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# The Physics GRE Solution Guide

## Sample, GR8677, GR9277, GR9677

and GR0177 Tests

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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/physicsgre_v2
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November 6, 2009

Author:
David S. Latchman
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Preface

This solution guide initially started out on the Yahoo Groups web site and was pretty

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successful at the time. Unfortunately, the group was lost and with it, much of the the
hard work that was put into it. This is my attempt to recreate the solution guide and
make it more widely avaialble to everyone. If you see any errors, think certain things
could be expressed more clearly, or would like to make suggestions, please feel free to
do so.
David Latchman
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Document Changes
05-11-2009 1. Added diagrams to GR0177 test questions 1-25
2. Revised solutions to GR0177 questions 1-25

## 04-15-2009 First Version

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Contents

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Preface i

1 Classical Mechanics 1
1.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Work & Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
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1.4 Oscillatory Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.9 Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.10 Non-inertial Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
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## 1.11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2 Electromagnetism 15
2.1 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2 Currents and DC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3 Magnetic Fields in Free Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4 Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.7 Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
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2.8 AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.9 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.10 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.11 Energy in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.12 Energy in an Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.13 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.14 Current Destiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.15 Current Density of Moving Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.17 Resistivity and Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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2.18 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.19 Kirchoff’s Loop Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.20 Kirchoff’s Junction Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.21 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.22 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
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2.23 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.24 Relationship between E and B Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.25 Energy Density of an EM wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.26 Poynting’s Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

## 3 Optics & Wave Phonomena 25

3.1 Wave Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
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3.3 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.4 Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.5 Geometrical Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.6 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.7 Doppler Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.8 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

## 4 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics 27

4.1 Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2 Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

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4.3 Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.4 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.5 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.6 Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties . . . 28
4.8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.9 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.10 Specific Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.11 Heat and Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.12 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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4.13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.14 Heat Conduction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.15 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s FormulaStefan-Boltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . 30
4.17 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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4.18 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.20 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.21 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.22 Equipartition of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.24 Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
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5 Quantum Mechanics 35
5.1 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.2 Schrödinger Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3 Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.5 Wave Funtion Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.6 Elementary Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

6 Atomic Physics 43
6.1 Properties of Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

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6.2 Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.3 Energy Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.4 Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.5 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.6 Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.7 Black Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.8 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.9 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

7 Special Relativity 51

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7.1 Introductory Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.2 Time Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.3 Length Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.4 Simultaneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.5 Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
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7.7 Velocity Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.8 Relativistic Doppler Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.9 Lorentz Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.10 Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

8 Laboratory Methods 57
8.1 Data and Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
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8.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8.3 Radiation Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8.4 Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8.5 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.6 Lasers and Optical Interferometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.7 Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.8 Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . 60

9 Sample Test 61
9.1 Period of Pendulum on Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

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9.2 Work done by springs in series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
9.3 Central Forces I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.4 Central Forces II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
9.5 Electric Potential I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.6 Electric Potential II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
9.7 Faraday’s Law and Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
9.8 AC Circuits: RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
9.9 AC Circuits: Underdamped RLC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
9.10 Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

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9.11 Nuclear Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9.12 Ionization of Lithium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
9.13 Electron Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
9.14 Effects of Temperature on Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
9.15 Polarized Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
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9.16 Electron in symmetric Potential Wells I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
9.17 Electron in symmetric Potential Wells II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
9.18 Relativistic Collisions I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
9.19 Relativistic Collisions II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
9.20 Thermodynamic Cycles I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
9.21 Thermodynamic Cycles II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
9.22 Distribution of Molecular Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
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## 9.23 Temperature Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

9.24 Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
9.25 Thermal & Electrical Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
9.26 Nonconservation of Parity in Weak Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
9.27 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
9.28 Lorentz Force Law I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9.29 Lorentz Force Law II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
9.30 Nuclear Angular Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
9.31 Potential Step Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

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10 GR8677 Exam Solutions 87
10.1 Motion of Rock under Drag Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.2 Satellite Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.4 Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
10.6 Motion of a Particle along a Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.7 Resolving Force Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
10.9 Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

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10.10Charge inside an Isolated Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
10.11Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.12Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.13Vibrating Interference Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.14Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
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10.15Helium atoms in a box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.16The Muon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.17Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.18Schrödinger’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
10.19Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
10.20Relativistic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
10.21Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
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## 10.22Lorentz Transformation of the EM field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

10.23Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
10.24Charging a Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.25Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.26K-Series X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.27Electrons and Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
10.28Normalizing a wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.29Right Hand Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.30Electron Configuration of a Potassium atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.31Photoelectric Effect I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

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10.32Photoelectric Effect II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.33Photoelectric Effect III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.34Potential Energy of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.35Hamiltonian of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.36Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.37Tension in a Conical Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.38Diode OR-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.39Gain of an Amplifier vs. Angular Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.40Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.41Binding Energy per Nucleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

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10.42Scattering Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.43Coupled Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.44Collision with a Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.45Compton Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.46Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
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10.47Franck-Hertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.48Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.49The Hamilton Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.50Hall Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.51Debye and Einstein Theories to Specific Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.52Potential inside a Hollow Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.53EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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## 10.54Polarization Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

10.55Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
10.56Expectation or Mean Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.57Eigenfunction and Eigenvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.58Holograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.59Group Velocity of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
10.60Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
10.61Rocket Equation I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
10.62Rocket Equation II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
10.63Surface Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

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10.64Maximum Power Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.65Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying Loop . . . . . . . . . . 118
10.66Maxwell’s Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
10.67Partition Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
10.68Particle moving at Light Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
10.69Car and Garage I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
10.70Car and Garage II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
10.71Car and Garage III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
10.72Refractive Index of Rock Salt and X-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
10.73Thin Flim Non-Reflective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

FT
10.74Law of Malus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
10.75Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
10.76Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
10.77Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
10.78Total Energy between Two Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
RA
10.79Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
10.80Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
10.81Biot-Savart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
10.82Zeeman Effect and the emission spectrum of atomic gases . . . . . . . . 127
10.83Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases . . . . . . . . . . 128
10.84Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
10.85Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
D

## 10.86The Ice Pail Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

10.87Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
10.88Fermion and Boson Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
10.89Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
10.90Energy Eigenstates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
10.91Bragg’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
10.92Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
10.93Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
10.94RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
10.95Carnot Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Contents xi
10.96First Order Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
10.97Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . 137
10.98Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
10.99Ground State of a Positronium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
10.100The Pinhole Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

## 11 GR9277 Exam Solutions 141

11.1 Momentum Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
11.2 Bragg Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
11.3 Characteristic X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

FT
11.4 Gravitation I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
11.5 Gravitation II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
11.6 Block on top of Two Wedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
11.7 Coupled Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
11.8 Torque on a Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
RA
11.9 Magnetic Field outside a Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
11.10Image Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
11.11Energy in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
11.12Potential Across a Wedge Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
11.13Magnetic Monopoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
11.14Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
11.15Specific Heat at Constant Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
D

## 11.16Carnot Engines and Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

11.17Lissajous Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
11.18Terminating Resistor for a Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
11.19Mass of the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
11.20Slit Width and Diffraction Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
11.21Thin Film Interference of a Soap Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
11.22The Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
11.23Fermi Temperature of Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
11.24Bonding in Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
11.25Cosmic rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

xii Contents
11.26Radioactive Half-Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
11.27The Wave Function and the Uncertainty Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
11.28Probability of a Wave function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
11.29Particle in a Potential Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
11.30Ground state energy of the positronium atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
11.31Spectroscopic Notation and Total Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 156
11.32Electrical Circuits I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
11.33Electrical Circuits II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
11.34Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.35Interference and the Diffraction Grating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

FT
11.36EM Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.37Decay of the π0 particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.38Relativistic Time Dilation and Multiple Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
11.39The Fourier Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
11.40Rolling Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
RA
11.41Rotating Cylinder I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
11.42Rotating Cylinder II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
11.43Lagrangian and Generalized Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
11.44Lagrangian of a particle moving on a parabolic curve . . . . . . . . . . . 163
11.45A Bouncing Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
11.46Phase Diagrams I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
11.47Phase Diagrams II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
D

## 11.48Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

11.49Detection of Muons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
11.50Quantum Mechanical States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
11.51Particle in an Infinite Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
11.52Particle in an Infinite Well II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
11.53Particle in an Infinite Well III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
11.54Current Induced in a Loop II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
11.55Current induced in a loop II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
11.56Ground State of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
11.57Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Contents xiii
11.58Electronic Configuration of the Neutral Na Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
11.59Spin of Helium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
11.60Cyclotron Frequency of an electron in metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
11.61Small Oscillations of Swinging Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
11.62Work done by the isothermal expansion of a gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
11.63Maximal Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
11.64Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
11.65Oscillations of a small electric charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
11.66Work done in raising a chain against gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
11.67Law of Malus and Unpolarized Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

FT
11.68Telescopes and the Rayleigh Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
11.69The Refractive Index and Cherenkov Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
11.70High Relativistic Energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
11.71Thermal Systems I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
11.72Thermal Systems II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
RA
11.73Thermal Systems III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
11.74Oscillating Hoops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.75Decay of the Uranium Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.76Quantum Angular Momentum and Electronic Configuration . . . . . . . 176
11.77Intrinsic Magnetic Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
11.78Skaters and a Massless Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
11.79Phase and Group Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
D

## 11.80Bremsstrahlung Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

11.81Resonant Circuit of a RLC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
11.82Angular Speed of a Tapped Thin Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.83Suspended Charged Pith Balls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.84Larmor Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.85Relativistic Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.86Voltage Decay and the Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
11.87Total Energy and Central Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
11.88Capacitors and Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
11.89harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

xiv Contents
11.90Rotational Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.91The Weak Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.92The Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.93Falling Mass connected by a string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.94Lorentz Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
11.95Nuclear Scatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.96Michelson Interferometer and the Optical Path Length . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.97Effective Mass of an electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.98Eigenvalues of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.99First Order Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

FT
11.100Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

## 12 GR9677 Exam Solutions 191

12.1 Discharge of a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
12.2 Magnetic Fields & Induced EMFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
RA
12.3 A Charged Ring I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
12.4 A Charged Ring II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
12.5 Forces on a Car’s Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
12.6 Block sliding down a rough inclined plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
12.7 Collision of Suspended Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
12.8 Damped Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
12.9 Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
D

## 12.10Internal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

12.11The Stern-Gerlach Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
12.12Positronium Ground State Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
12.13Specific Heat Capacity and Heat Lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
12.14Conservation of Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
12.15Thermal Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
12.16Mean Free Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
12.17Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
12.18Barrier Tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
12.19Distance of Closest Appraoch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Contents xv
12.20Collisions and the He atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
12.21Oscillating Hoops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
12.22Mars Surface Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
12.23The Inverse Square Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
12.24Charge Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
12.25Capacitors in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
12.26Resonant frequency of a RLC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
12.27Graphs and Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
12.28Superposition of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
12.29The Plank Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

FT
12.30The Open Ended U-tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
12.31Sphere falling through a viscous liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
12.32Moment of Inertia and Angular Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.33Quantum Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
12.34Invariance Violations and the Non-conservation of Parity . . . . . . . . . 210
RA
12.35Wave function of Identical Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.36Relativistic Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.37Relativistic Addition of Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.38Relativistic Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
12.39Ionization Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
12.40Photon Emission and a Singly Ionized He atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
12.41Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
D

## 12.42Photoelectric Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

12.43Stoke’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
12.441-D Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
12.45High Pass Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
12.46Generators and Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
12.47Faraday’s Law and a Wire wound about a Rotating Cylinder . . . . . . . 216
12.48Speed of π+ mesons in a laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
12.49Transformation of Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
12.50The Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
12.51Wavefunction of the Particle in an Infinte Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

xvi Contents
12.52Spherical Harmonics of the Wave Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
12.53Decay of the Positronium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
12.54Polarized Electromagnetic Waves I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
12.55Polarized Electromagnetic Waves II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
12.56Total Internal Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
12.57Single Slit Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
12.58The Optical Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
12.59Pulsed Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
12.60Relativistic Doppler Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
12.61Gauss’ Law, the Electric Field and Uneven Charge Distribution . . . . . 222

FT
12.62Capacitors in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
12.63Standard Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
12.64Nuclear Binding Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
12.65Work done by a man jumping off a boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
12.66Orbits and Gravitational Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
RA
12.67Schwartzchild Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
12.68Lagrangian of a Bead on a Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
12.69Ampere’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
12.70Larmor Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
12.71The Oscilloscope and Electron Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
12.72Negative Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
12.73Adiabatic Work of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
D

## 12.74Change in Entrophy of Two Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

12.75Double Pane Windows and Fourier’s Law of Thermal Conduction . . . . 229
12.76Gaussian Wave Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
12.77Angular Momentum Spin Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
12.78Semiconductors and Impurity Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
12.79Specific Heat of an Ideal Diatomic Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
12.80Transmission of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
12.81Piano Tuning & Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
12.82Thin Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
12.83Mass moving on rippled surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Contents xvii
12.84Normal Modes and Couples Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
12.85Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
12.86Charged Particles in E&M Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
12.87Rotation of Charged Pith Balls in a Collapsing Magnetic Field . . . . . . 234
12.88Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
12.89Charged Particles in E&M Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
12.90THIS ITEM WAS NOT SCORED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
12.91The Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
12.92Small Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
12.93Period of Mass in Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

FT
12.94Internal Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
12.95Specific Heat of a Super Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
12.96Pair Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
12.97Probability Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
12.98Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Energy Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
RA
12.99Three Level LASER and Metastable States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
12.100Quantum Oscillator – Raising and Lowering Operators . . . . . . . . . . 242

## 13 GR0177 Exam Solutions 245

13.1 Acceleration of a Pendulum Bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
13.2 Coin on a Turntable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
13.3 Kepler’s Law and Satellite Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
D

## 13.4 Non-Elastic Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

13.5 The Equipartition Theorem and the Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . 249
13.6 Work Done in Isothermal and Adiabatic Expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
13.7 Electromagnetic Field Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
13.8 Image Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
13.9 Electric Field Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.10Networked Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.11Thin Lens Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
13.12Mirror Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
13.13Resolving Power of a Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

xviii Contents
13.14Radiation detected by a NaI(Tl) crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.15Accuracy and Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
13.16Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
13.17Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
13.18Ionization Potential (He atom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
13.19Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
13.20Bremsstrahlung X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
13.21Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
13.22Planetary Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
13.23Acceleration of particle in circular motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

FT
13.24Two-Dimensional Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
13.25Moment of inertia of pennies in a circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
13.26Falling Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
13.27Hermitian Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
13.28Orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
RA
13.29Expectation Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
13.30Radial Wave Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
13.31Decay of Positronium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
13.32Relativistic Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
13.33Speed of a Charged pion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
13.34Simultaneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
13.35Black-Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
D

## 13.36Quasi-static Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

13.37Thermodynamic Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
13.38RLC Resonant Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
13.39High Pass Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
13.40RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
13.41Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
13.42Faraday’s Law of Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
13.43Quantum Mechanics: Commutators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
13.44Energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
13.451-D Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Contents xix
13.46de Broglie Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
13.47Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
13.48RMS Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
13.49Partition Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
13.50Resonance of an Open Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
13.51Polarizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
13.52Crystallography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
13.53Resistance of a Semiconductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
13.54Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
13.55Fission Collision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

FT
13.56Archimedes’ Principal and Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
13.57Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
13.58Charged Particle in an EM-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
13.59LC Circuits and Mechanical Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
13.60Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
RA
13.61Electromagnetic Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
13.62Cyclotron Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
13.63Wein’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
13.64Electromagnetic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
13.65Molar Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
13.66Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
13.67Nuclear Binding Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
D

## 13.68Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

13.69Thin Film Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
13.70Double Slit Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
13.71Atomic Spectra and Doppler Red Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
13.72Springs, Forces and Falling Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
13.73Blocks and Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
13.74Lagrangians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
13.75Matrix Transformations & Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
13.76Fermi Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
13.77Maxwell-Boltzmann Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

xx Contents
13.78Conservation of Lepton Number and Muon Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
13.79Rest Mass of a Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
13.80Relativistic Addition of Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
13.81Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
13.82Addition of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
13.83Spin Basises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
13.84Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
13.85Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
13.86Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
13.87Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

FT
13.88Biot-Savart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
13.89Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
13.90Springs in Series and Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
13.91Cylinder rolling down an incline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
13.92Hamiltonian of Mass-Spring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
RA
13.93Radius of the Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
13.94Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
13.95Electric Field in a Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
13.96EM Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
13.97Dispersion of a Light Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
13.98Average Energy of a Thermal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
13.99Pair Production in vincinity of an electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
D

## A Constants & Important Equations 305

A.1 Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
A.2 Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
A.3 Commutators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
A.4 Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

List of Tables

FT
4.22.1Table of Molar Specific Heats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

## 9.4.1 Table of Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

10.38.1
Truth Table for OR-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Specific Heat, cv for a diatomic molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
10.87.1

11.54.1
Table showing something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
RA
12.17.1
Table of wavefunction amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
12.79.1
Table of degrees of freedom of a Diatomic atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

A.1.1Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
D
xxii List of Tables

FT
RA
D

List of Figures

FT
9.5.1 Diagram of Uniformly Charged Circular Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.8.1 Schematic of Inductance-Resistance Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
9.8.2 Potential Drop across Resistor in a Inductor-Resistance Circuit . . . . . . 68
9.9.1 LRC Oscillator Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
9.9.2 Forced Damped Harmonic Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
9.15.1Waves that are not plane-polarized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
RA
9.15.2φ = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
9.22.1Maxwell-Boltzmann Speed Distribution of Nobel Gases . . . . . . . . . . 79
9.27.1Hoop and S-shaped wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
9.28.1Charged particle moving parallel to a positively charged current carry-
ing wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9.31.1Wavefunction of particle through a potential step barrier . . . . . . . . . 85

12.99.1
Three Level Laser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
D

## 13.1.1Acceleration components on pendulum bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

13.1.2Acceleration vectors of bob at equilibrium and max. aplitude positions . 246
13.2.1Free Body Diagram of Coin on Turn-Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
13.4.1Inelastic collision between masses 2m and m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
13.9.1Five charges arranged symmetrically around circle of radius, r . . . . . . 252
13.10.1
Capacitors in series and its equivalent circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.14.1
Diagram of NaI(Tl) detector postions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.23.1
Acceleration components of a particle moving in circular motion . . . . 260
13.25.1
Seven pennies in a hexagonal, planar pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
xxiv List of Figures
13.26.1
Falling rod attached to a pivot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
13.56.1
Diagram of Helium filled balloon attached to a mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

FT
RA
D

Chapter 1
Classical Mechanics

1.1

1.1.1
Kinematics

Linear Motion

Average Velocity FT
RA
∆x x2 − x1
v= = (1.1.1)
∆t t2 − t1

Instantaneous Velocity

∆x dx
v = lim = = v(t) (1.1.2)
∆t→0 ∆t dt

D

## The basic kinematic equations of motion under constant acceleration, a, are

v = v0 + at (1.1.3)
v2 = v20 + 2a (x − x0 ) (1.1.4)
1
x − x0 = v0 t + at2 (1.1.5)
2
1
x − x0 = (v + v0 ) t (1.1.6)
2

## 1.1.2 Circular Motion

In the case of Uniform Circular Motion, for a particle to move in a circular path, a
radial acceleration must be applied. This acceleration is known as the Centripetal
2 Classical Mechanics
Acceleration

Centripetal Acceleration

v2
a= (1.1.7)
r

Angular Velocity

v
ω= (1.1.8)
r
We can write eq. (1.1.7) in terms of ω

FT
a = ω2 r (1.1.9)

## The equations of motion under a constant angular acceleration, α, are

ω = ω0 + αt (1.1.10)
RA
ω + ω0
θ= t (1.1.11)
2
1
θ = ω0 t + αt2 (1.1.12)
2
ω2 = ω20 + 2αθ (1.1.13)

D

## 1.2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion

First Law A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon
by an external unbalanced force.

Second Law The net force on a body is proportional to its rate of change of momentum.

dp
F= = ma (1.2.1)
dt

## Third Law When a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously

exerts a force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction.

## FAB = −FBA (1.2.2)

Work & Energy 3
1.2.2 Momentum
p = mv (1.2.3)

1.2.3 Impulse
w
∆p = J = Fdt = Favg dt (1.2.4)

FT
1
K ≡ mv2 (1.3.1)
2

## 1.3.2 The Work-Energy Theorem

The net Work done is given by
Wnet = K f − Ki (1.3.2)
RA
1.3.3 Work done under a constant Force
The work done by a force can be expressed as
W = F∆x (1.3.3)
In three dimensions, this becomes
W = F · ∆r = F∆r cos θ (1.3.4)
For a non-constant force, we have
D

wx f
W= F(x)dx (1.3.5)
xi

## 1.3.4 Potential Energy

The Potential Energy is
dU(x)
F(x) = − (1.3.6)
dx
for conservative forces, the potential energy is
wx
U(x) = U0 − F(x0 )dx0 (1.3.7)
x0

4 Classical Mechanics
1.3.5 Hooke’s Law

F = −kx (1.3.8)
where k is the spring constant.

## 1.3.6 Potential Energy of a Spring

1
U(x) = kx2 (1.3.9)
2

## 1.4.1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion

FT
x(t) = A sin (ωt + δ) (1.4.1)
where the Amplitude, A, measures the displacement from equilibrium, the phase, δ, is
the angle by which the motion is shifted from equilibrium at t = 0.
RA
1.4.2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion

T= (1.4.2)
ω

## 1.4.3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System

D

Given that
x = A sin (ωt + δ) (1.4.3)
and that the Total Energy of a System is

E = KE + PE (1.4.4)

## The Kinetic Energy is

1
KE = mv2
2
1 dx
= m
2 dt
1
= mA2 ω2 cos2 (ωt + δ) (1.4.5)
2

Oscillatory Motion 5
The Potential Energy is
1
U = kx2
2
1
= kA2 sin2 (ωt + δ) (1.4.6)
2
Adding eq. (1.4.5) and eq. (1.4.6) gives
1
E = kA2 (1.4.7)
2

## 1.4.4 Damped Harmonic Motion

dx
Fd = −bv = −b (1.4.8)

FT
dt
where b is the damping coefficient. The equation of motion for a damped oscillating
system becomes
dx d2 x
− kx − b = m 2 (1.4.9)
dt dt
Solving eq. (1.4.9) goves
x = Ae−αt sin (ω0 t + δ) (1.4.10)
We find that
RA
b
α= (1.4.11)
2m
r
k b2
ω0 = −
m 4m2
r
b2
= ω20 −
4m2
q
= ω20 − α2 (1.4.12)
D

## The Energy of a system is

1
E = K + V(x) = mv(x)2 + V(x) (1.4.13)
2
We can solve for v(x), r
2
v(x) = (E − V(x)) (1.4.14)
m
where E ≥ V(x) Let the particle move in the potential valley, x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 , the potential
can be approximated by the Taylor Expansion
" # " 2 #
dV(x) 1 2 d V(x)
V(x) = V(xe ) + (x − xe ) + (x − xe ) + ··· (1.4.15)
dx x=xe 2 dx2 x=xe

6 Classical Mechanics
At the points of inflection, the derivative dV/dx is zero and d V/dx2 is positive. This
2

## means that the potential energy for small oscillations becomes

1
V(x) u V(xe ) + k(x − xe )2 (1.4.16)
2
where " #
d2 V(x)
k≡ ≥0 (1.4.17)
dx2 x=xe

## As V(xe ) is constant, it has no consequences to physical motion and can be dropped.

We see that eq. (1.4.16) is that of simple harmonic motion.

## 1.4.6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

FT
Consider the case of a simple pendulum of length, `, and the mass of the bob is m1 .
For small displacements, the equation of motion is

θ̈ + ω0 θ = 0

## We can express this in cartesian coordinates, x and y, where

(1.4.18)
RA
x = ` cos θ ≈ ` (1.4.19)
y = ` sin θ ≈ `θ (1.4.20)

## eq. (1.4.18) becomes

ÿ + ω0 y = 0 (1.4.21)
This is the equivalent to the mass-spring system where the spring constant is
mg
k = mω20 = (1.4.22)
`
D

This allows us to to create an equivalent three spring system to our coupled pendulum
system. The equations of motion can be derived from the Lagrangian, where

L=T−V
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
 
= m ẏ1 + m ẏ2 − ky1 + κ y2 − y1 + ky2
2 2 2 2 2
1  2  1   2 
= m y˙1 + y˙2 2 − k y21 + y22 + κ y2 − y1 (1.4.23)
2 2
We can find the equations of motion of our system

d ∂L ∂L
!
= (1.4.24)
dt ∂ ẏn ∂yn
1
Add figure with coupled pendulum-spring system

Oscillatory Motion 7
The equations of motion are
m ÿ1 = −ky1 + κ y2 − y1

(1.4.25)
m ÿ2 = −ky2 + κ y2 − y1

(1.4.26)
We assume solutions for the equations of motion to be of the form
y1 = cos(ωt + δ1 ) y2 = B cos(ωt + δ2 )
(1.4.27)
ÿ1 = −ωy1 ÿ2 = −ωy2
Substituting the values for ÿ1 and ÿ2 into the equations of motion yields
 
k + κ − mω2 y1 − κy2 = 0 (1.4.28)
 
−κy1 + k + κ − mω2 y2 = 0 (1.4.29)
We can get solutions from solving the determinant of the matrix

FT
k + κ − mω2

−κ  = 0 (1.4.30)
−κ k + κ − mω2
Solving the determinant gives
 2  
mω2 − 2mω2 (k + κ) + k2 + 2kκ = 0 (1.4.31)
This yields
g

k
=

`

ω2 =  m
RA

(1.4.32)

 k + 2κ g 2κ
= +

m ` m

We can now determine exactly how the masses move with each mode by substituting
ω2 into the equations of motion. Where
k
ω2 = We see that
m
k + κ − mω2 = κ (1.4.33)
Substituting this into the equation of motion yields
y1 = y2 (1.4.34)
D

We see that the masses move in phase with each other. You will also notice
the absense of the spring constant term, κ, for the connecting spring. As the
masses are moving in step, the spring isn’t stretching or compressing and hence
its absence in our result.
k+κ
ω2 = We see that
m
k + κ − mω2 = −κ (1.4.35)
Substituting this into the equation of motion yields
y1 = −y2 (1.4.36)
Here the masses move out of phase with each other. In this case we see the
presence of the spring constant, κ, which is expected as the spring playes a role.
It is being stretched and compressed as our masses oscillate.

8 Classical Mechanics
1.4.7 Doppler Effect

The Doppler Effect is the shift in frequency and wavelength of waves that results from
a source moving with respect to the medium, a receiver moving with respect to the
medium or a moving medium.

## Moving Source If a source is moving towards an observer, then in one period, τ0 , it

moves a distance of vs τ0 = vs / f0 . The wavelength is decreased by
vs v − vs
λ0 = λ − − (1.4.37)
f0 f0
The frequency change is
v v
 
f0 = = f0 (1.4.38)
λ0 v − vs

FT
Moving Observer As the observer moves, he will measure the same wavelength, λ, as
if at rest but will see the wave crests pass by more quickly. The observer measures
a modified wave speed.
v0 = v + |vr | (1.4.39)
The modified frequency becomes
v0 vr
 
f0 = = f0 1 + (1.4.40)
λ
RA
v

Moving Source and Moving Observer We can combine the above two equations
v − vs
λ0 = (1.4.41)
f0
v = v − vr
0
(1.4.42)

v0 v − vr
 
f = 0 =
0
f0 (1.4.43)
λ v − vs
D

Z
I= R2 dm (1.5.1)

## 1.5.2 Rotational Kinetic Energy

1
K = Iω2 (1.5.2)
2

Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis 9
1.5.3 Parallel Axis Theorem

1.5.4 Torque

τ=r×F (1.5.4)
τ = Iα (1.5.5)

L = Iω

dL
(1.5.6)
RA
τ= (1.5.7)
dt

## 1.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling

With respect to the point of contact, the motion of the wheel is a rotation about the
point of contact. Thus
1
K = Krot = Icontact ω2 (1.5.8)
2
D

## Substitute eq. (1.5.8) and we have

1 
K= Icm + MR2 ω2
2
1 1
= Icm ω2 + mv2 (1.5.10)
2 2

The kinetic energy of an object rolling without slipping is the sum of hte kinetic energy
of rotation about its center of mass and the kinetic energy of the linear motion of the
object.

10 Classical Mechanics
1.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles

## Position Vector of a System of Particles

m1 r1 + m2 r2 + m3 r3 + · · · + mN rN
R= (1.6.1)
M

## Velocity Vector of a System of Particles

dR
V=

FT
dt
m1 v1 + m2 v2 + m3 v3 + · · · + mN vN
= (1.6.2)
M

## Acceleration Vector of a System of Particles

dV
A=
dt
RA
m1 a1 + m2 a2 + m3 a3 + · · · + mN aN
= (1.6.3)
M

GMm
 
F=− r̂ (1.7.1)
r2
D

GMm
U(r) = − (1.7.2)
r

## The energy of an orbiting body is

E=T+U
1 GMm
= mv2 − (1.7.3)
2 r

Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics 11
The escape speed becomes
1 GMm
E = mv2esc − =0 (1.7.4)
2 RE
Solving for vesc we find
r
2GM
vesc = (1.7.5)
Re

## 1.7.4 Kepler’s Laws

First Law The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus.

Second Law A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal

FT
intervals of time.

Third Law The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the
cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

T2
=C (1.7.6)
R3
where C is a constant whose value is the same for all planets.
RA
1.7.5 Types of Orbits

The Energy of an Orbiting Body is defined in eq. (1.7.3), we can classify orbits by their
eccentricities.

Circular Orbit A circular orbit occurs when there is an eccentricity of 0 and the orbital
energy is less than 0. Thus
D

1 2 GM
v − =E<0 (1.7.7)
2 r
The Orbital Velocity is
r
GM
v= (1.7.8)
r

Elliptic Orbit An elliptic orbit occurs when the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 but the
specific energy is negative, so the object remains bound.
r
2 1
 
v= GM − (1.7.9)
r a

## where a is the semi-major axis

12 Classical Mechanics
Parabolic Orbit A Parabolic Orbit occurs when the eccentricity is equal to 1 and the
orbital velocity is the escape velocity. This orbit is not bounded. Thus

1 2 GM
v − =E=0 (1.7.10)
2 r
The Orbital Velocity is
r
2GM
v = vesc = (1.7.11)
r

Hyperbolic Orbit In the Hyperbolic Orbit, the eccentricity is greater than 1 with an
orbital velocity in excess of the escape velocity. This orbit is also not bounded.
r
GM
v∞ =

FT
(1.7.12)
a

## The total energy of a satellite is

1 GMm
E = mv2 − (1.7.13)
RA
2 r
For an elliptical or circular orbit, the specific energy is

GMm
E=− (1.7.14)
2a
Equating we get
2 1
 
v = GM −
2
(1.7.15)
r a
D

## 1.9 Fluid Dynamics

When an object is fully or partially immersed, the buoyant force is equal to the weight
of fluid displaced.

## 1.9.1 Equation of Continuity

ρ1 v1 A1 = ρ2 v2 A2 (1.9.1)

Non-inertial Reference Frames 13
1.9.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
1
P + ρv2 + ρgh = a constant (1.9.2)
2

## 1.11.1 Lagrange’s Function (L)

L=T−V (1.11.1)

FT
where T is the Kinetic Energy and V is the Potential Energy in terms of Generalized
Coordinates.

## 1.11.2 Equations of Motion(Euler-Lagrange Equation)

∂L d ∂L
!
= (1.11.2)
RA
∂q dt ∂q̇

1.11.3 Hamiltonian

H =T+V
= pq̇ − L(q, q̇) (1.11.3)

where
D

∂H
= q̇ (1.11.4)
∂p
∂H ∂L
=−
∂q ∂x
= −ṗ (1.11.5)

14 Classical Mechanics

FT
RA
D

Chapter 2
Electromagnetism

2.1

2.1.1
Electrostatics

Coulomb’s Law
FT
The force between two charged particles, q1 and q2 is defined by Coulomb’s Law.
RA
!
1 q1 q2
F12 = r̂12 (2.1.1)
4π0 r212

## 2.1.2 Electric Field of a point charge

D

The electric field is defined by mesuring the magnitide and direction of an electric
force, F, acting on a test charge, q0 .
F
E≡ (2.1.3)
q0
The Electric Field of a point charge, q is

1 q
E= r̂ (2.1.4)
4π0 r2

## In the case of multiple point charges, qi , the electric field becomes

n
1 X qi
E(r) = r̂i (2.1.5)
4π0 i=1 r2i
16 Electromagnetism
Electric Fields and Continuous Charge Distributions

## If a source is distributed continuously along a region of space, eq. (2.1.5) becomes

Z
1 1
E(r) = r̂dq (2.1.6)
4π0 r2
If the charge was distributed along a line with linear charge density, λ,
dq
λ= (2.1.7)
dx
The Electric Field of a line charge becomes

λ
Z
1
E(r) = r̂dx (2.1.8)
4π0 r2

FT
line

In the case where the charge is distributed along a surface, the surface charge density
is, σ
Q dq
σ= = (2.1.9)
A dA
The electric field along the surface becomes

σ
Z
1
E(r) = r̂dA (2.1.10)
RA
4π0 r2
Surface

In the case where the charge is distributed throughout a volume, V, the volume charge
density is
Q dq
ρ= = (2.1.11)
V dV
The Electric Field is
ρ
Z
1
E(r) = r̂dV (2.1.12)
4π0 r2
Volume
D

## The electric field through a surface is

I I
Φ= dΦ = E · dA (2.1.13)
surface S surface S

## The electric flux through a closed surface encloses a net charge.

I
Q
E · dA = (2.1.14)
0
where Q is the charge enclosed by our surface.

Electrostatics 17
2.1.4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law

## The total flux through a sphere is

I
q
E · dA = E(4πr2 ) = (2.1.15)
0
From the above, we see that the electric field is
q
E= (2.1.16)
4π0 r2

## 2.1.5 Electric Field due to a line of charge

Consider an infinite rod of constant charge density, λ. The flux through a Gaussian

FT
cylinder enclosing the line of charge is
Z Z Z
Φ= E · dA + E · dA + E · dA (2.1.17)
top surface bottom surface side surface

At the top and bottom surfaces, the electric field is perpendicular to the area vector, so
for the top and bottom surfaces,
E · dA = 0 (2.1.18)
RA
At the side, the electric field is parallel to the area vector, thus

E · dA = EdA (2.1.19)

## Thus the flux becomes, Z Z

Φ= E · dA = E dA (2.1.20)
side sirface

The area in this case is the surface area of the side of the cylinder, 2πrh.
D

Φ = 2πrhE (2.1.21)

Applying Gauss’ Law, we see that Φ = q/0 . The electric field becomes

λ
E= (2.1.22)
2π0 r

## 2.1.6 Electric Field in a Solid Non-Conducting Sphere

Within our non-conducting sphere or radius, R, we will assume that the total charge,
Q is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume. So the charge density of our
sphere is
Q Q
ρ= = 4 (2.1.23)
V 3
πR 3

18 Electromagnetism
The Electric Field due to a charge Q is
Q
E= (2.1.24)
4π0 r2
As the charge is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume we can say that
the charge density is
dq = ρdV (2.1.25)
where dV = 4πr2 dr. We can use this to determine the field inside the sphere by
summing the effect of infinitesimally thin spherical shells
Z E Z r
dq
E= dE = 2
0 0 4πr
ρ
Z r
= dr
0 0

FT
Qr
= 4 (2.1.26)
3
π 0 R3

## 2.1.7 Electric Potential Energy

1
U(r) = qq0 r (2.1.27)
4π0
RA
2.1.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge

The electrical potential is the potential energy per unit charge that is associated with a
static electrical field. It can be expressed thus
U(r) = qV(r) (2.1.28)
And we can see that
1 q
V(r) = (2.1.29)
D

4π0 r
A more proper definition that includes the electric field, E would be
Z
V(r) = − E · d` (2.1.30)
C

where C is any path, starting at a chosen point of zero potential to our desired point.
The difference between two potentials can be expressed such
Z b Z a
V(b) − V(a) = − E · d` + E · d`
Z b
=− E · d` (2.1.31)
a

Electrostatics 19
This can be further expressed
Z b
V(b) − V(a) = (∇V) · d` (2.1.32)
a

E = −∇V (2.1.33)

## 2.1.9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis

Let us consider a rod of length, `, with linear charge density, λ. The Electrical Potential
due to a continuous distribution is

FT
Z Z
1 dq
V= dV = (2.1.34)
4π0 r

## The charge density is

dq = λdx (2.1.35)
Substituting this into the above equation, we get the electrical potential at some distance
x along the rod’s axis, with the origin at the start of the rod.
RA
1 dq
dV =
4π0 x
1 λdx
= (2.1.36)
4π0 x
This becomes
λ x2
 
V= ln (2.1.37)
4π0 x1
where x1 and x2 are the distances from O, the end of the rod.
Now consider that we are some distance, y, from the axis of the rod of length, `. We
D

again look at eq. (2.1.34), where r is the distance of the point P from the rod’s axis.
Z
1 dq
V=
4π0 r
Z `
1 λdx
=
4π0 0 x2 + y2  12
λ
   12 `
= ln x + x2 + y2
4π0 0
λ  12 
 
= ln ` + `2 + y2 − ln y
4π0
 1 
λ  ` + `2 + y2 2 
= ln   (2.1.38)
4π0  d


20 Electromagnetism
2.2 Currents and DC Circuits

## 2.4 Lorentz Force

FT
4

2.5 Induction

5
RA
2.6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications

D

2.8 AC Circuits

Capacitance 21
2.10 Capacitance
Q = CV (2.10.1)

Q2
U=
2C
CV 2
=
2
QV

FT
= (2.11.1)
2

U 0 E2
u≡ = (2.12.1)
volume 2
RA
2.13 Current
dQ
I≡ (2.13.1)
dt

## 2.14 Current Destiny

D

Z
I= J · dA (2.14.1)
A

## 2.15 Current Density of Moving Charges

I
J= = ne qvd (2.15.1)
A

## 2.16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law

V
R≡ (2.16.1)
I

22 Electromagnetism
2.17 Resistivity and Conductivity

L
R=ρ (2.17.1)
A

E = ρJ (2.17.2)

J = σE (2.17.3)

2.18 Power

## 2.19 Kirchoff’s Loop Rules

Write Here
FT
P = VI (2.18.1)
RA
2.20 Kirchoff’s Junction Rule

Write Here

2.21 RC Circuits
D

Q
E − IR − =0 (2.21.1)
C

## Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields

w Q
E · dA = (2.22.1)
0
closed surface

Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave 23
Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields
w
B · dA = 0 (2.22.2)
closed surface

Ampère’s Law
z d w
B · ds = µ0 I + µ0 0 E · dA (2.22.3)
dt
surface

z d w
E · ds = − B · dA (2.22.4)
dt
surface

## 2.22.2 Differential Form

Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields

## Gauss’ Law for Magnetism

Ampère’s Law
FT
∇·E=

∇·B=0
ρ
0
(2.22.5)

(2.22.6)
RA
∂E
∇ × B = µ0 J + µ0 0 (2.22.7)
∂t
∂B
∇·E=− (2.22.8)
∂t

## 2.23 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave

1
D

c= √ (2.23.1)
µ0 0
In a material with dielectric constant, κ,
√ c
c κ = (2.23.2)
n
where n is the refractive index.

## 2.24 Relationship between E and B Fields

E = cB (2.24.1)
E·B=0 (2.24.2)

24 Electromagnetism
2.25 Energy Density of an EM wave
!
1 B2
u= + 0 E2 (2.25.1)
2 µ0

## 2.26 Poynting’s Vector

1
S= E×B (2.26.1)
µ0

FT
RA
D

Chapter 3
Optics & Wave Phonomena

3.1
1

3.2
Wave Properties

Superposition
FT
RA
2

3.3 Interference
3
D

3.4 Diffraction
4

## 3.5 Geometrical Optics

5

3.6 Polarization
6
26 Optics & Wave Phonomena
3.7 Doppler Effect
7

## 3.8.2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law

FT
The critical angle, θc , for the boundary seperating two optical media is the smallest
angle of incidence, in the medium of greater index, for which light is totally refelected.
From eq. (3.8.1), θ1 = 90 and θ2 = θc and n2 > n1 .

n1 sin 90 = n2 sinθc
sin θc =
n1
(3.8.2)
RA
n2
D

Chapter 4
Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics

4.1
1

4.2
FT
Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic Processes
RA
2

3
D

4

## 4.5 Kinetic Theory

5

4.6 Ensembles
6
28 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics
4.7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermody-
namic Properties

## 4.8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer

FT
4.9 Heat Capacity
 
Q = C T f − Ti (4.9.1)

where C is the Heat Capacity and T f and Ti are the final and initial temperatures
respectively.
RA
4.10 Specific Heat Capacity
 
Q = cm T f − ti (4.10.1)

D

Z Vf
W= PdV (4.11.1)
Vi

## 4.12 First Law of Thermodynamics

dEint = dQ − dW (4.12.1)

where dEint is the internal energy of the system, dQ is the Energy added to the system
and dW is the work done by the system.

Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature 29
4.12.1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics
Adiabatic Process During an adiabatic process, the system is insulated such that there
is no heat transfer between the system and its environment. Thus dQ = 0, so

∆Eint = −W (4.12.2)

If work is done on the system, negative W, then there is an increase in its internal
energy. Conversely, if work is done by the system, positive W, there is a decrease
in the internal energy of the system.

Constant Volume (Isochoric) Process If the volume is held constant, then the system
can do no work, δW = 0, thus
∆Eint = Q (4.12.3)

FT
If heat is added to the system, the temperature increases. Conversely, if heat is
removed from the system the temperature decreases.

Closed Cycle In this situation, after certain interchanges of heat and work, the system
comes back to its initial state. So ∆Eint remains the same, thus

∆Q = ∆W (4.12.4)

The work done by the system is equal to the heat or energy put into it.
RA
Free Expansion In this process, no work is done on or by the system. Thus ∆Q =
∆W = 0,
∆Eint = 0 (4.12.5)

## 4.13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature

Starting with eq. (4.11.1), we substitute the Ideal gas Law, eq. (4.15.1), to get
D

Z Vf
dV
W = nRT
Vi V
Vf
= nRT ln (4.13.1)
Vi

## 4.14 Heat Conduction Equation

The rate of heat transferred, H, is given by

Q TH − TC
H= = kA (4.14.1)
t L
where k is the thermal conductivity.

