Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37

UDC 903.21"634"(497.

DOI: 10.2298/STA0656009S 9

Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade



Abstract. – After studying the material from twenty sites dating from the Early and Middle Neolithic we propose the typology
of chipped stone artefacts based on the established morphological characteristics but supplemented with data provided
by the analysis of traces of use. We can conclude at the present stage of investigation that evolution of the chipped stone artefacts
during the Early and Middle Neolithic reveals without doubt characteristics of stagnation and gradual decline, thus indicating
the end in the long evolution of this kind of implement.

Key words. – chipped stone artefacts, Neolithic, Serbia, typology, traceology.

he morphological characteristics of artefacts Traceology, that is the study of the microscopic
are the starting point for establishing the typo- traces left on stone artefacts as a result of use on diffe-
logy and no matter how straightforward this rent materials, received its first, at least theoretical
procedure seems for finds from the Neolithic sites, treatment, in the work of J. Evans dating from 1872.1
there are certain problems, first of all related to the ter- The first practical results are associated with the work
minology used. The fact is that there has been no coordi- of Semenov2 and since then traceology has made great
nated and generally accepted terminology, since the first progress in producing explanations which penetrate
specialized works concerning chipped stone artefacts deeper than classic morphological analysis, without of
were published in the Serbian archaeological literature course rendering this redundant. Successful functional
and worldwide. The inconsistent use of terminology analysis requires the fulfilment of certain conditions:
has led some interpretations in the wrong direction and, – team work,
to a certain extent, also impeded the use of data from – making a control series of artefacts using techno-
contemporary as well as earlier investigations. logical processes based on prehistoric models
The following proposal for systematization and – use of the replicas manufactured in a way confir-
nomenclature is based on the need for coordination and med by ethnological analogies,
correct scientific expression and it tends towards the – examination of damage inflicted and traces of use,
exclusion of arbitrariness but not the free use of certain using optical devices (magnifying glasses magnifying up
terms in order to make possible the better assimilation of to 10x, simple and binocular microscopes magnifying
our results into the standards already established world- from 20x to 400x, scanning electronic microscope),
wide, which, are not immune to similar problems. Of – comparison of the traces of wear on the control
course, this proposal is also liable to changes and the samples and specimens originating from archaeologi-
basic suggestion is related to the necessity of combining cal investigation.
and harmonizing the classic typology with the data Unfortunately, Serbian archaeology has so far lacked
obtained after microscopic examination of the arte- the motivation to establish such a laboratory and this has
facts with conspicuous traces of use. In order to explain
more clearly the advantages of this kind of investigation
we shall evaluate the basic data, which can be obtained 1 Tringham, Cooper, Odell, Voytek, Whitman 1974.
by functional analysis. 2 Semenov 1957.


resulted in the publishing of the analyses of a number of col- The rounded retouched edge on the endscrapers
lections of chipped stone artefacts by the foreign authors.3 with microgrooves at right angles to the edge confirms
Under such circumstances a rudimentary functio- that these artefacts were used for scraping, but in our
nal analysis of most of the artefacts originating from case it was not possible to determine on which type of
20 sites4 and published in this work was performed using material. On the other hand, a triangular surface with a
a magnifying glass with enlargement of 5x and 10x, a gloss on the distal end of the lateral edge with slanting
monocular microscope with enlargement from 50x to microgrooves on one of the endscrapers determines
300x and a binocular microscope (Zeiss–Leitz) with this clearly defined morphological type as a cutting tool.
enlargement from 10x to 100x. Better results were ob- Also interesting is an unretouched blade with rounded
tained by using smaller enlargements because greater lateral edge and microgrooves at right angles that sug-
enlargements resulted in considerable reduction of the gest that this artefact was used as a sidescraper.
visual angle and drastic reduction of depth acuity and the Traces of wear also occurred as a consequence of
uneven surfaces of the artefact impedes the perception of mounting into the handle. They are discernible as partial
changes and damage resulting from use. For discerning small surfaces with gloss, sometimes also with abrasive
the traces on artefacts used for a relatively short period traces and they are the result of friction of the stone arte-
of time useful results could only be obtained by analysis fact and haft.9 The identification of this type of gloss,
using a scanning electronic microscope.5 otherwise not very prominent, also enables different
The absence of a control series restricts considerably explanations of the retouch on certain artefacts and it
the potential of the analysis but the identified changes becomes obvious that the retouch is a result of adapta-
on the artefacts nonetheless permit more comprehensi- tion of the artefact for mounting into a haft. Under spe-
ve explanation of certain morphological types. Of the cial laboratory conditions it is possible to determine
four basic types of traces – wear gloss, edge damage, whether the haft was made of leather, wood or bone
edge denticulation and abrasion6 – the most easy to and horn.
discern are wear gloss, striation on the surface with In the same way as changes resulting from use do
wear gloss and roundness of the working edge. As an not occur at the same pace and are not of the same
example we can mention the position of the wear gloss intensity on all raw materials used for making chipped
and triangular surfaces with gloss that were often en- stone artefacts, not all changes on the artefacts are the
countered on the edges of unretouched blades; this un- result of use but also the consequence of the activity of
ambiguously confirms that these artefacts were used as water, wind, sand, shifting through the cultural layer
elements in composite tools. Experimental investiga- and many other factors having an impact on the arte-
tion has revealed that, on the three unretouched blades fact after manufacture.10 Traceology makes possible
of a replica sickle which was used for cutting dry grass, the classification of all these changes, defining the
the optically visible gloss appeared after only 15 minu- conditions in which they occur and improving classic
tes of use and it increased as the process continued.7 morphological typology by recognizing the multifunc-
The composite tool in question was used to cut grass tionality of many basic types. It thus offers a method
from an area of 90 square meters for about two hours. which could be used to follow technological innovati-
Despite gloss intensification and rounding of the edge, ons in production and use of the artefacts over shorter
the blades remained efficient until the end of work be- or longer periods. Despite the problems reflected in a
cause the edge damage which occurred in the process difficulty to determine marginal damage, in the fact
of use was exceptionally small and practically invisible that it is still not fully known what impact the duration
to the naked eye. The greatest amount of cutting is per- of work with a particular tool has on the type and extent
formed by the first blade in the haft. The significance
of such analysis is also reflected in our comprehension
of the technological improvement of sickles from the 3 Tringham, Mc Pherron, Gunn, Odell 1988; Voytek 1984, 1990.
Neolithic to the Copper Age as has been suggested by 4 [ari} 1999.
Korobkova.8 Calculations on the basis of use-wear ana- 5 Meeks, Sieveking, Tite, Cook 1982.
lysis revealed that in the early phases of the Djeitun Neo- 6 Winiarska-Kabacinska 1995.
lithic culture, grass from an area of 0.5 square meters 7 Meeks, Sieveking, Tite, Cook 1982.
could be cut in one minute, while in the later phases of 8 Phillips 1988.
the Tripolye culture one minute was sufficient to cut 9 Winiarska-Kabacinska 1995; Jensen 1989.
grass from an area of 1.4 square meters. 10 Semenov 1957.

