
2) Decreases GnRH secretion via action on
the hypothalamus 19. Semen Characteristics
3) Inhibits LH secretion via a direct action  About 2 to 5 ml per ejaculation
on the ant pituitary  Comprise about 10% sperm, 60% secretion
4) Induces differentiation of male accessory from seminal vesicles, 30% prostatic
reproductive organs and maintain their secretions
 pH 7.4
5) Induces male secondary sex
characteristics opposes action of estrogen  Normal count 40 – 100 million/ml
on breast growth  Survival period in female genital tract is 24-
6) Stimulates protein anabolism, bone 72 hours
growth and cessation of bone growth
7) Required for sex drive anad may enhance 20. Semen abnormalities
aggressive behavior  Presence of WBC indicate infection
8) Stimulates erythropoietin secretion by the  Sperm count < 20 million/ml indicates
kidneys. oligospermia

15. Spermatozoa 21. Factors affecting sperm quality

 Have oval shape head that contains DNA &  Testicular injury/disease eg.mumps
the acrosome (a cap of digestive system)  Heat exposeure
 Have a midpiece & flagellar tail  Severe allergic reaction
 Tail will become motile in epididymus  Lead or arsenic poisoninh
 Exposure of radiation
16. Male accessory sex organs  Endocrine disorder e.g. diabetes mellitus
 Spermatozoa entering epididymis are nion-  Drugs including marijuana, cocain &
motile & cannot fertilize anabolic steroids
 In part because pH is low
 Spermatozoa mature & become motile in
 Prostatic fluid neutralizes pH during
 Vas deferens carries sperm into pelvic cavity
 Seminal vesicles add fluid (constituting 60%
of ejaculate) to that coming from epididymis
(contain fructose for energy for sperm)
 Vas deferens becomes ejaculatory ducts
which merges with urethra in prostate
 Fluid becomes semen when prostate adds
secretions containing citric acid, kalsium &
coagulation proteins ( which coagulate
semen during ejacvulation)

17. Erection
 Is controlled by hypothalamus & sacral cord
 Occurs as result of parasymp-induced blood
flow into erectile tissues of penis
 NO is NT
 Erectile tissues include corpus cavernosum
& spongiosum
 Venous outflow is partially accluded, aiding

18. Emission & ejaculation

 Emission is movement of semen into urethra