30 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics
4.15 Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT (4.15.1)
where
n = Number of moles
P = Pressure
V = Volume
T = Temperature
and R is the Universal Gas Constant, such that
R ≈ 8.314 J/mol. K

FT
We can rewrite the Ideal gas Law to say
PV = NkT (4.15.2)
where k is the Boltzmann’s Constant, such that
R
k= ≈ 1.381 × 10−23 J/K
NA
RA
4.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s FormulaStefan-Boltzmann’s Equa-
tion
P(T) = σT4 (4.16.1)

D

r
3RT
vrms = (4.17.1)
M

3
K̄ = kT (4.18.1)
2

## 4.19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas

3
Eint = nRT (4.19.1)
2

Molar Specific Heat at Constant Volume 31
4.20 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Volume

## Let us define, CV such that

Q = nCV ∆T (4.20.1)

1 ∆Eint

FT
CV = (4.20.3)
n ∆T

## Substituting eq. (4.19.1), we get

3
CV = R = 12.5 J/mol.K (4.20.4)
2
RA
4.21 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Pressure

Starting with
Q = nCp ∆T (4.21.1)

and
D

∆Eint = Q − W
⇒ nCV ∆T = nCp ∆T + nR∆T
∴ CV = Cp − R (4.21.2)

## 4.22 Equipartition of Energy

!
f
CV = R = 4.16 f J/mol.K (4.22.1)
2

## where f is the number of degrees of freedom.

Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics

FT Degrees of Freedom Predicted Molar Specific Heats
CP = CV + R
RA
Molecule Translational Rotational Vibrational Total ( f ) CV
3 5
Monatomic 3 0 0 3 2
R 2
R
5 7
Diatomic 3 2 2 5 2
R 2
R
Polyatomic (Linear) 3 3 3n − 5 6 3R 4R
Polyatomic (Non-Linear) 3 3 3n − 6 6 3R 4R
Table 4.22.1: Table of Molar Specific Heats
D

David S. Latchman
32
Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas 33
4.23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas
PV γ = a constant (4.23.1)
where γ = CCVP .
We can also write
TV γ−1 = a constant (4.23.2)

## 4.24 Second Law of Thermodynamics

Something.

FT
RA
D

34 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics

FT
RA
D

Chapter 5
Quantum Mechanics

5.1
1

5.2
Fundamental Concepts

Schrödinger Equation
FT
RA
Let us define Ψ to be
Ψ = Ae−iω(t− v )
x
(5.2.1)
Simplifying in terms of Energy, E, and momentum, p, we get
i(Et−px)
Ψ = Ae− ~ (5.2.2)

## We obtain Schrödinger’s Equation from the Hamiltonian

D

H =T+V (5.2.3)

To determine E and p,

∂2 Ψ p2
= − Ψ (5.2.4)
∂x2 ~2
∂Ψ iE
= Ψ (5.2.5)
∂t ~
and
p2
H= +V (5.2.6)
2m
This becomes

EΨ = HΨ (5.2.7)
36 Quantum Mechanics
~ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ 2
EΨ = − p2 Ψ = −~2 2
i ∂t ∂x
The Time Dependent Schrödinger’s Equation is

∂Ψ ~ 2 ∂2 Ψ
i~ =− + V(x)Ψ (5.2.8)
∂t 2m ∂x2
The Time Independent Schrödinger’s Equation is

~ 2 ∂2 Ψ
EΨ = − + V(x)Ψ (5.2.9)
2m ∂x2

## 5.2.1 Infinite Square Wells

FT
Let us consider a particle trapped in an infinite potential well of size a, such that

## for 0 < x < a

(
0
V(x) =
∞ for |x| > a,

so that a nonvanishing force acts only at ±a/2. An energy, E, is assigned to the system
such that the kinetic energy of the particle is E. Classically, any motion is forbidden
outside of the well because the infinite value of V exceeds any possible choice of E.
RA
Recalling the Schrödinger Time Independent Equation, eq. (5.2.9), we substitute V(x)
and in the region (−a/2, a/2), we get

~2 d2 ψ
− = Eψ (5.2.10)
2m dx2
This differential is of the form
d2 ψ
2
+ k2 ψ = 0 (5.2.11)
dx
where
D

r
2mE
k= (5.2.12)
~2
We recognize that possible solutions will be of the form

(
ψ(x) =
0 for |x| > a

## ψ(0) = ψ(a) = 0 (5.2.13)

Schrödinger Equation 37
It shows that

⇒ A cos 0 + B sin 0 = 0
∴A=0 (5.2.14)

## We are now left with

B sin ka = 0
ka = 0; π; 2π; 3π; · · ·
(5.2.15)

While mathematically, n can be zero, that would mean there would be no wave function,
so we ignore this result and say

FT

kn = for n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
a
Substituting this result into eq. (5.2.12) gives

nπ 2mEn
kn = = (5.2.16)
a ~
Solving for En gives
RA
n2 π2 ~2
En = (5.2.17)
2ma2
We cna now solve for B by normalizing the function
Z a
a
|B|2 sin2 kxdx = |A|2 = 1
0 2
2
So |A|2 = (5.2.18)
a
So we can write the wave function as
D

r
2 nπx
 
ψn (x) = sin (5.2.19)
a a

## Classically, the harmonic oscillator has a potential energy of

1
V(x) = kx2 (5.2.20)
2
So the force experienced by this particle is

dV
F=− = −kx (5.2.21)
dx

38 Quantum Mechanics
where k is the spring constant. The equation of motion can be summed us as

d2 x
m 2 = −kx (5.2.22)
dt
And the solution of this equation is
 
x(t) = A cos ω0 t + φ (5.2.23)

## where the angular frequency, ω0 is

r
k
ω0 = (5.2.24)
m
The Quantum Mechanical description on the harmonic oscillator is based on the eigen-

FT
function solutions of the time-independent Schrödinger’s equation. By taking V(x)
from eq. (5.2.20) we substitute into eq. (5.2.9) to get

d2 ψ 2m k 2
!
mk 2 2E
 
= x − E ψ = x − ψ
dx2 ~2 2 ~2 k

## With some manipulation, we get

√
d2 ψ  mk 2 2E m 
r 
RA
~
√ 2
=  x −  ψ
mk dx ~ ~ k 

This step allows us to to keep some of constants out of the way, thus giving us

mk 2
ξ2 = x (5.2.25)
~r
2E m 2E
and λ = = (5.2.26)
~ k ~ω0
This leads to the more compact
D

d2 ψ  2 
= ξ − λ ψ (5.2.27)
dξ2
where the eigenfunction ψ will be a function of ξ. λ assumes an eigenvalue anaglaous
to E.
From eq. (5.2.25), we see that the maximum value can be determined to be

mk 2
ξmax =
2
A (5.2.28)
~
Using the classical connection between A and E, allows us to say

mk 2E
ξmax =
2
=λ (5.2.29)
~ k

Schrödinger Equation 39
From eq. (5.2.27), we see that in a quantum mechanical oscillator, there are non-
vanishing solutions in the forbidden regions, unlike in our classical case.
A solution to eq. (5.2.27) is
ψ(ξ) = e−ξ /2
2
(5.2.30)
where

= −ξe−ξ /2
2

dψ 2 −xi2 /2 −ξ2 /2
e−ξ /2
  2
and 2
= ξ e − e = ξ 2
− 1

This gives is a special solution for λ where

λ0 = 1 (5.2.31)

FT
Thus eq. (5.2.26) gives the energy eigenvalue to be
~ω0 ~ω0
E0 = λ0 = (5.2.32)
2 2
The eigenfunction e−ξ /2 corresponds to a normalized stationary-state wave function
2

! 18 √
mk mk x2 /2~ −iE0 t/~
Ψ0 (x, t) = 2 2 e−
RA
e (5.2.33)
π~
This solution of eq. (5.2.27) produces the smallest possibel result of λ and E. Hence,
Ψ0 and E0 represents the ground state of the oscillator. and the quantity ~ω0 /2 is the
zero-point energy of the system.

## For the Finite Square Well, we have a potential region where

D

(
−V0 for −a ≤ x ≤ a
V(x) =
0 for |x| > a

## Region I: x < −a In this region, The potential, V = 0, so Schrödinger’s Equation be-

comes
~2 d2 ψ
− = Eψ
2m dx2
d2 ψ
⇒ 2 = κ2 ψ
√ dx
−2mE
where κ=
~

40 Quantum Mechanics
This gives us solutions that are

## As x → ∞, the exp(−κx) term goes to ∞; it blows up and is not a physically

realizable function. So we can drop it to get

## ψ(x) = Beκx for x < −a (5.2.34)

Region II: −a < x < a In this region, our potential is V(x) = V0 . Substitutin this into
the Schrödinger’s Equation, eq. (5.2.9), gives

~2 d2 ψ
− − V0 ψ = Eψ
2m dx2

FT
d2 ψ
or 2
= −l2 ψ
p dx
2m (E + V0 )
where l ≡ (5.2.35)
~
We notice that E > −V0 , making l real and positive. Thus our general solution
becomes
ψ(x) = C sin(lx) + D cos(lx) for −a < x < a (5.2.36)
RA
Region III: x > a Again this Region is similar to Region III, where the potential, V = 0.
This leaves us with the general solution

## ψ(x) = Fe−κx for x > a (5.2.37)

This gives us
D

 κx

 Be for x < a
ψ(x) =  for 0 < x < a

D cos(lx) (5.2.38)

for x > a

 Fe−κx

## 5.2.4 Hydrogenic Atoms

5.3 Spin
3

Angular Momentum 41
5.4 Angular Momentum
4

5

## 5.6 Elementary Perturbation Theory

FT
6
RA
D

42 Quantum Mechanics

FT
RA
D

Chapter 6
Atomic Physics

6.1
1

6.2
Properties of Electrons

Bohr Model
FT
RA
To understand the Bohr Model of the Hydrogen atom, we will take advantage of our
knowlegde of the wavelike properties of matter. As we are building on a classical
model of the atom with a modern concept of matter, our derivation is considered to be
‘semi-classical’. In this model we have an electron of mass, me , and charge, −e, orbiting
a proton. The cetripetal force is equal to the Coulomb Force. Thus

1 e2 me v2
= (6.2.1)
4π0 r2 r
D

The Total Energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies, so

p2
E=K+U = − | f race2 4π0 r (6.2.2)
2me
We can further reduce this equation by subsituting the value of momentum, which we
find to be
p2 1 e2
= me v2 = (6.2.3)
2me 2 8π0 r
Substituting this into eq. (6.2.2), we get

e2 e2 e2
E= − =− (6.2.4)
8π0 r 4π0 r 8π0 r
At this point our classical description must end. An accelerated charged particle, like
one moving in circular motion, radiates energy. So our atome here will radiate energy
44 Atomic Physics
and our electron will spiral into the nucleus and disappear. To solve this conundrum,

1. The classical circular orbits are replaced by stationary states. These stationary
states take discreet values.

2. The energy of these stationary states are determined by their angular momentum
which must take on quantized values of ~.

L = n~ (6.2.5)

## We can find the angular momentum of a circular orbit.

L = m3 vr (6.2.6)

FT
From eq. (6.2.1) we find v and by substitution, we find L.
r
m3 r
L=e (6.2.7)
4π0

## Solving for r, gives

L2
r= (6.2.8)
me e2 /4π0
RA
We apply the condition from eq. (6.2.5)

n2 ~2
rn = = n2 a0 (6.2.9)
me e2 /4π0

## where a0 is the Bohr radius.

a0 = 0.53 × 10−10 m (6.2.10)
Having discreet values for the allowed radii means that we will also have discreet
values for energy. Replacing our value of rn into eq. (6.2.4), we get
D

!
me e2 13.6
En = − 2 = − 2 eV (6.2.11)
2n 4π0 ~ n

3

## 6.4 Atomic Structure

4

Atomic Spectra 45
6.5 Atomic Spectra

## 6.5.1 Rydberg’s Equation

1 1 1
 
= RH 02 − 2 (6.5.1)
λ n n
where RH is the Rydberg constant.
For the Balmer Series, n0 = 2, which determines the optical wavelengths. For n0 = 3, we
get the infrared or Paschen series. The fundamental n0 = 1 series falls in the ultraviolet
region and is known as the Lyman series.

FT
6.6 Selection Rules

RA
6.7.1 Plank Formula

8π~ f3
u( f, T) = 3 h f /kT (6.7.1)
c e −1

D

## 6.7.4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation

Rayleigh’s Equation

8π f 2
u( f, T) = 3 kT (6.7.4)
c

46 Atomic Physics
We can get this equation from Plank’s Equation, eq. (6.7.1). This equation is a classical
one and does not contain Plank’s constant in it. For this case we will look at the
situation where h f < kT. In this case, we make the approximation

ex ' 1 + x (6.7.5)

## Thus the demonimator in eq. (6.7.1) becomes

hf hf
eh f /kT − 1 ' 1 + −1= (6.7.6)
kT kT
Thus eq. (6.7.1) takes the approximate form

8πh 3 kT 8π f 2
u( f, T) ' f = 3 kT (6.7.7)
c3 hf c

quantum effects.

Quantum
FT
As we can see this equation is devoid of Plank’s constant and thus independent of

At large frequencies, where h f > kT, quantum effects become apparent. We can
RA
estimate that
eh f /kT − 1 ' eh f /kT (6.7.8)
Thus eq. (6.7.1) becomes
8πh 3 −h f /kT
u( f, T) ' f e (6.7.9)
c3

6.8 X-Rays
D

## 6.8.1 Bragg Condition

2d sin θ = mλ (6.8.1)
for constructive interference off parallel planes of a crystal with lattics spacing, d.

## 6.8.2 The Compton Effect

The Compton Effect deals with the scattering of monochromatic X-Rays by atomic
targets and the observation that the wavelength of the scattered X-ray is greater than
the incident radiation. The photon energy is given by

hc
E = hυ = (6.8.2)
λ

Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 47
The photon has an associated momentum

E
= pc (6.8.3)
E hυ h
⇒p = = = (6.8.4)
c c λ
The Relativistic Energy for the electron is

E2 = p2 c2 + m2e c4 (6.8.5)

where
p − p0 = P (6.8.6)
Squaring eq. (6.8.6) gives
p2 − 2p · p0 + p02 = P2 (6.8.7)

FT
Recall that E = pc and E 0 = cp0 , we have

c2 p2 − 2c2 p · p0 + c2 p02 = c2 P2
E 2 − 2E E 0 cos θ + E 02 = E2 − m2e c4 (6.8.8)

## Conservation of Energy leads to

E + me c2 = E 0 + E (6.8.9)
RA
Solving

E − E 0 = E − me c2
E 2 − 2E E 0 + E 0 = E2 − 2Eme c2 + m2e c4 (6.8.10)
2E E 0 − 2E E 0 cos θ = 2Eme c2 − 2m2e c4 (6.8.11)

h
∆λ = λ0 − λ = (1 − cos θ) (6.8.12)
me c
D

where λc = h
me c
is the Compton Wavelength.

h
λc = = 2.427 × 10−12 m (6.8.13)
me c

## 6.9.1 The Cyclotron Frequency

A test charge, q, with velocity v enters a uniform magnetic field, B. The force acting on
the charge will be perpendicular to v such that

FB = qv × B (6.9.1)

48 Atomic Physics
or more simply FB = qvB. As this traces a circular path, from Newton’s Second Law,
we see that
mv2
FB = = qvB (6.9.2)
R
Solving for R, we get
mv
R= (6.9.3)
qB
We also see that
qB
f = (6.9.4)
2πm
The frequency is depends on the charge, q, the magnetic field strength, B and the mass
of the charged particle, m.

FT
6.9.2 Zeeman Effect

The Zeeman effect was the splitting of spectral lines in a static magnetic field. This is
similar to the Stark Effect which was the splitting in the presence in a magnetic field.
In the Zeeman experiment, a sodium flame was placed in a magnetic field and its
spectrum observed. In the presence of the field, a spectral line of frequency, υ0 was
split into three components, υ0 − δυ, υ0 and υ0 + δυ. A classical analysis of this effect
allows for the identification of the basic parameters of the interacting system.
RA
The application of a constant magnetic field, B, allows for a direction in space in which
the electron motion can be referred. The motion of an electron can be attributed to a
simple harmonic motion under a binding force −kr, where the frequency is
r
1 k
υ0 = (6.9.5)
2π me
The magnetic field subjects the electron to an additional Lorentz Force, −ev × B. This
produces two different values for the angular velocity.
v = 2πrυ
D

## The cetripetal force becomes

me v2
= 4π2 υ2 rme
r
Thus the certipetal force is
4π2 υ2 rme = 2πυreB + kr for clockwise motion
4π2 υ2 rme = −2πυreB + kr for counterclockwise motion
We use eq. (6.9.5), to emiminate k, to get
eB
υ2 − υ − υ0 = 0 (Clockwise)
2πme
eB
υ2 + υ − υ0 = 0 (Counterclockwise)
2πme

Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 49
As we have assumed a small Lorentz force, we can say that the linear terms in υ are
small comapred to υ0 . Solving the above quadratic equations leads to

eB
υ = υ0 + for clockwise motion (6.9.6)
4πme
eB
υ = υ0 − for counterclockwise motion (6.9.7)
4πme
We note that the frequency shift is of the form

eB
δυ = (6.9.8)
4πme
If we view the source along the direction of B, we will observe the light to have two
polarizations, a closckwise circular polarization of υ0 + δυ and a counterclosckwise

FT
circular polarization of υ0 − δυ.

## The Franck-Hertz experiment, performed in 1914 by J. Franck and G. L. Hertz, mea-

sured the colisional excitation of atoms. Their experiement studied the current of
electrons in a tub of mercury vapour which revealed an abrupt change in the current
RA
at certain critical values of the applied voltage.1 They interpreted this observation as
evidence of a threshold for inelastic scattering in the colissions of electrons in mer-
cury atoms.The bahavior of the current was an indication that electrons could lose
a discreet amount of energy and excite mercury atoms in their passage through the
mercury vapour. These observations constituted a direct and decisive confirmation of
the existence os quantized energy levels in atoms.
D

1
Put drawing of Franck-Hertz Setup

50 Atomic Physics

FT
RA
D

Chapter 7
Special Relativity

7.1

7.1.1
Introductory Concepts

## Postulates of Special Relativity

FT
1. The laws of Physics are the same in all inertial frames.
RA
2. The speed of light is the same in all inertial frames.

We can define
1
γ= q (7.1.1)
u2
1− c2

## 7.2 Time Dilation

D

∆t = γ∆t0 (7.2.1)
where ∆t0 is the time measured at rest relative to the observer, ∆t is the time measured
in motion relative to the observer.

## 7.3 Length Contraction

L0
L= (7.3.1)
γ
where L0 is the length of an object observed at rest relative to the observer and L is the
length of the object moving at a speed u relative to the observer.
52 Special Relativity
7.4 Simultaneity

## In relativistic mechanics, to be conserved, momentum and energy are defined as

FT
Relativistic Momentum
p̄ = γmv̄ (7.5.1)

Relativistic Energy
E = γmc2 (7.5.2)
RA
7.5.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy)

E
 
p0x= γ px − β (7.5.3)
c
py = py
0
(7.5.4)
= pz
p0z (7.5.5)
D

0
E E
 
=γ − βpx (7.5.6)
c c

## 7.5.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy

K = E − mc2 (7.5.7)
 
 
 1 
= mc2  q − 1 (7.5.8)
v2
1−
 
c2

= mc2 γ − 1

(7.5.9)

Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation 53
7.5.4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions)

∆E
 
∆P0x = γ ∆Px − β (7.5.10)
c
∆P y = ∆P y
0
(7.5.11)
∆P0z
= ∆Pz (7.5.12)
∆E0
∆E
 
=γ − β∆Px (7.5.13)
c c

## 7.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation

FT
We can represent an event in S with the column matrix, s,

 x 
 
 y 
s =   (7.6.1)
 z 

ict

A different Lorents frame, S0 , corresponds to another set of space time axes so that
 0 
RA
 x 
 y0 
s0 =  0  (7.6.2)
 
 z 
 0 
ict

## The Lorentz Transformation is related by the matrix

 x   γ
 0  
0 0 iγβ   x 
 
 y0   0 1 0 0   y 
 0  =  (7.6.3)
     
 z   0 0 1 0   z 
  
−iγβ 0 0 γ
 0    
ict ict
D

## We can express the equation in the form

s0 = L s (7.6.4)

The matrix L contains all the information needed to relate position four–vectors for
any given event as observed in the two Lorentz frames S and S0 . If we evaluate

 x 
 
h i  y 
s s=
T
x y z ict  z  = x + y + z − c t
  2 2 2 2 2
(7.6.5)
 
ict

## s0T s0 = x02 + y02 + z02 − c2 t02 (7.6.6)

54 Special Relativity
We can take any collection of four physical quantities to be four vector provided that
they transform to another Lorentz frame. Thus we have

 bx 
 
 b 
b =  y  (7.6.7)
 
 bz 
 
ibt

this can be transformed into a set of quantities of b0 in another frame S0 such that it
satisfies the transformation
b0 = L b (7.6.8)
Looking at the momentum-Energy four vector, we have

 px
 


FT
 p 
p =  y (7.6.9)
 
 pz


 
iE/c

## Applying the same transformation rule, we have

p0 = L p (7.6.10)

We can also get a Lorentz-invariation relation between momentum and energy such
RA
that
p0T p0 = pT p (7.6.11)
The resulting equality gives

E02 E2
x + p y + pz −
p02 = + +
02 02 2 2 2
px p y p z − (7.6.12)
c2 c2

D

v−u
v0 = (7.7.1)
1 − uv
c2

## 7.8 Relativistic Doppler Formula

r r
c+u c−u
ῡ = υ0 let r = (7.8.1)
c−u c+u

We have

## ῡreceding = rυ0 red-shift (Source Receding) (7.8.2)

υ0
ῡapproaching = blue-shift (Source Approaching) (7.8.3)
r

Lorentz Transformations 55
7.9 Lorentz Transformations
Given two reference frames S(x, y, z, t) and S0 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ), where the S0 -frame is moving
in the x-direction, we have,

## x0 = γ (x − ut) x = (x0 − ut0 ) (7.9.1)

y0 = y y = y0 (7.9.2)
z0 = y y0 = y (7.9.3)
u u 0
   
t = γ t − 2x
0
t = γ t + 2x
0
(7.9.4)
c c

## 7.10 Space-Time Interval

FT
(∆S)2 = (∆x)2 + ∆y 2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆t)2

(7.10.1)
Space-Time Intervals may be categorized into three types depending on their separa-
tion. They are

Time-like Interval

RA
∆S2 > 0 (7.10.3)

## When two events are separated by a time-like interval, there is a cause-effect

relationship between the two events.

Light-like Interval

## c2 ∆t2 = ∆r2 (7.10.4)

S =0
2
(7.10.5)
D

Space-like Intervals

## c2 ∆t2 < ∆r2 (7.10.6)

∆S < 0 (7.10.7)

56 Special Relativity

FT
RA
D

Chapter 8
Laboratory Methods

8.1

8.1.1
Data and Error Analysis

FT
x=a+b−c (8.1.1)
RA
The Error in x is
(δx)2 = (δa)2 + (δb)2 + (δc)2 (8.1.2)

## 8.1.2 Multiplication and Division

a×b
x= (8.1.3)
c
D

The error in x is
!2
δx δa δb δc
 2  2  2
= + + (8.1.4)
x a b c

## 8.1.3 Exponent - (No Error in b)

x = ab (8.1.5)

The Error in x is
δx δa
 
=b (8.1.6)
x a
58 Laboratory Methods
8.1.4 Logarithms

Base e

x = ln a (8.1.7)
We find the error in x by taking the derivative on both sides, so

d ln a
δx = · δa
da
1
= · δa
a
δa
= (8.1.8)
a

Base 10

## The Error in x can be derived as such

δx =
FT
x = log10 a

d(log a)
δa
(8.1.9)
RA
da
ln a
ln 10
= δa
da
1 δa
=
ln 10 a
δa
= 0.434 (8.1.10)
a

8.1.5 Antilogs
D

Base e

x = ea (8.1.11)
We take the natural log on both sides.

ln x = a ln e = a (8.1.12)

## Applaying the same general method, we see

d ln x
δx = δa
dx
δx
⇒ = δa (8.1.13)
x

Instrumentation 59
Base 10

x = 10a (8.1.14)

## We follow the same general procedure as above to get

log x = a log 10
log x
δx = δa
dx
1 d ln a
δx = δa
ln 10 dx
δx
= ln 10δa (8.1.15)
x

8.2

2
Instrumentation

FT
RA

## 8.4 Counting Statistics

Let’s assume that for a particular experiment, we are making countung measurements
D

## for a radioactive source. In this experiment, we recored N counts in time T. The

counting rate for this trial is R = N/T. This rate should be close to the average
√ rate, R̄.
The standard deviation or the uncertainty of our count is a simply called the N rule.
So

σ= N (8.4.1)

## Thus we can report our results as

Number of counts = N ± N (8.4.2)

## We can find the count rate by dividing by T, so

N N
R= ± (8.4.3)
T T

60 Laboratory Methods
δN
The fractional uncertainty of our count is N
. We can relate this in terms of the count
rate.
δN
δR T δN
= N
=
R T
N

N
=
N
1
= (8.4.4)
N
We see that our uncertainty decreases as we take more counts, as to be expected.

## 8.5 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter

5

8.6
6
Lasers and Optical Interferometers
FT
RA
8.7 Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis is used to understand physical situations involving a mis of
different types of physical quantities. The dimensions of a physical quantity are
associated with combinations of mass, length, time, electric charge, and temperature,
represented by symbols M, L, T, Q, and θ, respectively, each raised to rational powers.
D

tics
8

Chapter 9
Sample Test

## The period of the pendulum, T, is

FT
T = 2π
s
`
(9.1.1)
RA
g

where ` is the length of the pendulium string. The relationship between the weight of
an object on the Earth, We , and the Moon, Wm , is

We
Wm = (9.1.2)
6
From eq. (9.1.2), we can determine the acceleration due to gravity on the Moon and on
the Earth; we use the same subscript notation as above.
D

ge
gm = (9.1.3)
6
On Earth, the period of the pendulum, Te , is one second. From eq. (9.1.1), the equation
for the pendulum’s period on Earth is
s
`
Te = 2π = 1s (9.1.4)
ge

## and similarly for the moon, the period becomes

s
`
Tm = 2π (9.1.5)
gm
62 Sample Test
Substituting eq. (9.1.3) into eq. (9.1.5) gives
s
`
Tm = 2π
gm
√ √
= 6 Te = 6s

## 9.2 Work done by springs in series

Hooke’s Law tells us that the extension on a spring is proportional to the force applied.

FT
F = −kx (9.2.1)

Springs in series follow the same rule for capacitors, see section 13.90.2. The spring
constants are related to each other by

1
k1 = k2 (9.2.2)
3
RA
The springs are massless so we can assume that the weight is transmitted evenly along
both springs, thus from Hooke’s Law the extension is

## F1 = −k1 x1 = F2 = −k2 x2 (9.2.3)

where k1 and k2 are the spring constants for the springs S1 and S2 respectively. Thus
we see
k1 x2 1
= = (9.2.4)
k2 x1 3
The work done in stretching a spring or its potential energy is
D

1
W = kx2 (9.2.5)
2

Thus
1 2
W1 k1 x1
= 2
W2 1 2
k2 x
2 2
k1 x1 2
 
= ·
k2 x2
=3 (9.2.6)

Central Forces I 63
9.3 Central Forces I

k
V(r) = − (9.3.1)
r

L=r×p (9.3.2)

## and the torque is defined

τ = r × F = r × ṗ (9.3.3)

FT
From eqs. (9.3.2) and (9.3.3), we see that

dL
τ= (9.3.4)
dt

We see that if τ = 0, then L is constant and therefore conserved. This can occur if ṙ = 0,
Ḟ = 0 or F ∝ r.
RA
From 9.3.1, we can determine the force acting on the object since

dV k
F=− = 2 (9.3.5)
dr r
As our force is a central force, the force acts in the direction of our radius vector. Thus
the torque becomes

τ = r × F = rF cos 0
=0
D

## We see that this means that our angular momentum is constant.

L = constant (9.3.6)

A constant angular momentum means that r and v remain unchanged. The total
mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies.

E = KE + PE
1 k
= mv2 + 2 (9.3.7)
2 r
Both the kinetic and potential energies will remain constant and thus the total mechan-
ical energy is also conserved.

64 Sample Test
9.4 Central Forces II

The motion of particle is governed by its potential energy and for a conservative,
central force the potential energy is

k
V(r) = − (9.4.1)
r

we have shown in the above question that the angular momentum, L, is conserved.
We can define three types of orbits given k and E.

FT
Orbit k Total Energy
Ellipse k>0 E<0
Parabola k>0 E=0
Hyperbola k > 0 or k < 0 E>0

## Table 9.4.1: Table of Orbits

RA
From, table 9.4.1, we expect the orbit to be elliptical; this eliminates answers (C), (D)
and (E).

## For an elliptical orbit, the total energy is

k
E=− (9.4.2)
2a
D

where a is the length of the semimajor axis. In the case of a circular orbit of radius, r,
eq. (9.4.2) becomes

k
E=− (9.4.3)
2r

## Recalling eq. (9.3.1), we see

1
E = V(r) = −K (9.4.4)
2

This is the minimum energy the system can have resulting in a circular orbit.

Electric Potential I 65
9.5 Electric Potential I

+z

P2

r2
P1

r1

FT
b

## Figure 9.5.1: Diagram of Uniformly Charged Circular Loop

RA
The Electric Potential of a charged ring is given by1

1 Q
V= √ (9.5.1)
4π0 R2 + z2

where R is the radius of our ring and x is the distance from the central axis of the ring.
In our case, the radius of our ring is R = b.
The potential at P1 , where z = b is
1 Q 1 Q
V1 = =
D

√ √ (9.5.2)
4π0 b2 + b2 4π0 b 2

1 Q 1 Q
V2 = = √ (9.5.3)
4π0 4π0 b 5
q
b2 + (2b)2

## Dividing eq. (9.5.3) by eq. (9.5.2) gives us

r
V2 2
= (9.5.4)
V1 5

1

66 Sample Test
9.6 Electric Potential II
The potential energy, U(r), of a charge, q, placed in a potential, V(r), is

## U(r) = qV(r) (9.6.1)

The work done in moving our charge through this electrical field is

W = U2 − U1
= qV2 − qV1
= q (V2 − V1 ) (9.6.2)

## 9.7 Faraday’s Law and Electrostatics

FT
We notice that our answers are in the form of differential equations and this leads us
to think of the differential form of Maxwell’s equations. The electrostatics form of
Maxwell’s Equations are
RA
Gauss’s Law
ρ
∇·E= (9.7.1)
0
∇×E=0 (9.7.2)

## Gauss’ Law for Magnetism

∇·B=0 (9.7.3)

Ampère’s Law
D

∇ × B = µ0 J (9.7.4)

Comparing our answers, we notice that eq. (9.7.2) corresponds to Answer: (C) .

## 9.8 AC Circuits: RL Circuits

An inductor’s characteristics is opposite to that of a capacitor. While a capacitor stores
energy in the electric field, essentially a potential difference between its plates, an
inductor stores energy in the magnetic field, which is produced by a current passing
through the coil. Thus inductors oppose changes in currents while a capacitor opposes
changes in voltages. A fully discharged inductor will initially act as an open circuit

AC Circuits: RL Circuits 67
with the maximum voltage, V, across its terminals. Over time, the current increases
and the potential difference across the inductor decreases exponentially to a minimum,
essentially behaving as a short circuit. As we do not expect this circuit to oscillate, this
leaves us with choices (A) and (B). At t = 0, we expect the voltage across the resistor
to be VR = 0 and increase exponentially. We choose (A).

L
A
I

V R

FT
Figure 9.8.1: Schematic of Inductance-Resistance Circuit

## We can see from the above schematic,

V = VL + VR
where VL and VR are the voltages across the inductor and resistor respectively. This
(9.8.1)
RA
can be written as a first order differential equation
dI R
V=L + I (9.8.2)
dt L
Dividing by L leaves
V dI R
= + I (9.8.3)
L dt L
The solution to eq. (9.8.3) leaves
Z
V Rt
 
exp dt + k
D

L L
I=
Rt
 
exp
L
V Rt
 
= + k exp − (9.8.4)
R L
Multiplying eq. (9.8.4) by R gives us the voltage across the resistor
Rt
 
VR = V + kR exp − (9.8.5)
L
at t = 0, VR = 0
0 = V + kR
V
∴k=− (9.8.6)
R

68 Sample Test
Substituting k into eq. (9.8.5) gives us

Rt
  
VR (t) = V 1 − exp − (9.8.7)
L

7
V(x)
6

FT
5
Voltage/V

2
RA
1

0
0 5 10 15 20
Time/s

D

## 9.9 AC Circuits: Underdamped RLC Circuits

When a harmonic oscillator is underdamed, it not only approaches zero much more
quickly than a critically damped oscillator but it also oscillates about that zero. A quick
examination of our choices means we can eliminate all but choices (C) and (E). The
choice we make takes some knowledge and analysis.

AC Circuits: Underdamped RLC Circuits 69
L

V R

A B
C

## Figure 9.9.1: LRC Oscillator Circuit

FT
The voltages in the above circuit can be written

V(t) = VL + VR + VC
dI(t) 1
=L + RI(t) + q(t) (9.9.1)
dt C
which can be written as a second order differential equation

d2 q(t) dq(t) 1
RA
L 2
+R + q(t) = V(t) (9.9.2)
dt dt C
or as
d2 q(t) dq(t)
2
+ γ + ω20 q(t) = V(t) (9.9.3)
dt dt
This can be solved by finding the solutions for nonhomogenoeus second order linear
differential equations. For any driving force, we solve for the undriven case,

d2 z dz
2
+ γ + ω20 = 0 (9.9.4)
dt dt
D

where for the underdamped case, the general solution is of the form

## z(t) = A exp(−αt) sin(βt + δ) (9.9.5)

where
γ
α=− (9.9.6)
q2
4ω20 − γ2
β= (9.9.7)
2
In the case of a step response, 
1
 t>0
V(t) = 

(9.9.8)
0
 t<0

70 Sample Test
The solution becomes
r  2 
 ω − R
+ δ
 2

sin 0
t 

R
  2L 
q(t) = 1 − exp − t (9.9.9)
2L sin δ
where the phase constant, δ, is
R
cos δ = (9.9.10)
2ω20 L
where ω0 ≈ 3.162 kHz and γ = 5 ΩH−1

1.8
V(x)
1.6

FT
1.4
1.2
Voltage/V

1
0.8
0.6
RA
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Time/s

## Figure 9.9.2: Forced Damped Harmonic Oscillations

D

So in the case of our forced underdamped oscillator, we would expect the voltage to
raise, overshoot a little and oscillate while slowly decaying. This resembles choice (C).

## 9.10 Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom

Bohr’s theory of the atom proposed the existence of stationary states by blending new
quantum mechanics ideas with old classical mechanics concepts.
Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom starts as a system of two bodies bound together by
the Coulomb attraction. The charges and mass of one particle is −e and m and +Ze and
M for the other. In the case of our hydrogen atom system, Z = 1, M = mp and m = me .

Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom 71
We will be taking into account the motion of both particles in our analysis. Normally,
we expect the mass, M, to be stationary where M/m → ∞ and as the proton-to-electron
mass ratio is very large, we approximate to this limiting condition.
mp
= 1836 (9.10.1)
me
This effect is detectable and should be retained as a small correction. As the effects can
be incorporated with little difficulty, we shall do so.2
We take the center of mass to be at th origin,3 . We can reduce our two body system
to an equivalent one body description in terms of a single vector given by a relative
coordinate.
r = r1 − r2 (9.10.2)
As the center of mass is located at the origin

and
r1 =
FT
mr1 + Mr2 = 0

## Solving eqs. (9.10.2) and (9.10.3) gives us

M
M+m
r
(9.10.3)

(9.10.4)
RA
m
r2 = − r (9.10.5)
M+m
Differentiating eqs. (9.10.4) and (9.10.5), gives us the corresponding velocities

M
v1 = v (9.10.6)
M+m
and
m
v2 = − v (9.10.7)
M+m
where the relative velocity is
D

dr
v= (9.10.8)
dt
The total energy can be found from eqs. (9.10.6) and (9.10.7)

1 1
K = mv21 + Mv22
2 2
1 mM 2
= v (9.10.9)
2M+m
We can reduce this to the equivalent of a one body system where the reduced mass
factor is
mM
µ= (9.10.10)
M+m
2
Put figure here
3
as seen in diagram

72 Sample Test
Equation (9.10.9) becomes
1
K = µv2 (9.10.11)
2
As the Coulomb Force is a central force, the total angular momentum of the system
will be constant.

L = mv1 r1 + Mv2 r2
M 2
2
m
  
=m vr + M vr
M+m M+m
= µvr (9.10.12)

The centripetal force of the system is equal to the Coulomb force, thus

## mv21 Mv22 µv2 1 Ze2

FT
F= = = = (9.10.13)
r1 r2 r 4π0 r2

The potential energy of the system comes from the Coulomb potential energy

1 Ze2
V=− (9.10.14)
4π0 r

The total energy of the system can be found by adding eqs. (9.10.11) and (9.10.14)
RA
E=K+V
1 2 1 Ze2
= µv − (9.10.15)
2 4π0 r

1 Ze2
E=− (9.10.16)
2 4π0 r

D

## We have, so far, adhered to the principles of classical mechanics up to this point.

Beyond this point, we must introduce quantum mechanical concepts. To produce
the stationary states he was seeking, Bohr introduced the hypothesis that the angular
momentum is quantized.
L = n~ (9.10.17)
Equating this with eq. (9.10.12) and substitution into eq. (9.10.13) gives discrete values
4π0 n2 ~2
rn = (9.10.18)
Ze2 µ
We can rewrite the above equation

n2 me
rn = a0 (9.10.19)
µZ

Nuclear Sizes 73
where
4π0 ~2
a0 = (9.10.20)
e2 me
As the orbital radii is discrete we expect the various orbital energies to also be discrete.
Substitution of eq. (9.10.18) into eq. (9.10.16) gives

1 Ze2
En = −
2 4π0 rn
!2
Z2 e2 µ
=− 2 (9.10.21)
n 4π0 2~2
or
Z2 µ

FT
En = − E0 (9.10.22)
n2 me
where !2
e2 me
E0 = = 13.6 eV (9.10.23)
4π0 2~2
We see that this analysis eliminates all but one answer.
RA
9.11 Nuclear Sizes
We know from electron scattering experiments, the nucleus is roughly spherical and
uniform density4 . The Fermi model gives us an expression

1
r = r0 A 3 (9.11.1)

where r0 = 1.2 × 10−15 m and A is the mass number. In the case of hydrogen, we recall
D

## the Bohr radius to be a0 = 0.0592 nm.

So in the case of hydrogen, A = 1,

## r = r0 = 1.2 × 10−15 m (9.11.2)

Thus
r0 1.2 × 10−15
=
a0 0.0592 × 10−9
= 2.02 × 10−5 (9.11.3)

4
Add diagram of nuclear and atomic sizes here

74 Sample Test
9.12 Ionization of Lithium

The ionization energy of an electron is the energy to kick it off from its present state to
infinity. It can be expressed as

Eionization = E∞ − En
Z2 µ
= 2 E0 (9.12.1)
n me

## where E0 = 13.6 eV and µ is the reduced mass where

µ M
= (9.12.2)
me M + me

FT
In the case of atoms, the above ratio is close to one and hence we can ignore it for this
case.
Lithium has an atomic number, Z = 3 so its electron structure is5

## 1s2 , 2s1 (9.12.3)

So the total ionization energy will be the total energy needed to completly remove each
electron. This turns out to be
RA
" 2 #
3 32 32
E = 2 + 2 + 2 13.6 eV
1 1 2
≈ 20 × 13.6 eV
= 272.0 eV (9.12.4)

D

## 9.13 Electron Diffraction

We recall that in optics, one of the criteria for diffraction is a monochromatic wave. We
expect the electron beam to also have wavelike effects. The de Broglie relations show
that the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum of a particle and that
the frequency is directly proportional to the particle’s kinetic energy.

h
λ= and E = h f
p

## Thus, for electron we expect the beam to be monoenergetic.

5
Draw Lithium atom and its electrons

Effects of Temperature on Speed of Sound 75
9.14 Effects of Temperature on Speed of Sound

The speed of sound is determined by its Bulk Modulus and its density
s
B
v= (9.14.1)
ρ

B = γP (9.14.2)

## where γ is the adiabatic ratio and P is the pressure of the gas.

FT
For an ideal gas
PV = nRT (9.14.3)
Substituting eqs. (9.14.2) and (9.14.3) into eq. (9.14.1) gives us
r
nγRT
v= (9.14.4)
M
RA
So we see that
1
v ∝ T2 (9.14.5)

D

## y = y0 sin (ωt − kx)

 
z = z0 sin ωt − kx − φ
(9.15.1)

For our wave to be plane-polarized, the two waves, y and z must be in phase i.e. when
y is a maximum so too is z. So
 
sin (ωt − kx) = sin ωt − kx − φ
∴φ=0 (9.15.2)

A plane polarized wave will occur when φ = 0. We can also look at the waves below
and see that they are not in phase, except for Choice (E).

76 Sample Test
z y(x) z y(x)
z(x) z(x)

y y

x x

(a) φ = 2 (b) φ = 3π/2

z y(x) z y(x)
z(x) z(x)

y y

(c) φ = π/2
x

FT (d) φ = π/4

## Figure 9.15.1: Waves that are not plane-polarized

x
RA
z y(x)
z(x)

x
D

Figure 9.15.2: φ = 0

## 9.16 Electron in symmetric Potential Wells I

As our potential is symmetric about the V-axis, then we will expect our wave function
to also be symmetric about the V-axis.