of damage and considering that damage depends to a Because of the grainy/granoblastic texture of the
great extent on the quality and kind of raw material, rock, the artefacts made of quartzite appear of rather
traceology can help to determine the type of economy crude workmanship although they were made simulta-
at a particular site and to explain possible spatial divi- neously with the specimens of chert and similar rocks
sion of labour there. and using identical technological procedures. The re-
Furthermore, we may discuss the cases when it is touch is rough and irregular and traces of use were not
necessary to adapt classic typology based on the mor- detected on any specimens because of the irregular
phological characteristics to the data obtained by surface and strong reflection.
functional analysis. When we talk about quartz the basic type of the raw
According to the works considering the problems material were symmetrically shaped crystals of hexa-
of chipped stone artefacts in Star~evo culture published gonal or trigonal symmetry depending whether it was
so far it is rather conspicuous that from the typological high-temperature or low-temperature modification.
point of view the Neolithic period witnessed a decrease
in the quantity of types and that many specialized types Precores – Pl. I/1–3
and their variants, which characterized the Late Paleo- Precores are pieces of raw material that were redu-
lithic disappear.11 In fact, in the territory of Serbia the ced by rough flaking to the generally polyhedral form
beginning of this decrease can already be noticed in the and the stage preceding the direct modelling of the core.
Mesolithic material.12 The modelling of the precores could be carried out at the
Considering the almost completely suspended evo- find site of the raw material or within the working area
lutionary trends in the production of chipped stone arte- or workshop within the settlement or temporary camp.
facts, the basic typology applied on the material from If the precore was intended for production of flakes,
Lepenski Vir13 and U{}e Kameni~kog potoka, Knje- further shaping was often unnecessary. The production
pi{te and Velesnica14 could be applied with certain of flakes starts on the precore itself, which in the pro-
addenda to the entire Neolithic period. cess of exploitation develops the shape of a generally
The production of chipped stone artefacts starts irregular or globular core with many platforms where
with collection of raw materials, hence, the first repre- flaking was performed from different directions.
sentatives in the typological scheme are the pieces of
the raw material. Cores
The cores, regardless of type, occur as microcores
Raw material: nodules and river pebbles with neither of three dimensions exceeding 3 cm or as
This group comprises irregular pieces of rock used the standard-size cores with dimensions over 3 cm.
for production of cores which are usually found as poly- The quantity of microcores is not identical at all
hedral fragments of chert, quartzite and obsidian. The sites and reasons for this could be the following:
carbonate or siliceous cortex (on chert) can frequently be – low quality of material in the primary deposits
noticed and this confirms that the rock originates from (cracking of the material, inhomogeneity).
a primary deposit. There are large quantities of river – intensive use of raw materials from the secondary
pebbles encountered at the archaeological sites and deposits characterized by the prevalence of rather small
with these finds as manuports are the best indicators of pebbles.
exploitation of the raw material from secondary depo- – specific needs, which cause the establishment of
sits, mostly from the river alluviums. the microlithic form as an integral segment of the
The large quantity (1131 specimens in total) of the entire industry of chipped stone artefacts.
quartzite artefacts found at Blagotin also made it pos- Whether microcores or standard-size cores are con-
sible to establish the typology of the chipped stone arte- sidered, the striking platform could be cortical (carbonate
facts made of this kind of raw material.15 The specific
structure of quartzite that makes the control of flaking
more difficult in comparison to the working of chert 11 Kozlowski, Kozlowski 1984; Tringham et al 1988; Kacza-
and rocks of similar physical traits is the main reason nowska, Kozlowski 1985; [ari} 1997, 1998.
why the number of basic types among the retouched 12 Srejovi}, Letica 1978; Kozlowski, Kozlowski 1984.
quartzite artefacts is somewhat smaller while it is sur- 13 Kozlowski, Kozlowski 1984.

prising that the typological heterogeneity of the cores 14 [ari} 1997.

completely corresponds to the specimens made of chert. 15 [ari} 1999.


cortex or the cortex of the river pebble), prepared by Discoid cores – Pl. VII/1, 2
the removal of one or two rather large flakes (when it These are of circular shape and rectangular section
is flat or concave) without more detailed preparation, and they are to some extent similar to the cylindrical co-
or carefully prepared, along the edge only, or over the res but were not used for production of blades, only
entire surface (when it becomes slightly convex). flakes.

Conical cores – Pl. I/4–6; Pl. II/1–8 Asymmetrical cores – Pl. VII/3–9
These have a more or less circular platform and the The flaking was carried out from different directi-
vertical section along both axes is shaped as an isosce- ons and these cores were mostly used for production of
les triangle. flakes, although sometimes blades were also made. All
Cores of this type were mostly used for production this resulted in the fact that both vertical sections and
of blades. horizontal section are asymmetrical in shape.

Wedge-shaped cores – Pl. III/1–6 Reutilized cores – Pl. VII/10, 11

These are similar to the conical cores but the plat- If the core becomes so worn that controllable
form has the shape of a more or less conspicuous ellipse flaking of either flakes or blades is impossible, it was
and vertical sections are shaped as an isosceles triangle either discarded or modified into some of the usable
along the smaller diameter and as a trapeze or rectan- types of retouched artefacts. Reutilization of cores was
gle along the larger diameter. not often carried out and it is the result either of a rati-
These cores were used for production of blades onal attitude to the raw material if it is hard to obtain,
and flakes. or if there is a sufficient amount of raw material it was
the result of an individual attitude of the master-produ-
Cylindrical cores – Pl. IV/1–7 cer to the material he had at his disposal.
Cylindrical cores have a circular platform and both In the material studied in this work we registered
vertical sections are shaped as rectangles. just two reutilized cores. The worn-out core from Knje-
These cores were used for production of blades but pi{te was shaped as an endscraper and the core from
there are also some specimens additionally used for [alitrena pe}ina as a sidescraper.
making flakes
Flakes and blades for core preparation
Globular cores – Pl. V/1–9 or core rejuvenation – Pl. VIII/1–8
These are specimens with both vertical sections and This type of artefact includes the flakes and blades
also a horizontal section of more or less symmetrical that on the dorsal side have, to a greater or lesser extent,
circular shape. The flaking was performed from diffe- the carbonate or siliceous cortex or the river pebble cor-
rent directions and the cores were used for production tex resulting from the process of preparation of the cores
of flakes. for controlled flaking.
The main characteristic of the flakes and blades for
Quadrangular cores – Pl. VI/1–5 core rejuvenation that originated from the process of
This is a very rare type of core with both vertical shaping already used cores for future controllable flaking
sections and a horizontal section rectangular in shape. is a more or less high crested blade on a dorsal side with
The cores of this type were used for production of a series of negative facets from previous flakes and bla-
flakes and blades. des that are parallel and at right angles to the longitu-
dinal axis of the artefact and to the left and right of it.
Bipolar (» splintered«) cores – Pl. VI/6, 7 This type of flake and blade is one of the indicators
These cores of rectangular shape and lentil-shaped of production of chipped stone artefacts within a given
section are usually associated with quartzite as a raw area.
material because the flaking on the anvil due to the
characteristic structure of this rock results in such a Reutilized flakes and blades for core
shape. However, just two specimens of this type are preparation, or core rejuvenation – Pl. VIII/9–16
registered in the material studied in this work and one As it is the case with reutilized cores, whether the
of the cores was made of chert. flakes and blades were reutilized for preparation or re-
This type of core was used for production of flakes. juvenation of the cores depended in the first place on

the circumstances of raw material procurement and then cutting tools (or gravers) and as elements of composite
on the individual decision of the tool-maker himself. tools – sickles or composite tools used for threshing
These tools are more frequent finds than the re- wheat (Pl. X/7–16). The blades with gloss stretching in
utilized cores but they are not a common characteristic the narrow zone alongside the entire length of one or
of most sites. The reason possibly lies in the fact that both edges and accompanied with rounded edges and
their initial shape made possible their use without microgrooves parallel to the edge were used as classic
additional interventions so they were not distinguished knives. (Pl. X/17–21).
from the primary group unless the traces of use were On only one blade (Pl. X/22) gloss, a rounded edge
conspicuous. and microgrooves at the right angle to the edge, re-
In the material studied in this work this type of fla- sulting from use for scraping were found. This is one
ke and blade with additional retouch was encountered at of the specimens on which it is easy to see the impor-
the sites U{}e Kameni~kog potoka, Toplik, Popovi}a tance of functional analysis, which distinguishes the
brdo, Livade, Donja Branjevina and Stari vinogradi. existing morphological type as an entirely different
type of tool from the functional point of view.
Unretouched flakes – Pl. IX/1–14
Unretouched flakes are the most frequent basic tool Retouched flakes – Pl. XI/1–11
type at most sites because they are the primary techno- This category includes the flakes on which the re-
logical product in the process of manufacture of chipped touch did not cause modification of the primary shape,
stone artefacts. i.e. the changes are not great. Almost all kinds of re-
The classic flakes are of more or less symmetrical touches are used from the micromarginal to abrupt and
shape, their length does not exceed double their width the artefacts were used mostly for cutting, scraping or
and the dorsal side is completely or partially under cor- drilling.
tex or bears the negatives of previously removed flakes.
Depending on their shape the un-retouched flakes Retouched blades – Pl. XII/1–16
were used for cutting, scraping or drilling. Where the retouched artefacts are concerned, blades
are only slightly less numerous than retouched flakes
Unretouched blades – Pl. IX/15–22; Pl. X/1–21 in quantity. It is interesting that this type of tool was
The unretouched blades are the second most frequ- encountered in larger quantities than the retouched
ent technological category but also the basic type of tool. flakes in the material from many sites studied in this
Because of the distinct technological process invol- work. The reason for this situation could be the fact that
ving indirect flaking mostly by pressure and the cha- flakes were used in much larger quantity for production
racteristic that their length is greater than twice their of other specialized types of tools. Mostly micromar-
width, there are no problems in blade identification. ginal and normal retouch are used on the retouched
And while it is difficult where the flakes are con- blades although there are, to a much lesser extent, also
cerned to distinguish the microlithic component with- raised, semi-abrupt and even abrupt retouches on one
out the presence of the microcores, it is not the case or both edges. A number of blades with deep semi-
with blades, so at the Donja Branjevina site, for instan- abrupt to abrupt retouch were in fact adapted for shaf-
ce, the industry of microblades could be clearly distin- ting into a handle made of bone, antler or wood (Pl.
guished. XII/8, 9, 10). The transversal retouch on the fragmented
The unretouched blades were mostly used for blade on Pl. XII/8 as well as the position of the gloss
cutting and scraping. If used for cutting the blades surface and microgrooves slanting towards the edge,
were used independently as classic knives with hafts are clear indicators that the function of this retouch
of bone, horn or wood or just wrapped in leather or the was to adapt this artefact for mounting into the haft of
short blade fragments, mostly medial parts, were used a composite tool. The blades on Pl. XII/9 also bear
as integral parts of composite tools. traces of use recorded as the rounded distal end which
Rounded edges, gloss and abrasive microgrooves is unambiguous proof that this tool, which was mor-
are clearly discernible on the specimens illustrated on phologically defined as a retouched blade was in fact
Pl. X/7–21. These are the result of prolonged use. The used as an endscraper. The blade on Pl. XII/10 according
triangular surface with the wear gloss, more or less to its original shape, the tapering end for mounting into
rounded edge and microgrooves slanting towards the the handle and micromarginal retouch on the right edge
edge clearly indicate that these artefacts were used as is confirmed functionally as a retouched blade. Some


