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Process Control - Project 2

Simulation a Plant-Wide Control System Using MATLAB

By:- Eng. Sahar Nasrallah


Supervised by:- Dr Deeb Abu Fara
http:www.mathworks.com

Lecture Outline
Project Objective
Project Description -Reactor/Distillation Column Plant-

Dynamic Process Modeling


What is Simulink ?

How to solve ODE using Simulink? (Simple Example)


What is your task ?

Project Objective
The objective of the project is to practice simulation a

plant-wide control system.

Project Description

Project Description
A mixture of two species, mainly A but also containing

some B, is fed to a reactor where the reaction A B

takes place isothermally.


The binary distillation column (DC) has 20 stages. DC produces two product streams: an overhead

(distillate) stream rich in A and a (bottom) stream rich in the desired product B.

Project Description
The A-rich distillate is recycled to the reactor to

increase the conversion of A to B.

Project Description
An Isothermal Reactor:-

Project Description
A Distillation Column:-

Project Description
A number of simplifications are used here:

1. The reaction rate is first order in A (Elementary RXN). 2. Reactor operation is isothermal (T = 0). 3. The column operates with equimolal overflow (L=V). 4. Column operation is at atmospheric pressure. 5. Constant relative volatility is used to describe vapor/liquid

equilibrium.
6. Each tray represents an equilibrium stage

Dynamic Process Modeling

Reactor:

General Information:
Reaction rate expression is first order in reactant A. A B rA = -kRHRz Reactor residence time, HR (Fo + D) = 2.5 hr

Dynamic Process Modeling


rA : rxn rate ( reactant A consumption rate) kR : Specific reaction rate (rate constant), 0.33 h-1

HR : Reactor holdup, 2400 lb-mol


z : DC feed composition, 0.5 mole fraction A

Dynamic Process Modeling

Reactor:

Model:
1. Total (overall) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet - Outlet


= Fo+ D - F (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control)

Dynamic Process Modeling


HR : Reactor holdup, 2400 lb-mol Fo : Fresh feed 460, Ib-mol/h

F : Column feed rate, 960 lb-mol


D : Distillate flow rate, 500 lb-mol

Dynamic Process Modeling

Reactor:

Model:
2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet - Outlet + disappearance


()

= F0z0+ DxD - Fz + (-kRHR z) (= 0 for perfect

reactor level/mols control)

Dynamic Process Modeling


z0 : Fresh feed composition, 0.9 mole fraction A XD : Recycle composition, 0.95 mole fraction A

z : Column feed composition, 0.5 mole fraction A

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

General Information:
i.

Saturated liquid feed is to 12th stage (of 20) numbered from the top down.

ii.

Equimolal overflow is assumed. A is the more volatile


component; assume equilibrium holds for each stage:

yi = ( )/(1+)

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Drum Model:
1. Total (overall) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


()

= V-R-D (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control)

HD: Drum holdup 185 lb-mol

Dynamic Process Modeling


V : Vapor boilup, 1600 1 b-mol/h R : Relux flow rate, 1100 Ib-mol/h

D : Distillate flow rate, 5001b-mol/h

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Drum Model:
2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


()

= V(y20) R(xD) D(xD) ( 0 for perfect reactor

level/mol control)

Dynamic Process Modeling


y20 : The A concentration in the vapor outlet from tray 20 upper tray yi =
1+

= 0.974

: Relative volatility, =2

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Stage i above feed Model:


1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


() xi

= L(xi+1- xi )-V(yi - yi-1) for 13i 19

Dynamic Process Modeling


Rectification Section Hs: Individual stage holdup

Hs = 23.5 lb- mol


L=Li+1=Li=Li-1=R V = Vi+1 = Vi = Vi-1

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Feed Stage:
1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


() x12

= L(x13- x12)-V(y12 - y11) + F z

Dynamic Process Modeling


where L =L + F

L: Liquid hold up =
R, 1100 Ib-mol/h

F : Column feed rate, 960 lb-mol/h

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Stage j below feed Model:


1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


() xj

= L(xj+1- xj )-V(yj - yj-1) for 1 j 11

Dynamic Process Modeling


Stripping Section Individual stage holdup,

Hs = 23.5 lb- mol


L=Lj+1=Lj=Lj-1=R+F = L+F = 2060 V = Vj+1 = Vj = Vj-1

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Bioler Model:
1. Total (overall) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


()

= L-V-B (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control)

HB: Boiler holdup 275 lb-mol

Dynamic Process Modeling


L : L+F = 2060 lb-mollh V : Vapor boilup, 1600 lb-mol/h

B : Bottoms flow rate, 4601 b-mol/h

Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Boiler Model:
2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

Accumulation = Inlet Outlet + disappearance


()

= L(x1) V(yB) B(xB)

( 0 for perfect reactor level/mol control)

What is Simulink ?
What is the SIMULINK ? 1. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with

a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment.
2. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the

other toolboxes, both in:


A. Its special interface .

What is Simulink ?
What is the SIMULINK ? 1. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with

a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment.
2. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the

other toolboxes, both in:

What is Simulink ?
A. Its special interface . B. Its special programming technique . C. The source code of the Simulink system is not open.

What is Simulink ?
linear or nonlinear time-dependent processes (dynamic

systems that are continuous in time) can be described using:


1. differential equations or (in the case of discrete times)

difference equations.
2. dynamic systems is with block diagrams, convert a

block diagram directly into Simulink and simulate the operation of the system.

What is Simulink ?
This is an attempt to understand the behavior of the

system by means of a graphical representation, which essentially consists of representations of individual components of the system together with the signal flow between these components.

What is Simulink ?
Steps for solving Simulink problem : 1. Constructing a Simulink Block Diagram. 2. Parametrizing Simulink Blocks. 3. Simulink Simulation.

How to solve ODE using Simulink


Example:

find the open loop response for the following of ODE using Simulink toolbox.

=3+1

y(t) and x(t).

How to solve ODE using Simulink


Solution:

How to solve ODE using Simulink

What is you task ?


Your task is to choose one or more of the alternatives

and

perform

simulation

study

using

MATLAB

Simulink, to maintain the composition of B in the


product stream xB at the nominal value , 0.0105 mole fraction, despite disturbances in the fresh feed composition zO and the feed flow rate FO.

What is you task ?


Alternative 1 (Fig. 23.7a)

What is you task ?


CSTR Model:

What is you task ?


CSTR Model:

() ()

= F0z0+ DxD - Fz + (-kRHR z) +


()

= F0z0+ DxD - Fz + (-kRHR z)

()

[F0z0+ DxD Fz + (kRHR z)] z ()

where

()

= (Fo+D-F)

What is you task ?


CSTR Model:

Inputs:

D F Fo xD - zo
Outputs:

z - HR

What is you task ?


Distillation Column Model:

What is you task ?


CSTR -Distillation Column Model:

Thank You