Electron in symmetric Potential Wells II 77
9.17 Electron in symmetric Potential Wells II

If the electrons do not interact, we can ignore Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. As a result
they will not have spatially antisymmetric states but will have the same spatial wave
functions.

## The Relativistic Momentum equation is

FT
mv
p= r  2 (9.18.1)
v
1−
c

mc mv
= r
RA
2  2
v
1−
c
c v
⇒ = r
2  2
v
1−
c
c
∴v= √ (9.18.2)
5

D

## Momentum is conserved. So in the horizontal direction,

p = 2p f cos 30 (9.19.1)

## Solving this shows

mc
pf = √ (9.19.2)
2 3

78 Sample Test
9.20 Thermodynamic Cycles I

## A(P1 , V1 , T1 ) , B(P2 , V2 , T2 ) , C(P3 , V3 , T3 ) (9.20.1)

γ γ
P1 V1 = P2 V2 (9.20.2)
Given that V2 = 2V1 , we have
P2 = 2−γ P1 (9.20.3)
and
T2 = 21−γ T1

FT
(9.20.4)

## Isochoric Expansion, B −→ C We have

P2 P3
= (9.20.5)
T2 T3

where T3 = T1 , we have
RA
P3 = 2γ−1 P2 (9.20.6)
1
= P1 (9.20.7)
2

This becomes
P1
A(P1 , V1 , T1 ) , B(2−γ P1 , 2V1 , 21−γ T1 ) , C( , 2V1 , T1 ) (9.20.8)
2
On a PV-graph, we see that this makes a clockwise cycle, indicating that positive work
D

I
dQ
=0 (9.21.1)
T

## for a reversible cycle, the change in entropy is zero.

Distribution of Molecular Speeds 79
9.22 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
The distribution of speeds of molecules follows the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution,
which has the form
3 " #
M 2 2 Mv2

f (v) = 4π v exp − (9.22.1)
2πRT 2RT
where R is the gas constant and M is the molar mass of the gas. The speed distribution
for noble gases at T = 298.15 K looks like

0.0045
Helium
0.004 Neon
Maxwell Speed Distribution, f(v)

Argon
Xenon
0.0035

FT
0.003
0.0025
0.002
0.0015
0.001
RA
0.0005
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Molecular Speed, m/s

D

## 9.23 Temperature Measurements

All the thermometers won’t be able to survive that high a temperature except for the
optical pyrometer. Of course, a little knowledge always helps.

Optical Pyrometer Optical pyrometers work by using the human eye to match the
brightness of a hot object to a calibrated lamp filament inside the instrument.
Carbon Resistor These thermometers are typically used for very low temperatures
and not high ones. One of their main advantages is their sensitivity, their resis-
tance increases exponentially to decreasing temperature and are not affected by
magnetic fields.

80 Sample Test
Gas-Bulb Thermometer May also be known as the constant volume gas thermometer.
Doubtful the glass bulb will survive such high temperatures.

Mercury Thermometer The boiling point of mercury is about 360 °C. This thermome-
ter will be vaporized before you even had a chance to think about getting a

Thermocouple Thermocouples are made by joining two different metals together and
produces a voltage that is related to the temperature difference. They are typically
used in industry to measure high temperatures, usually in the order ∼ 1800 °C.
The metals would most likely start melting above these temperatures.

Even if we knew nothing about any of the above thermometers, we could have still
take a stab at it. We should probably guess that at that high a temperature we won’t

FT
want to make physical contact with what we are measuring. The only one that can do
this is the optical pyrometer.

RA
NOT FINISHED

## 9.25 Thermal & Electrical Conductivity

A metal is a lattice of atoms, each with a shell of electrons. This forms a positive ionic
lattice where the outer electrons are free to dissociate from the parent atoms and move
freely through the lattic as a ‘sea’ of electrons. When a potential difference is applied
D

across the metal, the electrons drift from one end of the conductor to the other under
the influence of the electric field. It is this free moving electron ‘sea’ that makes a metal
an electrical conductor.
These free moving electrons are also efficient at transferring thermal energy for the
same reason. Thermal and electrical conductivity in metals are closely related to each
other as outlined in the Wiedemann-Franz Law.
κ
= LT (9.25.1)
σ
where the Lorenz number, L = 2.44 × 10−8 WΩK−1 and κ and σ are the thermal and
electrical conductivities respectively. This corelation does not apply to non-metals due
to the increased role of phonon carriers.

Nonconservation of Parity in Weak Interactions 81
9.26 Nonconservation of Parity in Weak Interactions

Of the four interations, electromagnetism, strong, weak and gravity, parity is conserved
in all except for the weak interaction. To examine violations of these interactions we
must look at the helicity of our particles and see whether they are “left-handed” or
“right-handed”.
A particle is said to be “right-handed” if the direction of its spin is the same as the
direction as its motion. It is “left-handed” if the directions of spin and motion are
opposite to each other. Thus the helicity of a particle is the projection of the spin vector
onto the momentum vector where left is negative and right is positive.6

S·p
h ≡ (9.26.1)
S · p

FT
Particles are not typically characterized as being “left-handed” or “right-handed”. For
example, an electron could have both its spin and momentum pointing in the same
direction to the right and hence be classified as “right-handed”. But from the reference
frame of someone travelling faster than the speed of the electron, would see the electron
travelling to the left and hence conclude the electron is “left-handed”.
Neutrinos, on the other hand, travel very close to the speed of light and it would be very
RA
difficult to accelerate to a point where one would be able to change the “handedness”
of the neutrino. Thus, we say that the neutrino has an intrinsic parity, all of them
being left-handed. Anti-neutrinos on the other hand are all right-handed. This causes
weak interactions, neutrino emitting ones in particular, to violate the conservation of
parity law.7
For the pion decay,
π+ → µ+ + υµ+ (9.26.2)
It is very difficult to detect and measure the helicity of the neutrino directly but we can
measure it indirectly through the above decay and hence demonstrate nonconservation
D

of parity.
If the pion is at rest and has spin-0, the anti-muon and neutrino will come out in opposite
directions.8 In the figure below, the anti-muons are observed with their z-component
of angular momentum given by mµ = − 21 . Angular momentum conversation then
implies mυ = + 12 for the neutrino.
It is very difficult if not impossible to detect neutrinos in a typical laboratory setting
but we can detect muons and measure their helicity.

Choice (A) The Q-value is the kinetic Energy released in the decay of the particle at
rest. Parity deals with mirror symmetry violations and not energy.
6
Draw Helicity Diagrams
7
8
Draw Diagram Here

82 Sample Test
Choice (B) We measure for violations of parity conservation by measuring the longi-
tudinal polarization of the anti-muon. We choose this answer.

Choice (C) The pion has spin-0 and is stationary. So it won’t be polarized. Measuring
this gives us no information on our decay products.

Choice (D) The angular correlation would be difficult as neutrinos are difficult to
detect.

Choice (E) Parity deals with spatial assymetry and has nothing to do with time. We
can eliminate this choice.

FT
9.27 Moment of Inertia
The moment of inertia is Z
I= r2 dm (9.27.1)

## In the case of a hoop about its center axis,

RA
I = MR2 (9.27.2)

From eq. (9.27.1), we see that the moment of inertia deals with how the mass is
distributed along its axis.9 We see that

A
A is equivalent to
D

## Figure 9.27.1: Hoop and S-shaped wire

Thus, see fig. 9.27.1, the moment of inertia of our S-shaped wire can be found from a
hoop with its axis or rotation at its radius. This can be calculated by using the Parallel
Axis Theorem
I = ICM + Md2 (9.27.3)
where d2 is the distance from the center of mass. This becomes

## I = MR2 + MR2 = 2MR2 (9.27.4)

9
The moment of inertia of a 1 kg mass at a distance 1 m from the axis of rotation is the same as a hoop
with the same mass rotating about its central axis.

Lorentz Force Law I 83
9.28 Lorentz Force Law I

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
I
FE

u B

FB

FT
Figure 9.28.1: Charged particle moving parallel to a positively charged current carrying
wire

The force on the charged particle is determined by the Lorentz Force Equation

F = e [E + u × B] (9.28.1)

where FE = eE and FB = e(u × B). For our charged particle to travel parallel to our wire,
RA
FE = FB .10
λ`
E= (9.28.2)
2π0 r
and the magnetic field can be determined from Ampère’s Law
I
B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed (9.28.3)

## In the case of our wire

µ0 I
D

B= (9.28.4)
2πr
Plugging eqs. (9.28.2) and (9.28.4) into eq. (9.28.1) gives

λ` µ0 I
" #
F=e +u =0 (9.28.5)
2π0 r 2πr
For the particle to be undeflected, FE + FB = 0

FE + FB = 0
λ` µ0 I
−u =0 (9.28.6)
2π0 r 2πr
Now we can go about eliminating choices.
10

84 Sample Test
Doubling charge per unit length We see from eq. (9.28.6), halving the current, I, and
doubling the linear charge density, λ, will not allow the particle to continue
undeflected.
2λ` µ0 I/2 FB
−u = 2FE − ,0 (9.28.7)
2π0 r 2πr 2

Doubling the charge on the particle We see from, eq. (9.28.6) that the charge on the
particle, e, has no effect on the particle’s trajectory. We would be left with

λ` µ0 I/2 FB
−u = FE − ,0 (9.28.8)
2π0 r 2πr 2

Doubling both the charge per unit length on the wire and the charge on the particle

FT
As shown above, the particle’s charge has no effect on the trajectory. This leaves
us with the charge per unit length, λ and as we have seen before, this will change
the particle’s trajectory, see eq. (9.28.7).

Doubling the speed of the particle If we double the particle’s speed we will get

λ` µ0 I/2 λ` µ0 I
− (2u) = −u
2π0 r 2πr 2π0 r 2πr
RA
∴ FE = FB

Introducing an additional magnetic field parallel to the wire Recalling eq. (9.28.1), the
force due to the magnetic field is a cross product between the velocity and the
field. A charged particle moving in the same direction as the field will experience
no magnetic force.

FB = e [u × B]
D

= uB sin 0
=0 (9.28.9)

## 9.29 Lorentz Force Law II

As we can see from eq. (9.28.5), the forces due to the electric and magnetic fields are
equal.
λ` µ0 I
" #
F=e +u =0 (9.29.1)
2π0 r 2πr

Nuclear Angular Moment 85
If we move our charged particle a distance 2r from the wire with a speed nu, eq. (9.28.5)
becomes
λ` µ0 I λ` µ0 I
" #  " #
1
e +u =e + nu
2π0 (2r) 2π(2r)r 2 2π0 r 2πr
1
 
=e [FE − nFB ]
2
=0 (9.29.2)
Thus
[FE − nFB ] = FE − FB = 0
⇒n=1 (9.29.3)
The speed of the particle is u.

FT

## 9.30 Nuclear Angular Moment

NOT FINISHED
RA
9.31 Potential Step Barrier

V
E
D

x
O

## Figure 9.31.1: Wavefunction of particle through a potential step barrier

The point, x = 0, divides the region into two regions, Region I, where classical motion
is allowed and, Region II, where classical motion is forbidden. The barrier potential is

0 for x < 0

V(x) = 

(9.31.1)
V for x > 0

86 Sample Test
For, x < 0, the eigenfunction satisfies

d2 ψ
= −k12 ψ (9.31.2)
dx2
where
2m
k12 = E (9.31.3)
~2
The general form of the eigenfunction is

## For, x > 0, the eigenfunction satisfies

d2 ψ
= k22 ψ

FT
(9.31.5)
dx2
where
2m
k22 = (V − E) (9.31.6)
~2
The general form of the eigenfunction becomes

## ψII = Ce−k2 x + Dek2 x (9.31.7)

RA
As x → ∞, the ek2 x term blows up. So to allow eq. (9.31.7) to make any physical sense
we set D = 0, thus
ψII = Ce−k2 x = Ce−αx (9.31.8)
We can continue solving for A, B and C but for the purposes of the question we see
from eq. (9.31.8) that α is both real and positive.
D

Chapter 10
GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.1

rock.
Motion of Rock under Drag Force

FT
From the information provided we can come up with an equation of motion for the

## mẍ = −mg − kv (10.1.1)

If you have seen this type of equation, and solved it, you’d know that the rock’s speed
RA
will asymtotically increase to some max speed. At that point the drag force and the
force due to gravity will be the same. We can best answer this question through analysis
and elimination.

## A Dividing eq. (10.1.1) by m gives

k
ẍ = −g −ẋ (10.1.2)
m
We see that this only occurs when ẋ = 0, which only happens at the top of the
flight. So FALSE.
B At the top of the flight, v = 0. From eq. (10.1.2)
D

⇒ ẍ = g (10.1.3)
we see that this is TRUE.
C Again from eq. (10.1.2) we see that the acceleration is dependent on whether the
rock is moving up or down. If ẋ > 0 then ẍ < −g and if ẋ < 0 then ẍ > −g. So this
is also FALSE.
D If there was no drag (fictional) force, then energy would be conserved and the rock
will return at the speed it started with but there is a drag force so energy is lost.
The speed the rock returns is v < v0 . Hence FALSE.
E Again FALSE. Once the drag force and the gravitational force acting on the rock is
balanced the rock won’t accelerate.

88 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.2 Satellite Orbits
The question states that the astronaut fires the rocket’s jets towards Earth’s center. We
infer that no extra energy is given to the system by this process. Section 1.7.5, shows
that the only other orbit where the specific energy is also negative is an elliptical one.

## 10.3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium

Solutions to the Electromagnetic wave equation gives us the speed of light in terms of
the electromagnetic permeability, µ0 and permitivitty, 0 .

FT
1
c= √ (10.3.1)
µ0 0
where c is the speed of light. The speed through a dielectric medium becomes
1
v = √
µ0
1
=
2.1µ0 0
p
RA
c
= √ (10.3.2)
2.1

## 10.4 Wave Equation

We are given the equation
t x
 
y = A sin
D

− (10.4.1)
T λ

## A The Amplitude, A in the equation is the displacement from equilibrium. So this

choice is incorrect.
 
B As the wave moves, we seek to keep the Tt − λx term constant. So as t increases, we
expect x to increase as well as there is a negative sign in front of it. This means
that the wave moves in the positive x-direction. This choice is also incorrect.
 
C The phase of the wave is given by Tt − λx , we can do some manipulation to show
t x
 
2π − = 2π f t − kx = 0
T λ
= ωt − kx (10.4.2)

Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres 89
Or rather
kx = ωt (10.4.3)
Differentiating eq. (10.4.3) gives us the phase speed, which is
λ
v= (10.4.4)
T
This is also incorrect
E From eq. (10.4.4) the above we see that is the answer.

## 10.5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres

Thus
Mgh0 = Mv20
2

v20 = 2gh0
FT
We are told the two masses coalesce so we know that the collision is inelastic and
hence, energy is not conserved. As mass A falls, it looses Potential Energy and gains
Kinetic Energy.
1
(10.5.1)
RA
(10.5.2)
Upon collision, momentum is conserved, thus

Mv0 = (3M + M) v1
= 4Mv1
v0
⇒ v1 = (10.5.3)
4
The fused putty mass rises, kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and we find
our final height.
1
D

## (4M) v21 = 4Mgh1 (10.5.4)

2
This becomes
v21 = 2gh1 (10.5.5)
Substituting eq. (10.5.3), we get
2
v0

= 2gh1 (10.5.6)
4
and substituting, eq. (10.5.2),
2gh0
= 2gh1 (10.5.7)
16
Solving for h1 ,
h0
h1 = (10.5.8)
16

90 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.6 Motion of a Particle along a Track
As the particle moves from the top of the track and runs down the frictionless track,
its Gravitational Potential Energy is converted to Kinetic Energy. Let’s assume that the
particle is at a height, y0 when x = 0. Since energy is conserved, we get1
1
mgy0 = mg(y0 − y) + mv2
2
1 2
⇒ v = gy (10.6.1)
2
So we have a relationship between v and the particle’s position on the track.
The tangential acceleration in this case is
mv2

FT
mg cos θ = (10.6.2)
r
where r is the radius of curvature and is equal to x2 + y2 .
p

v2
g cos θ =
r
gx2
RA
=
2 x2 + y2
p
gx
= √ (10.6.3)
x2 + 4

## 10.7 Resolving Force Components

D

This question is a simple matter of resolving the horizontal and vertical components
of the tension along the rope. We have

T sin θ = F (10.7.1)
T cos θ = mg (10.7.2)

Thus we get
F
tan θ =
mg
10 1
= ≈ (10.7.3)
(2)(9.8) 2
1
Insert Free Body Diagram of particle along track.

Nail being driven into a block of wood 91
10.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood

We recall that
v2 = v20 + 2as (10.8.1)

where v, v0 , a and s are the final speed, initial speed, acceleration and displacement
that the nail travels. Now it’s just a matter of plugging in what we know

0 = 100 + 2a(0.025)
100
⇒a=− = −2000 m s−2 (10.8.2)
2(0.025)

## The Force on the nail comes from Newton’s Second Law

FT
F = ma
= 5 · 2000 = 10 000 N (10.8.3)

## 10.9 Current Density

RA
We can find the drift velocity from the current density equation

J = envd (10.9.1)

where e is the charge of an electron, n is the density of electrons per unit volume and
vd is the drift speed. Plugging in what we already know

I
J=
A
I =nAvd e
D

I
vd =
nAe
100
= (10.9.2)
π × 2 × 10−4
(1 × 1028 ) 1.6 × 10−19
4
paying attention to the indices of the equation we get

2 − 28 + 4 + 19 = −4 (10.9.3)

## So we expect an answer where vd ≈ 10−4 m s−1 .2

2
It also helps if you knew that the electron drift velocity was slow, in the order of mm/s.

92 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.10 Charge inside an Isolated Sphere

You can answer this by thinking about Gauss’ Law. The bigger the Gaussian surface
the more charge it encloses and the bigger the electric field. Beyond the radius of the
sphere, the field decreases exponentially3 .
We can calculate these relationships by using Gauss’ Law.
I
Qenclosed
E · dS = (10.10.1)
0
S

Q Qenclosed
ρ= =

FT
(10.10.2)
4
3
πR3 4
3
πr3

## for r < R The enclosed charge becomes

4 3 Qr3
 
Qenclosed = ρ πr = 3 (10.10.3)
3 R
RA
Gauss’ Law becomes
  Qr3
E 4πr2 = (10.10.4)
0 R3
The Electric field is
Qr
E(r<R) = (10.10.5)
4π0 R3
This is a linear relationship with respect to r.
D

## for r ≥ R The enclosed charge is

Qenclosed = Q (10.10.6)
Gauss’ Law becomes
  Q
E 4πr2 = (10.10.7)
0
The Electric field is
Q
E(r≥R) = (10.10.8)
4π0 r2

## The linear increase is exhibited by choice (C).

3
Draw diagrams.

Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws 93
10.11 Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws
We recall the vector identity
∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (10.11.1)
Thus
 
∇ · (∇ × H) = ∇ · Ḋ + J
=0 (10.11.2)

## 10.12 Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic)

FT
We recall the Doppler Equation4

v − vr
 
f = f0 (10.12.1)
v − vs

where vr and vs are the observer and source speeds respectively. We are told that vr = 0
and vs = 0.9v. Thus
RA
v
 
f = f0
v − 0.9v
= 10 f0
= 10 kHz (10.12.2)

## 10.13 Vibrating Interference Pattern

D

Answering this question takes some analysis. The sources are coherent, so they will
produce an interference pattern. We are also told that ∆ f = 500 Hz. This will produce
a shifting interference pattern that changes too fast for the eye to see.5

## 10.14 Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume

From section 4.20 and section 4.21, we see that
Cp = CV + R (10.14.1)
4
5
Add Young’s Double Slit Experiment equations.

94 GR8677 Exam Solutions
The difference is due to the work done in the environment by the gas when it expands
under constant pressure.
We can prove this by starting with the First Law of Thermodynamics.
dU = −dW + dQ (10.14.2)
Where dU is the change in Internal Energy, dW is the work done by the system and dQ
is the change in heat of the system.
We also recall the definition for Heat Capacity
dQ = CdT (10.14.3)

## At constant volume, there is no work done by the system, dV = 0. So it follows that

dW = 0. The change in internal energy is the change of heat into the system, thus we

FT
can define, the heat capacity at constant volume to be
dUV = CV dT = dQV (10.14.4)
At constant pressure, the change in internal energy is accompanied by a change in heat
flow as well as a change in the volume of the gas, thus
dUp = −dWp + dQp
= −pdV + Cp dT where pdV = nRdT
= −nRdT + Cp dT
RA
(10.14.5)
If the changes in internal energies are the same in both cases, then eq. (10.14.5) is equal
to eq. (10.14.4). Thus
CV dT = −nRdT + Cp dT
This becomes
Cp = CV + nR (10.14.6)
We see the reason why Cp > CV is due to the addition of work on the system; eq. (10.14.4)
shows no work done by the gas while eq. (10.14.5) shows that there is work done.
D

## 10.15 Helium atoms in a box

Let’s say the probability of the atoms being inside the box is 1. So the probability that
an atom will be found outside of a 1.0 × 10−6 cm3 box is
P = 1 − 1.0 × 10−6 (10.15.1)
As there are N atoms and the probability of finding one is mutually exclusive of the
other, the probabolity becomes
 N
P = 1 − 1.0 × 10−6 (10.15.2)

The Muon 95
10.16 The Muon

## It helps knowing what these particles are

Muon The muon, is a lepton, like the electron. It has the ame charge, −e and spin, 1/2,
as the electron execpt it’s about 200 times heavier. It’s known as a heavy electron.

## Electron This is the answer.

Graviton This is a hypothetical particle that mediates the force of gravity. It has no
charge, no mass and a spin of 2. Nothing like an electron.

FT
Photon The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic field. It has no charge or
mass and a spin of 1. Again nothing like an electron.

Pion The Pion belongs to the meson family. Again, nothing like leptons.

Proton This ia a sub atomic particle and is found in the nucleus of all atoms. Nothing
like an electron.
RA

From the changes in the Mass and Atomic numbers after the subsequent decays, we
expect an α and β decay.
D

Alpha Decay
Z−2 X +2 α
A
ZX →A−4 0 4
(10.17.1)

Beta Decay
A
ZX →AZ+1 X0 +−1 e− + ῡe (10.17.2)

## Combining both gives

A
ZX
A−4
→Z−2 X0 +42 α →AZ−1 Y +−1 e− + ῡe (10.17.3)

96 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.18 Schrödinger’s Equation

## We recall that Schrödinger’s Equation is

~2 ∂2 ψ
Eψ = − + V(x)ψ (10.18.1)
2m ∂x2

Given that ( 2 2)
bx
ψ(x) = A exp − (10.18.2)
2
We differentiate and get
∂2 ψ  4 2 
= b x − b 2
ψ (10.18.3)
∂x2

FT
Plugging into Schrödinger’s Equation, eq. (10.18.1), gives us

~2  4 2 
Eψ = − b x − b2 ψ + V(x)ψ (10.18.4)
2m
Applying the boundary condition at x = 0 gives

~2 2
Eψ = bψ (10.18.5)
RA
2m
This gives
~2 b2 ~2  4 2 
ψ=− b x − b2 ψ + V(x)ψ (10.18.6)
2m 2m
Solving for V(x) gives
~2 b4 x2
V(x) = (10.18.7)
2m
D

## We recall that the Energy Levels for the Hydrogen atom is

Z2
En = − 13.6eV (10.19.1)
n2

where Z is the atomic number and n is the quantum number. This can easily be reduced
to
A
En = − 2 (10.19.2)
n

Relativistic Energy 97
10.20 Relativistic Energy
The Rest Energy of a particle is given

E = mc2 (10.20.1)

## The Relativistic Energy is for a relativistic particle moving at speed v

E = γv mc2 (10.20.2)

We are told that a kaon moving at relativistic speeds has the same energy as the rest
mass as a proton. Thus
EK + = Ep (10.20.3)
where

FT
EK+ = γv mK+ c2 (10.20.4)
Ep = mp c 2
(10.20.5)

## Equating both together gives

mp
γv =
mK+
939
=
RA
494
940
≈ (10.20.6)
500
This becomes !−1/2
v2
γv = 1 − 2 ≈ 1.88 (10.20.7)
c
This is going to take some approximations and estimations but
!−1
v2
1− 2 = 3.6 (10.20.8)
D

c
which works out to
v2
= 0.75 (10.20.9)
c2
We expect this to be close to the 0.85c answer.

## 10.21 Space-Time Interval

We recall the Space-Time Interval from section 7.10.

## (∆S)2 = (∆x)2 + ∆y 2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆t)2


(10.21.1)

98 GR8677 Exam Solutions
We get

## ∆S2 = (5 − 3)2 + (3 − 3)2 + (3 − 1)2 − c2 (5 − 3)2

= 22 + 02 + 22 − 22
= 22
∆S = 2 (10.21.2)

## 10.22 Lorentz Transformation of the EM field

Lorentz transformations show that electric and magnetic fields are different aspects of

FT
the same force; the electromagnetic force. If there was one stationary charge in our
rest frame, we would observe an electric field. If we were to move to a moving frame
of reference, Lorentz transformations predicts the presence of an additional magnetic
field.

## 10.23 Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor

RA
More of a test of what you know.

## A Copper is a conductor so we expect its conductivity to be much greater than that of

a semiconductor. TRUE.

B As the temperature of the conductor is increased its atoms vibrate more and disrupt
the flow of electrons. As a result, resistance increases. TRUE.
D

C Different process. As temperature increases, electrons gain more energy to jump the
energy barrier into the conducting region. So conductivity increases. TRUE.

D You may have paused to think for this one but this is TRUE. The addition of an
impurity causes an increase of electron scattering off the impurity atoms. As a
result, resistance increases.6

## E The effect of adding an impurity on a semiconductor’s conductivity depends on

how many extra valence electrons it adds or subtracts; you can either widen or
narrow the energy bandgap. This is of crucial importance to electronics today.
So this is FALSE.

6
There are one or two cases where this is not true. The addition of Silver increases the conductivity
of Copper. But the conductivity will still be less than pure silver.

Charging a Battery 99
10.24 Charging a Battery

## The Total Resistance is

V
R+r=
I
20
=
10
R+1=2
⇒ R = 1Ω (10.24.2)

10.25
FT
Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle

We are told that the charged particle is released from rest in the electric and magnetic
RA
fields. The charged particle will experience a force from the magnetic field only when
it moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field lines. The particle will
move along the direction of the electric field.
We can also anylize this by looking at the Lorentz Force equation

Fq = q [E + (v × B)] (10.25.1)

v is in the same direction as B so the cross product between them is zero. We are left
with
Fq = qE
D

(10.25.2)
The force is directed along the electrical field line and hence it moves in a straight line.

## 10.26 K-Series X-Rays

To calculate we look at the energy levels for the Bohr atom. As the Bohr atom considers
the energy levels for the Hydrogen atom, we need to modify it somewhat
 
 1 1 
En = Z2  2 − 2  13.6eV (10.26.1)
eff n ni
f

100 GR8677 Exam Solutions
where Zeff is the effective atomic number and n f and ni are the energy levels. For the
n f = 1 transition
Zeff = Z − 1 (10.26.2)
where Z = 28 for nickle. As the electrons come in from ni = ∞, eq. (10.26.1) becomes

1 1
 
2
E1 = (28 − 1) − 13.6eV (10.26.3)
12 ∞2
This works out to

E1 = (272 )13.6eV
≈ (30)2 × 13.6eV (10.26.4)

FT

## It helps if you knew some facts here.

RA
A The periodic table’s arrangement of elements tells us about the chemical properties
of an element and these properties are dependent on the valent electrons. How
these valent electrons are arranged is, of course, dependent on spin. So this
choice is TRUE.

B The energy of an electron is quantized and obey the Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. All
the electrons are accommodated from the lowest state up to the Fermi Level and
the distribution among levels is described by the Fermi distribution function,
f (E), which defines the probability that the energy level, E, is occupied by an
D

electron.
1, E < EF
(
f (E) =
0, E > EF
where f (E) is the Fermi-Dirac Distribution

1
f (E) = (10.27.1)
eE−EF /kT +1
As a system goes above 0K, thermal energy may excite to higher energy states
but this energy is not shared equally by all the electrons. The way energy is
distributed comes about from the exclusion principle, the energy an electron my
absorb at room temperature is kT which is much smaller than EF = 5eV. We can
define a Fermi Temperature,
EF = kTF (10.27.2)

Normalizing a wavefunction 101
which works out to be, TF = 60000K. Thus only electrons close to this temperature
can be excited as the levels above EF are empty. This results in a small number of
electrons being able to be thermally excited and the low electronic specific heat.

π2
!
T
C= Nk where kT << EF
2 Tf

## So this choice is also TRUE.

C The Zeeman Effect describes what happens to Hydrogen spectral lines in a magnetic
field; the spectral lines split. In some atoms, there were further splits in spectral
lines that couldn’t be explained by magnetic dipole moments. The explanation
for this additional splitting was discovered to be due to electron spin.7

FT
D The deflection of an electron in a uniform magnetic field deflects only in one way
and demonstrates none of the electron’s spin properties. Electrons can be de-
flected depending on their spin if placed in a non-uniform magnetic field, as was
demonstrated in the Stern-Gerlach Experiment.8

E When the Hydrogen spectrum is observed at a very high resolution, closely spaced
doublets are observed. This was one of the first experimental evidence for electron
spin.9
RA

## 10.28 Normalizing a wavefunction

We are given
ψ(φ) = Aeimφ (10.28.1)
D

## Normalizing a function means

Z ∞
|Ψ(x)|2 dx = 1 (10.28.2)
−∞

## In this case, we want

Z 2π 2
ψ(φ) dφ = 1 (10.28.3)
0

and that 2
ψ(x) = ψ∗ (x)ψ(x) (10.28.4)
7
Write up on Zeeman and anomalous Zeemen effects
8
Write up on Stern-Gerlach Experiment
9
Write up on Fine Structure

102 GR8677 Exam Solutions
So
2
⇒ ψ(φ) = A2 eimφ e−imφ
Z 2π
A 2
dφ = 1
0
A [2π − 0] = 1
2

1
⇒A = √ (10.28.5)

## 10.29 Right Hand Rule

FT
First we use the ‘Grip’ rule to tell what direction the magnetic field lines are going.
Assuming the wire and current are coming out of the page, the magnetic field is in a
clockwise direction around the wire. Now we can turn to Fleming’s Right Hand Rule,
to solve the rest of the question.
As we want the force acting on our charge to be parallel to the current direction, we
see that this will happen when the charge moves towards the wire10 .
RA
10.30 Electron Configuration of a Potassium atom

## A The n = 3 shell has unfilled d-subshells. So this is NOT TRUE.

B The 4s subshell only has one electron. The s subshell can ‘hold’ two electrons so this
D

## is also NOT TRUE.

C Unknown.

D The sum of all the electrons, we add all the superscripts, gives 19. As this is a
ground state, a lone potassium atom, we can tell that the atomic number is 19.
So this is NOT TRUE.

E Potassium has one outer electron, like Hydrogen. So it will also have a spherically
symmetrical charge distribution.

10
Don’t forget to bring your right hand to the exam

Photoelectric Effect I 103
10.31 Photoelectric Effect I

We are given
|eV| = hυ − W (10.31.1)

We recall that V is the stopping potential, the voltage needed to bring the current to
zero. As electrons are negatively charged, we expect this voltage to be negative.

## 10.32 Photoelectric Effect II

FT
Some history needs to be known here. The photoelectric effect was one of the exper-
iments that proved that light was absorbed in discreet packets of energy. This is the
experimental evidence that won Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1921.

## 10.33 Photoelectric Effect III

RA
The quantity W is known as the work function of the metal. This is the energy that is
needed to just liberate an electron from its surface.

## 10.34 Potential Energy of a Body

D

We recall that
dU
F=− (10.34.1)
dx
Given that
U = kx4 (10.34.2)

## The force on the body becomes

d 4
F = − kx
dx
= −4kx3 (10.34.3)

104 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.35 Hamiltonian of a Body
The Hamiltonian of a body is simply the sum of the potential and kinetic energies.
That is
H =T+V (10.35.1)
where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. Thus
1
H = mv2 + kx4 (10.35.2)
2
We can also express the kinetic energy in terms of momentum, p. So
p2
H= + kx4 (10.35.3)
2m

FT

## 10.36 Principle of Least Action

Hamilton’s Principle of Least Action11 states
Z
Φ=
 
T q(t), q̇(t) − V q(t) dt (10.36.1)
RA
T

where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. This becomes
Z t2 
1 2

Φ= 4
mv − kx dt (10.36.2)
t1 2

## 10.37 Tension in a Conical Pendulum

D

This is a simple case of resolving the horizontal and vertical components of forces. So
we have
T cos θ = mg (10.37.1)
T sin θ = mrω2 (10.37.2)
Squaring the above two equations and adding gives
T2 = m2 g2 + m2 r2 ω4 (10.37.3)
Leaving us with  
T = m g2 + r2 ω4 (10.37.4)
11
Write something on this

Diode OR-gate 105
10.38 Diode OR-gate
This is an OR gate and can be illustrated by the truth table below.

0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

FT

## 10.39 Gain of an Amplifier vs. Angular Frequency

We are given that the amplifier has some sort of relationship where
G = Kωa (10.39.1)
RA
falls outside of the amplifier bandwidth region. This is that ‘linear’ part of the graph
on the log-log graph. From the graph, we see that, G = 102 , for ω = 3 × 105 second-1 .
Substituting, we get
 a
102 = K 3 × 105
h  i
∴ log(102 ) = a log K 3.5 × 105
⇒a≈2−5 (10.39.2)
We can roughly estimate by subtracting the indices. So our relationship is of the form
D

G = Kω−2 (10.39.3)

## 10.40 Counting Statistics

We recall from section 8.4 , that he standard deviation of a counting rate is σ = N ,
where N is the number of counts. We have a count of N = 9934, so the standard
deviation is
√ √
σ = N = 9934

≈ 10000
= 100 (10.40.1)

106 GR8677 Exam Solutions

## 10.41 Binding Energy per Nucleon

More of a knowledge based question. Iron is the most stable of all the others.12

## 10.42 Scattering Cross Section

We are told the particle density of our scatterer is ρ = 1020 nuclei per cubic centimeter.

FT
Given the thickness of our scatterer is ` = 0.1 cm, the cross sectional area is
N
ρ=
V
N
=
A`
N
⇒A= (10.42.1)
ρ`
RA
Now the probability of striking a proton is 1 in a million. So

1 × 10−6
A=
1020 × 0.1
= 10−25 cm2 (10.42.2)

## 10.43 Coupled Oscillators

D

There are two ways this system can oscillate, one mass on the end moves a lot and the
other two move out of in the opposite directions but not as much or the centermass
can be stationary and the two masses on the end move out of phase with each other. In
the latter case, as there isn’t any energy transfer between the masses, the period would
be that of a single mass-spring system. The frequency of this would simply be
r
1 k
f = (10.43.1)
2π m
where k is the spring constant and m is the mass.
12
Write up on Binding Energy

Coupled Oscillators 107
10.43.1 Calculating the modes of oscillation

In case you require a more rigorous approach, we can calculate the modes of oscillation.
The Lagrangian of the system is
L=T−V
1 h i 1 h i
= m ẋ21 + 2ẋ22 + ẋ23 − k (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 − x2 )2 (10.43.2)
2 2
The equation of motion can be found from
d ∂L ∂L
!
= (10.43.3)
dt ∂ẋn ∂xn
The equations of motion are

FT
mẍ1 = k (x2 − x1 ) (10.43.4)
2mẍ2 = kx1 − 2kx2 + kx3 (10.43.5)
mẍ3 = −k (x3 − x2 ) (10.43.6)
The solutions of the equations are
x1 = A cos(ωt) x2 = B cos(ωt) x3 = C cos(ωt)
(10.43.7)
ẍ1 = −ω2 x1 ẍ2 = −ω2 x2 ẍ3 = −ω2 x3
RA
Solving this, we get
 
k − mω2 x1 − kx2 = 0 (10.43.8)
 
−kx1 + 2k − 2mω2 x2 − kx3 = 0 (10.43.9)
 
−kx2 + k − mω2 x3 = 0 (10.43.10)
We can solve the modes of oscillation by solving

k − mω2 −k 0
−k 2k − 2mω2 −k = 0 (10.43.11)
k − mω2
D

0 −k

## Finding the determinant results in

   2  h  i
k − mω 2 k − mω − k − k k k − mω2
2 2 2
(10.43.12)

Solving, we get √
k k 2k
ω= ; ± (10.43.13)
m m m
Substituting ω = k/m into the equations of motion, we get
x1 = −x3 (10.43.14)
x2 = 0 (10.43.15)
We see that the two masses on the ends move out of phase with each other and the
middle one is stationary.

108 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.44 Collision with a Rod
Momentum will be conserved, so we can say

mv = MV
mv
V= (10.44.1)
M

## 10.45 Compton Wavelength

We recall from section 6.8.2, the Compton Equation from eq. (6.8.12)

FT
∆λ = λ0 − λ =

## Let θ = 90◦ , we get the Compton Wavelength

λc =
h
mc

h
mc
(1 − cos θ) (10.45.1)

(10.45.2)
RA
where m is the mass of the proton, mp , thus

h
λc = (10.45.3)
mp c

D

## P(T) = σT4 (10.46.1)

At temperature, T1 ,
P1 = σT1 = 10 mW (10.46.2)
We are given T2 = 2T1 , so

P2 = σT24
= σ (2T1 )4
= 16T14
= 16P1 = 160 mW (10.46.3)

Franck-Hertz Experiment 109
10.47 Franck-Hertz Experiment
The Franck-Hertz Experiment as seen in section 6.9.3 deals with the manner in which
electrons of certain energies scatter or collide with Mercury atoms. At certain energy
levels, the Mercury atoms can ‘absorb’ the electrons energy and be excited and this
occurs in discreet steps.

## 10.48 Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions

We recall the selection rules for photon emission

FT
∆` = ±1 Orbital angular momentum
∆m` = 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆ms = 0 Secondary spin quantum number,
∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum

NOT FINISHED
RA
10.49 The Hamilton Operator
The time-independent Schrödinger equation can be written

Ĥψ = Eψ (10.49.1)

We can determine the energy of a quantum particle by regarding the classical nonrel-
ativistic relationship as an equality of expectation values.
D

* 2+
p
hHi = + hVi (10.49.2)
2m

## We can solve this through the substition of a momentum operator

~ ∂
p→ (10.49.3)
i ∂x
Substituting this into eq. (10.49.2) gives us
Z +∞ "
∂ 2
#
~
hHi = ψ∗ − ψ + V(x)ψ dx
−∞ 2m ∂x2
Z +∞

= ψ∗ i~ ψdx (10.49.4)
−∞ ∂t

110 GR8677 Exam Solutions
We know from the Schrödinger Time Dependent Equation

~2 ∂2 Ψ ∂Ψ
− + V(x)Ψ = i~ (10.49.5)
2m ∂x 2 ∂t

H → i~ (10.49.6)
∂t

## 10.50 Hall Effect

FT
The Hall Effect describes the production of a potential difference across a current
carrying conductor that has been placed in a magnetic field. The magnetic field is
directed perpendicularly to the electrical current.
As a charge carrier, an electron, moves through the conductor, the Lorentz Force will
cause a deviation in the carge carrier’s motion so that more charges accumulate in one
location than another. This asymmetric distribution of charges produces an electric
RA
field that prevents the build up of more electrons. This ‘equilibrium’ voltage across the
conductor is known as the Hall Voltage and remains as long as a current flows through
our conductor.
As the deflection and hence, the Hall Voltage, is determined by the sign of the carrier,
this can be used to measure the sign of charge carriers.
An equilibrium condition is reached when the electric force, generated by the accumu-
lated charge carriers, is equal the the magnetic force, that causes the accumulation of
charge carriers. Thus
Fm = evd B Fe = eE (10.50.1)
D

## The current through the conductor is

I = nAvd e (10.50.2)

For a conductor of width, w and thickness, d, there is a Hall voltage across the width
of the conductor. Thus the electrical force becomes

Fe = eE
EVH
= (10.50.3)
w
The magnetic force is
BI
Fm = (10.50.4)
neA

Debye and Einstein Theories to Specific Heat 111
eq. (10.50.3) is equal to eq. (10.50.4), thus
eVH BI
=
w newd
BI
∴ VH = (10.50.5)
ned
So for a measured magnetic field and current, the sign of the Hall voltage gives is the
sign of the charge carrier.

## 10.51 Debye and Einstein Theories to Specific Heat

FT
The determination of the specific heat capacity was first deermined by the Law of
Dulong and Petite. This Law was based on Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and was
accurate in its predictions except in the region of low temperatures. At that point there
is a departure from prediction and measurements and this is where the Einstein and
Debye models come into play.
Both the Einstein and Debye models begin with the assumption that a crystal is made
up of a lattice of connected quantum harmonic oscillators; choice B.
RA
The Einstein model makes three assumptions

## 1. Each atom is a three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator.

2. Atoms do not interact with each other.
3. Atoms vibrate with the same frequency.

Einstein assumed a quantum oscillator model, similar to that of the black body radi-
ation problem. But despite its success, his theory predicted an exponential decress in
heat capacity towards absolute zero whereas experiments followed a T3 relationship.
D

## This was solved in the Debye Model.

The Debye Model looks at phonon contribution to specific heat capacity. This theory
correctly predicted the T3 proportionality at low temperatures but suffered at inteme-
diate temperatures.