retouched blades represented by their medial parts are, Perforators – Pl. XIV/7–15
according to the shape of the surfaces with gloss, clas- The perforators were made on flakes and blades.
sified as artefacts used in composite tools – either for On the flakes direct or inverse micromarginal retouch
sickles or threshing tools. The traces of use encountered was used most commonly, only additionally empha-
on one of the edges of a small number of specimens in- sizing the existing point.
dicate that these blades were sometimes also used as On the blades, deep raised to semi-abrupt retouch
sidescrapers. was generally used, which is mostly continual and was
encountered on both edges as direct, on both edges as
Endscrapers – Pl. XIII/1–14 inverse or on one edge as direct and on the other as
The endscrapers were made on flakes and blades inverse. There is a tendency to identify perforators on
and most common is the direct, semi-abrupt to abrupt blades with direct or inverse retouch on both edges as
retouch on a distal end. Exceptionally the retouch could awls and the perforators on blades with direct retouch
also be inverse. The retouched edge is more or less on one edge and inverse retouch on the other as drills.
convex but could be straight, slanting or at a right The analysis of the traces of use recognized as rounded
angle to the longitudinal tool axis. Very rarely the re- edges and microgrooves at the right angle to the longi-
touched edge could also be slightly concave and even tudinal axis of the artefact regardless of the retouch
more rarely also of sinusoid shape. location indicates the process of rotation that is charac-
The traces of use discernible on many specimens, teristic of drills. Against that background we could
such as gloss, rounded edges and microgrooves at right identify as awls those perforators on flakes that have
angles to the retouched edge unambiguously confirm minute micromarginal retouch, which suggests working
their use as endscrapers. with rather soft materials, e.g. leather, where the rotating
On some specimens we see deep direct or inverse movement is not necessary. Of course, there are also
raised to abrupt retouch on the proximal end of both or exceptions as these fine perforators could be used for
one edge. This was the way to adapt such tools for working horn/antler or bone, for making needles, when
shafting into a handle of bone, horn or wood. rotation in the drilling process was necessary.
In addition to scraping as the primary function,
certain specimens were used as choppers or gravers as Truncations with the abrupt retouch
it is conformed by the wear gloss, rounded edges and – Pl. XV/1–12
slanting microgrooves on the corner created by one of This category of tool is not defined absolutely pre-
the lateral edges and the retouched edge (Pl. XIII/6). cisely in the literature but the primary definition is that
In addition to the classic endscrapers on flakes and these are flakes and blades with truncations, which re-
blades there are also double endscrapers in the Star~e- duced the width or length. In the material studied in this
vo culture (Pl. XIII/11, 12), which were retouched at work we distinguished flakes as well as blades with the
both distal and proximal ends, then discoid endscra- retouch on one truncation.16 The very definition of this
pers (Pl. XIII/13) made of classic flakes or short blades category of tools should undergo certain changes beca-
and as specific tools also large crude discoid endscra- use the abrupt retouch was not always used. Frequently
pers on cortical flakes (Pl. XIII/14, 15). the blades with retouched truncation are of small thick-
ness so there can be no question of the abrupt retouch
Sidescrapers – Pl. XIV/1–6 but simply the classic micromarginal retouch used at a
The sidescrapers were made on flakes and blades different angle.
and have an identical primary function to the endscra- The retouch is mostly direct and the retouched trun-
pers but the main difference is in the length of the cation could be straight, convex or concave, direct to the
retouched edge as the retouch on sidescrapers was on tool axis but also slanting. Somewhat less often the sinu-
the lateral edge. In addition to the single sidescrapers soid variant of the retouched truncation was encountered.
(Pl. XIV/1–3) there are also double sidescrapers (Pl. Traces of use recorded on the specimens studied in
XIV/4, 5) with the retouch on both lateral edges. The this work could be gloss, rounded edges and microgro-
retouch is continual, could be direct or indirect and is
generally raised or abrupt.
As the secondary function of these tools was identi- 16 We think that specimens with two truncations (\uri~i}
fied as cutting alone, as is confirmed by slanting micro- 1993, 9–12) should not be included in this category but in the group
grooves on the retouched edge. of geometric microliths.

oves slanting to the edge. The position of the gloss sur- usually of smaller size. Considering the small thick-
face of triangular shape on the corner made by one of ness of the blade the retouch applied was generally of
the edges and retouched truncation and the orientation micromarginal type. The retouch is usually direct on
of the microgrooves indicate that these artefacts were both fractures, rarely could it be inverse and somewhat
used in many instances as elements of composite tools more frequent is the direct on one fracture and inverse
– sickles. On a single specimen with concave retouched on the other. The large quantity of types of geometric
edge direct to the longitudinal axis of the blade, the tools that characterized the Late Paleolithic and
rounded edge and microgrooves direct to the retouched Mesolithic was reduced in the Neolithic period to the
edge indicate that this artefact was used as a tool with short trapezes, sporadic segments (crescents) and even
notched retouch for working the objects of the circular more infrequent rectangles. The triangles and rhombs
section made of bone, wood or horn. have not been registered in the Star~evo material exa-
mined so far.
Chisel like tools – Pl. XV/13–20 Traces of use on the geometric microliths studied
This tool category includes flakes and blades with in this work consist of triangular surfaces with gloss,
a characteristic type of retouch. The process started rounded edges and slanting microgrooves and these
with the removal of microlamellae by striking some of are clear indicators that these artefacts were used as
the lateral edges parallel to the longitudinal axis of elements of composite tools.
flake or blade from the proximal or distal end (lateral
chisels) or from edge direct to the artefact axis on the Tools with notched retouch – Pl. XVII/1–7
distal or proximal end (transversal chisels). After re- This group includes the flakes and blades on which
moving the microlamellae there remains the negative direct or inverse partial sometimes alternating retouch
facet with narrow edge resembling a chisel and because makes one or more, larger or smaller, notches and these
of that this artefact got its name. In addition to the men- tools were most probably used for working objects of
tioned ways of removing, the microlamellae could be circular cross-section of bone, horn or wood.
flaked at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the arte- Traces of use recognized as rounded retouched
fact and also more than one lamella could be removed edge and microgrooves direct to the edge confirm this
as is particularly characteristic for the Late Paleolithic. assumption.
The chisels could be one-sided, two-sided or multi-
sided, i.e. single, double or multiple. In the Star~evo » Splintered« tools – Pl. XVII/8–16
material they are mostly one-sided and single. These are the flakes of irregular shape with con-
In Serbian literature the term dleto (burin) is mostly spicuous small negative facets on the proximal and
used as a direct translation of the French burin. On the distal end on both the dorsal and the ventral side. The
other hand in the English literature the terms graving damage was most probably inflicted in the process of
tool,17 graver and chisel like tool,18 are also used, while using these flakes as a mediating agent between the
in the Russian literature, terms such as rezec, poli- hammerstones or hammers and the core or some other
Ædri~eskïü rezec and mnogofaseto~nïü rezec are worked object. Very characteristic for the Paleolithic
in use.19 and Mesolithic periods these »splintered« tools lost their
Traces of use registered as gloss, rounded edges and importance in the Neolithic, hence they were encoun-
microgrooves indicate that these artefacts were used tered in the material studied in this work only at a few
for cutting and engraving. There is a specimen on which sites and in statistically irrelevant quantities.
the burin facet created the tip, which was used as a
perforator as is clearly confirmed by the rounded edges Combined tools – Pl. XVIII/1–13; Pl. XIX/1–6
and microgrooves direct to the longitudinal tool axis Combined tools were made on flakes or blades
(Pl. XV/20). where, by using different types of retouch, two or more
On the basis of the mentioned examples I am of primary types of tools were made. They are relatively
the opinion that it is obvious that the term chisel like frequent finds at the Star~evo sites although not in the
tools should be used as more appropriate.

