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# Process Control - Project 2

## By:- Eng. Sahar Nasrallah

Supervised by:- Dr Deeb Abu Fara
http:www.mathworks.com

Lecture Outline
Project Objective
Project Description -Reactor/Distillation Column Plant-

## How to solve ODE using Simulink? (Simple Example)

Project Objective
The objective of the project is to practice simulation a

## plant-wide control system.

Project Description

Project Description
A mixture of two species, mainly A but also containing

## takes place isothermally.

The binary distillation column (DC) has 20 stages. DC produces two product streams: an overhead

(distillate) stream rich in A and a (bottom) stream rich in the desired product B.

Project Description
The A-rich distillate is recycled to the reactor to

## increase the conversion of A to B.

Project Description
An Isothermal Reactor:-

Project Description
A Distillation Column:-

Project Description
A number of simplifications are used here:

1. The reaction rate is first order in A (Elementary RXN). 2. Reactor operation is isothermal (T = 0). 3. The column operates with equimolal overflow (L=V). 4. Column operation is at atmospheric pressure. 5. Constant relative volatility is used to describe vapor/liquid

equilibrium.
6. Each tray represents an equilibrium stage

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Reactor:

General Information:
Reaction rate expression is first order in reactant A. A B rA = -kRHRz Reactor residence time, HR (Fo + D) = 2.5 hr

## Dynamic Process Modeling

rA : rxn rate ( reactant A consumption rate) kR : Specific reaction rate (rate constant), 0.33 h-1

## HR : Reactor holdup, 2400 lb-mol

z : DC feed composition, 0.5 mole fraction A

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Reactor:

Model:
1. Total (overall) Mass Balance:

## Dynamic Process Modeling

HR : Reactor holdup, 2400 lb-mol Fo : Fresh feed 460, Ib-mol/h

## F : Column feed rate, 960 lb-mol

D : Distillate flow rate, 500 lb-mol

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Reactor:

Model:
2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

()

## Dynamic Process Modeling

z0 : Fresh feed composition, 0.9 mole fraction A XD : Recycle composition, 0.95 mole fraction A

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

General Information:
i.

Saturated liquid feed is to 12th stage (of 20) numbered from the top down.

ii.

## Equimolal overflow is assumed. A is the more volatile

component; assume equilibrium holds for each stage:

yi = ( )/(1+)

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Drum Model:
1. Total (overall) Mass Balance:

()

## Dynamic Process Modeling

V : Vapor boilup, 1600 1 b-mol/h R : Relux flow rate, 1100 Ib-mol/h

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Drum Model:
2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

()

## = V(y20) R(xD) D(xD) ( 0 for perfect reactor

level/mol control)

## Dynamic Process Modeling

y20 : The A concentration in the vapor outlet from tray 20 upper tray yi =
1+

= 0.974

: Relative volatility, =2

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

## Stage i above feed Model:

1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

() xi

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Rectification Section Hs: Individual stage holdup

## Hs = 23.5 lb- mol

L=Li+1=Li=Li-1=R V = Vi+1 = Vi = Vi-1

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Feed Stage:
1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

() x12

## Dynamic Process Modeling

where L =L + F

L: Liquid hold up =
R, 1100 Ib-mol/h

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

## Stage j below feed Model:

1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

() xj

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Stripping Section Individual stage holdup,

## Hs = 23.5 lb- mol

L=Lj+1=Lj=Lj-1=R+F = L+F = 2060 V = Vj+1 = Vj = Vj-1

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Bioler Model:
1. Total (overall) Mass Balance:

()

## Dynamic Process Modeling

L : L+F = 2060 lb-mollh V : Vapor boilup, 1600 lb-mol/h

## Dynamic Process Modeling

Distillation Column:

Boiler Model:
2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance:

()

## ( 0 for perfect reactor level/mol control)

What is the SIMULINK ? 1. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with

a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment.
2. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the

## other toolboxes, both in:

A. Its special interface .

What is the SIMULINK ? 1. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with

a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment.
2. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the

## other toolboxes, both in:

A. Its special interface . B. Its special programming technique . C. The source code of the Simulink system is not open.

linear or nonlinear time-dependent processes (dynamic

## systems that are continuous in time) can be described using:

1. differential equations or (in the case of discrete times)

difference equations.
2. dynamic systems is with block diagrams, convert a

block diagram directly into Simulink and simulate the operation of the system.

This is an attempt to understand the behavior of the

system by means of a graphical representation, which essentially consists of representations of individual components of the system together with the signal flow between these components.

## How to solve ODE using Simulink

Example:

find the open loop response for the following of ODE using Simulink toolbox.

=3+1

Solution:

and

perform

simulation

study

using

MATLAB

## Simulink, to maintain the composition of B in the

product stream xB at the nominal value , 0.0105 mole fraction, despite disturbances in the fresh feed composition zO and the feed flow rate FO.

## What is you task ?

Alternative 1 (Fig. 23.7a)

CSTR Model:

CSTR Model:

() ()

()

()

where

()

= (Fo+D-F)

CSTR Model:

Inputs:

D F Fo xD - zo
Outputs:

z - HR

## What is you task ?

Distillation Column Model:

## What is you task ?

CSTR -Distillation Column Model:

Thank You