## 10.52 Potential inside a Hollow Cube

By applying Gauss’ Law and drawing a Gaussian surface inside the cube, we see that
no charge is enclosed and hence no electric field13 . We can relate the electric field to
13
Draw Cube at potential V with Gaussian Surface enclosing no charge

112 GR8677 Exam Solutions
the potential
E = −∇V (10.52.1)
Where V is the potential.
Gauss’ Law shows that with no enclosed charge we have no electric field inside our
cube. Thus
E = −∇V = 0 (10.52.2)
As eq. (10.52.1) is equal to zero, the potential is the same throughout the cube.14

## 10.53 EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges

FT
As the charge particle oscillates, the electric field oscillates as well. As the field oscillates
and changes, we would expect this changing field to affect a distant charge. If we
consider a charge along the xy-plane, looking directly along the x-axis, we won’t “see”
the charge oscillating but we would see it clearly if we look down the y-axis. If we
were to visualize the field, it would look like a doughnut around the x-axis. Based on
that analysis, we choose (C)
RA
10.54 Polarization Charge Density
D = 0 E + P (10.54.1)

∇ · D = 0 ∇ · E + ∇ · P
D ∇ · E
= − σp
κ
D

## 10.55 Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals

Electrons belong to a group known as fermions16 and as a result obey the Pauli Exclu-
sion Principle17 . So in the case of a metal, there are many fermions present and as they
can’t occupy the same quantum number, they will all occupy different ones, filling all
14
As we expect there to be no Electric Field, we must expect the potential to be the same throughout
the space of the cube. If there were differences, a charge place inside the cube would move.
15
Check Polarization in Griffiths
16
Examples of fermions include electrons, protons and neutrons
17
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two fermions may occupy the same quantum state

Expectation or Mean Value 113
the way from the bottom to the highest state that can be filled. This will result in the
mean kinetic energy being much higher than the thermal energy kT. The electron with
the highest energy state is has an energy value known as the Fermi Energy.
NOT FINISHED

## 10.56 Expectation or Mean Value

This is a definition question. The question states that for an operator Q,
Z +∞
hQi = ψ∗ Qψdx (10.56.1)

FT
−∞

## 10.57 Eigenfunction and Eigenvalues

RA
We are given the momentum operator as

p = −i~ (10.57.1)
∂x

## With an eigenvalue of ~k.

pψ = −i~
ψ = ~kψ (10.57.2)
∂x
We can do this by trying each solution and seeing if they match18
D

∂ψ
− i~ = ~kψ (10.57.3)
∂x

## A: ψ = cos kx We expect ψ, to have the form of an exponential function. Substituting

this into the eigenfuntion, eq. (10.57.3), we have

−i~ cos kx = −i~ (−k sin kx)
∂x
= i~k sin kx , ~kψ

## ψ does not surive our differentiation and so we can eliminate it.

18
We can eliminate choices (A) & (B) as we would expect the answer to be an exponential function in
this case. These choices were just done for illustrative purposes and you should know to avoid them in
the exam.

114 GR8677 Exam Solutions
B: ψ = sin kx This is a similar case to the one above and we can eliminate for this
reason.

−i~ sin kx = −i~ (k cos kx)
∂x
= −i~k cos kx , ~kψ
Again we see that ψ does not survive when we apply our operator and so we can
eliminate this choice as well.
C: ψ = exp −ikx Substituting this into eq. (10.57.3), gives
∂ −ikx  
−i~ e = −i~ −ike−ikx
∂x
= −~ke−ikx , ~kψ

FT
Close but we are off, so we can eliminate this choice as well.
D: ψ = exp ikx If the above choice didn’t work, this might be more likely to.
∂ ikx  
−i~ e = −i~ ikeikx
∂x
= ~ke−ikx = ~kψ
RA
E: = ψ = exp −kx
∂ −kx  
−i~ e = −i~ −ke−kx
∂x
= −i~ke−kx , ~kψ
Again this choice does not work, so we can eliminate this as well

D

10.58 Holograms
The hologram is an image that produces a 3-dimensional image using both the Am-
plitude and Phase of a wave. Coherent, monochromatic light, such as from a laser, is
split into two beams. The object we wish to “photograph” is placed in the path of the
illumination beam and the scattered light falls on the recording medium. The second
beam, the reference beam is reflected unimpeded to the recording medium and these
two beams produces an interference pattern.
The intensity of light recorded on our medium is the same as the scattered light from
our object. The interference pattern is a result of phase changes as light is scattered off
our object. Thus choices (I) and (II) are true.

Group Velocity of a Wave 115
10.59 Group Velocity of a Wave
We are given the dispersion relationship of a wave as
  12
ω2 = c2 k2 + m2 (10.59.1)

## The Group Velocity of a Wave is

vg = (10.59.2)
dk
By differentiating eq. (10.59.1) with respect to k, we can determine th group velocity

## 2ωdω = 2c2 kdk

dω c2 k

FT
⇒ =
dk ω
c2 k
= √ (10.59.3)
c2 k2 + m2
We want to examine the cases as k → 0 and k → ∞.
As k → 0, we have

dω c2 0
RA
= √
dk 0 + m2
=0 (10.59.4)

## As k → ∞, c2 k2 >> m2 the denominator becomes

c2 k 2 + m ≈ c2 k 2 (10.59.5)

dω c2 k
D

= =c (10.59.6)
dk ck

## 10.60 Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion

We are given a potential energy of

## We can determine the mass’s spring constant, k, from V 00 (x)

V 00 (x) = 2b = k (10.60.2)

116 GR8677 Exam Solutions
The angular frequency, ω, is
k 2b
ω2 = = (10.60.3)
m m
We see this is dependent on b and m.
Alternatively, we can say
dV(x)
F(x) = − (10.60.4)
dx
So differentiating, eq. (10.60.1), gives us

## mxω2 = 2bx (10.60.6)

FT
Solving from ω, gives us the same answer as eq. (10.60.3),
2b
ω2 = (10.60.7)
m

RA
10.61 Rocket Equation I
We recall from the rocket equation that u in this case is the speed of the exaust gas
relative to the rocket.

D

## The rocket equation is

dv dm
m +u =0 (10.62.1)
dt dt
Solving this equation becomes

mdv = udm
Z v Z m
dm
dv = u
0 m0 m
m
 
v = u ln (10.62.2)
m0
This fits none of the answers given.

Surface Charge Density 117
10.63 Surface Charge Density

This question was solved as ‘The Classic Image Problem’. Below is an alternative
method but the principles are the same. Instead of determining the electrical potential,
as was done by Griffiths, we will find the electrical field of a dipole and determine the
surface charge density using
σ
E= (10.63.1)
0

Our point charge, −q will induce a +q on the grounded conducting plane. The resulting
electrical field will be due to a combination of the real charge and the ‘virtual’ induced
charge. Thus

FT
E = −E y ĵ = (E− + E+ ) ĵ
= 2E− ĵ (10.63.2)

Remember the two charges are the same, so at any point along the x-axis, or rather our
grounded conductor, the electrical field contributions from both charges will be the
same. Thus
q d
E− = cos θ where cos θ =
RA
4πr2 D
qd
= (10.63.3)
4π0 D3

## Our total field becomes

2qd
E= (10.63.4)
4π0 D3
You may recognize that 2qd is the electrical dipole moment. Now, eq. (10.63.4) equals
to eq. (10.63.1) which gives us
σ qd
= (10.63.5)
D

0 2π0 D3
and, we get
qd
σ= (10.63.6)
2πD3

## We are given the impedance of our generator

Z g = R g + jX g (10.64.1)

118 GR8677 Exam Solutions
For the maximum power to be transmitted, the maximum power theorem states that the
load impedance must be equal to the complex conjugate of the generator’s impedance.

Z g = Z∗` (10.64.2)

Thus

Z` = R g + jX`
= R g − jX g (10.64.3)

## 10.65 Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying

FT
Loop
The Biot-Savart Law is
µ0 i d` × r̂
dB = (10.65.1)
4π r3
Let θ be the angle between the radius, b and the radius vector, r, we get
µ0 i rd` cos θ
RA
b
B= 3
where cos θ =
4π r r
mu0 i d` cos θ
=
4π r2
µ0 i bd` √
= where r = b2 + h2
4π r3
µ0 i bd`
= where d` = b · dθ
4π (b2 + h2 ) 32
Z2π
µ0i b2
= · dθ
D

4π (b2 + h2 ) 23
0
µ0 i b2
= (10.65.2)
2 (b2 + h2 ) 32

we see that
B ∝ ib2 (10.65.3)

## 10.66 Maxwell’s Relations

To derive the Maxwell’s Relations we begin with the thermodynamic potentials

Partition Functions 119
First Law
dU = TdS − PdV (10.66.1)

Entalpy

H = E + PV
∴ dH = TdS + VdP (10.66.2)

## Helmholtz Free Energy

F = E − TS
∴ dF = −SdT − PdV (10.66.3)

## All of these differentials are of the form

dz =
∂z
∂x
! FT
G = E − TS + PV
∴ dG = −SdT + VdP

dx +
∂z
∂y
!
dy
(10.66.4)
RA
y x

= Mdx + Ndy

For the variables listed, we choose eq. (10.66.1) and applying the above condition we
get
∂U ∂U
! !
T= P= (10.66.5)
∂S V ∂V S
Thus taking the inverse of T, gives us

∂S
!
1
= (10.66.6)
D

T ∂U V

NOT FINISHED

## 10.68 Particle moving at Light Speed

120 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.69 Car and Garage I
We are given the car’s length in its rest frame to be L0 = 5 meters and its Lorentz
Contracted length to be L = 3 meters. We can determine the speed from eq. (7.3.1)
r
v2
L = L0 1 − 2
c
 2 2
3 v
=1− 2
5 c
4
⇒v= c (10.69.1)
5

## 10.70 Car and Garage II

FT
As the car approaches the garage, the driver will notice that things around him, in-
cluding the garage, are length contracted. We have calculated that the speed that
he is travelling at to be, v = 0.8c, in the previous section. We again use the Length
Contraction formula, eq. (7.3.1), to solve this question.
RA
!
v2
Lg = Lg 1 − 2
0
c
 
= 4 1 − 0.82
= 2.4 meters (10.70.1)

D

## 10.71 Car and Garage III

This is more of a conceptual question. What happens depends on whose frame of
reference you’re in.

## 10.72 Refractive Index of Rock Salt and X-rays

The refractive index is defined as the ratio of the speed of light, c, to the phase velocity,
vp , in a medium. Thus
c
n= (10.72.1)
vp

Refractive Index of Rock Salt and X-rays 121
This is sometimes written
c
n= (10.72.2)
v
This number is typically greater than one as light is usually slowed down in most
materials; the greater the slowing down, the greater the refractive index. However,
near absorption resonances and for X-rays, n, will be smaller than one. This does not
contradict the theory of relativity as the information carrying signal, the group velocity,
is not the same as the phase velocity.
We can define a group velocity refractive index, or a group index as
c
ng = (10.72.3)
vg
This can be written in terms of the refractive index, n, as

FT
dn
ng = n − λ (10.72.4)

where λ is the wavelength in vacuum. As an EM wave passes through a medium, the
phase velocity is slowed by the material. The electric field disturbs the charges of each
atom proportional to the permitivitty of the material. Thus the charges will generally
oscillate slightly out of phase with the driving electric field and will radiate their own
EM field at the same frequency but out of phase. This is what leads to the slowing of
the phase velocity.
RA
No special knowledge is needed but a little knowledge always helps. You can start by
eliminating choices when in doubt.

Choice A NOT TRUE Relativity says nothing about whether light is in a vacuum or
not. If anything, this choice goes against the postulates of Special Relativity. The
laws of Physics don’t change in vacuum.
Choice B NOT TRUE. X-rays can “transmit” signals or energy; any waveform can
once it is not distorted too much during propagation.
D

Choice C NOT TRUE. Photons have zero rest mass. Though the tachyon, a hypothet-
ical particle, has imaginary mass. This allows it to travel faster than the speed or
light though they don’t violate the principles of causality.
Choice D NOT TRUE. How or when we discover physical theories has no bearing on
observed properties or behavior.
Choice E The phase and group speeds can be different. The phase velocity is the rate at
which the crests of the wave propagate or the rate at which the phase of the wave
is moving. The group speed is the rate at which the envelope of the waveform
is moving or rather it’s the rate at which the amplitude varies in the waveform.
We can use this principle of n < 1 materials to create X-ray mirrors using “total
external reflection”.

122 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.73 Thin Flim Non-Reflective Coatings
To analyze this system, we consider our lens with refractive index, n3 , being coated by
our non-reflective coating of refractive index, n2 , and thickness, t, in air with refractive
index, n1 , where
n1 < n2 < n3 (10.73.1)
As our ray of light in air strikes the first boundary, the coating, it moves from a less
optically dense medium to a more optically dense one. At the point where it reflects,
there will be a phase change in the reflected wave. The transmitted wave goes through
without a phase change.
The refracted ray passes through our coating to strike our glass lens, which is optically
more dense than our coating. As a result there will be a phase change in our reflected
ray. Destructive interference occurs when the optical path difference, 2t, occurs in

FT
half-wavelengths multiples. So
1 λ
 
2t = m + (10.73.2)
2 n2
where m = 0; 1; 2; 3. The thinnest possible coating occurs at m = 0. Thus

t= (10.73.3)
4 n2
RA
We need a non-reflective coating that has an optical thicknes of a quarter wavelength.

## 10.74 Law of Malus

The Law of Malus states that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam
of light, the intensity I, is given by
I = I0 cos2 θ (10.74.1)
D

where θ is the angle between the light’s plane of polarization and the axis of the
polarizer. A beam of light can be considered to be a uniform mix of plane polarization
angles and the average of this is
Z 2π
I = I0 cos2 θ
0
1
= I0 (10.74.2)
2
So the maximum fraction of transmitted power through all three polarizers becomes
 3
1 I0
I3 = = (10.74.3)
2 8

Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit 123
10.75 Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit
We can relate the period or the angluar velocity of a satellite and Newton’s Law of
Gravitation  2
2π GMm
mRω2 = mR = (10.75.1)
T R2
where M is the mass of the Earth, m is the satellite mass and RE is the orbital radius.
From this we can get a relationship between the radius of orbit and its period, which
you may recognize as Kepler’s Law.

R3 ∝ T2 (10.75.2)

We can say

R3E ∝ (80)2

FT
(10.75.3)
R3S ∝ (24 × 60)2 (10.75.4)
(10.75.5)

RS 3 24 × 60 2
   
=
RE 80
RS = 18 RE
RA
3 2 3
(10.75.6)

## 10.76 Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane

D

As the hoop rolls down the inclined plane, its gravitational potential energy is con-
verted to translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy
1 1
Mgh = Mv2 + Iω2 (10.76.1)
2 2
Recall that v = ωR, eq. (10.76.1) becomes
1 1 
MgH = MR2 ω2 + MR2 ω2 (10.76.2)
2 2
Solving for ω leaves
! 12
gh
ω= 2 (10.76.3)
R

124 GR8677 Exam Solutions
The angular momentum is
L = Iω (10.76.4)

## Substituting eq. (10.76.3) gives us

! 12
gh
L = MR2
R2
p
= MR gh (10.76.5)

FT
10.77 Simple Harmonic Motion

## We are told that a particle obeys Hooke’s Law, where

F = −kx (10.77.1)

## We can write the equation of motion as

RA
k
mẍ − kx where ω2 =
m

where
 
x = A sin ωt + φ (10.77.2)
 
and ẋ = ωA cos ωt + φ (10.77.3)

## We are told that

D

1  
= sin ωt + φ (10.77.4)
2
We can show that

  3
cos ωt + φ = (10.77.5)
2
Substituting this into eq. (10.77.3) gives

3
ẋ = 2π f A ·
√ 2
= 3 πfA (10.77.6)

Amswer: (B)

Total Energy between Two Charges 125
10.78 Total Energy between Two Charges

## E = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy

FT
= 0 + (KE > 0)
>0 (10.78.1)

Applying the three condition, we expect the total energy to be positive and constant.
RA
10.79 Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles

You may have heard several things about the ∇·B = 0 equation in Maxwell’s Laws. One
of them is there being no magnetic monopoles or charges. There are some implications
to this. No charge implies that the amount of field lines that enter a Gaussian surface
must be equal to the amount of field lines that leave. So using this principle we know
from the electric form of this law we can get an answer to this question.

Choice A The number of field lines that enter is the same as the number that leaves.
D

## So this does not violate the above law.

Choice B Again we see that the number of field lines entering is the same as the
number leaving.

## Choice C The same as above

Choice D In this case, we see that the field lines at the edge of the Gaussian Surface
are all leaving; no field lines enter the surface. This is also what we’d expect the
field to look like for a region bounded by a magnetic monopole.

Choice E The field loops in on itself, so the total number of field lines is zero. This fits
with the above law.

126 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.80 Gauss’ Law
To determine an electric field that could exist in a region of space with no charges we
turn to Gauss’ Law.
∇·E=0 (10.80.1)
or rather
∂ ∂ ∂
Ex + E y + Ez = 0 (10.80.2)
∂x ∂y ∂z
So we analyze each choice in turn to get our answer.

Choice A
E = 2xyî − xyk̂

FT
∂ ∂
∇·E= 2xy + (−xz)
∂x ∂z
= 2y + x , 0 (10.80.3)

Choice B
E = −xy jˆ + xzk̂
∂ ∂
∇·E= (−xy) + xz
∂y ∂z
RA
= −x + x = 0 (10.80.4)

Choice C
E = xzî + xz jˆ
∂ ∂
∇·E= xz + xz
∂x ∂y
=z+0,0 (10.80.5)
D

Choice D
ˆ
E = xyz(î + j)
∂ ∂
∇·E= xyz + xyz
∂x ∂y
= yz + xz , 0 (10.80.6)

Choice E
E = xyzî

∇·E= xyz
∂x
= yz , 0 (10.80.7)

Biot-Savart Law 127
10.81 Biot-Savart Law
We can determine the magnetic field produced by our outer wire from the Biot-Savart
Law
µ0 d` × r
dB = (10.81.1)
4π r3
As our radius and differential length vectors are orthogonal, the magnetic field works
out to be
µ0 d`r
dB = I
4π r3
µ0 I rdθ
= ·
4π r2
µ0 I
Z 2π

FT
B= dθ
4πr 0
µ0 I
= (10.81.2)
2b
We know from Faraday’s Law, a changing magnetic flux induces a EMF,

E = (10.81.3)
dt
RA
where Φ = BA. The magnetic flux becomes
µ0 I
Φ= · πa2 (10.81.4)
2b
The induced EMF becomes
µ0 π
!
a2 dI
E =
2 b dt
µ0 π
!
a2
= ωI0 sin ωt (10.81.5)
2 b
D

## 10.82 Zeeman Effect and the emission spectrum of atomic

gases
Another knowledge based question best answered by the process of elimination.

## Stern-Gerlach Experiemnt The Stern-Gerlach Experiment has nothing to do with

spectral emissions. This experiment, performed by O. Stern and W. Gerlach
in 1922 studies the behavior of a beam atoms being split in two as they pass
through a non-uniform magnetic field.

128 GR8677 Exam Solutions
Stark Effect The Stark Effect deals with the shift in spectral lines in the presence of
electrical fields; not in magnetic fields.

Nuclear Magnetic Moments of atoms Close, the splitting seen in the Stern-Gerlach
Experiment is due to this. Emission spectrum typically deals with electrons and
so we would expect it to deal with electrons on some level.

Emission lines are split in two Closer but still not accurate. There is splitting but in
some cases it may be more than two.

Emission lines are greater or equal than in the absence of the magnetic field This we
know to be true.

The difference in the emission spectrum of a gas in a magnetic field is due to the
Zeeman effect.

FT

## 10.83 Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density

Gases
RA
We expect the spectral lines to be broader in a high density gas and narrower in a low
density gas ue to the increased colissions between the molecules. Atomic collisions
add another mechanism to transfer energy.

## 10.84 Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation

To determine the term symbol for the sodium ground state, we start with the electronic
D

configuration. This is easy as they have given us the number of electrons the element
has thus allowing us to fill sub-shells using the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We get

## 1s2 , 2s2 , 2p6 , 3s1 (10.84.1)

We are most interested in the 3s1 sub-shell and can ignore the rest of the filled sub-
shells. As we only have one valence electron then ms = +1/2. Now we can calculate
the total spin quantum number, S. As there is only one unpaired electron,

1
S= (10.84.2)
2
Now we can calculate the total angular momentum quantum number, J = L + S. As
the 3s sub-shell is half filled then
L=0 (10.84.3)

Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb 129
This gives us
1
J= (10.84.4)
2
and as L = 0 then we use the symbol S. Thus our term equation becomes
2
S 12 (10.84.5)

## 10.85 Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb

Check Brehm p. 789

## 10.86 The Ice Pail Experiment

FT
Gauss’ law is equivalent to Coulomb’s Law because Coulomb’s Law is an inverse
square law; testing one is a valid test of the other. Much of our knowledge of the
consequences of the inverse square law came from the study of gravity. Jason Priestly
RA
knew that there is no gravitational field within a spherically symmetrical mass distri-
bution. It was suspected that was the same reason why a charged cork ball inside a
charged metallic container isn’t attracted to the walls of a container.

## 10.87 Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules

To answer this question, we will turn to the equipartition of energy equation
D

!
f
cv = R (10.87.1)
2

where f is the number of degrees of freedom. In the case of Model I, we see that

## Degrees of Freedom Model I Model II

Translational 3 3
Rotational 2 2
Vibrational 0 2
Total 5 7

## Table 10.87.1: Specific Heat, cv for a diatomic molecule

130 GR8677 Exam Solutions
So the specific heats for Models I & II are
5 7
cvI = Nk cvII = Nk
2 2

Choice A From our above calculations, we see that cvI = 5/2Nk. So this choice is
WRONG.
Choice B Again, our calculations show that the specific heat for Model II is larger than
than of Model I. This is due to the added degrees of freedom (vibrational) that it
possesses. So this choice is WRONG.
C & D They both contradict the other and they both contradict Choice (E).
E This is TRUE. We know that at higher temperatures we have an additional degree

FT
of freedom between our diatomic molecule.

## 10.88 Fermion and Boson Pressure

RA
To answer this question, we must understand the differences between fermions and
bosons. Fermions follow Fermi-Dirac statistics and their behavior is obey the Pauli
Exclusion Principle. Basically, this states that no two fermions may have the same
quantum state. Bosons on the other hand follow Bose-Einstein statistics and several
bosons can occupy the same quantum state.
As the temperature of a gas drops, the particles are going to fill up the available energy
states. In the case of fermions, as no two fermions can occupy the same state, then
these particles will try to occupy all the energy states it can until the highest is filled.
Bosons on the other hand can occupy the same state, so they will all ‘group’ together
for the lowest they can. Classically, we don’t pay attention to this grouping, so based
D

## on our analyis, we expect,

PF > PC > PB (10.88.1)
where PB is the boson pressure, PC is the pressure with no quantum effects taking place
and PF to be the fermion pressure.

## 10.89 Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles

We are given the wavefunction of two identical particles,
1 h i
ψ = √ ψα (x1 )ψβ (x2 ) + ψβ (x1 )ψα (x2 ) (10.89.1)
2

Energy Eigenstates 131
This is a symmetric function and satisfies the relation

## ψαβ (x2 , x1 ) = ψαβ (x1 , x2 ) (10.89.2)

Symmetric functions obey Bose-Einstein statistics and are known as bosons. Upon
examination of our choices, we see that19

electrons fermion

positrons fermion

protons fermion

neutron fermion

FT
deutrons Boson

## Incidentally, a anti-symmetric function takes the form,

1 h i
ψ = √ ψα (x1 )ψβ (x2 ) − ψβ (x1 )ψα (x2 ) (10.89.3)
2

## and satisfies the relation

RA
ψαβ (x2 , x1 ) = −ψαβ (x1 , x2 ) (10.89.4)
These obey Fermi-Dirac Statistics and are known as fermions.

## 10.90 Energy Eigenstates

We may recognize this wavefunction from studying the particle in an infinite well
D

## problem and see this is the n = 2 wavefunction. We know that

En = n2 E0 (10.90.1)

## We are given that E2 = 2 eV. So

1
E0 = E2
n2
2
= eV
4
1
= eV (10.90.2)
2
19
You could have easily played the ‘one of thes things is not like the other...’ game

132 GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.91 Bragg’s Law

## We recall Bragg’s Law

2d sin θ = nλ (10.91.1)
Plugging in what we know, we determine λ to be

= 2(3 Å)(0.5)
=3Å (10.91.2)

## We employ the de Broglie relationship between wavelength and momentum

FT
h
p= (10.91.3)
λ
We get

h
mv =
λ
h
⇒v=

RA
6.63 × 10−34
= (10.91.4)
(9.11 × 10−31 )(3 × 10( − 10))

We can determine the order of our answer by looking at the relevant indices

D

## ∆` = ±1 Orbital angular momentum

∆m` = 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆ms = 0 Secondary spin quantum number,
∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum

We have no selection rules for spin, ∆s, so we can eliminate this choice.

Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane 133
10.93 Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane
We know the work done on a body by a force is

W =F×x (10.93.1)

We can relate this to the power of the sander; power is the rate at which work is done.
So
dW
P=
dt
dx
= F = Fv (10.93.2)
dt
The power of the sander can be calculated

FT
P = VI (10.93.3)

where V and I are the voltage across and the current through the sander. By equating
the Mechanical Power, eq. (10.93.2) and the Electrical Power, eq. (10.93.3), we can
determine the force that the motor exerts on the belt.

F=
VI
v
RA
120 × 9
=
10
= 108 N (10.93.4)

## The sander is motionless, so

F − µR = 0 (10.93.5)
where R is the normal force of the sander pushing against the wood. Thus the coefficient
of friction is
F 108
µ= = = 1.08 (10.93.6)
D

R 100

10.94 RL Circuits
When the switch, S, is closed, a magnetic field builds up within the inductor and the
inductor stores energy. The charging of the inductor can be derived from Kirchoff’s
Rules.
dI
E − IR − L = 0 (10.94.1)
dt
and the solution to this is
R1 t
  
I(t) = I0 1 − exp (10.94.2)
L

134 GR8677 Exam Solutions
where the time constant, τ1 = L/R1 .
We can find the voltage across the resistor, R1 , by multiplying the above by R1 , giving
us
R1 t
  
V(t) = R1 · I0 1 − exp
L
R1 t
  
= E 1 − exp (10.94.3)
L
The potential at A can be found by measuring the voltage across the inductor. Given
that

E − VR1 − VL = 0
∴ VL = E − VR1

FT
R1 t
 
= E exp (10.94.4)
L

This we know to be an exponential decay and (fortunately) limits our choices to either
(A) or (B)20
The story doesn’t end here. If the inductor was not present, the voltage would quickly
drop and level off to zero but with the inductor present, a change in current means a
change in magnetic flux; the inductor opposes this change. We would expect to see a
RA
reversal in the potential at A. Since both (A) and (B) show this flip, we need to think
some more.
The energy stored by the inductor is

1 1 E 2
 
UL = LI02 = L (10.94.5)
2 2 R1

With S opened, the inductor is going to dump its energy across R2 and assuming that
the diode has negligible resistance, all of this energy goes to R2 . Thus
D

!2
1 VR2
U= L (10.94.6)
2 R2

## The above two equations are equal, thus

E VR2
=
R1 R2
VR2 = 3E (10.94.7)

We expect the potential at A to be larger when S is opened. Graph (B) fits this choice.
20
If you get stuck beyond this point, you can guess. The odds are now in your favor.

Carnot Cycles 135
10.95 Carnot Cycles

The Carnot Cycle is made up of two isothermal transformations, KL and MN, and two
adiabatic transformations, LM and NK. For isothermal transformations, we have

## For adiabatic transformations, we have

PV γ = a constant (10.95.2)

where γ = CP /CV .
For the KL transformation, dU = 0.

FT
Q2 = WK→L
Z VL
∴ WK→L = PdV
VK
VK
 
= nRT2 ln (10.95.3)
VL

## For the LM transformation,

RA
γ γ
PL VL = PM VM (10.95.4)
For the MN transformation, dU = 0.

Q1 = WM→N
Z VN
∴ WM→N = PdV
VM
VN
 
= nRT1 ln (10.95.5)
VM
D

## For the NK transformation,

γ γ
PN VN = PK VK (10.95.6)
Dividing eq. (10.95.4) and eq. (10.95.6), gives
γ γ
PL VL PM VM
γ = γ
PK VK PN VN
VL VM
∴ = (10.95.7)
VK VN

## The effeciency of an engine is defined

Q1
η=1− (10.95.8)
Q2

136 GR8677 Exam Solutions
We get
Q1 −WM→N
η=1− =1−
Q2 W
  K→L
nRT1 ln VM
VN
=1−  
nRT2 ln VK
VL
T1
=1− (10.95.9)
T2
1. We see that
Q1 T1
1− =1−
Q2 T2
Q1 T1
∴ = (10.95.10)

FT
Q2 T2
Thus choice (A) is true.
2. Heat moves from the hot reservoir and is converted to work and heat. Thus
Q2 = Q1 + W (10.95.11)
The entropy change from the hot reservoir
dQ2
S=
RA
(10.95.12)
T
As the hot reservoir looses heat, the entropy decreases. Thus choice (B) is true.
3. For a reversible cycle, there is no net heat flow over the cycle. The change in
entropy is defined by Calusius’s Theorem.
I
dQ
=0 (10.95.13)
T
We see that the entropy of the system remains the same. Thus choice (C) is false.
D

## 4. The efficieny is defined

W
η= (10.95.14)
Q2
This becomes
Q1
η=1−
Q2
Q2 − Q1
= (10.95.15)
Q2
Thus W = Q2 − Q1 . So choice (D) is true,
5. The effeciency is based on an ideal gas and has no relation to the substance used.
So choice (E) is also true.

First Order Perturbation Theory 137
10.96 First Order Perturbation Theory
Perturbation Theory is a procedure for obtaining approximate solutions for a perturbed
state by studying the solutions of the unperturbed state. We can, and shouldn’t,
calculate this in the exam.
We can get the first order correction to be ebergy eigenvalue
0
E1n = hψ0n |H |ψ0n i (10.96.1)

From there we can get the first order correction to the wave function
X hψ0 |H0 |ψ0 i
m n
ψ1n = 0 0
 (10.96.2)
m,n
En − Em

FT
and can be expressed as X
ψ1n = c(n)
m ψm
0
(10.96.3)
m,n

you may recognize this as a Fourier Series and this will help you knowing that the
perturbing potential is one period of a saw tooth wave. And you may recall that the
Fourier Series of a saw tooth wave form is made up of even harmonics.
RA
10.97 Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular
Momentum
As the disk moves, it possessed both angular and linear momentums. We can not
exactly add these two as they, though similar, are quite different beasts. But we can
define a linear angular motion with respect to some origin. As the two discs hit each
other, they fuse. This slows the oncoming disc. We can calculate the linear angular
D

momentum
L=r×p (10.97.1)
where p is the linear momentum and r is the distance from the point P to the center of
disc I. This becomes

Lv0 = MR × v0
= −MRv0 (10.97.2)

## It’s negative as the cross product of R and v0 is negative.

The Rotational Angular Momentum is

## Lω0 = Iω0 (10.97.3)

21
Griffiths gives a similar problem in his text

138 GR8677 Exam Solutions
Adding eq. (10.97.3) and eq. (10.97.2) gives the total angular momentum.

L = Lω0 + Lv0
= Iω0 − MRv0
1 1
= MR2 ω0 − MR2 ω0
2 2
=0

## Thus the total angular momentum at the point P is zero.

FT
10.98 Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod

We have charge uniformly distributed along the glass rod. It’s linear charge density is

Q dQ
λ= = (10.98.1)
` dx

## The Electric Potential is defined

RA
q
V(x) = (10.98.2)
4π0 x

We can ‘slice’ our rod into infinitesimal slices and sum them to get the potential of the
rod.
1 λdx
dV = (10.98.3)
4π0 x
We assume that the potential at the end of the rod, x = ` is V = 0 and at some point
away from the rod, x, the potential is V. So
D

V Z x
λ
Z
dx
dV =
0 4π0 ` x
λ x
 
= ln (10.98.4)
4π0 `

## Where x = 2`, eq. (10.98.4) becomes

Q 1 2`
 
V= ln
` 4π0 `
Q 1
= ln 2 (10.98.5)
` 4π0

Ground State of a Positronium Atom 139
10.99 Ground State of a Positronium Atom
Positronium consists of an electron and a positron bound together to form an “exotic”
atom. As the masses of the electron and positron are the same, we must use a reduced-
mass correction factor to determine the enrgy levels of this system.22 . The reduced
mass of the system is
1 1 1
= + (10.99.1)
µ me mp
Thus /mu is
me · mp
µ=
me + mp
me
= (10.99.2)

FT
2
The ground state of the Hydrogen atom, in terms of the reduced mass is
µ
E1 = − E0
me
1
= − E0 (10.99.3)
2
where E0 = 13.6 eV.
RA

## 10.100 The Pinhole Camera

A pinhole camera is simply a camera with no lens and a very small aperature. Light
passes through this hole to produce an inverted image on a screen. For the photography
buffs among you, you know that by varying the size of a camera’s aperature can
D

accomplish various things; making the aperature bigger allows more light to enter and
produces a “brighter” picture while making the aperature smaller produces a sharper
image.
In the case of the pinhole camera, making the pinhole, or aperature, smaller produces
a sharper image because it reduces “image overlap”. Think of a large hole as a set of
tiny pinholes places close to each other. This results in an infinite amount of images
overlapping each other and hence a blurry image. So to produce a sharp image, it
is best to use the smallest pinhole possible, the tradeoff being an image that’s not as
“bright”.
There are limits to the size of our pinhole. We can not say, for example, use an infinitely
small pinhole the produce the sharpest possible image. Beyond some point diffraction
effects take place and will ruin our image.
22
Place cite here

140 GR8677 Exam Solutions
Consider a pinhole camera of length, D, with a pinhole of diameter, d. We know how
much a beam of light will be diffracted through this pinhole by23

d sin θ = mλ (10.100.1)

this is the equation for the diffraction of a single slit. As θ is small and we will consider
first order diffraction effects, eq. (10.100.1) becomes

dθ = λ
λ
⇒θ= (10.100.2)
d
The “size” of this spread out image is

y = 2θD

FT
2λD
= (10.100.3)
d
So the ‘blur’ of our resulting image is

B= y−d
2λD
= −d (10.100.4)
d
RA
We can see that we want to reduce y as much as possible. i.e. make it d. So eq. (10.100.4)
becomes
2λD
0= −d
d
2λD
∴ =d
d √
Thus d = 2λD (10.100.5)

So we’d want a pinhole of that size to produce or sharpest image possible. This result
D

is close to the result that Lord Rayleigh used, which worked out to be

d = 1.9 Dλ (10.100.6)

23

Chapter 11
GR9277 Exam Solutions

## 11.1 Momentum Operator

We recall the momentum operator is

FT
~
p= ∇
i
(11.1.1)
RA
So the momentum of the particle is

~
pψ = ∇ψ
i
~ ∂
= ψ
i ∂x
~
= · ikei(kx−ωt)
i
= ~kψ (11.1.2)
D

Amswer: (C)

## 11.2 Bragg Diffraction

We know Bragg’s Law to be
2d sin θ = mλ (11.2.1)
where d is the distance between the atomic layers and λ is the wavelength of the
incident X-ray beam. We know that sin θ falls between the 0 and 1 and our longest
wavelength will occur at our first order, m = 1. So

2d = λ (11.2.2)

142 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.3 Characteristic X-Rays

Mosley1 showed that when the square root of an element’s characteristic X-rays are
plotted agianst its atomic number we get a straight line. X-ray spectra is associated
with atoms containg many electrons but in the X-ray regime, excitation removes tightly
bound electrons from the inner orbit near the atom’s nucleus. As these emitted X-rays
are the result of transitions of a single electron, Bohr’s Hydrogen model proves useful.
Thus Mosley’s adaption of Bohr’s model becomes
 
1  1 1 
= Z2 RH  2 − 2  (11.3.1)
λ eff n f ni

FT
where RH is the Rydberg number and Zeff is the effective charge parameter that replaces
the nuclear charge index, Z. The effective charge comes into play because the transition
electron sees a nuclear charge that is smaller than Ze as the other electrons shield the
nucleus from view. Thus our effective “shielding” constant, z f is

Zeff = Z − z f (11.3.2)

## For the Kα series, z f = 1, we get

RA
1 1 3
 
2
EKα = hυKα = (Z − 1) 2
− 2 13.6 eV = (Z − 1)2 13.6eV (11.3.3)
1 2 4

So

EC (ZC − 1)2
=
EMg Z − 12
Mg

(6 − 1)2
=
(12 − 1)2
D

25 1
= ≈ (11.3.4)
121 5
1
4
1
Henry G. J. Moseley (1887-1915) was described by Rutherford as his most talented student. In his
early 20’s, he measured and plotted the X-ray frequencies for 40 elements of the periodic table and
showed that the K-alpha X-rays followed a straight line when the atomic number Z versus the square
root of frequency was plotted. This allowed for the sorting of the elements in the periodic table by
atomic number and not mass as was popular at the time.
Moseley volunteered for combat duty with the Corps of Royal Engineers during World War I and was
killed in action by a sniper at age 27 during the attack in the Battle of Gallipoli. It is widely speculated
that because of his death, British and other world governments bagan a policy of no longer allowing
scientists to enlist for combat.

Gravitation I 143
11.4 Gravitation I

The Force due to gravity, Newton’s Law of Gravitation, follows an inverse square law

GMm
F= (11.4.1)
r2
or rather
1 1
F(R) ∝ F(2R) ∝ (11.4.2)
R2 2R
Dividing, we get

F(R) (2R)2
=
F(2R) R2

FT
=4 (11.4.3)

11.5 Gravitation II
RA
Newton’s Law of Gravitation becomes a linear law inside a body. So

F∝r (11.5.1)

Thus
F(R) ∝ R F(2R) ∝ 2R (11.5.2)
Dividing the two equations gives us

F(R) R
= R
D

F(2R) 2
=2 (11.5.3)

## 2. Total torque is zero

144 GR9277 Exam Solutions
We can determine the reaction on the two wedges to be

2R = 2mg + Mg
Mg
⇒ R = mg + (11.6.1)
2

As the block rests on the wedges, its weight causes it to push out on the two blocks.
There are horizontal and vertical components to this force; the horizontal component
being of interest to us
FB cos θ = Mg (11.6.2)

where θ = 45◦ . Since the wedges aren’t moving, this is also equal to the frictional force.
This force on the wedge has a horizontal component where

FT
Mg
Fx = F sin θ = (11.6.3)
2

FR = µR (11.6.4)

Fx = FR
RA
" #
Mg Mg
=µ m+
2 2
2µm
∴M= (11.6.5)
1−µ

## 11.7 Coupled Pendulum

D

From what we know about coupled pendulums, there are two modes in which this
system can oscillate. The first is when the two pendulum masses oscillate out of phase
with each other. As they oscillate, there is a torsional effect on the tube and we expect to
see the effects of its mass, M somewhere in the equation. The second occurs when the
two masses swing in phase with each other. As they are in phase, there is no torsional
effect on the connecting tube and the mode would be that of a single pendulum. So
our modes of oscillation are
r
g (M + 2m)
r
g
ω=0 ; ω= and ω= (11.7.1)
`M `

Torque on a Cone 145
11.8 Torque on a Cone

## The Torque is defined

τ=r×F (11.8.1)
We are looking for a negative k̂ vector so we are looking for answers with î and ĵ cross
products. With this in mind we can easily eliminate answers (A), (B) and (E). From the
above, the torque is defined
î jˆ k̂
τ = rx r y rz (11.8.2)
Fx F y Fz

Choice C

FT

î jˆ k̂
τ = −b 0 c
0 a 0

Choice D
RA

î jˆ k̂
τ = b 0 c
0 a 0

D

## 11.9 Magnetic Field outside a Coaxial Cable

If we were to draw an Amperian loop around the outside of the cable, the enclosed
current is zero. We recall Ampere’s Law,
I
B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed (11.9.1)

As Ienclosed = 0, then the magnetic induction at P(r > c), is also zero2 .
2
Think of the two resulting fields cancelling each other out.

146 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.10 Image Charges
The grounded conducting plate will act as a ‘charge mirror’ to our two positive charges,
producing two negative charges, −q at −0.5a and −2q at −1.5a. We can solve this using
the vector form of Coulomb’s Law but it is simpler to realize that the forces on the q
charge all act in the negative-x direction thusl allowing us to sum their magnitudes.

## Force between the −2q and q charges

−2q2
F(−2q)(q) = (11.10.1)
4π0 (2.0a)2

## Force between the −q and q charges

FT
−q2
F(−q)(q) = (11.10.2)
4π0 (a)2

## Force between the +2q and q charges

2q2
F(2q)(q) = (11.10.3)
4π0 (a)2
RA
Adding eq. (11.10.1), eq. (11.10.2) and eq. (11.10.3) gives

1 7q2
F= (11.10.4)
4π0 2a2

D

## The Energy stored in a Capacitor is

1
U = CV 2 (11.11.1)
2

The time for the potential difference across a capacitor to decrease is given by

t
 
V = V0 exp − (11.11.2)
RC

The energy stored in the capacitor is half of its initial energy, this becomes

1
U = U0 (11.11.3)
2

Potential Across a Wedge Capacitor 147
where U0 is the initial stored energy. We can find eq. (11.11.3) in terms of C and V,

1 1
CV 2 = CV02
2 2
V0
⇒V = 2
(11.11.4)
2
Substituting eq. (11.11.2) into the above equation gives
 V2
2t

V02 exp − = 0
RC 2
Solving for t gives
RC ln 2
t= (11.11.5)
2

FT

## 11.12 Potential Across a Wedge Capacitor

We are told that the plates of this capacitor is large which allows us to assume that
the field is uniform between the plates except maybe at the edges. As the capacitor is
RA
sufficiently large enough we can ignore the edge effects.
At α the potential is V0 . As we have a linear relationship, the potential is proportional
to the angle, ϕ. Thus
V0 ϕ
V= (11.12.1)
α

## 11.13 Magnetic Monopoles

D

The Maxwell Equations deal with electric and magnetic fields to the motion of electric
charges and disallow for magnetic charges. If we were to allow for a ‘magnetic charge’
or magnetic monopole, we would also have to allow for a ‘magnetic current’. As we
do have electrical charges and currents and equations describing them, we can observe
how they differ of our magnetic equations to come up with an answer.