Geometric microliths – Pl. XVI/1–30 17 Read 1921, 49.

The geometric microliths were made by retouch- 18 Jelinek 1976.
ing the broken edges on the fragments of blades 19 Semenov 1957, 121.


predominant quantity. Their appearance resulted from A specimen from Ora{je (Pl. XIX/7) comes from the
the need to have near at hand different tools used for excavations26 but unfortunately the documentation is
working one type of material, i.e. one object. The result lost so it was not possible to date this artefact precisely.
of such a need is a series of the most diverse combina- On the basis of the analogy from Popovi}a brdo it is
tions combining perforators and endscrapers, endscra- possible that it comes from the Star~evo horizon, which
pers and chisel like tools, sidescrapers and endscrapers, was subsequently distinguished after the study of the
sidescrapers and perforators, etc. material in the museum collection.27
It is not justified to assume that the lateral normal Main characteristics of these two projectiles are
retouch, denticulated or notched retouch should not be that they were made on short and broad flakes with the
taken into consideration in defining various types of retouch on both lateral edges – as direct on both edges
combined tools. If such a type of retouch is accompa- on the specimen from Popovi}a brdo and as direct and
nied by corresponding traces of use that suggest one inverse on the specimen from Ora{je. The angle between
type of activity while on the other part of the artefact is retouched edges is too large for the artefacts to be used
a retouch or traces of use indicating another type of as perforators and tapering of the proximal end confirms
tool or activity, the combined tool must be defined on the that this adaptation was made to help easier hafting into
basis of the existing retouch types and traces of use. the wooden body of an arrow, thus distinguishing these
artefacts without any doubt as projectiles.
Projectiles – Pl. XIX/7–9 The elongated trapeze found at the site Blagotin
For the time being only four projectiles can be near Poljna is yet another exception among chipped
associated to the Early/Middle Neolithic in Serbia which stone projectiles in the prehistory of Serbia (Pl.
is insufficient to establish a clear picture about this XIX/8).28 The most recent investigations of the settle-
group of artefacts in that period. ment at Blagotin dated this site in the final phases of
Pentagonal, double-sided projectile from the site the Proto–Star~evo culture,29 meaning that this proje-
at Rudnik near Srbica in Kosovo is a single find that ctile also dates from that period. On this flake were
was luckily found in the course of archaeological exca- combined the direct raised to abrupt retouch to make
vations.20 Unfortunately, the precise stratigraphic data two straight and slanting edges and this resulted in the
are not available but the projectile indubitably dates form of very high trapeze and therefore distinguished
from the Star~evo horizon. it as a transversal arrowhead.30 It is without doubt that
If we put aside for a moment the possibility of the such type of trapeze was not used in any case as element
autochthonous origin of this projectile within the Star- of the composite tool (in particular sickles or knives)
~evo culture, then contact with the bearers of the Dani- and it has direct analogies with the specimens from the
lo culture from the Adriatic area offers an alternative Scandinavian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites.31 Two
explanation. An identical pentagonal projectile was analogous specimens, which are much closer from the
registered at Butmir21 but considering the dating of the geographical and cultural point of view, come from
Butmir culture to the Late Neolithic, the only remaining within the Star~evo – Criº complex, from the Romanian
possibility for comparison are the not identical but site Cuina Turcului – Dubova.32
very similar rhomboid projectiles from Smilj~i}.22
In any case, the fact is that such a type of projectile
appeared in the prehistory of Serbia only once again as 20 Tasi} N. N. 1998, 423, 435; [ari} 2005a.
a rhomboid specimen from the later, Vin~a settlement 21 Radimsky, Hoernes 1895, T. XIV/71.
at the site Jela – Benska bara near [abac.23 22 Batovi} 1979, T. LXXXI/1.

The most rudimentary forms of projectiles are two 23 Trbuhovi}, Vasiqevi} 1983, T. XVII/1; [ari} 2005a.
24 [ari} 2005a.
triangular specimens made on flakes, one from the site
25 Gara{anin M., Gara{anin D. 1951.
of Popovi}a brdo near Zabla}e (Pl. XIX/9) and one from
26 Mano-Zisi, Mari}, Gara{anin 1950.
Ora{je near Dubravica (Pl. XIX/7).24 27 Jacanovi}, \or|evi} 1990.
Although the site Popovi}a brdo was at one time 28 [ari} 2005a.
identified as of Vin~a–Plo~nik character,25 later investi- 29 Nikoli}, Ze~evi} 2001.
gations revealed that there is no material other than that 30 Transversal or bleeding arrowhead, in the English literature.
of Star~evo culture, which means that the projectile is 31 Müller-Karpe 1977, T. 284, T. 288; Sieveking 1975, 94;
also without doubt a genuine representative of the Star- Brindley 1986, 59–63.
~evo culture manufacture. 32 Paunescu 1970, fig. 21–4, 12.

The appearance of the transversal arrow-head at Complete field and technical documentation about
Blagotin may, despite the analogies from Romania, be the find circumstances is of essential importance for the
a typical example of convergent evolution in technolo- interpretation of any kind of archaeological material and
gical procedures, which, regardless of period, geogra- accordingly also for chipped stone artefacts. Unfortuna-
phic area and cultural tradition resulted in identical tely there are many reasons why such data are not com-
solutions in the process of manufacture and especially plete or do not exist at all, making it impossible to con-
in the final form of the artefact. duct the necessary analysis on many museum
Tranchets – Pl. XIX/10 Artefacts which do not come from archaeological
The tranchets are tools made of more massive excavations were used as the control series, which
flakes by rough bifacial flaking and they had a should reveal that the percentage of certain basic types
somewhat finer bifacial retouch on the arched blade. does not indicate relevant discrepancies even in the
These artefacts are a characteristic of the Mesolithic case when there is a possibility of mixing with the ma-
sites on the right Danube bank and as survival of the terial from the Late Neolithic period. This is the best
earlier traditions in the production of the chipped stone indicator that evolutionary trends on a global scale do
artefacts they were encountered only in the Star~evo not indicate substantial changes and that frequent
material from Lepenski Vir.33 changes discernible in the collections of the chipped
stone artefacts from many different sites need not be
Chopping tools – Pl. XIX/11, 12 the result of chronological differences but that they are
This is basically the most primitive type of tool that of local character and related as to the type of raw
was made by one-sided (chopper) or two-sided flaking material or type of economy or to individual achieve-
of one section of a river pebble and it originates from ments in their manufacture which should by no means
the Lower Paleolithic. be overlooked.
In the Star~evo culture inventory two specimens of The small number of artefacts from the sites Sed-
bifacially flaked pebbles from Blagotin represent iso- lar, Vojlovica, Stari vinogradi, Novo selo, Vinogradi
lated finds as a final echo of the very beginnings of the and Lug distinguishes these sites as of secondary im-
technological procedures in the production of artefacts portance in establishing a global typological scheme
by the chipping technique. for the chipped stone artefacts from the Late and
Middle Neolithic in the territory of Serbia.
The complete typology with all its general charac-
teristics but also with decisive individual particulari-
The chipped stone artefacts used as the basis for ties is based on the material from Lepenski Vir, U{}e
typology come from 20 sites in the territory of Serbia.34 Kameni~kog potoka, Knjepi{te, Velesnica, Blagotin,
The finding circumstances were not identical but most Livade, [alitrena pe}ina and Donja Branjevina. Unfor-
of the material comes from sites where systematic tunately, an attempt to establish a clear typological
archaeological excavations were conducted, namely; picture of the chipped stone artefacts according to the
Padina, Lepenski Vir, U{}e Kameni~kog potoka, Knje- phases within the two basic evolutionary stages repre-
pi{te, Donja strana – Velesnica, Blagotin, Vinogradi – sented by Proto-Star~evo/Gura Bacului and Star~evo
Grabovac, Livade,35 [alitrena pe}ina, Donja Branjevi- culture cannot, for the time being, provide the whole
na, Golokut and Vojlovica. The collections of artefacts series of necessary and relevant indicators. The reasons
from the sites Lug, Novo selo, Stari vinogradi–Banatska for this are the incomplete documentation from the
Dubica and Sedlar come from test-trench excavations. excavated sites, the small series of artefacts and the
Chipped stone artefacts from the site Popovi}a brdo failure to classify artefacts according to the possible
were, to a smaller extent, gathered in the course of test- registered phases of settlement, even if the series con-
trench excavations and to a greater extent they were sists of a sufficient number of specimens for statistical
collected in the course of site survey, while the collec- analyses.
tions from the sites Simi}a strana and Toplik were
acquired during the site surveying. The finds from the
Ora{je site come from systematic excavations but be- 33 Radovanovi} 1996.
cause of the loss of documentation they are treated as 34 [ari} 1999.
finds acquired by site surveying. 35 [ari} 2005b.


