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Copernicus - stroke in 1542 then died shortly after bok was published in 1543 -there were people in the

church who encouraged copernicus to publish work -copernicus had idea of heliocentric universe - still believed in perfectly round orbits in his idea,, had repeat ptole mys idea of epicycles Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) - wanted more accurate and exact calculations - build observatories and other instruments in order to study planets -before telscope therefore all observations were with the naked eye. -most precise astronomic observations -made observation of supernova (exploding star). this proved that the heave ns did exhibit change -Observation of comet which meant it had to pass through celestial spheres which proved there were no spheres - Stellar Paralax -Tychonic system = earth central in universe and motionless, all things orb it earth Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) -scientist as well as mystic. interests in mysticism, astrology, theology and also mathematics -3 laws = 1) orbits elliptical orbit around sun, sun at one focus 2) planets sweep out equal areas in equal times 3) the square of the time of an orbit equals the cube o f the mean distance from the sun CH.12 Galileo Galilei -first to view heavens through a telescope -published 40 page pamphlet titled Starry Messenger - viewed stars others hadnt because they were too faint for the naked eye - proved 4 moons of jupiter, showed not everything orbited the earth bc jupi ter had its own orbit - became scientific courtier, which meant he ws around wealthy and noble fa milies and was supported monetarily by them to do his research - was convinced copernicus was right but couldnt prove it. - knew about theology Inquisition -inquired about heresy(wrong belief) vs. orthodoxy(right belief) -this was a point in time when it ws considered important that all people bel ieve the same thing - occured during the protestant reformation because the catholic church felt threatened discoveries and ideas of Galileo -sun spots - wrote letter about his beliefs of theology vs. science, he stated tha t faith and reason cannot be in contradiction. However in instances where there appears to be a contradiction science supercedes theology. therefore he believed when that happened the bible should be reinterpreted. - in 1616 inquisition ruled Copernicus's ideas heretical and therefore ga lileo was told that he couldnt teach coperncus's ideas unless he could prove it. -1632 =" Dialogue on 2 chief world systems" - simpliceo defended aristota lian views, Salviati spoke for Galileo, and Sagredo represented the interested, intellegent amateur - Galileo disproved Ptolemy but couldnt prove copernicus - Phases of venus -thought tides were created by the way the earth revolved on its axis. - because ideas were not impartial and he had offended the pope he was bro

ught before the inquisition and found guilty of heresy. june 1633 he recanted at 69 and was sentenced to life of house arrest. this time he spent working on "th e laws of motion." -1638 published "discourses on 2 new sciences" - formulated the law of falli ng bodies. velocity is proportinal to time elapsed, not distance covered. all bo dies fall at the same accelerated rate in a vacuum. -projectile motion = circular inertia. this idea was against newtons law of linear motion. -died in 1642 Post-Galileo - Galileos ideas accepted 100 years after is death, copernicus's ideas acce pted 300 years after Rene Descartes -mind-body problem -skepticism - "I think therefore I am." -Epistomology= science of knowledge. what do we know? How do we know it?. D escartes used deduction -Wasnt impressed with experimentation -Polymath Genius - Deduction vs. Induction. -deduction - Syllogism. from general to particular -induction - from particualr to general Anton Van leeuwenhoek -Introduction of microscope