Equation I.: Ampère’s Law This relates the magnetic field to an electrical current and
a changing electric field.

Equation II: Faraday’s Law of Induction This equation is similar to Ampère’s Law
except there is no ‘magnetic current’ component. As we have stated above, the
presence of a magnetic charge will lead us to assume a magnetic current, this is
one of the equations that would be INCORRECT.

148 GR9277 Exam Solutions
Equation III.: Gauss’ Law Here we see that the distribution of an electric charge gives
us an electric field.
Equation IV.:Gauss’ Law for Magnetism This is similar to Gauss’ Law above except
that we have no ‘magnetic charge’. If we did assume for monopoles, this equation
would not be zero, so this equation would also be INCORRECT

## 11.14 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation

The Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation says that the total energy emitted by a black body is
proportional to the fourth power of its temperature, T.

FT
E = σT4

E1 = σ(2T)4 = 8σT4 = 8E
(11.14.1)
If we were to double the temperature of this blackbody, the energy emitted would be
(11.14.2)
Let C be the heat capacitance of a mass of water, the energy to change its temperature
by a half degree is
RA
E = C∆T (11.14.3)
where δT = 0.5 K. At T1 = 2T, the energy used is 8E, so
E1 = 8E = 8C∆T (11.14.4)
So the temperature change is eight degrees.

## 11.15 Specific Heat at Constant Volume

D

To determine the specific heat at constant volume we identify the degrees of freedom
or the ways the molecule can move; translational and rotational. The question also
adds that we are looking at high temperatures, so we have to add another degree of
freedom; vibrational.
Translational = 3
Rotational = 2
Vibrational = 2
We recall the formula, eq. (4.22.1) we used to determine the specific heat per mole at
constant volume, CV
!
f
CV = R = 4.16 f J mol−1 K−1 (11.15.1)
2

Carnot Engines and Efficiencies 149
where f = 7 Thus, CV is
7
 
CV = R (11.15.2)
2

## 11.16 Carnot Engines and Efficiencies

The efficiency of an engine is the ratio of the work we get out of it to the energy we put
in. So
Wout
e= (11.16.1)
Ein
A Carnot Engine is theoretically the most efficient engine. Its efficiency is

FT
Tc
e=1− (11.16.2)
Th

where Tc and Th are the temperatures of our cold and hot reservoirs respectively. We
must remember that this represents absolute temperature, so

## Tc = 527 + 273 = 800 K

Th = 727 + 273 = 1000 K
RA
Plugging this into eq. (11.16.2), we get
800
e=1− = 0.2 (11.16.3)
1000
So the work our engine performs is

D

## 11.17 Lissajous Figures

This question deals with Lissajous figures. These can be drawn graphically with the
use of your favorite programming language or with the use of an oscilloscope. Before
the days where digital frequency meters were prevalent, this was a common method to
determine the frequency of a signal. To generate these figures, one signal was applied
across the horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope and the other applied across
the vertical deflection plates. The resulting pattern traces a design that is the ratio of
the two frequencies.3
3
If you’ve never seen this in the lab, one of the best examples where this can be seen is during the
opening sequence of the 1950’s TV series, “The Outer Limits”. “We will control the horizontal. We will
control the vertical. We can roll the image, make it flutter....”

150 GR9277 Exam Solutions
With this basic understanding we can determine signals in the X and Y inputs to our
oscilloscope. Each figure represents a trace over a full period.

## 11.18 Terminating Resistor for a Coaxial Cable

Terminating a coaxial cable is important as it reduces refelctions and maximizes power
transfer across a large bandwidth. The best way to think of this is to think of a wave
propagating along a string, any imperfections will cause the wave’s energy to either
be attenuated or reflected across this boundary.4

Choice A The terminating resistor doesn’t prevent leakage, the outer core of the cable

FT
was designed to confine the signal. Your coaxial cable is a waveguide.
Choice B The cable doesn’t transmit enough power to cause over heating along it’s
length.
Choice C This is correct. The resistor essentially attenuates the remaining power
across itself, making it seem that the wave gets propagated across an infinite
length i.e. no reflections.
RA
Choice D This won’t prevent attenuation across the cable. The cable has a natural
impedance which will attenuate the signal to a degree. The terminating resistor
absorbs the remaining power so no signal gets refelcted back5 .
Choice E Improbable since the outer sheath’s purpose is to cancel out these currents.

## 11.19 Mass of the Earth

D

There are many ways to tackle this question which depends on what you know. You
may already know the mass of the earth for one, which may make things convenient
and a time saver. The density of the earth is approximately that of Iron, if you knew
that and the volume of the earth, you would get an answer where

M = ρV
= 7870 × 109 × 1021
= 8 × 1024 kg (11.19.1)
4
You may be familiar or have seen the use of terminating resistors if you’ve dabbled in computers
or electronics for the past couple of years. SCSI cables made use of terminating resistors as you daisy
chained your drives across the cable. In the time when 10BASE2 ethernet networks were prevalent, the
use of a 50 Ω BNC Terminator was of utmost importance or your computers would have lost connectivity.
5
Think Maximum Power Transfer

Slit Width and Diffraction Effects 151
Of course, if you want to apply some real Physics, we start with Newton’s Gravitation
Equation
GM
g= 2 (11.19.2)
RE
Solving for M, we get

gR2E
M=
G
(9.8)(6.4 × 106 )2
= kg (11.19.3)
6.67 × 10−11
1 + 12 + 11 = 24 (11.19.4)

FT
So our answer is of the magnitude 1024 kg.

## 11.20 Slit Width and Diffraction Effects

We are familar with the Double slit experiment and interference and can recall the
RA
equation where
d sin θ = mλ (11.20.1)
where d is the distance between the slit centers and m is the order maxima.
As the width of the slit gets smaller, the wave gets more and more spread out due
to diffraction effects. If it gets wide enough, it will spread out the widths of the
interference pattern and eventually ‘erase’ it. We recall the equation for the single slit
interference
w sin θ = nλ (11.20.2)
For this ‘swamping out’ effect to occur, the mth and nth orders must align. The ratios
D

## between them will be

d sin θ mλ
=
w sin θ nλ
d m
∴ = >1 (11.20.3)
w n
As m and n are integers and m > n, answer (D) fits this criteria.

## 11.21 Thin Film Interference of a Soap Film

Based on our knowledge of waves and interference we can eliminate choices

152 GR9277 Exam Solutions
Choice I This is an impossibility. Light isn’t ‘absorbed’. Destructive interference can
take place and energy is ‘redistributed’ to areas of constructive interferece. The
soap film can’t absorb energy without it going somewhere.

Choice II This is CORRECT. At the front of the soap film, there is a phase change
of 180°as the soap film as a refractive index greater than air. The part that gets
transmitted through this film gets reflected by the back part of the film with no
phase change as air has a lower refractive index. This means that the two waves
are out of phase with each other and interfere destructively.

Choice III Yes, this is true. Light comes from a less dense medium, air, and bounces
off a more dense medium, soap, there is a phase change. There is no phase change
for the transmitted wave through the soap film.

Choice IV Inside the soap film, the wave meets an interface from an optically more

FT
dense medium to a less dense one. There is no phase change.

From the above, we see that choices II, III and IV are all true.

## 11.22 The Telescope

RA
The Magnification of the Telescope is

fo
M= (11.22.1)
fe

where fo and fe are the focal lengths of the objective and eyepiece lens respectively.
From the information given to us, we know that
fo
fe = = 0.1 m (11.22.2)
D

10
The optical path length is simply

d = f0 + fe
= 1.0 + 0.1 = 1.1 m (11.22.3)

## 11.23 Fermi Temperature of Cu

The Fermi Temperature is related to the Fermi Energy by

EF = kTF (11.23.1)

Bonding in Argon 153
This is also the kinetic energy of the system,

1
EF = me v2 (11.23.2)
2
Solving for v
r
2kTF
v=
me
r
2(1.38 × 10−23 )(8 × 104 )
= (11.23.3)
9.11 × 10−31
−23 + 4 + 31
=6 (11.23.4)

FT
2
We are looking for speeds to be in the order of 106 m s−1 .

## 11.24 Bonding in Argon

RA
We recall that Argon is a noble gas. This means that its outermost electron shell is filled
and thus unable to bond by conventional means. It won’t bond ionically as this method
involves either giving up or receiving electrons. A full electron shell means that this
will be difficult without some effort. In covalent bonds, electrons are shared between
atoms. Again, because the shell is filled, there is no place to share any electrons.
A metallic bond involves a positive charge, the nucleus, ‘swimming in a sea of free
electrons. Again, with Argon, all of its electrons are tightly bound and hence have no
free electrons.
This leaves us with van der Waal bonds. van der Waal forces occur between atoms or
molecules of the same type and occur due to variances in charge distribution in the
D

## 11.25 Cosmic rays

For our cosmic rays to reach deep underground, we are looking for particles that are
essentiall massless and pass through matter easily.

A Alpha particles and neutrons have high kinetic energy but very short penetrating
depth. This is primarily due to their masses. So we can eliminate this.

B protons and electrons don’t penetrate much as they interact easily with matter.

154 GR9277 Exam Solutions
C Iron and Carbon nuclei are very heavy and interact very easily with matter. We
would not expect them to penetrate far, much less deep underground.
D muons and neutrinos. A muon is esseentially a ‘heavy’ electron they don’t emit
much brenstraalung radiation and hence are highly penetrating. Neutrinos have
almost no mass and travel close to the speed of light. In the beginning it was
dispited whether they had any mass at all. These two particles fit our choices.
E positrons and electrons. Thes two are highly interacting with matter.

FT
N = N0 exp[−λt] (11.26.1)
Where λ is the decay constant. At t = 0 on the graph, the count rate is N = 6 × 103
counts per minute. We are looking for the time when N = 3 × 103 counts per minute,
which falls at around t = 7 minutes.6
RA
11.27 The Wave Function and the Uncertainty Principle
We are told that a free moving electron is somewhere in the region, ∆x0 and it’s wave
function is Z +∞
ψ(x, t) = ei(kx−ωt) f (k)dk (11.27.1)
−∞
The “stationary states” of free particles are propagating waves and according to the
D

## deBroglie relation, carry momentum,

p = ~k (11.27.2)
6
You may wonder what the presence of the log10 = 0.03 and log10 e = 0.43 is there for. It simply
means that you will go down three divisions on the y-axis to get the half life count. We see that from
eq. (11.26.1),
dN = −λNdt (11.26.2)
Integrating gives us
N
Z Z t1
2 dN
= −λ dt
N N t0
ln 2 = t2 − t1
log10 2
∴ = t2 − t1 = ∆t (11.26.3)
log10 e
So at any point on the graph, a change in three divisions on the y-axis will give us the half life.

Probability of a Wave function 155
We know from Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

~
∆x∆p ≥ (11.27.3)
2
Substituting, eq. (11.27.2) into eq. (11.27.3), gives us

## ∆x0 ∆p = ~ (∆x0 ∆k) ≈ ~ (11.27.4)

This simplifies to
1
∆k = (11.27.5)
∆x0

## Given the spherical wave function

ψ(θ, ϕ) = √
30
FT
1  3
5y4 + Y63 − 2Y60

(11.28.1)
RA
where Y`m (θ, ϕ) are the spherical harmonics.
Thus the probability of finding the system in the state where m = 3

52 + 12
P(m = 3) =
52 + 12 + 22
26 13
= = (11.28.2)
30 15
D

## 11.29 Particle in a Potential Well

This tests our knowledge of the properties of a wave function as well as what the
wavefunction of a particle in a potential well looks like. We expect the wave function
and its derivative to be continuous. This eliminates choices (C) & (D). The first is not
continuous and the second the derivative isn’t continuous. We also expect the wave
to be fairly localized in the potential well. If we were to plot the function |ψ|2 , we see
that in the cases of choices (A) & (E), the particle can exist far outside of the well. We
expect the probability to decrease as we move away from the well. Choice (B) meets
this. In fact, we recognize this as the n = 2 state of our wave function.

156 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.30 Ground state energy of the positronium atom

The positronium atom consists of a positron and an electron bound together. As their
masses are the same, we can’t look at this as a standard atom consisting of a proton
and an electron. In our standard atom, it’s center of mass is somewhere close to the
center of mass of the nucleus. In the case of our positronium atom, it’s center of mass
is somewhere in between the electron and positron. This results in a significant change
in energy levels compared to a system where the center of mass is almost positioned
at the center of the nucleus. So it is important we take this correction into account.
To calculate the energy levels of the positronium atom, we need to “reduce” this two
mass system to an effective one mass system. We can do this by calculating its effective
or reduced mass.
1 1 1
= + (11.30.1)

FT
µ mp me

where µ is the reduced mass and mp and me are the masses of the positron and the
electron respectively. As they are the same, µ is
me
µ= (11.30.2)
2
We can now turn to a modified form of Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom to
RA
calculate our energy levels
Z2 µ
En = · 13.6eV (11.30.3)
n2 me
where Z is the atomic mass and n is our energy level. We have calculated that the
reduced mass of our system is half that of Hydrogen. So Z = 1. For the n = 2 state we
have
1 13.6 E0
E2 = · 2 eV = eV (11.30.4)
2 2 8
D

tum

2s+1
Lj (11.31.1)

## For the helium atom of state, 3 S, we see that

2s + 1 = 3
∴s=1 (11.31.2)

Electrical Circuits I 157
We also see that L = S. These have values of S = 0, P = 1, D = 2, F = 3, . . ., thus
`=0 (11.31.3)
and the total angular momentum is
j=s+` (11.31.4)
Thus j = 1 + 0.

## 11.32 Electrical Circuits I

The power dissipated by a resistor, R, is

FT
P = I2 R (11.32.1)
where I is the current through the resisitor. In this case the current through the R1
resistor is the current from the battery, I. After the current passes through R1 , the
current divides as it goes through to the other resistors, so the current passing through
R1 is the maximum current. As the other resistors are close to R1 but have smaller
currents passing through them, the power dissipated by the R1 resistor is the largest.
RA
11.33 Electrical Circuits II
We can find the voltage across the R4 resisitor by determining how the voltage divids
across each resisitors. R3 and R4 are in parallel and so the potential difference across
both resistors are the same. The net resistance is
R3 R4
R3k4 =
R3 + R4
60 · 30
= = 20Ω
D

(11.33.1)
90
This is in parallel with the R5 resistor, so
R5+(3k4) = 20 + 30 = 50Ω (11.33.2)
This net resistance is the same as the R2 resistor. This reduces our circuit to one with
two resistors in series where RT = 25Ω. The voltage across RT is found by using the
voltage divider equation
25
VT = 3.0 V = 1.0 V (11.33.3)
75
This means that the potential across the R3 , R4 and R5 combination is 1.0 V. The voltage
across the R4 resistor is the voltage across the R3 k R4 resistor
20
V4 = 1.0 V = 0.4 V (11.33.4)
50

158 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.34 Waveguides

## 11.35 Interference and the Diffraction Grating

Interference maxima for the diffraction grating is determined by the equation

d sin θm = mλ (11.35.1)

where d is the width of the diffraction grating. We are told that our grating has 2000
lines per cm. This works out to

FT
1 × 10−2
d= = 0.5 × 10−5 m (11.35.2)
2000
As θ is very small, we can approximate sin θ ≈ θ. The above equation can be reduced
to
dθ = λ (11.35.3)
Plugging in what we know
RA
λ
θ=
d
5200 × 10−10
=
0.5 × 10−5

## As the answer choices is in degrees,

180 18
x= · 0.1 = ≈ 6◦ (11.35.5)
π π
D

NOT FINSHED

## 11.37 Decay of the π0 particle

Relativity demands that th photon will travel at the speed of light.

Relativistic Time Dilation and Multiple Frames 159
11.38 Relativistic Time Dilation and Multiple Frames

## For this question we recall the time dilation equation where

∆T
∆T0 = q (11.38.1)
2
1 − uc2

where T is the time measure in the fram at rest and T0 is the time measured in the
frame moving at speed u relative to the rest frame. With the information given in the
question we can see that

∆t1
∆t2 = q (11.38.2)

FT
v2
1 − c122
∆t1
∆t3 = q (11.38.3)
v2
1 − c132

You may think that Answer: (C) is a possible answer but it would be incorrect the
leptons are not in the S2 frame, they are in the S1 frame, so this possibility has no
physical consequence.
RA

## 11.39 The Fourier Series

In most cases, we rarely see pure sine waves in nature, it is often the case our waves
are made up of several sine functions added together. As daunting as this question
may seem, we just have to remember some things about square waves,
D

## 1. We see that our square wave is an odd function so we would expect it to be

made up of sine functions. This allows us to eliminate all but two of our choices;

2. Square waves are made up of odd harmonics. In choice (A), we see that both even
and odd harmonics are included. In the case of choice (B), only odd harmonics
will make up the function.

## As choice (B) meets the criteria we recall, we choose this one.

7
If you got stuck at this point, now would be a good time to guess. The odds are in your favor.

160 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.39.1 Calculation

As we have the time, we see that the function of out square wave is

1
 0 < t < ωπ
V(t) = 

π
(11.39.1)
−1

ω
< t < 2πω

## Our square wave will take the form,

1
V(t) = a0 + a1 cos ωt + a2 cos 2ωt + · · · + an cos nωt+
2
+ b1 sin ωt + b2 sin 2ωt + · · · + bn sin nωt (11.39.2)

an =

bn =
1
π
1
Z

Z
0 FT
2π/ω

2π/ω
V(t) cos nωtdt

(11.39.3)

(11.39.4)
RA
π 0

## "Z π/ω Z 2π/ω #

1
an = (1) cos(nωt)dt + (−1) cos(nωt)dt
π 0 π/ω
 R π/ω R 2π/ω 
 1
dt − π/ω dt for n = 0
π " 0

=

π π
#
  ω   ω
1
 1 1
for n , 0
 π nω sin(nωt) − nω sin(nωt)
D

0 0
 h  i
1 π π
 − 2π
π ω   ω ω π
 − for n = 0
=
 

1
 nπω sin(nωt)|0ω − sin(nωt)| ωπω for n , 0

0
 for n = 0
=

 nπω [sin(nπ) − (sin(2nπ) − sin(nπ))] = 0 for n , 0
 1

## We can see that8

a0 = 0 and an = 0

8
We expected this as we can see that the functions is an odd function. Odd functions are made up of
sine functions.

Rolling Cylinders 161
Now we solve for bn ,
"Z π/ω Z 2π/ω #
1
bn = 1 · sin(nωt)dt −
sin(nωt)dt
π 0 0
  ωπ   2πω 
1  −1 −1
=  cos(nωt) − cos(nωt) 

π nω nω 0 π
ω

1
= [cos(2nπ) − 2 cos(nπ) + 1]
nπω
2 − 2(−1)n
=
 nπω
0
 for even n
= (11.39.5)

4
 nπω for odd n

FT
We can write this as
4
V(t) = sin(nωt) for all odd values of n (11.39.6)
nπω
or we can say
n = 2m + 1 for all values of m (11.39.7)

4 X 1
V(t) = sin((2m + 1)ωt) (11.39.8)
πω m=0 2m + 1
RA
11.40 Rolling Cylinders
At the pont of contact, the cylinder is not moving. We do see the center of the
cylinder moving at speed, v and the top of the cylinder moving at speed, 2v. Thus the
acceleration acting at the point of contact is the cetripetal acceleration, which acts in
an upwards direction.
D

## 11.41 Rotating Cylinder I

We recall that the change in kinetic energy of a rotating body is
1  
∆K = I ω2f − ω2i (11.41.1)
2
This becomes
1  
∆K = 4 802 − 402
2
= 9600 J (11.41.2)
9
Definitely not something you have lots of time to do in the exam.

162 GR9277 Exam Solutions

## 11.42 Rotating Cylinder II

Again we recall our equations of motion of a rotating body under constant angular
acceleration. Fortunatley, they are similar to the equations for linear motion

ω = ω0 + αt (11.42.1)

Plugging in the values we were given, we can find the angular acceleration, α,

The torque is

FT
τ = Iα (11.42.3)
Which works out to be
τ = 16 Nm (11.42.4)

## 11.43 Lagrangian and Generalized Momentum

RA
We recall that the Lagrangian of a system is

L=T−V (11.43.1)

## and in generalized coordinates, this looks like

1
L = mq̇2n − U(qn ) (11.43.2)
2
We can find the equations of motion from this
D

d ∂L ∂L
!
= (11.43.3)
dt ∂q̇n ∂qn

## We are told that

∂L
=0 (11.43.4)
∂qn
or rather
d ∂L
!
=0 (11.43.5)
dt ∂q̇n
We can see that the generalized momentum is
∂L
= mq̇n = pn (11.43.6)
∂q̇n

Lagrangian of a particle moving on a parabolic curve 163
and that
d
mq̇n = mq̈n = 0 (11.43.7)
dt
So we expect the generalized momentum, pn is constant.

## 11.44 Lagrangian of a particle moving on a parabolic

curve
As the particle is free to move in the x and y planes, Lagrangian of the system is
L=T−V

FT
1 1
= m ẏ2 + mẋ2 − mgy (11.44.1)
2 2
We are given a realtinship between y and x, where
y = ax2 (11.44.2)
Differentiating this with respect to time gives
ẏ = 2axẋ (11.44.3)
Subsitutung this into eq. (11.44.1), gives us
RA
ẏ2
" #
1
L = m ẏ + 2
− mgy (11.44.4)
2 4ay

## 11.45 A Bouncing Ball

As the ball falls from a height of h, its potential energy s converted into kineic energy.
D

1
E = mgh = mv2i (11.45.1)
2
Upon hitting the floor, the ball bounces but some of the energy is lost and its speed is
80% of what it was before
v f = 0.8vi (11.45.2)
As it rises, its kinetic energy is converted into potential energy
1 2
mv = mgh2
2 f
1
= m(0.8vi )2 (11.45.3)
2
= mgh2
⇒ h2 = 0.64h (11.45.4)

164 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.46 Phase Diagrams I
NOT FINISHED

## 11.47 Phase Diagrams II

NOT FINISHED

FT
11.48 Error Analysis
The error for Newton’s equation, F = ma, would be
 σ 2
σm σa
 2  2
f
= + (11.48.1)
F m a
RA
11.49 Detection of Muons
The muons travel a distance of 3.0 meters. As muons move at relativistic speeds, near
the speed of light, the time taken for a photon to traverse this distance is the time
needed to distinguish between up travelling muons and down travelling muons.
x 3.0
t= = seconds (11.49.1)
c 3.0 × 108
D

NOT FINISHED

## 11.51 Particle in an Infinite Well

We recall that the momentum operator is
~ d
p= (11.51.1)
i dx

Particle in an Infinite Well II 165
and the expectation value of the momentum is

## hpi = hψ∗n |p|ψn i

Z !
∗ ~ d
= ψn ψn dx (11.51.2)
i dx
Given that r
2 nπx
 
ψn = sin (11.51.3)
a a
eq. (11.51.2) becomes
r Z a
~ nπ 2 nπx nπx
   
hpi = sin cos dx
i a a 0 a a
=0 (11.51.4)

## 11.52 Particle in an Infinite Well II

This is the very defintion of orthonormality.
FT
RA

## 11.53 Particle in an Infinite Well III

We recall that Schrödinger’s Equation is

~2 d2 ψ
− + V(x) = Eψ (11.53.1)
2m dx2
D

## within the region 0 < x < a, V(x) = 0, thus

~2 d2 ψ
− = Eψ
2m dx2
d2 ψ 2mE
∴ 2 = −kn2 ψ = − 2 ψ (11.53.2)
dx ~
We see that
kn2 ~2 n2 π2 ~
E= = 2 (11.53.3)
2m a 2m
where n = 1, 2, 3 · · · . So
π2 ~2
E≥ (11.53.4)
2ma2

166 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.54 Current Induced in a Loop II

E =− (11.54.1)
dt
This gives the relationship between the induced EMF and the change in magnetic flux.
The minus sign in the equation comes from Lenz’s Law; the change in flux and the
EMF have opposite signs.
If we use the Right Hand Grip Rule we see that the magnetic flux goes into the page
around the loop. Pulling the loop to the right, moving away from the wire, reduced
the magnetic flux inside the loop. As a result, the loop induces a current to counteract
this reduction in flux and induces a current that will produce a magnetic field acting
in the same direction. Again, using the Right Hand Grip Rule, this induced magnetic

FT
field acting into the page induces a clockwise current in the loop.

## Induced Current Force on Left Side Force on Right Side

Clockwise To the left To the right

## Table 11.54.1: Table showing something

RA
Now we know the current directions, we can determine the forces on the wires. As we
have a current moving through the wire, a motor, we use Fleming’s Left Hand Rule.
From this rule, we see the force on the wire is actin to the left. Using the same principle,
on the right side, the force is acting on the right.

D

## The magnetic force on a length of wire, ` is

FB = I` × B (11.55.1)

We need to calculate the magnetic induction on the left and right sides of the loop. For
this we turn to Ampere’s Law
I
B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed (11.55.2)

## On the left side of the loop,

BL (2πr) = µ0 I
µ0 I
BL = (11.55.3)
2πr

Ground State of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator 167
On the right side of the loop, we have

BR [2π (r + a)] = µ0 I
µ0 I
BR = (11.55.4)
2π (r + a)

## The Magnetic force on the left side becomes

µ0 I
!
FL = ib (11.55.5)
2πr

## and the magnetic force on the right side is

µ0 I
!
FR = ib (11.55.6)

FT
2π (r + a)

We know that from the above question, these forces act in oppsoite directions, so

F = FL − FR
µ0 iIb  1 1

= −
2π " r r + #a
µ0 iIb a
=
RA
(11.55.7)
2π r (r + a)

## 11.56 Ground State of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

We recall that the ground state of the quantum harmonic oscillator to be 21 hν.
D

## The induced EMF follows Lenz Law

E =− (11.57.1)
dt
where Φ = BA, where B is the magnetic field and A is the area of the coil.As the coil
cuts into the field, an EMF is induced. As it starts leaving, an EMF the EMF will change
polarity.

168 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.58 Electronic Configuration of the Neutral Na Atom

The atomic mass, Z, of the neutral Na atom is 11. We want our superscripts to ad to
11. Thus
1s2 , 2s2 , 2p6 , 3s1 (11.58.1)

FT
1s2 (11.59.1)

## The spin of this is

1 1
S= − =0 (11.59.2)
2 2
representing one electron in the spin up and the other in the spin down directions.
Thus the total spin is zero making it a spin singlet.
RA

## As a charged particle enters a transverse magnetic field, it experiences a centripetal

force. Recalling the Lorents Force equation

mv2 v
= Bev where ω =
D

r r
Be
⇒ ωc = (11.60.1)
m
Plugging in what we know, we get

1 × 1.6 × 10−19
ωc =
0.1 × 9.11 × 10−31
Adding the indices of the equation gives an order of magnitude approximation

− 19 + 31 = 12

## Our closest match is 1.8 × 1012 rad/s.

Small Oscillations of Swinging Rods 169
11.61 Small Oscillations of Swinging Rods

## The period of an oscillator given its moment of inertia is10

r
mgd
ω= (11.61.1)
I
where m is the mass, r is the distance from the center of rotation and I is the moment of
inertia. The moment of inertia is essentially dependent on how the mass is distributed
and is defined by
I = mr2 (11.61.2)
In the first case, we have two masses at a distance, r. So its moment of inertia becomes

I1 = 2mr2 (11.61.3)

FT
In the second case, we have one mass at the distance 2r and another mass at r. We can
get the total moment of inertia by adding the moment of inertias of both these masses
5mr2
 2
r
I2 = mr + m
2
= (11.61.4)
2 4
Now the tricky part. The distance d in eq. (11.61.1) is the distance from the pivot to the
center of mass. In the first case it’s the distance from the pivot to the two masses. In
RA
the second case the center of mass is between the two masses. The center of mass can
be found by P
mi ri
rcm = P (11.61.5)
mi
Thus the center of mass for the second pendulum is
mr + m 2r 3
r2 = = r (11.61.6)
2m 4
Now we can determine the angular frequencies of our pendulums. For the first pen-
dulum
D

r
2mgr
ω1 =
2mr2
r
g
= (11.61.7)
r
For the second pendulum
v
t  
3r
(2m)g 4
ω2 = 5
4
mr2
r
6g
= (11.61.8)
5r
10
Show derivation of this equation.

170 GR9277 Exam Solutions
Dividing eq. (11.61.8) by eq. (11.61.7) gives
 6g  21
  12
ω2  5r  6
=  g  = (11.61.9)
ω1 r
5

FT
Z V1
W= PdV (11.62.1)
V0

## As the temperature is constant, we substitute the ideal gas equation

nRT
P= (11.62.2)
V
to give
RA
Z V1
dV
W=
V0 V
V1
 
= nRT ln (11.62.3)
V0

## For one mole of gas, n = 1, gives us

V1
 
W = RT0 ln (11.62.4)
V0
D

This gives11

## 11.63 Maximal Probability

NOT FINISHED12
11
It seems the inclusion of the specific heat ratio was not needed and was there to throw you off. As
Prof. Moody would say, “CONSTANT VIGILANCE!!!”
12

Gauss’ Law 171
11.64 Gauss’ Law

## We recall the principle of Gauss’ Law for electric fields.

I
Q
E · dA = (11.64.1)
S 0

or rather
σ
E= (11.64.2)
0
The presence of a field means the presence of a charge density somewhere.

## 11.65 Oscillations of a small electric charge

FT
In this scenario, we have a charge, −q, placed between two charges, +Q. The net force
on the small charge but if we were to slightly displace this charge it would be pulled
back to its central axis. The force by which it is pulled back is
RA
Qq Qq 2Qq
F= 2
+ 2
= (11.65.1)
4π0 R 4π0 R 4π0 R2

For small oscillations, the vertical displacement is small and doesn’t change the distance
from the large charges by much.
Thus
2Qq
mRω2 = (11.65.2)
4π0 R2
Solving for ω,
D

" # 12
Qq
ω= (11.65.3)
2π0 mR3

## We recall our familar Work equation

Z L Z L
W= F · dx = mg · dx (11.66.1)
0 0

172 GR9277 Exam Solutions
As the chain is pulled up, the mass changes with the length that is hanging. We are
given the linear density so we know the relationship of the chain’s mass to its length13
M m
ρ=
= (11.66.2)
L x
Substituting this into the above equation, we have
Z L
W= ρx · dx
0
L
x2
= ρg
2 0
ρgL2 2(10)(100)
= = = 1000 J (11.66.3)
2 2

## 11.67 Law of Malus and Unpolarized Light

FT
We suspect that the equation might have polarized and unpolarized components.
Having no real idea and all the time in the world, we can derive the equations on what
this might look like. We recall the Law of Malus
RA
Ipo
Ip = Ipo cos2 θ =
[cos 2θ − 1] (11.67.1)
2
Unpolarized light would have the same intensity through all θ so
Iu = Iuo (11.67.2)
The total intensity is the sum of the two intensities
I = Iu + Ip
Ipo
= Iuo + Ipo cos2 θ = [cos 2θ − 1]
2
D

" #
Ipo Ipo
= Iuo − + cos 2θ (11.67.3)
2 2
where
Ipo
A = Iuo − B B=
2
Given that A > B > 0, the above hypothesis holds.
13
There is another way to think of this problem. We are told that the steel chain is uniform, so its
center of mass is in the middle of its length. The work done is the work done in raising the mass of the
chain by this distance. Thus
L L 10
 
W = Mg = ρLg = 2 · 10 · 10 · = 1000 J
2 2 2
As you can see, we get the same result. You may find this solution quicker.

Telescopes and the Rayleigh Criterion 173
11.68 Telescopes and the Rayleigh Criterion

## The resolution limit of a telescope is determined by the Rayleign Criterion

λ
sin θ = 1.22 (11.68.1)
d

where θ is the angular resolution, λ is the wavelength of light and d is the len’s
aperature diameter. As θ is small we can assume that sin θ ≈ θ. Thus

λ
d = 1.22
θ
1.22 × 5500 × 10−10
= (11.68.2)
8 × 10−6

11.69 FT
After some fudging with indices we get something in the order of 10−2 m.

## The Refractive Index and Cherenkov Radiation

RA
We don’t know what the speed of the particle is but we can tell a few things from the
question. The first is the particle emits light in the glass. This is due to Cherenkov
radiation, which is the electromagnetic radiation that is emitted when a charged particle
passes through a medium at a speed that is greater than the speed of light in the
medium.
The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light
in the medium. We can use this to determine the minimum speed of the particle. If it
moves any slower, we won’t detect the Cherenkov radiation.
D

c
n= (11.69.1)
v
Given n = 1.5,
c 2
v= = c (11.69.2)
n 3

## Recalling the equation for relativistic energy

E2 = pc2 + m2 c4 (11.70.1)

174 GR9277 Exam Solutions
We are told that the energy of the particle is 100 times its rest energy, E = 100mc2 .
Substituting this into the above equation gives
 2  2
100mc2 = pc2 + mc2 (11.70.2)

As we are looking at ultra-high energies, we can ignore the rest energy term on the
right hand side, so14
 2
100mc2 = pc2
∴ p ≈ 100mc (11.70.4)

11.71

NOT FINISHED
Thermal Systems I

FT
RA
11.72 Thermal Systems II

NOT FINISHED
D

## 11.73 Thermal Systems III

NOT FINISHED
14
We can find a solution by relating the relativistic energy and momentum equations. Given

E = γmc2 p = γmc

This gives us

E = pc
⇒ p = 100mc (11.70.3)

Oscillating Hoops 175
11.74 Oscillating Hoops
The angular frequency of our hoop can be found by the equation
r
mgd
ω= (11.74.1)
I
where m is the mass of the hoop, d is the distance from the center of mass and I is the
moment of inertia. The Moment of Inertia of our hoop is
Icm = Mr2 (11.74.2)
where M is the mass of the hoop and r is its radius. As the hoop is hanging from a nail
on the wall, we use the Parallel Axis Theorem to determine its new Moment of Inertia
I = Icm + Mr2 = 2Mr2 (11.74.3)

FT
we are given that
MX = 4MY dX = 4dY
We can now find the moment of inertias of our two hoops
IX = 2MX R2X IY = 2MY R2Y
s s
MX gRX MY gRY
ωX = ωY =
2MX R2X 2MY R2Y
RA
r r
g g
= =
2RX 2RY

= = 2ωX
T

## 11.75 Decay of the Uranium Nucleus

D

When the Uranium nucleus decays from rest into two fissile nuclei, we expect both
nuclei to fly off in opposite directions. We also expect momentum to be conserved thus
MTh VTh = mHe vHe
MTh
∴ vHe = VTh
mHe
we see that vHe ≈ 60VTh . We can calculate the kinetic energies of the Thorium and
Helium nuclei
1 1
KTh = MTh VTh
2
kHe = mHe v2He
2 2
1 MTh

= (60VTh )2
2 60
≈ 60KTh
Now we can go through our choices and find the correct one.

176 GR9277 Exam Solutions
A This is clearly not the case. From the above, we see that kHe = 60KTh .

B Again, this is clearly not the case. We see that vHe ≈ 60VTh .

C No this is not the case as momentum is conserved. For this to take place the two
nuclei must fly off in opposite directions.

## D Again, this is incorrect. Momentum is conserved so the momentum of both nuclei

are equal.

E This is correct. We see from the above calculations that kHe ≈ 60KTh .

FT
11.76 Quantum Angular Momentum and Electronic Con-
figuration
The total angular momentum is
J=L+S (11.76.1)
As none of the electron sub-shells are filled, we will have to add the individual angular
momentum quantum numbers.
RA
For the 1s case, the spin, s, is
1
s1 = (11.76.2)
2
As this is in the s sub-shell, then the orbital quantum number is

`1 = 0 (11.76.3)

## The total angular momentum for this electron is

1
J1 = (11.76.4)
D

2
For the other two electron shells we get
1
s2 =
2
`2 = 1
3
j2 = `2 + s2 = (11.76.5)
2
and similarly for the third electron shell
1
s3 =
2
3
`3 = 1j3 = `3 + s3 =
2

Intrinsic Magnetic Moment 177
Thus the total angulat momentum is

j = j1 + j2 + j3
1 3 3 7
= + + = (11.76.6)
2 2 2 2

NOT FINISHED

## 11.78 Skaters and a Massless Rod

FT
As the two skaters move towards the rod, the rod will begin to turn about its center
of mass. The skaters linear momentum is converted to a combination of linear and
rotational momentum of the rod.
RA
The rotational momentum can be calculated

L = m (r × V) (11.78.1)

## The total rotational momentum can be calculated,

L = Ltop + Lbottom
! !
b b
=m (2v) + m v
2 2
3
D

= mbv (11.78.2)
2
The rod will rotate with angular velocity, ω,

L = Iω (11.78.3)

!2
b
I = 2m (11.78.4)
2

## Thus the angular frequency of the rod becomes

3v
ω= (11.78.5)
b

178 GR9277 Exam Solutions
As the two masses move towards the rod, the speed of the center of mass remains the
same even after collision. This allows us to define the linear motion of the rod which
we know to be at the center of the rod.
n
P
mi vi
i=1
vcenter = n
(11.78.6)
P
mi
i=1

## Thus the center of mass velocity is

m(2v) + m(−v) v
vcenter = = (11.78.7)
2m 2
The position of the mass at b/2 is a combination of the translational and rotational

FT
motions. The translational motion is

## where ω = 3v/b. This becomes

RA
3vt
 
x = 0.5vt + 0.5b sin (11.78.10)
b

## 11.79 Phase and Group Velocities

We recall that the group velocity is
D

vg = (11.79.1)
dk
and the phase velocity is
ω
vp = (11.79.2)
k
From the graph, we see that in the region k1 < k < k2 , the region of the graph is a
straight line with a negative gradient. So we can assume that dω
dk
< 0 and that ωk > 0.
Thus the two velocities are in opposite directions.

## A This is correct as shown above.

B They can’t be in the same directions. The phase velocity is moving in the opposite
direction to the group velocity.

C Again incorrect, they are not travelling in the same direction.
D Also incorrect, the phase velocity is finite as k , 0.
E Again, they are not in the same direction.

As an electron is accelerated towards a target, it gets rapidly decelerated and emits
emectromagnetic radiation in the X-ray spectrum. The frequency of this emitted ra-
diation is determined by the magnitude of its decelertion. If it has been completly

FT
decelerated, then all of its kinetic energy is converted to EM radiation. We are told the
kinetic energy of our accelerated electrons are K = 25 keV. The energy of a photon is
hc
E = hf = =K (11.80.1)
λ
Solving for λ, we have
hc
λ=
K
RA
6.63 × 10−34 × 3 × 108
=
25 × 103 × 1.60 × 10−19
6.63 × 3
= × 10−10
25 × 1.6
12
≈ × 10−10 = 0.5 Å (11.80.2)
25

## 11.81 Resonant Circuit of a RLC Circuit

D

The maximum steady state amplitude will occur at its resonant frequency. This can be
see if one were to draw a graph of E vs. ω. The resonant frequency occurs when the
capacitive impedance, XC and the inductive impedance,XL are equal. Thus
1
XL = ωL XC =
ωC
Equating XL and XC together gives
1
ωL =
ωC
1
ω= √ (11.81.1)
LC

180 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.82 Angular Speed of a Tapped Thin Plate
Fortunately we have been given the angular impulse, H,
Z
H= τdt (11.82.1)

where tau is the torque on the plate. We recall that τ = Iα where I is the moment of
inertia and α is the angular acceleration. Thus the above equation becomes
Z
H
ω= αdt = (11.82.2)
I

FT
3H
ω= (11.82.3)
md2

## 11.83 Suspended Charged Pith Balls

RA
We can resolve the horizontal and vertical force components acting on the pith balls.
We see that the horizontal force is
kq2
T sin θ = 2 (11.83.1)
d
and the vertical force is
T cos θ = mg (11.83.2)
We see that
d
sin θ = (11.83.3)
2L
D

## As we are looking at small values of θ we can make the following approximations

d
sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ = (11.83.4)
2L
and
cos θ ≈ 1 (11.83.5)
Given the above approximations, substituting eqs. (11.83.2), (11.83.4) and (11.83.5) into
eq. (11.83.1), gives us
!1
2kq2 L 3
d= (11.83.6)
Mg
15
Add derivation of moment of inertia for thin plate.

Larmor Formula 181
11.84 Larmor Formula

We recall the Larmor Formula which describes the total power of radiated EM radiation
by a non-relativistic accelerating point charge.

q2 a2
P= (11.84.1)
6π0 c3

where q is the charge and a is the acceleration. We can use this to eliminate choices.

A This says
P ∝ a2 (11.84.2)

FT
We see that this is TRUE from the above equation.

B This says
P ∝ e2 (11.84.3)

RA
C Also true.

D False

E True

D

## We recall the Relativistic Energy Formula

E2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4 (11.85.1)

We are given E = 1.5 MeV. Plugging into the above equation yields

## 1.52 = p2 c2 + 0.52 (11.85.2)

We find p2 = 2.

182 GR9277 Exam Solutions
11.86 Voltage Decay and the Oscilloscope

We recall that the voltage decay across a capacitor follows an exponential decay, such
that
t
 
V = V0 exp − (11.86.1)
RC
Solving for C, we see that
t V0
 
C=− ln (11.86.2)
R V
We need to find t, which we can determine by how fast the trace sweeps, s. We need
to find R, which we will be given. The ration VV0 can be read off the vertical parts of the
scope.