Fig. 1. Distribution of the geometric microliths

Sl. 1. Zastupqenost geometrijskih mikrolita

On the basis of the available material the decrease Indirect indications of influence from earlier tradi-
in number of unretouched flakes from Proto-Star~evo tions is provided by the trapeze S.M. 61 from Velesni-
to Star~evo III is conspicuous and at the same time the ca (Pl. XVI/5) with a concave retouched shorter side.
increase in quantity of artefacts within each type of the This specimen could be related to possible Tardenoisi-
retouched tools is obvious despite the fact that the num- an influences from the territory of south and southeast
ber of basic types does not reveal significant variations. Romania.37 Nevertheless, it is debatable whether an
This means that greater attention was paid to the manu- analogous specimen from Blagotin (Pl. XVI/11) can
facturing process and that the chipped stone industry be also explained by such influences or by the process
gained in quality. Unfortunately, such an indicator is of convergent evolution mentioned above when
influenced by the number of already mentioned quart- discussing the transversal arrow-head from Blagotin
zite artefacts, which should not be excluded from the (Pl. XIX/8).
analysis but for which it is not certain that they were The most conspicuous data about the influence of
completely collected at all sites. The impeding circum- older traditions is offered by the finds from the Donja
stances include also imprecisely dated sites and the Branjevina site. It concerns very prominent microlithic
excavations of limited scope with relatively small quan- component, which is apparent in the presence of micro-
tity of chipped stone artefacts, because in such collec- blades and in a finely defined industry of geometric mi-
tions some, usually common, basic types of tools, are croliths (Fig. 1; Pl. XVI/12–26). While the appearance
not present. of microblades could be explained as a consequence of
The geographic character of Lepenski Vir as refu- specific economic needs (considering that microlithi-
gium and its isolation in relation to the global situation zation was not the result of small pieces of the raw
resulted partially in the local evolution of this industry material which is usually connected to the use of river
that is most noticeable in the appearance of tranchets. pebbles) or as the influence of Tardenoisian traditions,
The tranchets are a rare but characteristic type of tool the appearance of a large quantity (in comparison with
that appears in small percentages at the Mesolithic
sites on the right bank of the Danube. As a survival in
the Star~evo material it was encountered solely at 36 Radovanovi} 1996.
Lepenski Vir.36 37 Paunescu 1970, fig. 17–16.

other sites) of geometric microliths is without doubt the its ratio of participation (14.51% unretouched and 2.68%
consequence of still strong Tardenoisian influences,38 retouched specimens) looks relatively modest only
i.e. the influences of the Balkan–Danubean Epigravet- because of the exceptionally large quantity of flakes of
tian with trapezes.39 chert and quartzite that are associated with the reliable
The chipped stone artefacts are encountered at all position of working floors in the dug-out features ZM 04,
the other sites in the form suggesting a clearly defined ZM 06 and ZM 07. The increase in quantity of blades
and widely distributed standardization of shapes. and the rather large quantity of blades with conspicuous
One of the most conspicuous characteristics is the wear gloss are the consequence of environmental con-
exceptionally great quantity of long blades (unretouched ditions, which made possible development of agricul-
and retouched), which are up to 10–12 cm long. ture in the slightly hilly terrains surrounding Blagotin.
The standardization of shapes and appearance of The hunting activities, which were not abandoned and
the large quantity of blades, short (with conspicuous were probably mostly based on traps and weapons made
gloss) and long (on which gloss could be discerned but of perishable material, are indirectly confirmed by the
to a lesser extent than on the short blades) is not a cha- transversal arrowhead found among the chipped stone
racteristic of Star~evo culture alone. It is a phenomenon artefacts (Pl. XIX/8).
resulting from the change in economy reflecting the The finds from Donja Branjevina confirm how cru-
greater importance of agriculture and cereal cultivation, cial the environment is in establishing the typological
which were cut with real sickles having many slanting character of the chipped stone artefacts.44 The favorable
blades or geometric microliths mounted in the handle position next to the great river and the fertile plains
and with the composite knives having one or more were the main driving forces for the development of
rather long blades mounted parallel to the handle axis. agriculture at this site. As a consequence of the econo-
R. Tringham explains the dominance of the macro- my, the industry of blades contributed 42.71% of the
lithic blades particularly those with sickle-gloss as a entire quantity of chipped stone artefacts. The distinc-
result of new functions of the tools, which prevailed tive characteristic of this site is the parallel existence
over the functions provided by the microlithic blades of the industry of blades (both microblades and long
and she recognizes their appearance in the Early and blades) and the industry of geometric microliths.
Middle Neolithic of Greece, i.e. within the Karanovo I The chipped stone artefacts from the Donja Branje-
culture as well as in the Star~evo culture.40 Therefore, vina site, due to their dating into the Star~evo II phase
the appearance of long blades at Lepenski Vir in the and their geographic position are located in space and
LV III phase was not just the result of use of large no- time, so the industry of long blades occurred at a time
dules of so-called »Balkan flint«,41 Of course, agricultu- when the traditions of the Balkan–Danubean Epigravet-
re due to the geographic conditions, could not become tian with trapezes were still strong in that area and this
the prevailing economic activity, so Lepenski Vir is an resulted in the parallel existence of these two industries.
exception, in a way, considering the use of rather large Other types of tools present in relevant quantities
blades. In contrast to Lepenski Vir, in [alitrena pe}ina including endscrapers, sidescrapers, perforators, chisel-
where, because of the environmental conditions, agri- -like tools or tools with notched retouch are a common
culture could not prevail over hunting and fishing, there characteristic of the mentioned sites. They are present
are no long blades in significant quantity, but a certain in different quantities and used in everyday activities
level of agriculture is confirmed by the find of a frag- for working different types of material.
mented millstone made of gray/green sandstone. When On the basis of the analysis of material presented
[alitrena pe}ina is concerned it is possible that this spe- in this work the relevant main types of tools conside-
leological site provided refuge and was used as a tempo- ring their quantity, which could determine the global
rary habitation.42 Seasonal activities could be associated
with hunting and fishing and even with harvesting
within restricted areas and from time to time with 38 Brukner 1974; [ari} 1984.
exploitation of green/gray chert from the limestone 39 Kozlowski 1989.
cliffs of the Ribnica River. The permanent settlements 40 Tringham 1968.
should probably be located in the area where the sites 41 Kozlowski, Kozlowski 1984, 273.
Popovi}a brdo and Simi}a strana are located.43 42 Je` 1985, 45.
The situation at Blagotin is, however, rather diffe- 43 [ari} 1999.
rent. The number of blades increased considerably and 44 [ari} 2005c.