## The total energy of a system is

FT
E=T+V (11.87.1)
RA
where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. We are told the particle
moves under a circular orbit where

K mv2
F= = (11.87.2)
r3 r
The potential energy can be found
Z Z
dr 1K
V= Fdr = K 3
=− 2 (11.87.3)
r 2r
D

## The kinetic Energy is

1 1K
T = mv2 = 2 (11.87.4)
2 2r
Thus
1K 1K
E= − =0 (11.87.5)
2 r2 2 r2

## 11.88 Capacitors and Dielectrics

This question can be answered through the process of elimination and witout knowing
exactly what the displacement vector is or what it does.

Capacitors and Dielectrics 183
As the capacitor is connected to a battery with potential difference, V0 , an electric field,
E0 forms between the plates and a charge, Q0 accumulates on the plates. We can relate
this to the capacitance, C0 , of the capacitor

Q0 = C0 V0 (11.88.1)

While still connected to the battery, a dielectric is inserted between the plates. This
serves to change the electric field between the plates and as a result the capacitance.

Qf = Cf Vf (11.88.2)

## As we have not disconnected the battery,

V f = V0 (11.88.3)

FT
The dieiectric has a dielectric constant, κ0 , such that

C f = κC0 (11.88.4)

It follows that
Q f = κQ0 (11.88.5)
When a dielectric is placed inside an electric field, there is an induced electric field,
that points in the opposite direction to the field from the battery.
RA
E f = E0 + Einduced (11.88.6)

This results in
E0
Ef = (11.88.7)
κ
From the above we can infer

1. V f = V0

2. Q f > Q0
D

3. C f > C0

4. E f < E0

Based on this we can eliminate all but choice (E). In the case of the last choice, the effect
of the electric field places charges on the plates of the capacitor. Gauss’ Law tells us

0 ∇ · E = ρ (11.88.8)

If we were to place the dielectric between the plates, the atoms in the dielectric would
become polarized in the presence of the electric field. This would result in the accu-
mulations of bound charges, ρb within the dielectric. The total charge becomes

ρ = ρb + ρ f (11.88.9)

184 GR9277 Exam Solutions
This becomes
0 ∇ · E = −∇ · P + ρ f (11.88.10)
This becomes
∇ · (0 E + P) = ρ f (11.88.11)
Where the term 0 E + P is the displacemet vector. In the beginning, there is no polar-
ization vector, P so
D0 = 0 E (11.88.12)
But with the presence of the dielectric it becomes,

D f = 0 E + P (11.88.13)

Thus
D f > D0 (11.88.14)

FT

## 11.89 harmonic Oscillator

NOT FINISHED
RA
11.90 Rotational Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom
NOT FINSIHED

## 11.91 The Weak Interaction

D

The weak interaction deals with the non-conservation of parity or angular momentum.

## 11.92 The Electric Motor

For each rotation the wire makes, it crosses the the three pairs of magnets which results
in three periods. Thus we expect

f = 3 f0 = 30Hz (11.92.1)

Falling Mass connected by a string 185
11.93 Falling Mass connected by a string
When the mass is at the top of its swing, θ = 0°, the only force acting on it will be the
one due to gravity; the tangential force acting downward. As it is let go, we expect
the total acceleration to increase and reach a maximum at θ = 90°. We can use this to
eliminate the choices given.

## g sin θ At θ = 0, the total acceleration, a, is zero. At θ = 90, the total acceleration is a

maximum, a = g. We would expect this to be greater than g16 We can eliminate
this choice.

## 2g cos θ At θ = 0, the total acceleration is 2g.A bit of an impossibility considering

the mass is stationary. At θ = 90 the total acceleration becomes zero. Another
impossibility, we expect the total acceleration to increase. We can eliminate this

FT
choice.

## 2g sin θ At θ = 0, the total acceleration is zero. Another impossibility. At θ = 90, the

acceleration is a maximum at 2g. We can eliminate this choice.

g 3 cos2 θ + 1 At θ = 0, our total acceleration is a maximum, a = 2g and a minumum
at the bottom, a = g. We don’t expect this physically. We can eliminate this.

g 3 sin2 θ + 1 At θ = 0 the total accleration is a = g. This we expect. At θ = 90, it is a
RA
maximum, a = 2g. Again this is what we expect. We choose this one.

11.93.1 Calculation

As the mass falls, its gravitaional potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. We
can express this as a function of θ.
D

1
mg` sin θ = mv2 (11.93.1)
2
where ` is the length of the rod.
The radial or centripetal force, ar is

mv2
mar = (11.93.2)
`
Solving for ar gives us
ar = 2g sin θ (11.93.3)
16
Think an amusement park ride, something along ‘the Enterprise’ ride manufactured by the HUSS
Maschinenfabrik company. The g-forces are at the greatest at the bottom about 2gs and lowest at the top.
There are no restraints while you’re inside; you’re kept in place through centripetal forces. Your faith in
the force should dispel any fears.

186 GR9277 Exam Solutions
The tangential accelertion is a component of the gravitational acceleration, thus
at = g cos θ (11.93.4)
We can find the total acceleration, a, by adding our tangential and radial accelerations.
As these accelerations are vectors and they are orthogonal
q
a = a2t + a2r (11.93.5)
Plugging in and solving gives us
q
a = 4g2 sin2 θ + g2 cos2 θ
p
= g 3 sin2 θ + 1 (11.93.6)

FT
11.94 Lorentz Transformation
The equations for a Lorentz Transformation are
x0 = γ (x − vt) (11.94.1)
y =y
0
(11.94.2)
z =z
0
(11.94.3)
vx
 
t0 = γ t − 2
RA
(11.94.4)
c
So we need to see which of our choices ‘fit’ the above. We can immediately eliminate
choices (A) and (B). Choice (C) says
x0 = 1.25x − 0.75t (11.94.5)
Let
1.25x − 0.75t = γ (x − vt) (11.94.6)
Solving for γ and v, we get
γ = 1.25 (11.94.7)
D

v = 0.6 (11.94.8)
Now we can check to see if this fits
t0 = 1.25t − 0.75x (11.94.9)
If
vx
 
1.25t − 0.75x = γ t − 2 (11.94.10)
c
we see that we get the same values for γ and v.
We can stop there, we have the answer. Answer (C). But for the sake of completeness,
we observe that the equation in choice (D)
t0 = 0.75t − 1.25x (11.94.11)
will give us different values for γ and v.

Nuclear Scatering 187
11.95 Nuclear Scatering
NOT FINISHED

## 11.96 Michelson Interferometer and the Optical Path Length

The optical path length through a medium of refractive index, n, and distance, d, is the
length of the path it would take through a vacuum, D. Thus

D = nd (11.96.1)

FT
The Optical Path Difference is the difference in these two lengths. As the gas is
evacuated, we observe 40 fringes move past our field of view. So our optical path
difference is
∆ = nλ (11.96.2)
NOT FINISHED
RA
11.97 Effective Mass of an electron
NOT FINISHED

D

## We are given a matrix

0 1 0
 
A = 0 0 1 (11.98.1)
 
1 0 0
 

By finding the determinant of the characteristic matrix, we can find its eigenvalues

−λ 1 0
0 −λ 1 = 0 (11.98.2)
1 0 −λ

## − λ[(−λ)(−λ) − (1)(0)] − 1[(0)(−λ) − (1)(1)] + 0[(0)(0) − (−λ)(1)] = 0 (11.98.3)

188 GR9277 Exam Solutions
Thus
λ3 = 1 (11.98.4)
This leaves us solutions where

λ3 = exp [2πni]
i2πn
 
⇒ λ = exp =1 (11.98.5)
3
eq. (11.98.5) has solutions of the form
i2πn 2πn 2πn
     
λn = exp = cos + i sin (11.98.6)
3 3 3
where n = 1, 2, 3.
This gives us solutions where

FT
2π 2π
   
λ1 = cos + i sin
3 3

1 3
=− +i (11.98.7)
2  2
4π 4π
 
λ2 = cos + i sin
3 3

1 3
RA
=− −i (11.98.8)
2 2
λ3 = cos (2π) + i sin (2π)
= +1 (11.98.9)

## Now we have our solutions we can eliminate choices,

A We see that

λ1 + λ2 + λ3 = 0
√ ! √ !
1 3 1 3
D

− +i + − −i +1=0
2 2 2 2
This is TRUE
B We see that λ1 and λ2 are not real. This is NOT TRUE.
C We see that, in our case,
√ ! √ !
1 3 1 3
λ1 λ2 = − + i − −i
2 2 2 2
1 3
= +
4 4
=1 (11.98.10)

## So this is also true.

First Order Perturbation Theory 189
D This is also true

E Also TRUE

## 11.99 First Order Perturbation Theory

The First Order Perturbation is

## E1n = hψ0n |H0 |ψ0n i (11.99.1)

If the hydrogen atom is placed in a weak electric field, the potential is going to be

FT
shifted by the amount
H0 = −qEx (11.99.2)
where H0 is the perturbation. Substituting this into eq. (11.99.1) gives us

## E1n = hψ0n |H0 |ψ0n i = −qEhn|x|ni = 0 (11.99.3)

RA
11.100 Levers
As our system is in equlibrium, we know that the sum of the moments is equal to zero.
We are also told that the rod is uniform, so the center of mass is in the middle of the
rod. Thus, taking the clockwise and anticlockwise moments about the pivot

## 20x + 20(x + 5) = 40y (11.100.1)

D

where x is the distance of the center of mass from the pivot and y is the distance of the
40kg mass from the pivot. We know

10 = 5 + x + y (11.100.2)

## Solving for x results in

x = 1.25 m (11.100.3)

190 GR9277 Exam Solutions

FT
RA
D

Chapter 12
GR9677 Exam Solutions

## 12.1 Discharge of a Capacitor

FT
The voltage of a capacitor follows an exponential decay

V(t) = V0 exp −
t
RC

(12.1.1)
RA
When the switch is toggled in the a position, the capacitor is quickly charged and the
potential across its plates is V. r is small and we assume that the potential difference
across it is negligible. When the switch is toggled on the b position, the voltage across
the capacitor begins to decay. We can find the current through the resistor, R, from
Ohm’s Law
V(t) t
 
I(t) = = V0 exp − (12.1.2)
R RC
At t = 0 V0 = V. Graph B, shows an exponential decay.
D

## 12.2 Magnetic Fields & Induced EMFs

We have a circuit loop that is placed in a decaying magnetic field where the field
direction acts into the page. We have two currents in the circuit. The first is due to the
battery and the other is an induced current from the changing magnetic field. We can
easily determine the current of the cell from Ohm’s Law.
V 5.0
Ic = = A (12.2.1)
R 10
The induced EMF from the magnetic field is found from Faraday’s Law of Induction

E =− (12.2.2)
dt
192 GR9677 Exam Solutions
where Φ is the magnetic flux.
dΦ dB
=A (12.2.3)
dt dt
The area of our loop, A = 10 × 10cm . So the induced EMF is
2

## E = −100 × 10−4 × 150 = 1.5 V (12.2.4)

The field acts into the page, we consider this a negative direction, it’s decaying, also
negative. So
negative × negative = positive (12.2.5)
Faraday’s Law of Induction has a negative sign. So we expect our EMF to be negative.
Using the Right Hand Grip Rule, and pointing our thumb into the page, our fingers
curl in the clockwise direction. So we see that the current from our cell goes in the
counter-clockwise direction and the induced current in the clockwise direction; they

FT
oppose each other. The total EMF is
V = 5.0 − 1.5 = 3.5 volt (12.2.6)
The current through the resistor is
3.5
I= = 0.35 A (12.2.7)
10
RA
12.3 A Charged Ring I
The Electric Potential is
Q
V= (12.3.1)
4π0 r
The distance, r, of P from the charged ring is found from the pythagorean theorem
r2 = R2 + x2 (12.3.2)
D

Q
V= √ (12.3.3)
4π0 R2 + x2

## 12.4 A Charged Ring II

The force a small charge, q experiences if placed in the center of the ring can be found
from Coulomb’s Law
qQ
F= (12.4.1)
4π0 R2

Forces on a Car’s Tires 193
If it undergoes small oscillations, R >> x, then

F = mRω2 (12.4.2)

r
qQ
ω= (12.4.3)
4π0 mR3

## 12.5 Forces on a Car’s Tires

FT
The horizontal force on the car’s tires is the sum of two forces, the cetripetal force and
the frictional force of the road. The cetripetal force acts towards the center, FA , while
the frictional force acts in the forwards direction, FC . If it’s not immediately clear why
it acts in the forward direction, the tires, as they rotate, exert a backward force on the
road. The road exerts an equal and opposite force on the tires, which is in the forward
direction1 So the force on the tires is the sum of these forces, FA and FC , which is FB
RA
12.6 Block sliding down a rough inclined plane
We are told several things in this question. The first is that the block attains a constant
speed, so it gains no kinetic energy; all its potential energy is lost due to friction.

12.6.1 Calculation
D

If you’d like a more rigorous proof, not something you might do in the exam. The
work done by the frictional force, Fr is
Z
W = Fr dx (12.6.1)

## Fr acts along the direction of the incline and is equal to

Fr = mg sin θ (12.6.2)

## The distance the force acts is

h
x= (12.6.3)
sin θ
1
Sometimes the frictional force can act in the direction of motion. This is one such case.

194 GR9677 Exam Solutions
So the work done is

W = Fr · x
h
= mg sin θ ×
sin θ
= mgh

## 12.7 Collision of Suspended Blocks

We are told that the ball collides elastically with the block, so both momentum and

FT
energy are conserved. As the ball falls from a height, h, its potential energy is converted
to kinetic energy
1
mgh = mv21
2
v1 = 2gh
2
(12.7.1)

Momentum is conserved, so

## mv1 = mv2 + 2mv3

RA
v1 = v2 + 2v3 (12.7.2)

## Energy is also conserved, so

1 2 1 2 1
mv = mv + 2mv23
2 1 2 2 2
v21 = v22 + 2v23 (12.7.3)

D

## Substituting this into eq. (12.7.2) gives

v1 = v2 + 2v3
= 3v2
⇒ v21 = 9v22 (12.7.5)

## The 2m block’s kinetic energy is converted to potential energy as it rises to a height of

h2 . Thus
1
mgh2 = mv22
2
∴ v22 = 2gh2 (12.7.6)

Damped Harmonic Motion 195
We see that
2gh
= 2gh2
9
h
⇒ = h2 (12.7.7)
9

## 12.8 Damped Harmonic Motion

From section 1.4.4, we see that the frequency of a damped oscillator is
s
!2
b

FT
ω0 = ω20 − (12.8.1)
2m
This shows that the damped frequency will be lower than the natural frequency, ω0 , or
its period, T0 , will be longer.
RA
12.9 Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom
The hydrogen spectrum can be found by the emperical Rydberg equation
 
1  1 1 
= RH  2 − 2  (12.9.1)
λ n f ni

where ni and n f are the intial and final states respectively. The longest wavelength, or
the smallest energy transition, would represent the transition n1 = n f + 1.
For the Lyman series, n f = 1, which lies in the ultra-violet spectrum, we have
D

1 1 1 3
 
= RH 2 − 2 = RH (12.9.2)
λL 1 2 4
For the Balmer series, n f = 2, which lies in the optical spectrum, we have
1 1 1 5
 
= RH 2 − 2 = RH (12.9.3)
λB 2 3 36
Dividing eq. (12.9.3) by eq. (12.9.2), we get
5
λL R
36 H 5
= = (12.9.4)
λB 3
R
4 H
27

2
The other transition, the Paschen series, n f = 3, lies in the infra-red region of the spectrum.

196 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.10 Internal Conversion
We are lucky that they actually tell us what the internal conversion process is. From
this we gather that the inner most electron has left its orbit and the most likely outcome
will be for the remaining electrons to ‘fall’ in and take its place. These transitions will
result in the emission of X-ray photons3 .

## 12.11 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

The description of the experiment in the question is the Stern-Gerlach Experiment.

FT
In this experiment, we expect the electrons to be deflected vertically into two beams
representing spin-up and spin-down electrons.

## 12.12 Positronium Ground State Energy

RA
The positronium atom consists of an electron and a positron in a bound state. Classi-
cally, this atom looks like two planets orbiting a central point or center of mass. We
need to reduce this system to an equivalent one where an electron cirlces a central
mass. We call this equivalent system the reduced mass of the two body system. This is
me M
µ= (12.12.1)
M + me
The energy levels in terms of the reduced mass is defined as

Z2 µ
En = − 2 E0 (12.12.2)
D

n me

## The reduced mass of positronium is

µ me 1
= = (12.12.3)
me 2me 2
and the ground state of this atom, Z = 1 and n = 1. The ground state energy of
Hydrogen is 13.6eV.
eq. (12.12.2) becomes
1
E1 = − 13.6eV = −6.8 eV (12.12.4)
2
3
This can also result in the emission of an Auger Electron

Specific Heat Capacity and Heat Lost 197
12.13 Specific Heat Capacity and Heat Lost

In this question, you are being asked to put several things together. Here, we are told,
a heater is placed into the water but the water does not boil or change temperture. We
can assume that all of the supplied heat by the heater is lost and we infer from the
power of the heater that 100 Joules is lost per second.
The energy to change water by one degree is derived from its specific heat capacity.

## So the time to loose 4200 Joules of heat is

E 4200
t= = = 42 s (12.13.2)

FT
P 100

## 12.14 Conservation of Heat

RA
Assuming that little to no heat is lost to the environment, the two blocks will exchange
heat until they are both in thermal equilibrium with each other. As they have the same
masses we expect the final temperature to be 50°C. We can, of course, show this more
rigorously where both blocks reach a final temperature, T f . The intial temperatures of
blocks I and II are T1 = 100°Cand T2 = 0°C, respectively.

## Heat Lost by Block I = Heat gained by Block II

   
0.1 × 103 × 1 × 100 − T f = 0.1 × 103 × 1 × T f − 0
 
2 0.1 × 103 T f = 10 × 103
D

∴ T f = 50 °C

## 12.15 Thermal Cycles

We are told the cycle is reversible and moves from ABCA. We can examine each path
and add them to get the total work done.

198 GR9677 Exam Solutions
Path A → B is an isothermal process
Z V2
nRT
WA→B = P · dV where P =
V1 V
Z V2
dV
= nRTh
V1 V
V2
 
= nRTh ln (12.15.1)
V1
Path B → C is an isobaric process
Z V1
WB→C = P2 dV where P2 V2 = nRTh
V2

FT
= P2 (V1 − V2 ) and P2 V1 = nRTc
= nR (Tc − Th ) (12.15.2)

and Path C → A
Z
WC→A = P1 dV where dV = 0

=0 (12.15.3)
RA

## W = WA→B + WB→C + WC→A

V2
 
= nRTh ln + nR (Tc − Th ) (12.15.4)
V1
where n = 1 mole.
V2
 
W = RTh ln − R (Th − Tc ) (12.15.5)
V1
D

## 12.16 Mean Free Path

The mean free path of a particle, be it an atom, molecule or photon, is the average
distance travelled between collisions. We are given the equation as

1
`= (12.16.1)
ησ

where η is the number desnity and σ is the collision cross section. The number density
works out to be
N
η= (12.16.2)
V

Probability 199
where N is the number of molecules and V is the volume. We can determine this from
the ideal gas law,

PV = NkT
N P
∴η= = (12.16.3)
V kT

The collision cross section is the area through which a particle can not pass without
colliding. This works out to be
σ = πd2 (12.16.4)

## Now we can write eq. (12.16.1) in terms of variables we know

kT
`= (12.16.5)

FT
πPd2

As air is composed mostly of Nitrogen, we would have used the diameter of Nitrogen
in our calculations. This is approximately d = 3.1 Å. Plugging in the constants given
we have

## (1.38 × 1023 )(300)

`=
π × 1.0 × 105 (3.1 × 1010 )2
RA
= 1.37 × 10−7 m

As we don’t have a calculator in the exam, we can estimate by adding the indices in
our equation,
− 23 + 2 − 5 + 20 = −6 (12.16.6)

## So we expect our result to be in the order of 1 × 10−6 m. We choose (B).

D

12.17 Probability

The probability of finding a particle in a finite interval between two points, x1 and x2 ,
is
Z 4
P(2 ≤ x ≤ 4) = |Ψ(x)|2 dx (12.17.1)
2

## with the normalization condition,

Z +∞
|Ψ(x)|2 dx = 1 (12.17.2)
−∞

## We can tally the values given to us on the graph

200 GR9677 Exam Solutions
x Ψ Ψ2
1 1 1
2 1 1
3 2 4
4 3 9
5 1 1
6 0 0
Total 16

## Table 12.17.1: Table of wavefunction amplitudes

FT
The probability of finding the particle between (2 ≤ x ≤ 4) is

22 + 32
P(2 ≤ x ≤ 4) =
12 + 12 + 22 + 32 + 12 + 02
4+9
=
1+1+4+9+1+0
13
= (12.17.3)
16
RA

## 12.18 Barrier Tunneling

Classically, if a particle didn’t have enough kinetic energy, it would just bounce off
the wall but in the realm of Quantum Mechanics, there is a finite probability that the
particle will tunnel through the barrier and emerge on the other side. We expect to see
a few things. The wave function’s amplitide will be decreased from x > b and to decay
D

exponentially from a < x < b. We see that choice (C) has these characteristics.

## 12.19 Distance of Closest Appraoch

This question throws a lot of words at you. The α-particle with kietic energy 5 MeV is
shot towards an atom. If it goes towards the atom it will slow down, loosing kinetic
energy and gaining electrical potential energy. The α-particle will then be repelled by
the Ag atom. Thus
1 Q1 Q2
U= = KE (12.19.1)
4π0 D

Collisions and the He atom 201
Where D is the distance of closest approach, q1 = ze and q2 = Ze. We are given z = 2
for the alpha particle and Z = 50 for the metal atom. Plugging in all of this gives us
1 (2e)(50e)
D=
4π0 5 × 106 e
1 100e
=
4π0 5 × 106
1 100 × 1.6 × 10−19
=
4π × 8.85 × 10−12 5 × 106
≈ 0.3 × 10−13 m (12.19.2)

FT
12.20 Collisions and the He atom
As the collision is elastic, we know that both momentum and kinetic energy is con-
served. So conservation of momentum shows
4uv = (−0.6)(4u)v + MV
⇒ 6.4 uv = MV (12.20.1)
RA
Conservation of Energy shows that
1 1 1
(4 u)v2 = (4 u)(0.6v)2 + MV 2
2h i 2 2
4 u 0.64v = MV
2 2
(12.20.2)

Solving for M
6.42 u
M= = 16 u (12.20.3)
4(0.64)
We see that this corresponds to an Oxygen atom, mass 16 u.
D

## 12.21 Oscillating Hoops

We are given the period of our physical pendulum, where
s
I
T = 2π (12.21.1)
mgd

where I is the moment of inertia and d is the distance of the pivot from the center of
mass. The moment of inertia of our hoop is
Icm = Mr2 (12.21.2)

202 GR9677 Exam Solutions
The moment of inertia of the hoop hanging by a nail is found from the Parallex Axis
Theorem
I = Icm + Md2 = Mr2 + Mr2 = 2Mr2 (12.21.3)
Plugging this into the first equation gives
s
2Mr2
T = 2π
Mgr
s
2r
= 2π
g
r
2 × 20 × 10−2
≈ 2π
10
= 4π × 10 ≈ 1.2 s
−1

FT

## 12.22 Mars Surface Orbit

If a body travels forward quickly enough that it follows the planet’s curvature it is in
orbit. We are told that in the case of Mars, there is a 2.0 meter drop for every 3600 meter
RA
horizontal distance. We are also told that the acceleration due to gravity on Mars is
gM = 0.4g. So the time to drop a distance of 2.0 meters is
1
s= gM t2
2
⇒ t = 1s (12.22.1)
So the horizontal speed is
3600
vx = m/s (12.22.2)
1
D

## 12.23 The Inverse Square Law

Choice A Energy will be conserved. This isn’t dependent on an inverse square law.
Choice B Momentum is conserved. This also isn’t dependent on the inverse square
law.
Choice C This follows from Kepler’s Law
 2
2π Gm1 m2
mr =
T r2+
⇒ T ∝ r(3+)/2 (12.23.1)

Charge Distribution 203
4
Choice D This is FALSE. This follows from Bertrand’s Theorem , which states that
only two types of potentials produce stable closed orbits

## 1. An inverse square central force such as the gravitational or electrostatic

potential.
−k
V(r) = (12.23.2)
r
2. The radial Harmonic Oscillator Potential
1
V(r) = kr2 (12.23.3)
2
Choice E A stationary circular orbit occurs under special conditions when the central
force is equal to the centripetal force. This is not dependent on an inverse square
law but its speed.

## 12.24 Charge Distribution

FT
An inportant thing to keep in mind is that charge will distribute itself evenly throughout
RA
the conducting spheres and that charge is conserved.

A B C
Q Q
Q
2 2

A B C
D

Q 3Q 3Q
2 4 4

## The initial force between A and B is

kQ2
F= (12.24.1)
r2
The final force between A and B is
k Q2 3Q
4 3
Ff = = F (12.24.2)
r2 8
4

204 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.25 Capacitors in Parallel
We have one capacitor, C1 connected to a battery. This capacitor gets charged and
stores a charge, Q0 and energy, U0 .
Q0 = C1 V (12.25.1)
1
U0 = C1 V 2 (12.25.2)
2
When the switch is toggled in the on position, the battery charges the second capacitor,
C2 . As the capacitors are in parallel, the potential across them is the same. As C1 = C2 ,
we see that the charges and the energy stored across each capacitor is the same. Thus
Q1 = C1 V1 Q2 = C2 V2
Q2 = Q1

FT
1 1
U1 = C1 V12 U2 = C2 V22
2 2
U2 = U1
We see that
U1 + U2 = C1 V12 = 2U0 (12.25.3)
We can also analyze this another way. The two capacitors are in parallel, so their net
capacitance is
RA
CT = C1 + C2 = 2C1 (12.25.4)
So the total charge and energy stored by this parallel arrangemt is
Q = CT V1 = 2C1 V1
1
UT = 2C1 V12 = 2U0
2
Of all the choices, only (E) is incorrect.
D

## 12.26 Resonant frequency of a RLC Circuit

The circuit will be best ‘tuned’ when it is at its resonant frequence. This occurs when
the impedances for the capacitor and inductor are equal. Thus
1
XC = and XL = ωL (12.26.1)
ωC
When they are equal
XC = XL
1
= XL = ωL
ωC
1
∴ω= √ (12.26.2)
LC

Graphs and Data Analysis 205
Solving for C,
ω2 L
C=
1
= π2 × (103.7 × 106 )2 × 2.0 × 10−6
4
≈ 0.125 × 10−11 F (12.26.3)

## 12.27 Graphs and Data Analysis

It is best to analyse data is they are plotted on straight line graphs of the form, y = mx+c.

FT
This way we can best tell how well our data fits, etc.5

## A We want a plot of activity, dN

dt
vs. time, t. If we were to plot this as is, we would
get an exponential curve. To get the straight line graph best suited for further
analysis, we take the logs on both sides.
dN
∝ e−2t
" dt#
dN
log = log e−2t
RA
dt
" #
dN
log = −2t (12.27.1)
dt
h i
We have a Semilog graph with a plot of log dN
dt
on the y-axis, t on the x-axis with
B This is already a linear equation we can plot with the data we already have. No
need to manipulate it in any way.
C We take logs on bot sides of the equation to get
D

s ∝ t2
log s = 2 log t (12.27.2)
We can plot log s vs. log t. This gives a linear equation with log s on the y-axis
and log t on the x-axis and a gradient of 2.
D Again, we take logs on both sides of the equation
Vout 1

Vin ω
" #
V
log out = − log ω
Vin
5
This is of course with nothing but a sheet of graph paper and calculator and without the help of
computers and data analysis software.

206 V  GR9677 Exam Solutions
We have a log-log plot of log out on the y-axis and log ω on the x-axis with a
V
in
gradient of -1. We see that this choice is INCORRECT.
E As with the other choices, we take logs on both sides and get
P ∝ T4
log P = 4 log T
This can be plotted on a log-log graph with log P on the y-axis and log T on the
x-axis and a gradient of 4.

## 12.28 Superposition of Waves

The frequency is
T=
0.5 cm ms−1 FT
As the question states, we can see the superposition of the two waves. For the higher
frequency wave, we see that the period on the oscilloscope is about 1cm. This works
out to be a period of
1 cm
= 2.0 ms (12.28.1)
RA
1
f =
2.0 × 10−3
= 500 Hz (12.28.2)
We can measure the amplitude of this oscillation by measuring the distance from crest
to trough. This is approximately (2 − 1)/2, thus6
A = 1 cm × 2.0 V cm−1
≈ 2.0 V (12.28.3)
For the longer period wave, we notice that approximately a half-wavelength is dis-
played, is 2(4.5 − 1.5) = 6 cm. The period becomes
D

6.0 cm
T=
0.5 cm/ms
= 12.0 ms (12.28.4)
Thus the frequency is
1
f =
T
1
= = 83 Hz (12.28.5)
12.0 × 10−3
We see that (D) matches our calculations.
6
If you happened to have worked this one first you’ll notice that only choice (D) is valid. You can
stop and go on to the next question.

The Plank Length 207
12.29 The Plank Length

This question is best analysed through dimensional analysis; unless of course you’re
fortunate to know the formula for the Plank Length. We are told that

## G = 6.67 × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2

6.63 × 10−34 −1
~= Js

c = 3.0 × 108 m s−1

We can substitute the symbols for Length, L, Mass, M and Time, T. So the dimensions
of our constants become

FT
G = L3 M−1 T−2
~ = ML2 T−1
c = LT−1
`p = L

## Our Plank Length is in the form

`p = Gx ~ y cz
RA
Dimensional Analysis Gives
 x  y  z
L = L3 M−1 T−2 ML2 T−1 LT−1

We get

L
3x + 2y + z = 1
D

M
−x+y=0

T
z = −3x

Solving, we get
1 1 3
x= y= z=−
2 2 2
Thus r
G~
`p =
c3

208 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.30 The Open Ended U-tube
We recall that the pressure throughout a fluid is equal throughout the fluid. As the
system is in equlibrium, the pressure on the left arm is equal to the pressure on the
right arm. We can set up an equation such that

## where whater, ρ1 = 1.0 g/cm3 , some immiscible liquid, ρ2 = 4.0 g/cm3 .

Solving, gives us
h2 − h1 = 15 cm (12.30.2)
Let’ call the height of the water column on the left side of the tube, x1 . We get

FT
h2 − (x1 + 5) = 15
∴ h2 − x1 = 20

We expect the water column to go down on the left side of the tube as it goes up on the
right side of the tube; conservation of mass. So we infer the change in height on both
sides is 10 cm. We conclude that since the intial height is 20cm, then h2 = 30 cm and
x1 = 10 cm. So
h2 30
= =2 (12.30.3)
RA
h1 15

## 12.31 Sphere falling through a viscous liquid

Our sphere falls through a viscous liquid under gravity and experiences a drag force,
bv. The equation of motion can be expressed
D

ma = mg − bv (12.31.1)

We are also told that the buoyant force is negligible. Armed with this information, we
can analyze out choices and emiminate.

A This statement will be incorrect. We have been told to ignore the buoyant force,
which if was present, would act as a constant retarding force and slow our sphere
down and reduce its kinetic energy. INCORRECT

B This is also incorrect. In fact if you were to solve the above equation of motion, the
speed, and hence kinetic energy, would monotonically increase and approach
some terminal speed. It won’t go to zero. INCORRECT

C It may do this if it was shot out of a gun, but we were told that it is released from
rest. So it will not go past its terminal speed.

Moment of Inertia and Angular Velocity 209
D The terminal speed is the point when the force due to gravity is balanced by the
retarding force of the fluid. Setting ma = 0 in the above equation, we get
0 = mg − bv (12.31.2)
Solving for v yields,
mg
v= (12.31.3)
b
We see that our terminal velocity is dependent on both b and m. This choice is
INCORRECT
E From the above analysis, we choose this answer. CORRECT

FT
12.32 Moment of Inertia and Angular Velocity
The moment of inertia of an object is
N
X
I= mi r2i
i=1
RA
where ri is the distance from the point mass to the axis of rotation.
The moment of inertia about point A is found by finding the distances of each of the
three masses from that point. The distance between the mass, m and A is
`
r= √
3
Thus the moment of inertia is
!2
`
IA = 3m √ = m`2
3
D

The Moment of Inertia about B can be found by the Parallel Axis Theorem but it may be
simpler to use the formula above. As the axis of rotation is about B, we can ignore this
mass and find the distances of the other two masses from this point, which happens to
be `. Thus
IB = 2m`2
The rotational kinetic energy is
1
K = Iω2
2
So the ratio of the kinetic energies at fixed, ω becomes
KB IB 2m`2
= = =2
KA IA m`2

210 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.33 Quantum Angular Momentum

The probability is
32 + 22 13
P= = (12.33.1)
38 38
NOT FINISHED

## 12.34 Invariance Violations and the Non-conservation of

Parity

FT
Electromagnetic and strong interactions are invariant under parity transformations.
The only exception to this rule occurs in weak interactions, the β-decay bring one such
example. It had always been assumed that invariance was a “built-in” property of the
Universe but in the 1950s there seemed to be some puzzling experiments concerning
certain unstable particles called tau and theta mesons. The “tau-theta puzzle” was
solved in 1956 by T.D. Lee7 and C.N. Yang8 when they proposed the nonconservation of
RA
parity by the weak interaction. This hypothesis was confirmed experimentally through
the beta decay of Cobalt-60 in 1957 by C.S. Wu9 .

60
Co −−→ 60Ni + e – + ῡe

The cobalt source was chilled to a temperature of 0.01 K and placed in a magnetic
field. This polarized the nuclear spins in the direction of the magnetic field while the
low temperatures inhibited the thermal disordering of the aligned spins. When the
directions of the emitted electrons were measured, it was expected that there would be
D

equal numbers emitted parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, but instead more
electrons were emitted in the direction opposite to the magnetic field. This observation
was interpreted as a violation of reflection symmetry.
7
Tsung-Dao Lee is a Chinese-born American physicist, well known for his work on parity violation,
the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and
soliton stars. He and Chen-Ning Yang received the 1957 Nobel prize in physics for their work on parity
nonconservation of weak interactions.
8
Chen-Ning Franklin Yang is a Chinese-American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics
and particle physics. He and Tsung-dao Lee received the 1957 Nobel prize in physics for their work on
parity nonconservation of weak interactions.
9
Chien-Shiung Wu was a Chinese-American physicist. She worked on the Manhattan Project to
enrich uranium fuel and performed the experiments that disproved the conservation of parity. She
has been known as the“First Lady of Physics”, “Chinese Marie Curie” and “Madam Wu”. She died in
February 16, 1997

Wave function of Identical Fermions 211
12.35 Wave function of Identical Fermions
The behavior of fermions are described by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which states
that no two fermions may have the same quantum state. This is a results in the
anti-symmetry in the wave funtion.

## 12.36 Relativistic Collisions

We are told that no energy is radiated away, so it is conserved; all of it goes into the
composite mass. The relativistic energy is

FT
E = γmc2 (12.36.1)

1 5
γ= q = (12.36.2)
v2 4
1− c2

## So the energy of the lump of clay is

RA
5
E = γmc2 = mc2 (12.36.3)
4
The composite mass can be found by adding the energies of the two lumps of clay

ET = 2E
10
Mc2 = mc2
4
∴ M = 2.5m = 2.5 × 4 = 10 kg (12.36.4)

D

## 12.37 Relativistic Addition of Velocities

We recall that the relativistic addition formula
u+v
v0 = (12.37.1)
1 + uv
c2

## where u = 0.3c and v = 0.6c. This becomes

0.9c 0.9 9
v0 = = c ≈ c = 0.75c (12.37.2)
1 + 0.18 1.18 12

212 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.38 Relativistic Energy and Momentum
The Relativistic Momentum and Energy equations are
p = γmv E = γmc2 (12.38.1)
We can determine the speed by dividing the relativistic momentum by the relativistic
energy equation to get
p γmv
=
E γmc2
v
= 2
c
5MeV/c v
∴ = 2
10MeV c

FT
5 v
= 2
10c c
1
⇒v= c (12.38.2)
2

## 12.39 Ionization Potential

RA
The Ionization Potential, or Ionization Energy, EI , is the energy required to remove one
mole of electrons from one mole of gaaseous atoms or ions. It is an indicator of the
reactivity of an element.
2
4
He The Helium atom is a noble gas and has filled outermost electron shells as well as
its electrons being close to the nucleus. It would be very difficult to ionize.
He = 1s2
D

7
14
N Nitrogen has two outermost electrons.

## N = 1s2 , 2s2 , 2p6 , 2s2 , 2p2

8
16
O Oxygen has four outermost electrons.

## O = 1s2 , 2s2 , 2p6 , 2s2 , 2p4

18
40
Ar Another noble gas, this has filled outermost electrons and is not reactive.
55
133
Cs We can see that Cs has a high atomic number and hence a lot of electrons. We
expect the outmost electrons to be far from the nucleus and hence the attraction
to be low. This will have a low ionization potential.

Photon Emission and a Singly Ionized He atom 213
12.40 Photon Emission and a Singly Ionized He atom

The energy levels can be predicted by Bohr’s model of the Hydrogen atom. As a
Helium atom is more massive than Hydrogen, some corrections must be made to our
model and equation. The changes can be written

Z2 µ
En = − E0 (12.40.1)
n2 me

where Z is the atomic number, n is the energy level, E0 is the ground state energy level
of the Hydrogen atom and µ/me is the reduced mas correction factor.
The emitted photon can also be found through a similar correction

∆E =
hc
λe
= Z2
µ
me

FT 
 1
 2

 − 1  13.6

n f n2i 

As Helium’s mass is concentrated in the center, it’s reduced mass is close to unity10 .
(12.40.2)
RA
µ Z
= ≈1 (12.40.3)
me Z + me

## Plugging in the values we know into eq. (12.40.2), we get

 
6.63 × 10−34 × 3 × 108  1 1 
= 22
13.6  − 
 n2 42  (12.40.4)
470 × 10−9 × 1.60 × 10−19

f

## After some fudging and estimation we get

D

6.63 × 3 19
× 102 ≈ × 102
470 × 1.6 470 × 1.6
20
≈ × 102
750
= 0.026 × 102 eV (12.40.5)

and
2.6 1

22 · 13.6 20

10
It is helpful to know that in the case of atoms, the reduced mass will be close to unity and can be
ignored from calculation. In the case of smaller bodies, e.g. positronium, this correction factor can not
be ignored.

214 GR9677 Exam Solutions
Solving for n f , gives11
1 1 1
= 2 − 2
20 n f 4
1 1 1 9
2
= + =
nf 20 16 80
1

9
∴ nf = 3 (12.40.6)

Now we can calculate the energy level at n = 3 from eq. (12.40.1), which gives,

22
E3 = − · 13.6
32

FT
= −6.0 eV (12.40.7)

RA
NOT FINISHED

## 12.42 Photoelectric Effect

This question deals with the photoelectric effect which is essentially an energy conser-
vation equation. Energy of a photon strikes a metal plate and raises the electrons to
D

where they can leave the surface. Any extra energy is then put into the kinetic energy
of the electron. The photoelectric equation is

h f = eVs + K (12.42.1)

## As our choices are in electron-volts, our equation becomes

hc
= eVs + K (12.42.2)

where K is the kinetic energy of our photoelectrons. Plugging in the values we were
given and solving for K, we get
K = 0.2 eV (12.42.3)
11
As n f = 3 is only in choice (A), we can forego any further calculation and choose this one.

Stoke’s Theorem 215
12.43 Stoke’s Theorem
NOT FINISHED

## 12.44 1-D Motion

A particle moves with the velocity

## To find the acceleration, a(x), we use the chain rule

FT
dv dx dv
a(x) = = ·
dx dt dx
dv
=v· (12.44.2)
dx
Differentiating v(x) with respect to x gives

dv
= −nβx−n−1
RA
dx
Thus, our acceleration, a(x), becomes

## a(x) = βx−n · −nβx−n−1

= −nβ2 x−2n−1 (12.44.3)

## 12.45 High Pass Filter

D

Capacitors and Inductors are active components; their impedances vary with the fre-
quency of voltage unlike an ohmic resistor whose resitance is pretty much the same no
matter what. The impedances for capacitors and inductors are

1
XC = XL = ωL
ωC
We see that in the case of capacitors, there is an inverse relationship with frequency
and a linear one for inductors. Simply put, at high frequencies capacitors have low
impedances and inductors have high inductances.
NOT FINSIHED

216 GR9677 Exam Solutions
The induced EMF in the loop follows Faraday’s Law

E =−
dt
In this case, the magnetic field, B, is constant and the Cross Sectional Area, A, through
which the magnetic field acts changes. Thus the above equation becomes
dA
E0 sin ωt = −B (12.46.1)
dt
Let’s say that at t = 0 the loop is face on with the magnetic field,

## Substituting this into eq. (12.46.1) gives

E0 sin ωt = −B ·

FT
dA
dt
= −B · −ωπR2 sin ωt
= ωBπR2 sin ωt


(12.46.3)
RA
Solving for ω gives
E0
ω= (12.46.4)
BπR2

Cylinder
D

The induced EMF of our system can be found from Faraday’s Law, where

E =− (12.47.1)
dt
Here the flux changes because the number of loops enclosing the field increases, so

Φ = NBA (12.47.2)

## Substituting this into Faraday’s Equation we get

dN
E = BA
dt
= BπR2 N (12.47.3)

Speed of π+ mesons in a laboratory 217
+
12.48 Speed of π mesons in a laboratory
As the π+ meson travels through our laboratory and past the detectors, its half life
is time dilated in our laboratory’s rest frame. We can also look at things in the π+
meson’s rest frame. In this case, the distance it travels will be length contracted in it
rest frame. The speed of our π+ mesons is the length divided by the time dilation in the
laboratory’s rest frame or the length contraction in the π+ meson’s rest frame divided
by its half life. In either case, we get
r
L v2
v= 1− 2
T1/2 c
Factorizing we get  
2 
L L2

FT
v2 1 + 2 2  = 2

(12.48.1)
 
c T1/2 T1/2
We see that
L
= 6 × 108
T1/2
Plugging this into eq. (12.48.1), the speed in terms of c

v2 36 36
 
1+ =
RA
c 2 9 9
v2
(5) = 4
c2
2
⇒v= √ c (12.48.2)
5

D

NOT FINSHED

## 12.50 The Space-Time Interval

We have two events, in the S-frame,

## S01 (x01 , t01 ) and S02 (x02 , t02 )

218 GR9677 Exam Solutions
The Space-Time Interval in the S-frame

## ∆S0 = ∆x02 − c2 ∆t02 = 5c minutes (12.50.2)

The Space-Time Interval is invariant across frames, so eq. (12.50.1) is equal to eq. (12.50.2)

## (3c)2 = (5c)2 − c2 ∆t2

⇒ ∆t = 4 minutes (12.50.3)

12.51

FT
Wavefunction of the Particle in an Infinte Well

The wave function has zero probability density in the middle for even wave functions,
n = 2, 4, 6, · · · .
RA
12.52 Spherical Harmonics of the Wave Function

NOT FINSIHED
D

NOT FINSHED

## We are given an electromagnetic wave that is the superposition of two independent

orthogonal plane waves where

## E = x̂E1 exp [i (kz − ωt)] + ŷE2 exp [i (kz − ωt + π)] (12.54.1)

Polarized Electromagnetic Waves II 219
As we are looking at the real components and E1 = E2 , we have

## E = <(E1 eikz · e−iωt )x̂ + <(E1 eikz · e−iωt · e−iπ )ŷ

= <(E1 eikz · e−iωt )x̂ − <(E1 eikz · e−iωt )ŷ

We see that the x̂ and ŷ vectors have the same magnitude but opposite sign; they are
both out of phase with each other. This would describe a trajectory that is 135°to the
x-axis.

FT
NOT FINISHED

## 12.56 Total Internal Reflection

RA
Total internal reflectance will occur when the incident beam, reaches a critical angle,
θi , such that the refracted angle just skims along the water’s surface, θr = 90◦ . We can
find this critical angle using Snell’s Law

n2 sin θi = n1 sin 90

## where n2 = 1.33 and n1 = 1, we have

1 3
sin θ2 == (12.56.1)
1.33 4
D

We know that sin 30° = 1/2 and sin 60° = 3 /2, so 30° < θ < 60°.

## 12.57 Single Slit Diffraction

For a single slit, diffraction maxima can be found from the formula

a sin θ = mλ (12.57.1)

where a is the slit width, θ is the angle between the minimum and the central maximum,
and m is the diffraction order. As θ is small and solving doe d, we can approximate the

220 GR9677 Exam Solutions
above equation to

λ
d=
θ
400 × 10−9
=
4 × 10−3
= 0.1 × 10−3 m (12.57.2)

## 12.58 The Optical Telescope

The magnification of the optical telescope can be found from the focal length of the

FT
eyepiece, fe and the objective, fo . Thus

fo
M= = 10 (12.58.1)
fe

## The focal length of the objective is

fe = 10 × 1.5 = 15 cm (12.58.2)
RA
To achieve this magnification, the lens must be placed in a position where the focal
length of the eyepiece meets the focal length of the objective. Thus

## 12.59 Pulsed Lasers

D

Lasers operating in pulsed mode delivers more energy in a short space of time as
opposed to delivering the same energy over a longer period of time in a continuous
mode. While there are several methods to achieve a pulsed mode, beyond what is
needed to answer this question, we can determine the number of photons delivered
by such a device. The energy of a photon is

hc
E = hf = (12.59.1)
λ
The power is the energy delivered in one second. So for a 10kW laser, the total energy
in 10−15 seconds is

EL = Pt = 10 × 103 × 10−15
= 10 × 10−12 J (12.59.2)

Relativistic Doppler Shift 221
So the total number of photons is

EL
n=
E
10 × 10−12 × λ
=
hc
10 × 10−12 × 600 × 10−9
=
6.63 × 10−34 × 3 × 108
10 × 600
= × 106 ≈ 3 × 108 (12.59.3)
6.63 × 3

FT
12.60 Relativistic Doppler Shift
The relativistic doppler shift is
s
λo fs 1+β
= = (12.60.1)
λs fo 1−β
RA
The redshift is calculated to be
λo − λs fs − fo
z= = (12.60.2)
λs fo

## we can rewrite eq. (12.60.2) as

s
1+β
z= −1 (12.60.3)
1−β
In the non-relativistic limit, v << c, we can approximate eq. (12.60.3) to
D

v
z≈β= (12.60.4)
c
This, equating eq. (12.60.2) and eq. (12.60.4), we see that

∆f
v= c (12.60.5)
f

## Substituting the values given into eq. (12.60.5), we have

0.9 × 10−12
v= × 3 × 108
122 × 10−9
≈ 2.2 m s−1 (12.60.6)

222 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.61 Gauss’ Law, the Electric Field and Uneven Charge
Distribution

We can find the electric field in a non-conducting sphere by using Gauss’ Law
I
Qenclosed
E · dA = (12.61.1)
0

The enclosed charge can be found from the charge density, which is

Enclosed Charge
ρ=
Enclosed Volume
q
=

FT
(12.61.2)
4 3
πr
3

We can find the enclosed charge by integrating within 0 to R/2. The charge density is

dq
ρ=
dV
dq
=
RA
(12.61.3)
4πr2 dr
∴ dq = ρ4πr2 dr
= 4πAr4 dr (12.61.4)

## Gauss’ Law becomes

I
qenclosed
E · dA =
0
Z R
  2 dq
E 4πr =
2
D

0 0
Z R2
4πA
= r4 dr
0 0
R
4πA r5 2
= (12.61.5)
0 5 0

R
A r3 2
∴E= (12.61.6)
0 5 0

Solving gives
AR3
E= (12.61.7)
400

Capacitors in Parallel 223
12.62 Capacitors in Parallel

We initially charge both of our capacitors in parallel across a 5.0V battery. The charge
stored on each capacitor is
Q1 = C1 V Q2 = C2 V

## where V = 5.0 V, C1 = 1µF and C2 = 2µF.

The battery is then disconnected and the plates of opposite charges are connected
to each other. This results in the excess charges cancelling each other out and then
redistributing themselves until the potential across the new configuration is the same.
The charge left after this configuration is

FT
QA = Q2 − Q1 (12.62.1)

## Q1A + Q2A = QA (12.62.2)

where
Q1A = C1 V f Q2A = C2 V f
RA
and (12.62.3)

## Solving for V f gives us

(C2 − C1 )V 5
Vf = = = 1.67 V (12.62.4)
C1 + C2 3

D

NOT FINSIHED

## 12.64 Nuclear Binding Energy

Typically a heavy nucleus contains ∼ 200 nucleons. The energy liberated would be the
difference in the binding energies 1 MeV ×200.

224 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.65 Work done by a man jumping off a boat
The work the man does is the sum of the kinetic energies of both the boat and himself.
We can find the speeds of the man and the boat because momentum is conserved.
mu = Mv
Mv
u= (12.65.1)
m
The total energy of the system, and hence the work the man does in jumping off the
boat is
1 1
W = mu2 + Mv2
2  2
1 2 M

= Mv +1 (12.65.2)

FT
2 m

## 12.66 Orbits and Gravitational Potential

For an attractive potential, such as we would expect for the Gravitational Potential, we
RA
have

## Orbit Total Energy

Ellipse E<0
Parabola E=0
Hyperbola E>0

where E is the total energy of the system; potential and kinetic energy. As the potential
D

energy of the system remains unchanged, the only difference is the is the kinetic energy,
the orbit will be hyperbolic.
When the spacecraft has the same speed as Jupiter, the orbit will be locked and will be
elliptical. If the gravitational potential energy was equal to the kinetic energy, the orbit
will no longer be locked and will be parabolic. We assume that the huge difference will
cause the orbit to be hyperbolic.

Any mass can become a black hole if it is compressed beyond its Schwarzschild Radius.
Beyond this size, light will be unable to escape from it’s surface or if a light beam were

Lagrangian of a Bead on a Rod 225
to be trapped within this radius, it will be unable to escape. The Schwarzschild Radius
can be derive by putting the Gravitational Potential Energy equal to a mass of kinetic
energy travelling at light speed.

GMm 1 2
= mc (12.67.1)
R 2
Solving for R yields
2GM
R= (12.67.2)
c2
Plugging in the values given, we get

## 2 × 6.67 × 10−11 × 5.98 × 102 4

R=
(3 × 108 )2

FT
Our indices indicate we will get an answer in the order ≈ 10−3 meters.

## 12.68 Lagrangian of a Bead on a Rod

RA
The Lagrangian of a system is defined

L=T−V (12.68.1)

The rod can move about the length of the rod, s and in circular motion along a radius
of s sin θ. The Lagrangian of this system becomes

1 1
L = mṡ2 + m(s sin θ)2 ω2 − mgs cos θ (12.68.2)
2 2
D

## We can use Ampere’s Law to tell us the magnetic field at point A.

I
B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed (12.69.1)

The point A is midway between the center of the two cylinders and as the currents are
in opposite directions, thier magnetic fields at A point in the +y-direction. We can use
the right hand grip rule to determine this. This leaves us with choices (A) or (B).

226 GR9677 Exam Solutions
The current density, J is

I
J=
Area
I
= 2 (12.69.2)
πr
We draw an Amperian loop of radius, r = d/2, thus the magnetic field becomes,
I
B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed
 
B · (2πr) = µ0 J πr2
µ0 πJr
B=

FT
µ0 πJ d
= (12.69.3)
2π 2
We expect B⊗ to be the same, thus

B = B + B⊗
µ 
0
= πdJ (12.69.4)

RA

## 12.70 Larmor Formula

The Larmor Formula is used to calculate total power radiated by an accelerating non-
relativistic point charge.
e2 a2
P= (12.70.1)
6π0 c3
D

## where a is the acceleration. For particles A & B, we are given

A B
Charge qa = q qb = 2q
Mass ma = m mb = m/2
Velocity va = v vb = 3v
Acceleration aa = a ab = 4a

## From the above, we see that

PA ∝ q2 a2 PB = (2q)2 (4a2 )

The Oscilloscope and Electron Deflection 227
Thus
PB (2q)2 (4a2 )
=
PA q2 a2
= 64 (12.70.2)

## 12.71 The Oscilloscope and Electron Deflection

As the electron passes through the deflection plates, the electric field, E exerts a force
on the charge, pulling it up. Ignoring gravitational effects, the electric force is

FT
qV
Fe = qE = = ma y (12.71.1)
d
The time it takes to traverse this distance is
L
t= (12.71.2)
v
The deflection angle, θ is determined by
vy
RA
tan θ = (12.71.3)
vx
Now

vy = ayt
qV
= t
me d
qV L
= (12.71.4)
me d v
D

qV L
tan θ = md v
v
qVL
= (12.71.5)
mdv2

## 12.72 Negative Feedback

All amplifiers exhibit non-linear behavior of some sort. Negative feedback seeks to
correct some of these effects by sending some of the output back and subtracting it from

228 GR9677 Exam Solutions
the input. This results in a decrease in gain. This tradeoff og gain improves linearity
and hence the stability of the amplifier. This also allows for increased bandwidth
response and decreased distortion.

## 12.73 Adiabatic Work of an Ideal Gas

PV γ = C (12.73.1)
The work done by an ideal gas is
Z

FT
W= PdV (12.73.2)

## Substituting the adiabatic condition into the work equation yields

Z Vf
dV
W=C γ
Vi V
V
V −γ+1 f
=C
1 + γ Vi

RA
C h −γ+1 −γ+1
i
= Vf − Vi (12.73.3)
1−γ
γ γ
C = PV γ = Pi Vi = P f V f (12.73.4)
Substituting this into eq. (12.73.3), we get
−γ+1 −γ+1
CV f − CVi
W=
1−γ
D

γ −γ+1 γ −γ+1
Pf Vf Vf − Pf Vf Vf
=
1−γ
P f V f − Pi Vi
= (12.73.5)
1−γ

## 12.74 Change in Entrophy of Two Bodies

The change in entrophy of a system is
dQ
dS = (12.74.1)
T

Double Pane Windows and Fourier’s Law of Thermal Conduction 229
The change in heat of a system is

dQ = nCdT (12.74.2)

## Substituting this into the above equation, we get

Z Tf
dT
dS = mC
Ti T
" #
Tf
= mC ln (12.74.3)
Ti

We are told that the two bodies are brought together and they are in thermal isolation.
This means that heat is not absorbed from or lost to the environment, only transferred
between the two bodies. Thus

 

FT
Heat Lost by Body A = Heat Gained by Body B

mC 500 − T f = mc T f − 100
∴ T f = 300 K


The Total Change in Entrophy is the sum of the entrophy changes of bodies A and B.
Thus
RA
dS = dSA + dSB
300 300
   
= mC ln + mC ln
500 100
9
 
= mC ln (12.74.4)
5
D

## 12.75 Double Pane Windows and Fourier’s Law of Ther-

mal Conduction

Given Fourier’s Law of Thermal Conduction, we can determine the heat flow

∆Q ∆T
H= = kA (12.75.1)
∆t x
where k is the thermal conductivity, A is the cross sectional area of the surface, ∆T is the
temperature difference and x is the thickness of the material of thermal conductivity, k.
We are given the thermal conductivities, kA = 0.8 W °C m−1 and kB = 0.025 W °C m−1 .
Thus for window A,
∆T
HA = kA A (12.75.2)
xA

230 GR9677 Exam Solutions
and for the double-paned window B, we have

∆T
HB = kB A (12.75.3)
xB

## Thus, the ration between eq. (12.75.2) and eq. (12.75.3) is

HA kA A∆T xB
= ·
HB xA kB A∆T
kA xB
=
kB xA
= 16 (12.75.4)

So we can see why we use double-paned glass windows to save on heating bills. Air

FT
is just a great insulator.

## 12.76 Gaussian Wave Packets

We have a Gaussian wave packet travelling through free space. We can best think of
RA
this as an infinite sum of a bunch of waves initially travelling together. Based on what
we know, we can eliminate the choices given.

I The average momentum of the wave packet can not be zero as p = ~k. As we
have a whole bunch of wave numbers present, the average can not be zero.
INCORRECT

II Our wave packet contains a bunch of waves travelling together each with a differnt
wave vector, k. The speed of propagation of these individual wave vectors is
defined by the group velocity, v g = dω/dk. So some waves will travel, some
D

slower than others. As a result of these different travelling rates our wave packet
becomes spread out or ‘dispersed’. This is the basis of our dispersion relation,
ω(k), relative to the center of the wave packet. CORRECT

III As we expect the wave packet to spread out, as shown above, the amplitude will
decrease over time. The energy that was concentrated in this packet gets spread
out or dispersed. INCORRECT

IV This is true. This statement is the Uncertainty Principle and comes from Fourier
Analysis. CORRECT

## We see that choices II and IV are CORRECT.

Angular Momentum Spin Operators 231
12.77 Angular Momentum Spin Operators

NOT FINISHED

## 12.78 Semiconductors and Impurity Atoms

NOT FINISHED

12.79

cv =
FT
Specific Heat of an Ideal Diatomic Gas

The formula for finding the molar heat capacity at constant volume can be found by

f
2
!
R (12.79.1)
RA
where f is the number of degrees of freedom. At very low temperatures, there are only
three translational degrees of freedom; there are no rotational degrees of freedom in
this case. At very high temperatures, we have three translational degrees of freedom,
two rotational and two vibrational, giving a total of seven in all.

## For Low Temperatures For High Temperatures

Translational 3 Translational 3
Rotational 0 Rotational 2
D

Vibrational 0 Vibrational 2
Total( f ) 3 Total( f ) 7

## We see that in the case of very low temperatures,

3
cvl = R (12.79.2)
2

## and at very high temperatures,

7
cvh = R (12.79.3)
2

232 GR9677 Exam Solutions
Thus, the ratio of molar heat capacity at constant volume at very high temperatures to
that at very low temperatures is
7
cvh R
= 23
cvl 2
R
7
= (12.79.4)
3

FT
NOT FINISHED

## 12.81 Piano Tuning & Beats

RA
The D2 note has a frequency of 73.416 Hz and the A4 note has a frequency of 440.000 Hz.
Beats are produced when the two frequencies are close to each other; if they were the
same, there would be no beat frequency. So we can determine the D2 note where this
happens by setting the beat frequency to zero.

## This works out to be

440.000
n=
73.416
D

440
≈ =6 (12.81.2)
72

Thus the closest harmonic will be the 6th one. As we expect this to be very close to the
A4 frequency, the number of beats will be small or close to zero. Answer (B) fits this.12
12
Incidentally, you can multiply the D2 frequency by six to determine the harmonic. This turns out to
be
73.416 × 6 = 440.496 Hz (12.81.3)
Subtracting this from the A2 frequency gives

## 440.496 − 440.000 = 0.496 Hz (12.81.4)

Thin Films 233
12.82 Thin Films

As light moves from the glass to air interface, it is partially reflected and partially
transmitted. There is no phase change when the light is refected. In the case of the
transmitted wave, when it reaches the air-glass interface, there is a change in phase of
the reflected beam. Thus the condition for destructive interference is

1
 
2L = n + λ (12.82.1)
2

where L is the thickness of the air film and n = 0, 1, 2 is the interference mode. Thus
2n + 1
 
L= λ (12.82.2)
4

FT
We get

λ
L0 = = 122 nm (12.82.3)
4

L1 = = 366 nm (12.82.4)
4

L2 = = 610 nm (12.82.5)
4
RA

## 12.83 Mass moving on rippled surface

For the mass to stay on the rippled surface, the particle’s horizontal velocity should
not be so great that it flies off the track. So as it falls, it must hug the track. The time
for the particle to fall from the top of the track to the bottom is
D

1 2
2d = gt (12.83.1)
2
where s
4d
t= (12.83.2)
g
We could also have said,
2π 1
 
d − d cos k · = gt2
2k 2
1
∴ 2d = gt2
2
but this is the same as eq. (12.83.2).

234 GR9677 Exam Solutions
To stay on the track, the particle must cover a horizontal distance of x = π/k in the
same time. Thus the horizontal speed, v, is

x π g 1/2
 
v= =
t k 4d
π
 g 1/2
= · 2 (12.83.3)
2 kd
Any speed greater that 12.83.3 would result in the particle flying off the track. So
r
g
v≤ (12.83.4)
k2 d

12.84

FT
Normal Modes and Couples Oscillators
NOT FINISHED
RA
12.85 Waves
NOT FINSIHED

D

NOT FINISHED

## 12.87 Rotation of Charged Pith Balls in a Collapsing Mag-

netic Field
As the magnetic field, B, collapses, it indices a clockwise electric field, E, that causes
the charged pith balls to rotate. The electric field can be found from Faraday’s Law

∂Φ
I
E · d` = − (12.87.1)
∂S ∂t

Coaxial Cable 235
The magnetic flux covers an area, A, of
A = πR2 (12.87.2)
and the electric field makes a loop of circumference
d` = πd (12.87.3)
Substituting eqs. (12.87.2) and (12.87.3) into eq. (12.87.1) gives us
dB
E · πd = πR2 (12.87.4)
dt
Solving for E, gives us
R2 dB
E= (12.87.5)
d dt
The question answers ask for the angular momentum, we recall that the torque is

FT
τ=r×F (12.87.6)
where F = qE. Substituting eq. (12.87.5) into eq. (12.87.6)
dL dB
= qR2 (12.87.7)
dt dt
So it follows that
L = qR2 B (12.87.8)
RA

## 12.88 Coaxial Cable

We expect there to be no magnetic field outside, r > c, the coaxial cable. Choices (D)
and (E) make no sense. So choice (B) is our best one left.
We can also use Ampere’s Law to show what the magnetic induction will look like as
we ove away from the center. We recall Ampere’s Law
D

I
B · d` = µ0 Ienclosed (12.88.1)

## 0 < r < a The current enclosed by our Amperian Loop is

πr2
Ienclosed =I 2 (12.88.2)
πa
Ampere’s Law shows us
πr2
B (2πr) = µ0 I
πa2
µ0 I r
B(0<r<a) = (12.88.3)
2π a2
We see the magnetic induction will increase linearly with respect to r.

236 GR9677 Exam Solutions
a < r < b Within the shaded region, the enclosed current is, Ienclosed = I. Ampere’s Law
becomes

B (2πr) = µ0 I
µ0 I
B(a<r<b) = (12.88.4)
2π r
The magnetic induction decreases inversely with respect to r.
b < r < c The area of the outer sheath is
 
A = π c2 − b 2 (12.88.5)

## The enclosed current will be

πr2 − πb2
" #
Ienclosed =I−I

FT
πc2 − πb2
" 2 #
c − r2
=I 2 (12.88.6)
c − b2
Ampere’s Law becomes
" #
c2 − r2
B (2πr) = µ0 I 2
c − b2
RA
µ0 I c − r2
" 2 #
B(b<r<c) = (12.88.7)
2πr c2 − b2
This will fall to an inversely with respect to r.
r > c We see that Ienclosed = 0, so from Ampere’s Law

B(r>c) = 0 (12.88.8)

D

## 12.89 Charged Particles in E&M Fields

A seemingly difficult question but it really is not14 . All we need to turn to is Pythagoras
Theorem and relate the centripetal force to the Lorentz Force Law.
From the Lorentz Force Law, we see that
mv2
= Bqv (12.89.1)
r
13
This is one of the reasons we use coaxial cables to transmit signals. No external magnetic field from
our signals means that we can, theoretically, eliminate electromagnetic interference.
14
Draw Diagrams

THIS ITEM WAS NOT SCORED 237
We can simplify this to read,
p = Bqr (12.89.2)
We know B and q. We can determine r in terms of s and ` by using Pythagoras Theorem.

r2 = `2 + (r − s)2 (12.89.3)

## Solving for r, gives us

1 `2
!
r= +s (12.89.4)
2 s
As s << `, eq. (12.89.4) becomes
1 `2
r= (12.89.5)
2 s
Substituting eq. (12.89.5) into eq. (12.89.2), gives us

FT
Bq`2
(12.89.6)
2s

## 12.90 THIS ITEM WAS NOT SCORED

RA
12.91 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
This question deals with the Second Lar of Thermodynamics, which states that the
entrophy of an isloated system, which is not in equilibrium, will increase over time,
reaching a maximum at equilibrium. An alternative but equivalent statement is the
Clausius statement, “Heat can not flow from cold to hot without work input”. Thusit
would be impossible to attain the 900 K temperature the experimenter needs with a
D

simple lens.

## 12.92 Small Oscillations

We are given a one dimensional potential function

## V(x) = −ax2 + bx4 (12.92.1)

We can find the points of stability by differentiating the above equation to get and
setting it to zero.
dV
= −2ax + 4bx3 = 0 (12.92.2)
dx

238 GR9677 Exam Solutions
we see that x = 0; a/2b. Taking the second differential gives us the mass’s spring
constant, k
d2 V
k= = −2a + 12bx2 (12.92.3)
dx2
We can also use this to find the minimum and maximum points of inflection in our
potential graph. The roots of our equation are x = 0, ±a/2b. We see that

d2 V(0) d2 V(a/2b)
k= = −2a k= = 4a
dx2 dx2
We see that when x = a/2b, we are at a minima and hence at a point of stable equilibrium.
We can now find the angular frequency
r
k
ω=

FT
m
r
4a
=
m
r
a
=2 (12.92.4)
m

RA
12.93 Period of Mass in Potential

The total period of our mass will be the time it takes to return to the same point, say
the origin, as it moves through the two potentials.

## for x < 0 The potential is

1
V = k2 (12.93.1)
D

2
The spring constant, k, is
d2 V
k= =k (12.93.2)
dx2
Thus the period of oscillation would be
r
m
T = 2π (12.93.3)
k

But this represents the period of the mass could also swing from x > 0. As a
result, our period would just be half this. So
r
m
T(x<0) = π (12.93.4)
k

Internal Energy 239
for x > 0 The potential is
V = mgx (12.93.5)

We may recognize this as the gravitational potential energy. In this case, the
”period” would be the time for the mass to return the origin. This would simply
be
1
s = v0 t − gt2 (12.93.6)
2
where s = 0. Solving for t, we get t = 0 and t = 2v0 /g We can solve this in terms
of the total energy, E of the mass. The energy is E = 1/2mv20 . Our period works
out to be s
2E
T(x>0) = 2 (12.93.7)
mg2

## Thus our total period is

r
FT
T = T(x<0) + T(x>0)
m
k
+2
s
2E
mg2
(12.93.8)
RA

NOT FINISHED
D

## Superconductors experience an increase in their specific heat, Cv , at the transition

temperature, Tc . At high temperatures, the specific heat falls linearly but at low
temperatures, the specific heat falls below the linear dependence of a degenerate Fermi
gas and is proportional to exp(−k/T). If the superconductor is placed in a magnetic
field that exceeds the critical field strength, B > Bc , the specific heat reverts to the
normal linear behavior.
We see both the linear dependence and exponential decay below a certain value in
Choice:(E).

240 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.96 Pair Production
We are given the equation of pair production

γ → e− + e+ (12.96.1)

Pair production occurs when a γ ray of high energy is absorbed in the vincinity of
an atomic nucleus and particles are created from the absorbed photon’s energy. This
takes place in the Coulomb field of the nucleus; the nucleus acts as a massive body to
ensure the conservation of momentum and energy. The nucleus is an essential part of
this process; if the photon could spontaneously decay into an electron-positron pair in
empty space, a Lorentz frame could be found where the electron and positron have
equal and opposite momenta and the photon will be at rest. This is a clear violation of
the principles of Special Relativity. We choose (A).

FT
Based on what we know, we can determine the maximum wavelength as a matter or
interest. As the nucleus is massive, we will ignore its recoil and consider that all of the
photon’s energy goes into electron-positron creation and the particles’ kinetic energy.

hυ = E− + E+
= K− + me c2 + K+ + me c2
   

= K− + K+ + 2me c2 (12.96.2)
RA
where K− and K+ are the kinetic energies of the electron and positron respectively. Thus
the minimum energy needed to initiate this process is

h
λmax = (12.96.4)
2me c2
D

## The probability current density is defined as15

∂Ψ ∂Ψ∗
!
~
j(x, t) − Ψ∗ − Ψ (12.97.1)
2im ∂x ∂x
15

Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Energy Levels 241
Thus given the wavefunction

 
(12.97.2)

 
(12.97.3)

## Differentiating the above two equations yields

= eiωt −kα sin kx + kβ cos kx
 
(12.97.4)
dx

dΨ∗
= e−iωt −kα∗ sin kx + kβ∗ cos kx
 
(12.97.5)
dx

FT
Substituting eqs. (12.97.2) to (12.97.5) into eq. (12.97.1) yields
k~
j(x, t) = α∗ β − β∗ α

(12.97.6)
2im

## 12.98 Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Energy Levels

RA
Given the potential
1
V(x) = mω2 x2 (12.98.1)
2
Solving the Schrödinger’s Equation for this potential

~2 d2 ψ 1
− + mω2 x2 ψ = Eψ (12.98.2)
2m dx2 2
leaves us with
D

 14
mω 1

Hn e−ξ /2
2
ψn = √ (12.98.3)
π~
2n n!
where H( n) are Hermite polynomials and with energy levels of16
1
 
En = n + ~ω (12.98.4)
2
But we have placed an infinitely large barrier, V = ∞ at x ≤ 0. This serves to constrain
ψn (0) = 0 at x = 0. This occurs at n = 1, 3, 5, . . . or rather only odd values of n are
allowed. Thus
3 5 7 11
En = ~ω, ~ω, ~ω, ~ω, . . . (12.98.5)
2 2 2 2
16

242 GR9677 Exam Solutions
12.99 Three Level LASER and Metastable States

## Metastability describes a state of delicate equilibrium. Such a system is in a state of

equilibrium but is susceptible to fall into a lower-energy state with a slight interaction.
The laser operation depends on an active medium of atoms whose energy states can
be populated selectively by radiative means.17 In the three-level laser, a discharge
of some sort raises atoms from the ground state, E1 , to a higher state, E3 . A rapid
spontaneous decay then occurs, bringing the excited atoms down to the E2 state. This
state is metastabe as it inhibits spontaneous decay back down to the ground state. It
needs an incident photon of energy hυ = E2 −E1 to stimulate the desired laser transition
back down to the ground state, E1 .

E3

FT
Pumping Transition

E2 Metastable Level
RA
E1

## Figure 12.99.1: Three Level Laser

The Ruby Laser is an example of a three-level laser. Green light from a flash lamp
pumps the chromium ions to an excited level and non-radiative de-excitation promptly
brings the ions to a long lived metastable state. Stimulated emission then follows,
generating a coherent beam of red light of 694 nm.
D

erators

## We are given the lowering operator

r !
mω0 p̂
â = x̂ + i (12.100.1)
2~ mω0
17
Add laser explanation in one of the sections.

Quantum Oscillator – Raising and Lowering Operators 243
The raising operator is given by
r !
mω0 p̂
â =

x̂ − i (12.100.2)
2~ mω0

## So we immediately see that

â† , â (12.100.3)
which we see from Choice: III. But what about the other two choices? In reality we
only have to prove/disprove Choice: I but we will go through both.
We know that â is not Hermitian from eq. (12.100.3) and hence not observable. Hence
we can eliminate Choice: II.
This affects Choice: I as â is not observable and hence won’t commute with the
Hamiltonian, H. We eliminate Choice: I.

FT
RA
D

244 GR9677 Exam Solutions

FT
RA
D

Chapter 13
GR0177 Exam Solutions

acent
FT θ
RA
atang

## Figure 13.1.1: Acceleration components on pendulum bob

The acceleration of an object that rotates with variable speed has two components, a
D

centripetal acceleration and a tangential acceleration. We can see this in the above
diagram, fig. 13.1.1, where

Centripetal Acceleration
v2
acent = = ω2 r (13.1.1)
r

Tangential Acceleration
atang = αr (13.1.2)

The net acceleration on the bob can be found by adding the cetripetal and tangential
accelerations
atang + acent = a (13.1.3)
246 GR0177 Exam Solutions

## At point (e) At point (c)

a = atang a = acent

Figure 13.1.2: Acceleration vectors of bob at equilibrium and max. aplitude positions

At point (e), v = 0, so

FT
acent = 0 and
atang = a

## There is only the tangential component to the bob’s acceleration.

At point (c), α = 0, so
acent = a and
atang = 0
RA
There is only the cetripetal component to the bob’s acceleration.
We see from (C), the acceleration vectors point in the directions we expect.

## 13.2 Coin on a Turntable

The coin will stay in place as long as the certipetal force and the static friction force are
D

equal. We can see that this is dependent on its position on the turntable, see fig. 13.2.1.

## The coin is in equilbrium, we see that

mrω2 − µR = 0
µg
∴r= 2 (13.2.1)
ω

Kepler’s Law and Satellite Orbits 247
From here it’s just a matter of plugging what we know, ω = 33.3 revolutions/min. For
the sake of simplicity, we will assume that this is equal to 100/3 revolutions per minute.
Thus
ω = 33.3revolutions/min
100 2π
= ·
3 60
10π
9
The Physics GRE examination is all about estimations. Plugging this into eq. (13.2.1),
we get
µg
r=
ω2

FT
2
9

= 0.3 × 9.8 ×
10π
81
≈3×
900
27
=
100
= 0.27 m (13.2.3)
This is closest to 0.242 m.
RA

## 13.3 Kepler’s Law and Satellite Orbits

Kepler’s Third Law, states, “The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly
proportional to the third power of the semi-major axis of its orbit.” This means
T 2 ∝ r3 (13.3.1)
D

See section 1.7.4. If you’re unable to remember Kepler’s Law and its relationship
between the period and orbital distance, some quick calculation will yield some results.
GMm
mRω =
R2
 2
2π GM
mR = 2
T R
2
(2π)
⇒ R3 = T2
GM
∴ R3 = kT2
This is Kepler’s Third Law.

248 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.4 Non-Elastic Collisions

2m v m 3m vf

## immediately eliminate choice (A)1 .

Thus
FT
As the bodies fuse, see fig. 13.4.1, the resulting collision will be an inelastic one;
kinectic energy is not conserved but momentum will be conserved. This allows us to

## Momentum Before Collision = Momentum After Collision

RA
2mv = 3mv f
3
⇒ v = vf (13.4.1)
2
The kinectic energy before and after collision are

Initial K.E.
1
E = (2m)v2 = mv2 (13.4.2)
2
D

Final K.E.
 2
1 1 2
E f = (3m)v f = (3m) v
2
2 2 3
2 2
= mv (13.4.3)
3

Subtracting eq. (13.4.3) from eq. (13.4.2) gives us the energy lost in the collision

2
∆E = mv2 − mv2
3
1 2
= mv (13.4.4)
3
1
Not much help but the elimination of just one choice may work to our advantage.

The Equipartition Theorem and the Harmonic Oscillator 249
The fraction of initial kinetic energy lost in the collision is
1 2
mv
∆E 3
=
E mv2
1
= (13.4.5)
3

## 13.5 The Equipartition Theorem and the Harmonic Os-

cillator

FT
The average total energy of our oscillator is determined by the Equipartition Theorem,
see section 4.22, where !
f
CV = R = 4.16 J mol−1 K−1 (13.5.1)
2
where f is the number of degrees of freedom.
The average total energy is
Q = nCV T
RA
!
f
=n RT
2
!
f
=N kT (13.5.2)
2
We are told this is a three dimensional oscillator so we have f = 6 degrees of freedom
and N = 1. So eq. (13.5.2) becomes
6
 
Q= kT = 3kTJ (13.5.3)
2
D

## 13.6 Work Done in Isothermal and Adiabatic Expansions

This is a simple question if you remember what isothermal and adiabatic processes
look like on a P − V graph. The areas under the curves tell us the work done by these
processes and since the adiabatic curve is less steep than the isothermal one, then the
work done by this process is less2 .
So we get 0 < Wa < Wi .
2
Get P-V diagram with isothermal and adiabatic expansions

250 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.6.1 Calculation
In the event that you’re unable to remember this P − V diagram, you can work out the
equations for the work for isothermal and adiabatic expansions. We are told that
V f = 2Vi (13.6.1)
and for an ideal monatomic gas
γ = 1.66 (13.6.2)
The work done by an expanding gas is
Z Vf
W= P dV (13.6.3)
Vi

Isothermal Work

## For an ideal gas

W= FT
PV = nRT
Substituting eq. (13.6.4) into eq. (13.6.3) gives us
Z Vf

Vi
nRT
V
Z Vf
dV

dV
(13.6.4)
RA
= nRT
Vi V
!
Vf
= nRT ln (13.6.5)
Vi
Substituting eqs. (13.6.1) and (13.6.4) into eq. (13.6.5) yields
Wi = PV ln 2 (13.6.6)
This works out to
Wi = 0.69PV (13.6.7)
D

PV γ = K (13.6.8)
Substituting eq. (13.6.8) into eq. (13.6.3) gives
Z Vf
K
W= γ
dV
Vi V
V
V 1−γ f
=K
1 − γ Vi

h 1−γ 1−γ
i
K V f − Vi
= (13.6.9)
1−γ

Electromagnetic Field Lines 251
Substituting eqs. (13.6.1) and (13.6.8) into eq. (13.6.9) gives

 
PV 21−γ − 1
Wa = (13.6.10)
1−γ

## This works out to

Wa = 0.57PV (13.6.11)

## 13.7 Electromagnetic Field Lines

FT
The two poles are of the same polarity so we expect the filed lines to not cross.4
RA

## 13.8 Image Charges

We can use the “Method of Image Charges” to solve this question. We have a positive
charge near the plate so this will induce an equal and opposite charge in the plate.5
D

But, let’s for the sake of argument say that you didn’t know of this ‘method’ and
needed to figure it out, we know a few things. We know that the plate is grounded.
So if we were to bring a charge near to the plate, an equal but opposite charge will be
induced. In this case, negative charges in the plate are attracted to the nearby charge
and positive ones are repelled. As the positive ones want to “get away”, they succeed
in doing so through the ground, leaving only the negative charges behind. Thus the
plate is left with a net negative charge.

3
We can see how relatively easy it is to work this out but it is not something you’ll have time for in
the exam. It’s best to just learn it. The work done by an adiabatic expansion is less than an isothermal
expansion because some of the heat is lost in the temperature change.
4
Get diagram with magnetic field lines
5
Put wikipedia reference here

252 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.9 Electric Field Symmetry

+q
Gaussian Surface
+q

+q
r
+q
+q

FT
Figure 13.9.1: Five charges arranged symmetrically around circle of radius, r

Gauss’s Law states that “The electric flux through any closed surface is proportional
to the enclosed electric charge”.
I
Qenclosed
E · dA = (13.9.1)
0
RA
S

If we draw a Gaussian Surface at the center of our arrangement, see fig. 13.9.1, we
notice there are no charges enclosed and thus no electric field.6

D

## The Energy stored in a Capacitor is

1
E = CV 2 (13.10.1)
2
6
This makes sense, there is no electric field inside a conductor because all the charges reside on the
surface.

Thin Lens Equation 253
Our networked capacitors, as shown in fig. 13.10.1, can be reduced to a circuit with
only one capacitor. The equivalence capacitance of two Capacitors in series is
C1 C2
CT =
C1 + C2
(3)(6)
=
9
= 2 µF
Substitute into eq. (13.10.1) we can find the energy stored
1 
E= 2 × 10−6 (300)2
2
= 9 × 10−2 J

FT

## 13.11 Thin Lens Equation

Using the Len’s Maker Equation (Thin Lens). We have
RA
1 1 1
+ 0 = where S = Object Distance
S S f
S0 = Image Distance
f = Focal Length
Solving for the first lens, we have
1 1 1
+ =
40 I1 20
1 1 1
⇒ = −
D

I1 20 40
1
= (13.11.1)
40
The resulting image is 40cm from the first lens which forms a virtual image that is
10cm to the right of the second lens. We get,7
1 1 1
+ =
−10 I2 10
1 1
⇒ = (13.11.2)
I2 5
The image is located 5cm to the right of the second lens.
7
Get book/internet references for this equation.

254 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.12 Mirror Equation

For a concave mirror, we know that if an object is before the focal length, then image
is virtual If object is after focal length, the image is real.
The Mirror Equation is
1 1 1
= + (13.12.1)
f d0 di

## We can show that

1 1 1
= + (13.12.2)
F O di
FO

FT
⇒ di = (13.12.3)
O−F

Here we see that O < F, so di is negative. The image is virtual and at point V.
We can also keep in mind that for a concave lens, if the object is between the focal point
and the lens, the image is virtual and enlarged. Think of what happens when you look
at a makeup mirror.8
RA

## The Resolving Power of a Telescope is

λ
sin θ = 1.22 (13.13.1)
D

## Solving for D and substuting λ and θ, we get

λ
⇒ D = 1.22
θ
600 × 10−19
= 1.22 ×
3 × 10−5
= 1.22 × 200 × 10−4
= 2.44 × 10−2 m

8
Get references for this as well

Radiation detected by a NaI(Tl) crystal 255
13.14 Radiation detected by a NaI(Tl) crystal

dA

## First Position Second Position

1m

FT
Figure 13.14.1: Diagram of NaI(Tl) detector postions

Thallium doped Sodium Iodine crystals are used in scintillation detectors, usually
found in hospitals. These crystals have a high light output and are usually coupled to
RA
photomultiplier tubes. No emitted power is lost to the surrounding medium. Thus,
the net power radiated by our source is
Z
P = I dA (13.14.1)

## where P is the radiated power, I is the intensity and dA is a differential element of a

closed surface that contains the source.
The emitted power at the first position is
P1 = I1 A1 (13.14.2)
D

## and the emitted power at the second position is

P2 = I2 A2 (13.14.3)
As no power is lost to the environment, then eqs. (13.14.2) and (13.14.3) are equal, thus
P1 = P2
I1 A1 = I2 A2
I2 A1
⇒ = (13.14.4)
I1 A2
In the first case, as the detector is right up to the radioactive source, the area, A1 is the
cross sectional area of the NaI(Tl) crystal.
πd2
A1 = (13.14.5)
4

256 GR0177 Exam Solutions
In the second position, the area is the surface area of the sphere of emitted radiation.
A2 = 4πD2 (13.14.6)
where D is the distance of the crystal detector from the radioactive source.
The ratio between I2 and I1 can be found from eq. (13.14.4),
I2 A1
=
I1 A2
πd2 1
=
4 4πD2
d2
=
16D2
2
8 × 10−2
=
16

FT
= 4 × 10−2

## 13.15 Accuracy and Precision

From the graphs, the accuracy is how close the peak is to the reference value while
RA
precision deals with how narrow the peak is. So we look for the graph with the
narrowest peak.

## 13.16 Counting Statistics

From the data given,
√ we have
√ N = 20 counts in T = 10 seconds. Our uncertainty or
counting error is N = 20 . So we can express our uncertainty in the number of
D

counts as √
N = 20 ± 20 (13.16.1)
The rate is the number of counts per unit time. So the uncertainty in the rate is

20 20
R= ± (13.16.2)
10 10
We can see that the error in the rate is δR = δN
T
. Our uncertainty can be expressed
δN
δR T
= N
R T
δN
=
N
1
= √ (13.16.3)
N

Electron configuration 257
The question needs an uncertainty of 1 %. From the above, we see that

1
√ = 0.01 (13.16.4)
N
But N is the number of counts. We want to know how long making these counts will
take us. The count rate, R = NT , thus

1
√ = 0.01 (13.16.5)
2T
Solving for T gives
1
T= = 5000 s (13.16.6)
2(0.01)2

FT

## 13.17 Electron configuration

Standard notation is used to describe the electron configuration of atoms and molecules.
In the case of atoms, the notation is represented by atomic orbital labels with the number
RA
of electrons assigned to each orbital. In the case of phosphorus, which has 15 electrons,
the energy sub-shells are
1s2 , 2s2 , 2p6 , 3s2 , 3p3

## 13.18 Ionization Potential (He atom)

From Bohr’s Theory, the energy needed to completly ionize an atom is
D

Z2
E = −13.6 eV (13.18.1)
n2
The total Energy to ionize the atom is

E = E1 + E2 (13.18.2)

We expect the energy to remove the first electron to be less than the second; there are
more positive charges in the nucleus holding the second electron in place. We can use
the above equation to find out the energy to remove this second electron.