character of the industry of the chipped stone artefacts in chopping tools but also because of the artefacts inclu-
the Star~evo culture are blades (unretouched or retouc- ding a coarse discoid endscraper on the cortical flake
hed) and geometric microliths. All other types inclu- (that have an analogy at Lepenski Vir), trapeze with
ding endscrapers, sidescrapers, perforators, retouched concave narrow side (analogies at Velesnica and Lapoº
flakes, chisel-like tools and tools with notched retouch in Romania) and the transversal arrow-head with ana-
are common characteristics of most sites. Their absence logies at the Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in western
from the material at some sites is probably accidental Europe and at the site Cuina Turcului – Dubova. Whet-
and rather the result of the fact that they were not her the appearance of these artefacts is the result of
discovered in course of excavations than that such tool cultural influences or these are the isolated examples of
types were not known within that local industry. The convergent evolution will be explained only by future
»splintered« artefacts are an insignificant phenomenon investigations and by comparison with the specimens
on the sites mentioned in this work and they could not from the new collections of chipped stone artefacts. In
be explained as one of the relevant characteristics. any case, the industry of blades did not mean, as R.
Coarse discoid endscrapers on cortical flakes, the trans- Tringham assumes, the final and complete break with
versal arrowhead and chopping tools are interesting the microlithic blades and industry of trapezes of the
but isolated finds and are irrelevant for establishing the Mesolithic culture in all regions.46
global characteristics of the typology of chipped stone The unequal quantity of the chipped stone arte-
artefacts in Star~evo culture. facts from individual sites and particularly different
The emergence of long blades is the main charac- approach in their study as well as the lack of material
teristic of the Star~evo culture and it is certainly connec- from the sites located to the south of Blagotin are great
ted with certain processes in the development of agri- obstacles for drawing conclusions, which could have a
culture. Such blades appear if not in a prevailing then universal character and could enable easier and more
certainly in a considerable quantity at most of the sites comprehensive comparison. Unfortunately, the data
mentioned in this work. The only exceptions are the about the finding circumstances for the specimens
cave site [alitrena pe}ina where the reduced number of examined in this work as well as dating of the sites do
blades is the consequence of the economy determined by not make it possible to establish a typological picture
the environment and the settlements at the sites U{}e according to phases in the evolution of the Star~evo
Kameni~kog potoka and Knjepi{te where, to all appe- culture. A happy coincidence for the study of this ma-
arances, a specialization in the production of tools not terial is the fact that evolutionary changes in the chip-
intended for agriculture took place. [alitrena pe}ina also ped stone industry almost entirely died out during the
stands out because of the small quantities of blades. At Neolithic period. This means that certain differences
other distinct mountainous sites (like the sites in Monte- noticed at certain sites of identical date are of local
negro) where the economy must have been identical, character, related to the development of the local eco-
there are large quantities of long blades, which even re- nomy, the exploitation of the raw materials of diverse
present the dominant trait in the chipped stone industry. quality and workability, but also to variations in indi-
The microlithic component in Star~evo culture owes vidual skill in the production of these artefacts. The
its occurrence to the influence of the Tardenoisian, Neolithic introduced a certain standardization, distingu-
which was very widely distributed in western, central ishable in the limited number of basic tool types and
but also eastern Europe in the Mesolithic period and to among them the blades became the most important,
the Balkan–Danubean Epigravettian with trapezes that having the largest use in composite tools, although they
was related to the regions of Hungary, Romania, Bulga- often acquired the character of multipurpose tools.
ria and Greece.45 The influences of these Late Mesolithic Multipurpose use is identified on the basis of traces of
complexes are most conspicuous at Donja Branjevina use also on other artefacts including endscrapers or side-
in the presence of many trapezes and probably also mi- scrapers, the truncations with abrupt retouch or chisel-
croblades, while these influences are reflected at Veles- like tools and it is particularly conspicuous on the
nica in the presence of the distinctively shaped trapeze combined tools, which could combine the functions of
concave retouched narrow side that have analogies with as many as three basic types.
the specimen from Tardenoisian site Lapoº in Romania.
Blagotin, which is located far to the southeast from
Donja Branjevina and southwest from Velesnica is a 45 Kozlowski 1989, Fig. 17.
specific site not only because of the finds of archaic 46 Tringham 1968, 67.

On the basis of the published material analyzed in local sources of that volcanic rock. It would also be im-
this work, the entire typology of the chipped stone portant to analyze new specimens of tools for making
artefacts of the Star~evo culture should be considered chipped stone artefacts that will include the specimens
complete with the typology of the quartzite artefacts. of bone and antler.
New finds and the study of material still unpublished We can conclude at the present stage of investiga-
in the museum collections may supplement this tion that evolution of the chipped stone artefacts during
typology with new basic types of artefacts. It would be Early and Late Neolithic certainly shows the conspicu-
very important if new types or specimens of projectiles ous characteristics of stagnation and gradual decline
were published, then new specimens of chopping tools indicating thus the inevitable end of the long evolution
and if the specimens of obsidian could be related to of this sort of tool.



Antonovi} 1997 – D. Antonovi}, Use of Light Kaczanowska, Kozlowski 1985 – M. Kaczanow-

White Stone in the Central Balkans Neolithics, Sta- ska i J.K. Kozlowski, Chipped Stone Industry from
rinar, n. s. kwiga XLVIII, Beograd 1997, 33–39. Golokut, Rad Vojvo|anskih muzeja 29, 1984–1985,
Babovi} 1984 – Q. Babovi}, Oru|e i oru`je od Novi Sad 1985, 27–31.
kosti i ro`ine u: Vin~a u praistoriji i sredwem Karmanski 2005 – S. Karmanski, Donja Branje-
veku, Beograd 1984, 117–120. vina. A Neolithic Settlement Near Deronje in the Voj-
Babovi} 1986 – Lj. Babovi}, Zbradila – Korbovo, vodina (Serbia). Edited by Paolo Biagi, Societa per la
Compte-rendu des feuilles en 1980. Cahiere de Portes preistoria e protostoria della regione Friuli–Venezia
de Fer II, Beograd 1986, 95–98. Giulia Vol 10, Trieste 2005, 155–170.
Batovi} 1979 – [. Batovi}, Jadranska zona, u Pra- Kozlowski, Kozlowski 1984 – J. K. Kozlowski i
istorija jugoslavenskih zemalja, neolit, Sarajevo 1979. S. K. Kozlowski, Chipped Stone Industries from Le-
Bogosavqevi}-Petrovi} 1991 – V. Bogosavqe- penski Vir, Preistoria Alpina, Vol. 19, Trento 1984,
vi}-Petrovi}, Kamena okresana industrija sa neo- 259–293.
litskog naseqa Trsine, Zbornik Narodnog muzeja Kozlowski 1988 – J. K. Kozlowski, Stone indu-
XXI, ^a~ak 1991, 5–36. stries and Ceramic Cultures in the Neolithic. in; Koz-
Bogosavqevi}-Petrovi} 1992 – V. Bogosav- lowski J. K. and Kozlowski S. K. (editors), Chipped
qevi}-Petrovi}, Okresana kamena industrija sa Stone Industries of the Early Farming Cultures in
naseqa Divqe Poqe, Kraqevo 1992. Europe, Archaeologia interregionalis, Krakow 1988,
Bogosavljevi}-Petrovi} 1998 – V. Bogosavljevi}- 559–566.
-Petrovi}, Ka problemu identifikacije rudni~kih i radi- Mano-Zisi, Mari}, Gara{anin 1950 – \.
oni~kih nalazi{ta kamenih sirovina u periodu neolita i Mano-Zisi, R. Mari} i M. Gara{anin, Iskopava-
eneolita, Starinar, n. s. XLIX, Beograd 1998, 155–166. we na Ora{ju, prethodni izve{taj o radovima u
Brindley 1986 – A. L. Brindley, Hunebed G2: Exca- 1947. godini, Starinar n.s. I, Beograd143–167.
vations and Finds, Palaeohistoria 28, Rotterdam 1986, Meeks, Sieveking, Tite, Cook 1982 – N.D.
27–67. Meeks, G. de G. Sieveking, M.S. Tite i J. Cook, Gloss
Brukner 1974 – B. Brukner, Rani neolit. u: Brukner and Use-wear Traces on Flint Sickles and Similar Phe-
B., Jovanovi} B., Tasi} N., Praistorija Vojvodine, Novi nomena, Journal of Archaeological Science 9, 317–340,
Sad 1974, 29–68. London 1982.
\uri~i} 1993 – Q. \uri~i}, Artefakti sa Müller-Karpe 1968 – H. Müller-Karpe, Handbuch
strmoretu{iranim prelomom, Glasnik Srpskog der Vorgeschichte, Band II, Jungsteinzeit, Müchen 1968.
arheolo{kog dru{tva 9, Beograd 1993, 9–12. Nikoli}, Ze~evi} 2001 – D. Nikoli}, J. Ze~evi},
Gara{anin M., Gara{anin D. 1951 – M. Ga- Blagotin, Istra`ivanja 1989–1999, Beograd 2001.
ra{anin, D. Gara{anin, Arheolo{ka nalazi{ta Paunescu 1970 – A. Paunescu, Evoluþia uneltelor
u Srbiji, Beograd 1951, 52–53. ºi armelor de piatrã cioplitã descoperite pe teritoriul
Jacanovi}, \or|evi} 1990 – D. Jacanovi} i României, Bucureºti 1970.
A. \or|evi}, Vi{eslojno praistorijsko nalazi{- Peri{i} 1984 – S. Peri{i}, Predmeti od kosti, roga i
te »Ora{je« u Dubravici, Viminacivm I, Po`arevac kamena, Beograd 1984, 60–61, 117–118, T. 42/374–381.
1989–1990, 7–80. Phillips 1988 – P. Phillips, Traceology (Microwear)
Jelínek 1976 – J. Jelínek, The Pictorila Encyclo- studies in the USSR, World Archaeology, Volume 19,
pedia of The Evolution of Man, Prague 1976. No. 3, 349–356.
Jensen 1989 – H. J. Jensen, Plant Harvesting and Radovanovi} 1984 – I. Radovanovi}, Kremena
Processing with Flint Implements in the Danish Stone industrija u Vin~a u praistoriji i sredwem veku,
Age, A View from the Microscope, Acta Archaeologica, Beograd 1984, 112–114.
Vol. 59, 1988, København 1989, 131–142. Radovanovi} 1996 – I. Radovanovi}, The Iron
Je` 1985 – @. Je`, Pregled neolitskih i ene- Gates Mesolithic, Ann Arbor – Michigan 1996
olitskih kultura Gorwe Kolubare. Istra`ivawa II, Radimsky, Hoernes 1895 – W. Radimsky, M.
Saop{tewa sa 6. skupa arheologa Srbije, Vaqevo Hoernes, Die Neolitische Station von Butmir, Theil I,
1985, 43–57. Wien 1895.

Read 1921 – C. H. Read, A Guide to The Antuqui- [ari} 2005c – J. [ari}, Chipped Stone Artifects in
ties of The Stona Age in The Department of British and Karmanski Sergej 2005 Donja Branjevina. A Neolithic
Medieval Antiquities, Oxford 1921. Settlement Near Deronje in the Vojvodina (Serbia).
Semenov 1957 – S.A. Semënov, Pervobþtnaÿ Edited by Paolo Biagi, Societa per la preistoria e proto-
tehnika, Moskva – Leningrad 1957. storia della regione Friuli–Venezia Giulia Vol 10, Trieste
Sieveking 1975 – G. de G. Sieveking, Flint Imple- 2005, 155–170.
ments, London 1975. Tasi} N. N. 1998 – N. Tasi}, N. Tasi}, Star-
Srejovi}, Letica 1978 – D. Srejovi}, Z. Letica, ~eva~ka kultura, u N. Tasi}, Arheolo{ko blago Ko-
Vlasac 1, arheologija, Beograd 1978. sova i Metohije od neolita do ranog sredweg veka,
[ari} 1984 – J. [ari}, Prilog istra`ivawu Beograd 1998, 31 – 55, 423, 435
najstarijih kultura na teritoriji Beograda, Godi{- Trbuhovi}, Vasiqevi} 1983 – V. Trbuhovi},
wak grada Beograda XXXI, Beograd 1984, 5–33. M. Vasiqevi}, Najstarije zemqoradni~ke kultu-
[ari} 1987 – J. [ari}, Prilog istra`ivawu re u Podriwu, [abac 1983.
najstarijih kultura na teritoriji Beograda II, Go- Tringham 1968 – R. Tringham, A preliminary
di{wak grada Beograda XXXIV, Beograd 1987, study of the early neolithic and latest mesolithic blade
21–27. industries. in: Southeast and central Europe in Studies
[ari} 1997 – J. [ari}, Star~eva~ka kremena in Ancient Europe, Leicester 1968, 45–70.
industrija sa lokaliteta U{}e Kameni~kog po- Tringham, Cooper, Odell, Voytek, Whitman
toka, Kwepi{te i Velesnica u Arheologija isto~- 1974 – R. Tringham, G. Cooper, G. Odell, B. Voytek,
ne Srbije, Beograd 1997, 177–187. A. Whitman, Experimentation in the Formation of
[ari} 1998 – J. [ari}, Prilog prou~avawu Edge Damage: A New Approach to Lithic Analysis,
artefakata od okresanog kamena star~eva~ke kul- Journal of Fieold Archeology 1, 171–196.
turne grupe, Glasnik Srpskog arheolo{kog dru{tva Tringham, Mc Pherron, Gunn, Odell 1988 –
14, Beograd 1998, 197–212. E.R. Tringham, A. Mc Pherron, J. Gunn, G. Odell, The
[ari} 1999 – J. [ari}, Kremena industrija najsta- Flaked Stone Industry from Divostin and Banja in Mc.
rijih zemljoradni~kih kultura na tlu Srbije, doktorska Pherron A. and Srejovi} D., Divostin and the Neolithic of
disertacija (nepublikovano), Beograd 1999. Central Serbia, Pittsburgh – Kragujevac 1988, 203–253.
[ari} 2002 – J. [ari}, Stone as Material for Pro- Voytek 1984 – B. Voytek, Microwear Analysis of
duction of Chipped Stone Artifacts in Early and Middle Chipped Stone Artifacts from Vin~a in Radovanovi} I.,
Neolithic of Serbia, Starinar, n. s. kwiga LII/2002, Kaczanowska M., Kozlowski J.K., Pawlikowski M.,
Beograd 2002, 11–26. Voytek B., The Chipped Stone Industry from Vin~a,
[ari} 2004 – J. [ari}, Raw Material for Making Beograd 1984, 54–58.
Chipped Stone Artefacts in Early and Middle Neolithic Voytek 1990 – B. Voytek, The Use of Stone
of Serbia, Slovak Geological Magazine, Volume 10 No Resources in Tringham R., Krsti} D. (editors), Selevac,
1–2/2004, Bratislava 2004, 65–72. A Neolithic Village in Yugoslavia, Los Angeles 1990,
[ari} 2005a – J. [ari}, Chipped Stone Projectiles 437–494.
in The Territory of Serbia in Prehistory, Starinar LV, Winiarska-Kabacinska 1995 – M. Winiarska-
Beograd 2005, 9–33. Kabacinska, Functional Analysis of the Stone Tools
[ari} 2005b – J. [ari}, Artefakti od okresanog ka- from Maszycka Cave, Jahrbuch des Römisch–Germa-
mena sa lokaliteta Livade, Kaleni}, Kolubara 4, Beo- nischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, 40. Jahrgang 1993,
grad 2005, 89–113. Teil 1, Mainz 1995, 241–244.


Rezime: JOSIP [ARI], Arheolo{ki institut, Beograd



Morfolo{ke karakteristike artefakata su polazi{te za – Oru|a sa dletastim retu{em – T. XV/13–20