22
E2 = −13.6 2 eV
1
= 54.4eV (13.18.3)

258 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Now we can determine the energy needed to remove the first electron

E1 = E − E2
= 79.0 − 54.4
= 24.6 eV (13.18.4)

## 13.19 Nuclear Fusion

The are several fusion reactions by which stars convert Hydrogen into Helium and
release energy. One of the main reactions is the proton-proton chain reaction and looks
something like this

FT
 
411 H →42 He + 2 01 e +00 γ +0 υ (13.19.1)
Four Hydrogen atoms combine to give one Helium atom, the difference in masses
being released as energy.

## 13.20 Bremsstrahlung X-Rays

RA
Bremsstrahlung is the continuous radiation spectrum of X-Ray radiation that is pro-
duced by a deceleration electron that is deflected off a target metal.

## 13.21 Atomic Spectra

D

The Rydberg Formula describes the spectral wavelengths of chemical elements. For
the Hydrogen atom, the equation is
!
1 1 1
= RH 2 − 2 (13.21.1)
λ n1 n2

where λ is the wavlength of the emitted light, RH is the Rydberg constant for Hydrogen,
n1 and n2 are the electron orbital numbers.
For the Lyman-α emission, electrons jump from n2 = 2to the n1 = 1 orbital. This gives
1 1 1
 
= RH −
λ1 1 2
1
= RH (13.21.2)
2

Planetary Orbits 259
For the Balmer-α emission, electrons jump from n2 = 3 to n1 = 2 orbital. This gives
1 1 1
 
= RH −
λ2 2 3
1
= (13.21.3)
6
Dividing eq. (13.21.3) by eq. (13.21.2), we get
λ1 1
= (13.21.4)
λ2 3

FT
13.22 Planetary Orbits
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed
 2
mv2 Mm 2π
= G 2 = mrω = mr
2
(13.22.1)
r r T
We can use the information above to eliminate choices.
RA
Mass of he Moon We see that in all cases, the mass of the moon, m, cancels out. We
can not find the mass of the moon from the astronomer’s observations.

Mass of the Planet We can determine the mass of the planet, M, from the data.

v2 GM
= 2 (13.22.2)
r r
We will need the distances and the moon’s orbital speed.

Minimum Speed of the Moon The speed of the Moon, v, also does not cancel out in
D

## any of our equations. So we can find this out.

Period of Orbit As the period, T, does not cancel out, we can also determine this.
2
2π GM

r = (13.22.3)
T r2

Semi-major axis of orbit The semi-major axis is the longest distance from the center
of an ellipse. The distance, r, in our equations are a measure of the semi-major
axis.

We see that the mass, m, the mass of the moon cancels out. Everything else mentioned
remains. Thus

260 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.23 Acceleration of particle in circular motion

ac

a
θ

at

## Figure 13.23.1: Acceleration components of a particle moving in circular motion

FT
Since the particle’s speed increases as it moves in a circle, it is going to have two
accelerations acting on it; a centripetal acceleration and a tangential acceleration, see
fig. 13.23.1. The net acceleration of our particle can be found by adding the centripetal
and tangential components, so
a = ac + at (13.23.1)
where
RA
v2
ac = (13.23.2)
r
at = αr (13.23.3)

## The angle between the particle’s acceleration, a and its velocity, v, is

ac
tan θ = (13.23.4)
at
The velocity vector points in the same direction as at , hence the reason why we use the
above calculation.
D

## Given that r = 10 meters, v = 10 m s−1 , we calculate ac to be

ac = 10 m s−2 (13.23.5)

## Plugging this into eq. (13.23.4), we get

ac
tan θ =
at
10
= =1 (13.23.6)
10
Thus
θ = 45° (13.23.7)

Two-Dimensional Trajectories 261
13.24 Two-Dimensional Trajectories
The horizontal velocity of the stone is

Vx = V cos θ (13.24.1)

## and the vertical velocity is

V y = V sin θ − gt (13.24.2)
Equation (13.24.1) is constant over time, we choose Graph II and eq. (13.24.2) is a
straight line graph, we choose Graph III.

FT
13.25 Moment of inertia of pennies in a circle
RA
2r
r

D

## The Moment of inertia of a penny is the same for a disc or cylinder

1
Ipenny = Icm = Mr2 (13.25.1)
2

For the other pennies, we find their Moments of Inertia by using the Parallel Axis
Theorem.
IT = Icm + Md2 (13.25.2)
where d = 2r. This becomes
1
IT = Mr2 + M (2r)2
2
9
= Mr2 (13.25.3)
2

262 GR0177 Exam Solutions
The Moment of Inertia depends on the mass distribution. Whether the six pennies
were stacked on top of each other next or arranged in a hexagonal pattern, the Moment
of Inertia will be the same. The total moment of inertia is found by adding eqs. (13.25.1)
and (13.25.3).

1 9
I = Mr2 + 6 × Mr2
2 2
55
= Mr2 (13.25.4)
2

## 13.26 Falling Rod

L/2
FTmg
mg
RA
Figure 13.26.1: Falling rod attached to a pivot point

As the rod falls, its Gravitational Potential Energy is converted to Rotational Kinetic
Energy. Ee will need to calculate the Moment of Inertia of the rod about its point of
rotation. For this, we turn to the Parallel Axis Theorem. The Moment of Inertia of the
rod is
1
D

## Icm = ML2 (13.26.1)

12
The Parallel Axis Theorem gives us the Moment of Inertia about the pivot point

I = Icm + Md2
 2
1 L
= ML + M
2
12 2
1
= ML2 (13.26.2)
3
The rod is uniform, so its Center of Mass is in the middle of the rod. Its Gravitational
Potential Energy while standing upright is

L
 
PE = Mg (13.26.3)
2

Hermitian Operator 263
The Rotational Kinetic Energy is
1
KE = Iω2 (13.26.4)
2
As energy is conserved, eqs. (13.26.3) and (13.26.4) are equal.
  2
L 1 1 v

Mg = ML2
2 2 3 L
∴ v = 3gL
p
(13.26.5)

## 13.27 Hermitian Operator

FT
The expectation value of an observable Q(x, p) can be expressed
Z
hQi = Ψ∗ Q̂Ψ dx

## All measurements have to be real, thus

(13.27.1)
RA
hQi = hQi∗ (13.27.2)

We recall that
hg| f i = h f |gi∗ (13.27.3)
Thus the complex conjugate of an inner product is

## hΨ|Q̂ψi = hQ̂Ψ|ψi (13.27.4)

and this must hold for any wave function, Ψ. So operators representing observables
have the property that
D

## h f |Q̂ f i = hQ̂ f | f i (13.27.5)

These are called Hermitian.

13.28 Orthogonality

Two functions are orthogonal if their inner or dot product is zero . On the other hand
they are orthonormal if their inner product is one. Thus

## hψ1 |ψ2 i = 0 (13.28.1)

h1|1i = h2|2i = h3|3i = 1 (13.28.2)

264 GR0177 Exam Solutions
We get,

## hψ1 |ψ2 i = (5) (1) h1|1i + (−3) (−5) h2|2i +

+ (2) (x) h3|3i
(13.28.3)

This gives

5 + 15 + 2x = 0
⇒ x = −10 (13.28.4)

FT
13.29 Expectation Values
The Expectation Value is defined
Z
hÔi = Ψ∗ ÔΨ dx = hψ|Ôψi (13.29.1)
RA
Where
1 1 1
ψ = √ ψ−1 + √ ψ1 + √ ψ2 (13.29.2)
6 2 3
Thus
1 1 1
hOi = + +
6 2 3
=1 (13.29.3)

D

We need to be thinking of something that decays exponentially. So

## II. A sin br This doesn’t go to zero as r → ∞.

III. A/r This does become zero as r → ∞ but there is no realistic value at r = 0. It
blows up.

Decay of Positronium Atom 265
13.31 Decay of Positronium Atom
Positronium(Ps) is a quasiatomic structure where an electron, e− , and a positron, e+ ,
are bound together by Coulomb attraction. Positronium has a short lifetime because of
pair-annihilation; the system usually lasts for 10−10 s before decaying into two photons.
As this is a two-body system, we need to find the reduced-mass of the system. This
will allow us to solve this problem as if it was a one body problem. The Reduced Mass
of the System is
m1 m2
µ= (13.31.1)
m1 + m2
Substituting for the masses of the electron and the positron, we get
me mp
µ=
me + mp

FT
me
= (13.31.2)
2
We then apply the Bethe-Salpeter equation,
µ q4e
En = − (13.31.3)
8h2 ε20 n2
In most two body atom systems, the reduced-mass factor is close to unity because the
RA
proton is much heavier than the electron but as the masses of the electron and the
positron are equal, the reduced-mass has an appreciable effect on the energy levels.
Substituting, we get,

1 me q4e 1
En = −
2 8h2 ε20 n2
−6.8
= (13.31.4)
2
= −3.4 eV (13.31.5)
D

## 13.32 Relativistic Energy and Momentum

The rest energy of our particle is
Erest = mc2 (13.32.1)
The particle’s total energy is given by

E2 = c2 p2 + m2 c4 (13.32.2)

## We are told that

E = 2Erest (13.32.3)

266 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Substuting eq. (13.32.3) in eq. (13.32.2) gives
E = 2Erest
∴ 4m c = p2 c2 + m2 c4
2 4

⇒ p = 3 mc (13.32.4)

## 13.33 Speed of a Charged pion

The speed that is measured is the same in either frame, so we can say
L L0

FT
v= = 0 (13.33.1)
∆t ∆t
We know that from the pi-meson’s point of view the distance is length contracted.
r
v2
L0 = L 1 − 2 (13.33.2)
c
We can alternatively look at things from the laboratory’s point of view, in this case
we will be using the Relativistic Time Dilation Formula. Substuting eq. (13.33.2) into
RA
eq. (13.33.1), gives us r
L v2
v= 1− 2 (13.33.3)
∆t c
With some manipulation, we simplify eq. (13.33.3) to give
L2
v2 = .c2
+
L2 c2 (∆t0 )2
900
=
900 + 9
100
= (13.33.4)
D

101
We can surmise that the result of eq. (13.33.4) will be closer to (D) than (C).

13.34 Simultaneity
The Space-Time Interval of an event is
∆S2 = ∆x2 + ∆y2 + ∆z2 − c2 ∆t2 (13.34.1)
The Space-Time interval is a Lorentz-invariant quantity which means that it has the
same value in all Lorentz frames. Depending on the two events, the interval can be
positive, negative or zero. So

Time-Like If ∆S < 0, the two events occur in the same space but at different times.

Space-Like If ∆S > 0, the two events occur at the same time (simultaneously) but are
seperated spatially.

Light-like If ∆ = 0, the two events are connected by a signal moving at light speed.

## ∆S = ∆x2 − c2 ∆t2 > 0

∆x
⇒ >c (13.34.2)
∆t

FT
The energy radiated by a black body is given by the Stefan–Boltzmann’s Law

Let
u = σT4 (13.35.1)
RA
u1 = σT14 (13.35.2)

## The temperature of the object increases by a factor of 3, thus

T2 = 3T1
u2 = σ (3T1 )4 (13.35.3)

and we get

u2 = 81σT14
D

= 81u1 (13.35.4)

## 13.36 Quasi-static Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas

This is more of a defintion question that we can best answer through the process of
elimination.

(A) This is TRUE. The expansion is quasi-static, which means that it happens very
slowly and hence at equilibrium. Hence no heat is exchanged.

268 GR0177 Exam Solutions
(B) Again this is TRUE. The entropy is defined

dQ
dS = (13.36.1)
T

## (C) The First Law of Thermodynamics says

dU = −dW + dQ (13.36.2)

## where dQ = 0, we see that

dU = −dW (13.36.3)
The work done by the gas is

FT
Z
dW = pdV (13.36.4)

Thus Z
dU = − PdV (13.36.5)

## (D) We see from eq. (13.36.4) that this is TRUE.

(E) The temperature of the gas is not constant. For an adiabatic process
RA
PV γ = constant (13.36.6)

## TV γ−1 = constant (13.36.7)

So
γ−1 γ−1
Ti Vi = Tf Vf (13.36.8)
The temperature of the gas is not constant. So this is NOT TRUE.
D

## 13.37 Thermodynamic Cycles

Thermodynamic Work is defined
Z Vf
W=− PdV (13.37.1)
Vi

## W = WC→A + WA→B + WB→C (13.37.2)

RLC Resonant Circuits 269
Work along path C → A is an isochoric process, dV = 0.
WC→A = 0 (13.37.3)
Work along path A → B is an isobaric process
WA→B = P · dV
= P (VB − 2) (13.37.4)
Work along path B → C is an isothermal process
Z VC
nRT
WB→C = PdV where P=
VB V
Z VA
dV
= nRT
VB V

FT
VA
 
= nRT ln (13.37.5)
VB
The path along BC is an isotherm and this allows us to find the volume at point B.
PB VB = PC VC = nRT
200VB = 500 · 2
∴ VB = 5 (13.37.6)
RA
Plugging in what we know, we add eq. (13.37.4), eq. (13.37.5) and eq. (13.37.3) to get
the total work.
W = WC→A + WA→B + WB→C
VA
 
= 0 + P (VB − VA ) + PC VC ln
V
  B
2
= 200 (5 − 2) + (500) (2) ln
5
2
 
= 600 + 1000 ln (13.37.7)
5
D

## Now ln(2/5) > −1, so we expect

2
 
W = 600 + 1000 ln > −400 kJ (13.37.8)
5

## 13.38 RLC Resonant Circuits

The current will be maximized when the inductive and capacitive reactances are equal
in magnitude but cancel each other out due to being 180°out of phase. The Inductive
Impedance is
XL = ωL (13.38.1)

270 GR0177 Exam Solutions
And the Capacitive Impedance is
1
XC = (13.38.2)
ωC
We let, eq. (13.38.2) = eq. (13.38.1)

1
ωL =
ωC
1
⇒C= 2
ωL
1
=
25 × 10−3
= 40µF (13.38.3)

## 13.39 High Pass Filters

We recall that the Inductive Impedance is
FT
XL = ωL (13.39.1)
RA
and the Capacitive Impedance to be

1
XC = (13.39.2)
ωC
If we look at eq. (13.39.1), we see there is a linear relationship between L and XL ; an
increase in L results in an increase in XL .
We also see from eq. (13.39.2) that there is an inverse relationship between C and XC ;
an increase in C decreases XC .
Recall the Voltage Divider Equation
D

X2
VOut = VIn (13.39.3)
X1 + X2
We will use this to help us solve the question.

## Circuit 1 As ω increases, the impedance of the inductor increases; X1 becomes large.

Think of this as a very large resistor where the inductor is. We see from
eq. (13.39.3)

X2
VOut = VIn
∞ + X2
= 0VIn (13.39.4)

## . This is a Low-Pass Filter.

RL Circuits 271
Circuit II As ω increases, XL becomes large. We will say that X2 >> X1 . Again
eq. (13.39.3) shows that

X2
VOut = VIn
X1 + X2
1
≈ VIn (13.39.5)
1
This is one of the High-Pass Filters.

shows that
X2
VOut = VIn
0 + X2

FT
= VIn (13.39.6)

## Circuit IV Using what we know, eq. (13.39.3) tells us that

0
VOut = VIn
X1 + 0
=0 (13.39.7)
RA
This is a Low-Pass Filter.

## Thus Circuits II & III are our High-Pass Filters.

13.40 RL Circuits
D

As an EMF is introduced in the circuit, there is going to be a slowly rising (or falling)
current. If the inductor was not present, the current would rapidly rise to a steady
state current of ER . The inductor produces a self-induced EMF, EL , in the circuit; from
Lens’s Law. This EMF is
di
EL = −L (13.40.1)
dt
Applying Kirchoff’s Voltage law gives

di
E = iR + L (13.40.2)
dt
This differential equation can be solved such that

E  Rt

i= 1 − e− L (13.40.3)
R

272 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Let τL = RL , we can rewrite eq. (13.40.3), to say

E  − t

i= 1 − e τL (13.40.4)
R
1
The time constant is the time to fall to e
of its original value.

10mH
τL =
2Ω
= 2 milli-seconds (13.40.5)

## 13.41 Maxwell’s Equations

FT
Maxwell’s Equations relate electric and magnetic fields to the motion of electric charges.
These equations allow for electric charges and not for magnetic charges. One can write
symmetric equations that allow for the possibility of “magnetic charges” that are similar
to electric charges. With the inclusion of these so called “magnetic charges”, ρm , we
RA
must also include a magnetic current, jm . These new Maxwell equations become

Gauss’ Law This equation relates the distribution of electric charge to the resulting
electric field.
∇ · E = 4πρe (13.41.1)

Gauss’ Law for Magnetism Here we assume that there are no magnetic charges, so
the equation that we know and have studied is

∇·B=0 (13.41.2)
D

## But if we assume for magnetic charges, the equation will become

∇ · B = 4πρm (13.41.3)

Here we have used a symmetric argument from Gauss’ Law to get this equation.

Ampère’s Law This equation relates the magnetic field to a current. With Maxwell’s
displacement current, je , we have

∂E
∇×B= + 4πje (13.41.4)
∂t
9
We note that choices D) and E) both decay exponentially and that milli-second decay times are
standard with the usual components you find in a lab. A 200 sec decay time is unusual given the
“normal” electronic components in the question.

Faraday’s Law of Induction This equation relates a changing Magnetic field to an
Electric Field. The equation is

∂B
∇×E= (13.41.5)
∂t
Again we will use a symmetric argument to “derive” the magnetic monopole
case. As in Ampère’s Law where there exists an electric displacement current,
we postulate a “magnetic displacement current”. This becomes

∂B
∇×E= + 4πjm (13.41.6)
∂t

FT

## 13.42 Faraday’s Law of Induction

Faraday’s Law states that the induced EMF is equal to the rate of change of magnetic
flux.
dΦB
E =−
RA
(13.42.1)
dt
The minus sign is from Lenz’s Law which indicates that the induced EMF and the
changing magnetic flux have opposite signs. Thinking of it as a system that induces
an opposing force to resist the change of this changing flux is one of the best analogies.

Loop A In this case, the flux increases as the current carrying loop approaches. So
to ‘compensate’ for this increase, Loop A, induces a current in the opposite
direction to prevent this increase. Thus the induced current wil be in the clock-
wise direction.
D

Loop B As the current carying loop moves away from Loop B, the magnetic flux
will decrease. Loop B wants to prevent this decrease by inducing an increasing
current. The induced current will be in the clock-wise direction.

## 13.43 Quantum Mechanics: Commutators

We recall our commutator relations

## [B, AC] = A [B, C] + [B, A] C (13.43.1)

[A, B] = − [B, A] (13.43.2)

274 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Thus
h i h i
Lx L y , Lz = − Lz , Lx L y
 h i 
= − −Lx Lz , L y + [Lz , Lx ] L y
   
= − −Lx (i~Lx ) + i~L y L y
 
= i~ L2x + L2y (13.43.3)

13.44 Energies

FT
We are given that
n2 π2 ~2
En = (13.44.1)
2mL2
where n = 1, 2, 3, · · · So the possible energy values are E2 = 4E1 , E3 = 9E1 , E4 = 16E1 , · · · .
Possible answers are of the form
En = n2 E1 (13.44.2)
RA
textbfD) follows where n = 3. All the rest don’t.10

## We are given that

1
 
H|ni = ~ω n + (13.45.1)
D

2
and that
1 2 3
|ψi = √ |1i − √ |2i + √ |3i (13.45.2)
14 14 14
For the Energy eigenstates, we calculate

3
H|1i = ~ω|1i (13.45.3)
2
5
H|2i = ~ω|2i (13.45.4)
2
7
H|3i = ~ω|3i (13.45.5)
2
10
This question seems to be designed to trip you up and make you focus on irrelevant details.

de Broglie Wavelength 275
The Expectation Value is

1 3 4 5 9 7
hψ|H|ψi = ~ω + ~ω + ~ω
14 2 14 2 14 2
3 20 63
= ~ω + ~ω + ~ω
28 28 28
43
= ~ω (13.45.6)
14

## 13.46 de Broglie Wavelength

FT
The Energy of a particle can be related to its momentum by

p2
E= (13.46.1)
2m
The de Broglie Relationship is
h
λ= (13.46.2)
p
RA
Substituting eq. (13.46.1) into eq. (13.46.2), yields

h
λ= √ (13.46.3)
2mE
The particle enters a region of potential, V. So

E0 = E − V (13.46.4)

## This changes the de Broglie Wavelength of the particle such that

D

h
λ0 = √ (13.46.5)
2mE0
Dividing eq. (13.46.5) by eq. (13.46.3), yields

λ0 h 2mE
= p
λ 2m (E − V) h

λ 2mE
⇒λ = p
0

2m (E − V)
 1
V −2

=λ 1− (13.46.6)
E

276 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.47 Entropy
Our container is sealed and thermall insulated. This means that the temperature
throughout the process remains the same. You may recall that the work done by an
isothermal process is
" #
Vf
W = nRT ln (13.47.1)
Vi
Where V f = 2Vi . As the temperature remains the same, there is no change in internal
energy. The First Law of Thermodynamics says
dU = −dW + dQ (13.47.2)
where dU = 0, so
dQ = dW (13.47.3)

FT
The Entropy of a system is defined as
dQ
dS = (13.47.4)
T
eq. (13.47.4) becomes
nRT ln (2)
dS =
T
RA
= nR ln 2 (13.47.5)

## 13.48 RMS Speed

The vrms of a gas is r
3RT
vrms = (13.48.1)
M
D

There is an inverse relationship between the rms speed,vrms , and the molar mass, M.
The Molar Masses of Oxygen and Nitrogen are 64u and 56u respectively.
r
1
vrms ∝
M
s
vrms (N2 ) MO2
⇒ =
vrms (O2 ) MN2
r
64
=
56
r
8
= (13.48.2)
7

Partition Function 277
13.49 Partition Function

## The Partition Function is defined

X
Z= g j · e−βE j (13.49.1)
j

where
1
β=
kB T
g j = degeneracy for each state

So

FT
 2
− −
Z = 2e kB T + 2e kB T
  
−k T − k2T
=2 e B +e B (13.49.2)

RA
13.50 Resonance of an Open Cylinder

We don’t need to recall the resonance formula for an Open Cylinder to solve this
problem. We do need to realize that the wavelength of the soundwave will remain
the same as we are assuming that the dimensions of the cylinder will not change. We
know
v = fλ (13.50.1)
At 20°C, we have
D

v1 = f1 λ (13.50.2)
The speed of sound is 3% lower, so

v2 = 0.97v1 (13.50.3)

## The resonant frequency of the pipe on a cold day becomes

v2 = f2 λ
0.97v1 = f2 λ
f2 = 0.97 f1
= 427Hz (13.50.4)

278 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.51 Polarizers
The Law of Malus gives us the intensity of a beam of light after it passes through a
polarizer. This is given by
I = I0 cos2 θi (13.51.1)
A beam of light is a mixture of polarizations at all possible angles. As it passes through
a polarizer, half of these vectors will be blocked. So the intensity after passing through
the first polarizer is
I1 1
= (13.51.2)
I0 2
Each polarizer reduces the intensity of the light beam by a factor of 12 . With n polarizers,
we can say
 n
In 1
=

FT
(13.51.3)
I0 2
Where n = 3, we substitute into eq. (13.51.3) and get
 3
I 1
=
I0 2
1
= (13.51.4)
8
RA

13.52 Crystallography
We are told that the volume of the cube is

V = a3 (13.52.1)

For a cube, each corner has 1/8 of an atom. In the BCC case, we also have an atom in
D

the center. So there are a total of two atoms in our BCC crystal’s primitive unit cell.
The volume of this primitive unit cell is V/2 = a3 /2.

## 13.53 Resistance of a Semiconductor

To best answer this it helps to know some things about semiconductors. Semicon-
ductors are closer to insulators than conductors, the only difference being their energy
levels. Typically, an insulator requires a lot of energy to break an electron free from an
When a semiconductor is ‘cold’, all its electrons are tightly held by their atoms. When
the substance is heated, the energy liberates some electrons and he substance has some

Impulse 279
free electrons; it conducts. The more energy the more electrons freed. So we are looking
for a relationship where the conductivity increases with temperature.
This contrasts with a conductor whose resistivity decreases with increasing temperature.
This property has to do with the conductor’s free electrons, as temperature increases,
the atoms vibrate more and increases the number of collisions with any moving free
electrons. As a result it’s more difficult for the electrons to move through the conductor
and the resistivity increases.

13.54 Impulse

FT
The Impulse is defines as Z
J= F dt (13.54.1)

On a F vs. t graph, the Impulse will be the area under the curve.
The area under the graph is thus

2×2
J= = 2 kg m s−1 (13.54.2)
RA
2

## 13.55 Fission Collision

Once masses split up or fuse energy is not conserved but we know that momentum is
always conserved. Horizontal Momentum
D

mv = 2mv0 cos θ
v
⇒ v0 = (13.55.1)
2 cos θ
Vertical Momentum
0 = mv0 sin θ − mv0 sin θ (13.55.2)
The value of θ can be
0° 6 θ (13.55.3)
Plugging eq. (13.55.3) into eq. (13.55.1), and we see that
v
v0 > (13.55.4)
2

280 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.56 Archimedes’ Principal and Buoyancy

FT
Mg

mg
RA
Figure 13.56.1: Diagram of Helium filled balloon attached to a mass

Archimedes’ Principle states that when an object is fully or partiall immersed in a fluid,
the upthrust acting on it is equal to the weight of fluid displaced. If we neglected the
weight of the balloon, we see from fig. 13.56.1, for the helium balloon to just float our
mass
U − Mg − mg = 0 (13.56.1)
where U is the upthrust, M is the mass of helium and m is the mass to be suspended.
Given the density of helium, ρHe = 0.18 kg m−3 and the density of air, ρair = 1.29 kg m−3 ,
D

we have
U = ρair Vg (13.56.2)
and
M = ρHe g (13.56.3)
where V is the volume of Helium used and air displaced. Substituting eqs. (13.56.2)
and (13.56.3) into eq. (13.56.1) and simplifying, we get
m
V= (13.56.4)
ρair − ρHe
which works out to be
300
V=
1.29 − 0.18
= 270 m3 (13.56.5)

Fluid Dynamics 281

## The force on the wall is found from Newton’s Second Law

dp
F= (13.57.1)
dt
The momentum is defined as
p = mv (13.57.2)
So

FT
dp
F=
dt
=0
z}|{
= m · dv +v · dm
= v · dm (13.57.3)

## We need to calculate dm, the density of fluid is

RA
M dm
ρ= = (13.57.4)
V dV
Substituting this into eq. (13.57.3), we get

dV
F = vρ
dt
dx
= vρA
dt
D

= v2 ρA (13.57.5)

## 13.58 Charged Particle in an EM-field

The Forces on a negatively charged particle in Electric and Magnetoic Fields are de-
scribed by the Lorentz law.
F = q (E + (v × B)) (13.58.1)
In the first case, the electron is undeflected, so we can write

F1 = e [E + v1 × B] = 0 (13.58.2)

282 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Vectorially our directions are
E = Eî (13.58.3)
v = vk̂ (13.58.4)
B = Bĵ (13.58.5)
eq. (13.58.2) becomes
h  i
F1 = e Eî + v1 k̂ × Bĵ
h  i
= e Eî + v1 B k̂ × ĵ
h i
= e Eî − v1 Bî
=0 (13.58.6)
eq. (13.58.6) is balanced so

FT
E − v1 B = 0 (13.58.7)
We are told that the accelerating potential is doubled, so the speed at which the electron
enters is
1 2
mv = eV
2 1 r
2eV
⇒ v1 =
m
RA

∴ v2 = v1 2 (13.58.8)
Since v2 > v1 , we can see that
h √ i
F2 = e Eî − v1 B 2 1̂ < 0î (13.58.9)
The electron will move in the negative x-direction.

## 13.59 LC Circuits and Mechanical Oscillators

D

We are given
1
LQ̈ + Q=0 (13.59.1)
C
For a mechanical oscillator,
mẍ + kx = 0 (13.59.2)
Comparing both equations we see that
L=m (13.59.3)
1
=k (13.59.4)
C
and Q = x (13.59.5)

Gauss’ Law 283
13.60 Gauss’ Law

Gauss’ Law states that the electric flux through any Gaussian surface is proportional
to the charge it encloses. I
QEnclosed
E · dA = (13.60.1)
0
The charge density, σ, is
Q
σ= (13.60.2)
A
We need to find the area that the Gaussian Surface encloses on the carged sheet. The
Gaussian Surface encompasses a circle of radius (R2 − x2 ). So the charge enclosed is

QEnclosed = σA

FT
 
= σπ R2 − x2 (13.60.3)

QEnclosed
Φ=
0
σπ R2 − x2

= (13.60.4)
0
RA

## 1 E⊥1 − 2 E⊥2 = σ Ek1 − Ek2 =0

D

1 k 1
B⊥1 − B⊥2 = 0 B1 − Bk2 =0
µ1 µ2

We are given
E = E0 cos(kx − ωt) (13.61.1)
We are told that we have a perfect conductor

## BQv = mrω2 (13.62.1)

284 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Solving for m, gives
BQ
m= (13.62.2)
2π f
Plugging what we know, we get

π 2 × 1.6 × 10−19
m= × kg
4 2 × π × 1600
= 2.5 × 10−23 kg (13.62.3)

## 13.63 Wein’s Law

FT
Wein’s Law tells us there is an inverse relationship between the peak wavelength of a
blackbody and its temperature. It says

## λMax T = const. (13.63.1)

From the graph, we see that the peak wavelength is approximately 2µm. Plugging this
RA
into eq. (13.63.1), we get

2.9 × 10−3
T=
2.0 × 10−6
= 1.45 × 103 K (13.63.2)

## 13.64 Electromagnetic Spectra

D

A Infra-red, Ultraviolet and Visible Light emissions occur at the electron level. You
would typically expect higher EM radiation levels to occur at the nuclear level.
NOT CORRECT

B The wavelengths in the absorbtion spectra are the same for emission. They are in a
sense, the negative image of each other. Correct

C This is true. We do analyse the spectral output of stars to determine its composition.
Correct

D Again this is also true. Once it interacts with photons we can detect it. Correct

Molar Heat Capacity 285
E Molecular Spectral lines are so close to each other they often appear to be bands of
‘color’; their interaction is much richer than that of elements which often appear
as spectral lines. Correct

## 13.65 Molar Heat Capacity

We are given that Einstein’s Formula for Molar Heat Capacity is
!2 hυ
hυ e kT
C = 3kNA (13.65.1)

FT
kT e kT

2
−1

We recall that
ex ≈ 1 + x (13.65.2)
So we can simplify
e kT

1 + kT

 hυ 2 =  2 (13.65.3)

e kT −1 kT
RA
Plugging in eq. (13.65.3) into eq. (13.65.1), we have
" #

C = 3kNA 1 + (13.65.4)
kT

As T → ∞, kT
→ 0,
C = 3kNA (13.65.5)

D

The total decay rate is equal to the sum of all the probable decay rates. If you didn’t
know this, some quick calculation would show this. So for an exponential decay
dN
= −λN (13.66.1)
dt
Solving this, we have
N = N0 e−λT (13.66.2)
Let’s say that there are two decay modes or channels along which our particle can
decay, we have
dN
= −λ1 N − λ2 N
dt
= −N (λ1 + λ2 ) (13.66.3)

286 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Solving gives us,
N = N0 e−(λ1 +λ2 )T (13.66.4)
From the above two equations, we can see that we add the decay constants,
λC = λ1 + λ2 + · · · (13.66.5)
We also know that the mean time, τ, is
1
τ= (13.66.6)
λ
So
1 1 1
= + (13.66.7)
τC τ1 τ2
This gives us
1 1 1
= +
τ 24 36

FT
τ1 τ2
τ=
τ1 + τ2
24 · 36
=
24 + 36
= 14.4 (13.66.8)
RA
13.67 Nuclear Binding Energy
Nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons but the sum of the individual masses is
less than the actual mass of the nucleus. The Energy of this ‘missing’ mass is what
holds the nucleus together and is known as the Binding Energy. As a heavy nucleus
splits or undergoes fission, some of this energy is released.
Ui − U f = K = 200 MeV (13.67.1)
So
D

U f = Ui − K
= 238(7.8) − 200 (13.67.2)
Equation (13.67.2) refers to the total energy holding the nucleus together. To find
the Binding Energy per nucleon we divide U f by 238. To make this simpler and to
save precious time, let’s say there were 240 nucleons and their binding energy was 8
Mev/nucleon11 Thus
(240)(8) − 200
(13.67.3)
240
We can see the binding energy for a nucleus, A = 120, is less than 8MeV/nucleon.
11
This actually works out to be about 6.96MeV/nucleon. Binding Energy peaks around Iron which
has a binding energy of 8.8 MeV/nucleon and an atomic mass, A = 55. If you knew this you won’t have

We are told that Beryllium decays to Lithium. By looking at this process we expect it
to be some sort of β-decay process. Electron Capture is a type of a β-decay. The decay
looks like this
4 Be +−1 e −→3 Li + υ
7 0 7
(13.68.1)

where υ is a neutrino.

## 13.69 Thin Film Interference

FT
Since the refractive index of glass is higher than that of oil, the maxima can be found
by
2nLmin = mλ

where n is the refractive index of the oil film and m to its order. Thus

## 2(1.2)Lmin = 1(480 × 10−9 )

(13.69.1)
RA
∴ Lmin = 200 × 10−9 m (13.69.2)

## Young’s Double Slit Equation states for constructive interference

D

d sin θ = mλ (13.70.1)

If we take into account the distance, D, of the screen and finge seperation, ∆y, we get

mλD
∆y = (13.70.2)
d

mcD
∆y = (13.70.3)

## So doubling the frequency, υ, will half the finge seperation.

288 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.71 Atomic Spectra and Doppler Red Shift
The Relativistic Dopler Shift (Red) is
s
1−β
ῡ = υ0 (13.71.1)
1+β
q
1−β
where β = u
c
and let r = 1+β

121.5r = 607.5
r≈5
12
∴v≈ c (13.71.2)

FT
13
As the wavelength is longer, it is red-shifted and thus moving away from the observer.
We also expect the speed to be close to c.

## 13.72 Springs, Forces and Falling Masses

RA
Before the string is cut, the system is in equilibrium. Let us call the tension on the top
string, T1 and the tension on the spring, T2 . Let’s also call the top and bottom masses,
M1 and M2 respectively. Thus

T1 − M1 g − M2 g = 0 (13.72.1)
T2 = M2 g (13.72.2)

After the string is cut, T1 is now zero. The spring, pulls on the top mass with the froce
D

## due to its extension. Thus

M1 a = −M1 g − T2
= −M1 g − M2 g
⇒ a = −2g (13.72.3)

## 13.73 Blocks and Friction

The Force used to push the blocks is

F = (MA + MB ) a (13.73.1)

Lagrangians 289
The Reaction on the block, B, is
R = MB a (13.73.2)
Since block B doesn’t move, we can say

MB g − µR = 0 (13.73.3)

Substituting eq. (13.73.1) and eq. (13.73.2) into the equation gives us

F
 
MB g − µMB =0
MA + MB

g (MA + MB )
⇒F= (13.73.4)
µ

FT
We get F = 40g

13.74 Lagrangians
RA
The Langrangian for the system is

∂L d ∂L
!
= (13.74.2)
∂q dt ∂q̇
Solving, we get
∂L
= 4bq3
D

(13.74.3)
∂q

d ∂L
!
= 2aq̈ (13.74.4)
dt ∂q̇

## eq. (13.74.3) is equal to eq. (13.74.4)

2aq̈ = 4bq3
2b
q̈ = q3 (13.74.5)
a

290 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.75 Matrix Transformations & Rotations

We notice that in the transformation matrix, that a33 = 1. The coordinate in the z-axis
Matrix about the z-axis is of the form

 cos θ sin θ 0 
 
A =  − sin θ cos θ 0  (13.75.1)
 
0 0 1
 

## From the above, we see that

1
cos θ = (13.75.2)
2√

FT
3
sin θ = (13.75.3)
2
Solving
θ = 60◦ (13.75.4)
As positive rotations are in the counter-clockwise direction
RA
13.76 Fermi Gases

Electrons are fermions and follow Fermi-Dirac Statistics. This means that they follow
the Pauli Exclusion Principle; every fermion must have a unique quantum state. This
means that the total energy of the Fermi gas at zero temperature will be larger than
the product of the number of particles and the single-particle ground state energy; the
fermions will occupy all states from ground state up until all the quantum states are
occupied.
D

## Recall the Partition Function X 

Z= g j · e− kT (13.77.1)
j

The degeneracies, g j , are the same for both states. So the ratio between bot states
becomes
b +0.1
Za = e− kT
0.1
(13.77.2)
Zb = e− kT

Conservation of Lepton Number and Muon Decay 291
Simplifying, this becomes
Za 0.1
= e− kT
Zb
= e−4 (13.77.3)

## 13.78 Conservation of Lepton Number and µ− Decay

Muons are elementary particles, similar to electrons that decay via the weak interaction

µ− = e− + υµ + υe (13.78.1)

FT
We can analyze each choice in turn and eliminate

Charge The muon is best described as a heavy electron. The neutrino on the other
hand has no charge. So the charges in the above reaction are

− 1 = −1 + 0 (13.78.2)

## They balance, so charge is conserved.

RA
Mass This one is a bit trickier. We know the muon mass is about 200 times the
electron. Neutrinos on the other hand have a small but nonzero mass. Is it
enough to complete this reaction? Maybe
Energy and Momentum It may be possible to kinematically make this work.
Baryon Number Baryons are a list of composite particles; they are made up of quarks.
Muons, neutrinos, and the other particles mentioned in this question are elemen-
tary particles. Thus, the Baryon number for all are, B = 0. So

0=0+0
D

(13.78.3)

## So there is conservation of Baryon number.

Incidentally, the Baryon number can be found by knowing the component quarks
and antiquarks.
nq − nq̄
B= (13.78.4)
3
where nq is the number of constituent quarks and nq̄ the number of constituent
antiquarks.
Lepton Number There are several ways that lepton number must be conserved in
a reaction. We can add/subtract the number of leptons and antileptons at the
beginning and end of the reaction and see if it is conserved.

292 GR0177 Exam Solutions
13.79 Rest Mass of a Particle
The Relativistic Energy is the sum of its Rest Mass, m0 , and its momentum, p. Thus
q
E = p2 c2 + m20 c4 (13.79.1)

E = 10 GeV
p = 8 GeV/c

## Substituting E and p into eq. (13.79.1), we have

102 = 82 + m20 c2

FT
100 − 64 = m20 c2
⇒ m0 = 6 GeV/c2 (13.79.2)

## 13.80 Relativistic Addition of Velocities

RA
The Relativistic Addition of Velocities is
u0s + v
ux = (13.80.1)
u0 v
1 + s2
c
Substituting
c
v= (13.80.2)
2
D

c 3c
u0x = = (13.80.3)
n 4
We get
10c
ux = (13.80.4)
11

## 13.81 Angular Momentum

The orbital angular momentum is

L2 = ` (` + 1) ~2 (13.81.1)

and the z-component of the angular momentum in terms of the magnetic quantum
number is
Lz = m` ~ (13.81.2)
We are told that

L2 = 6~2 (13.81.3)
Lz = −~ (13.81.4)

## Solving for the above equations gives us

` (` + 1) = 6 (13.81.5)
m = −1 (13.81.6)

## Solving for `, gives

FT
` = −3; 2 (13.81.7)

##  negative numbers for `, so we are left with ` = 2 and m = −1.

It’s not possible to have
This gives us Y2 θ, φ .
−1

RA

NOT FINISHED pp.185

D

## ∆` = ±1 Orbital angular momentum

∆m` = 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆ms = 0 Secondary spin quantum number
∆ j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum

## We can examine the transitions to see which are valid

294 GR0177 Exam Solutions
Transition A This transition goes from

n=2 to n=1

and
`=0 to `=0
We see that this transition is forbidden12 .

## Transition B This transition goes from

`=1 to `=0

and
3 1
j= to j=

FT
2 2
This leaves us with the transitions

∆` = −1 and ∆j = −1

## Transition C The transition goes from

RA
1 1
j= to j=
2 2
This leaves us with the transition

∆j = 0

## Which is a valid transition13 .

From the above, we see that transitions B & C are the only valid ones.
D

13.85 Resistivity

## Ohm’s Law gives the Resistance to be

ρL
R= (13.85.1)
A
12
Not forbidden really, just highly unlikely.
13
∆j = 0 is a valid transition as long as you don’t have the j = 0 → j = 0 transition. The vector angular
momentum must change by one unit in a electronic transition and this can’t happen when j = 0 → j = 0
because there is no total angular momentum to re-orient to get a change of 1

We can use this to calculate the individual resistances of the two wires in series.
2L
R1 = ρ (13.85.2)
A
L
R2 = ρ (13.85.3)
2A
Circuit 14 The Potential Difference across R1 is
R1
 
∆V = V1 (13.85.4)
R1 + R2
V1 is the potential difference across R1 . To get the Potential at A, we let

V1 = 8.0 − V (13.85.5)

R1

FT
 
8.0 − V = ∆V
R1 + R1
2
8.0 − V = (7)
3
1
V=3 (13.85.6)
3
RA