formirawe tipologije i ma koliko taj postupak izgledao – Geometrijski mikroliti – T. XVI/1–30
jednostavan za nalaze sa neolitskih lokaliteta, postoje od- – Oru|a sa jami~astim retu{em – T. XVII/1–7
re|eni problemi, pre svega vezani za terminologiju koja se – »Oqu{tena« oru|a – T. XVII/8–16
koristi. Re~ je o tome da od kada su objavqeni prvi speci- – Kombinovana oru|a – T. XVIII/1–13; T. XIX/1–6
jalizovani radovi posve}eni artefaktima od okresanog – Projektili – T. XIX/7–9
kamena u arheolo{koj literaturi i u svetu i kod nas, nema – Moti~ice – T. XIX/10
uskla|ene i op{te prihva}ene terminologije. Neujedna~e- – Chopping tools – T. XIX/11, 12
no kori{}ewe pojmova usmerilo je neke interpretacije u Artefakti od okresanog kamena na osnovu kojih je iz-
pogre{nom pravcu, a u izvesnoj meri i ote`alo kori{}ewe ra|ena tipologija poti~u sa 20 nalazi{ta na teritoriji
podataka sa ranijih ali i savremenih istra`ivawa. Srbije. Uslovi nalaza nisu bili identi~ni, ali ve}i deo
Na temequ potrebe za usagla{avawem i korektnim na- materijala poti~e sa lokaliteta na kojima su vr{ena siste-
u~nim izra`avawam, uz te`wu da se iskqu~i proizvoqnost, matska iskopavawa i to su Padina, Lepenski Vir, U{}e Ka-
ali ne i sloboda kori{}ewa odre|enih pojmova, i tako meni~kog potoka, Kwepi{te, Dowa strana–Velesnica, Bla-
omogu}i lak{e uklapawe na{ih rezultata u standarde ve} gotin, Vinogradi–Grabovac, Livade, [alitrena pe}ina,
postavqene u svetu koji ni sami nisu imuni na sli~ne pro- Dowa Brawevina, Golokut i Vojlovica. Zbirke artefakata
bleme, nastao je slede}i predlog za sistematiku i nomen- sa lokaliteta Lug, Novo selo, Stari vinogradi–Banatska
klaturu. Naravno, i ovaj predlog podlo`an je promenama, a Dubica i Sedlar, formirane su prilikom sonda`nih isko-
osnovna sugestija vezana je za potrebu da se klasi~na tipo- pavawa. Okresani artefakti sa lokaliteta Popovi}a brdo
logija kombinuje i usagla{ava sa podacima dobijenim na- mawim delom su prikupqeni prilikom sonda`nih iskopa-
kon mikroskopskog pregleda artefakata sa izra`enim tra- vawa, a ve}im delom prilikom rekognoscirawa, dok su zbir-
govima upotrebe. ke sa lokaliteta Simi}a strana i Toplik, nastale sakupqa-
Iz do sada objavqenih radova koji se bave problemati- wem samo prilikom rekognoscirawa. Nalazi sa lokaliteta
kom artefakata od okresanog kamena star~eva~ke kulture Ora{je rezultat su sistematskih iskopavawa, ali usled gu-
veoma jasno se vidi da u tipolo{kom smislu neolit donosi bitka dokumentacije imaju karakter nalaza prikupqenih
osiroma{ewe i da se brojni specijalizovani tipovi i wi- rekognoscirawem.
hove varijante, koji su obele`ili mla|i paleolit, vi{e ne Postojawe kompletne terenske i tehni~ke dokumenta-
javqaju. Ustvari, po~etak tog osiroma{ewa na tlu Srbije cije o uslovima nalaza je od prioritetnog zna~aja za inter-
uo~ava se ve} u mezolitskom materijalu. pretaciju bilo koje vrste arheolo{kog materijala, pa tako
S obzirom na skoro potpuno zaustavqene evolutivne i za artefakte od okresanog kamena. Na`alost razni su uzro-
tokove artefakata od okresanog kamena, osnovna tipologi- ci usled kojih takvi podaci nisu kompletni ili ne posto-
ja primewena na materijalu sa Lepenskog Vira i U{}a Ka- je uop{te, ostavqaju}i brojne zbirke u muzejskim depoima
meni~kog potoka, Kwepi{ta i Velesnice mo`e, uz izvesne bez mogu}nosti da se izvedu potrebne analize.
dopune, da se primeni na skoro ceo neolit. Artefakti koji ne poti~u sa iskopavawa, upotrebqeni
Na osnovu dostupnog materijala definisani su slede- su kao komparativna serija koja bi pokazala da procentu-
}i osnovni tipovi okresanih artefakata: alna zastupqenost odre|enih osnovnih tipova ne pokazuje
– Sirovinski materijal: nodule i re~ni obluci relevantna odstupawa ni u slu~aju kada postoji mogu}nost
– Prejezgra – T. I/1–3 me{awa sa materijalom mla|eg neolita. To je najboqi poka-
– Jezgra – T. I/4–6; T. II–VI; T. VII/1–9 zateq da evolutivni tokovi na globalnom planu ne pokazu-
– Reutilizovana jezgra – T. VII/10, 11 ju bitne promene i da ~esto promene koje mogu da se uo~e u
– Odbici i se~iva sa pripremu jezgara, odnosno pod- zbirkama okresanih artefakata sa vi{e nalazi{ta ne mora-
mla|ivawe jezgara – T. VIII/1–8 ju da budu rezultat hronolo{kih razlika, ve} su lokalnog
– Reutilizovani odbici i se~iva za pripremu jezgara, karaktera i vezane kako za vrstu sirovinskog materijala
odnosno podmla|ivawe jezgara – T. VIII/9–16 ili tip ekonomike, tako i za individualne sposobnosti u
– Neretu{irani odbici – T. IX/1–14 oblikovawu, {to nikako ne bi smelo da se izgubi iz vida.
– Neretu{irana se~iva – T. IX/15–22; T. X/1–22 Mali broj artefakata sa lokaliteta Sedlar, Vojlovi-
– Retu{irani odbici – T. XI/1–11 ca, Stari vinogradi, Novo selo, Vinogradi i Lug daje ovim
– Retu{irana se~iva – T. XII/1–16 nalazi{tima drugostepeni zna~aj u formirawu globalne
– Struga~i – T. XIII/1–15 tipolo{ke sheme za okresane artefakte starijeg i sredweg
– Postru{ke – T. XIV/1–6 neolita na tlu Srbije.
– Perforateri – T. XIV/7–15 Celokupna tipologija sa svim svojim op{tim karakte-
– Oru|a sa strmoretu{iranim prelomom – T. XV/1–12 ristikama, ali i bitnim pojedina~nim posebnostima, bazi-

rana je na materijalu sa Lepenskog Vira, U{}a Kameni~kog Jedna od najuo~qivijih karakteristika je izuzetno ve-
potoka, Kwepi{ta, Velesnice, Blagotina, Livada, [alitre- lika zastupqenost du`ih se~iva (neretu{iranih i retu-
ne pe}ine i Dowe Brawevine. Na`alost, poku{aj da se for- {iranih) ~ije du`ine se kre}u do 10–12 cm.
mira jasna tipolo{ka slika artefakata od okresanog kamena Standardizacija oblika i pojava velikog broja se~iva,
po fazama u okviru dve osnovne razvojne etape predstavqene kra}ih (sa izra`enom politurom) i du`ih (na kojima mo`e
protostar~eva~kom/Gura Ba}ului i star~eva~kom kulturom, da bude izra`ena politura, ali u mawem obimu nego kod krat-
za sada ne mo`e da pru`i ~itav niz neophodnih i relevant- kih se~iva) nije karakteristika samo star~eva~ke kulture.
nih pokazateqa. Razlozi le`e u nepotpunoj dokumentaciji Re~ je o pojavi proiza{loj iz promene ekonomike koja se
sa nalazi{ta na kojima su vr{ena iskopavawa, u malim se- ogleda u sve ve}em zna~aju zemqoradwe i gajewu `itarica
rijama artefakata, odnosno, u neizdvajawu artefakata po koje su se~ene pravim srpovima sa ve}im brojem ukoso usa-
uo~enim eventualnim fazama u nasequ, ~ak i ako serija ima |enih kratkih se~iva ili geometrijskih mikrolita i kom-
dovoqan broj primeraka za statisti~ke analize. pozitnim no`evima u koje je bilo usa|eno paralelno sa osom
Na osnovu dostupnog materijala, iako broj osnovnih ti- dr{ke jedno do dva ili vi{e du`ih se~iva. Dominaciju ma-
pova ne pokazuje znatnije varijacije, primetan je pad broja krolitskih se~iva, posebno sa politurom (»sickle-gloss«) R.
neretu{iranih odbitaka od Protostar~eva ka Star~evu III Tringam obja{wava novim funkcijama oru|a koje su odnele
i ujedno porast koli~ine artefakata u okviru svakog od retu- prevagu nad funkcijama koje su nudila mikrolitska se~iva
{iranih tipova oru|a, {to bi zna~ilo da se izradi posve}u- i wihovu pojavu uo~ava u ranom i sredwem neolitu Gr~ke,
je ve}a pa`wa i da industrija okresanog oru|a dobija na kva- odnosno, u okviru kulture Karanovo I, kao i u star~eva~koj
litetu. Na`alost, re~ je o pokazatequ na koji uti~e i broj kulturi. Shodno tome, ni pojava duga~kih se~iva na Lepen-
ve} pomiwanih kvarcitnih artefakata koji ne smeju da bu- skom Viru u fazi LV III nije rezultat samo upotrebe velikih
du izuzeti iz analize, a za koje nije sigurno da su u potpuno- nodula takozvanog »balkanskog kremena«. Naravno, na tom
sti prikupqani na svim nalazi{tima. Ote`avaju}u okolnost prostoru zemqoradwa zbog geografskih uslova nije mogla da
predstavqaju i neprecizno datovana nalazi{ta, kao i is- postane prioritetna ekonomika, pa Lepenski Vir u neku
kopavawa ograni~enog obima sa relativno skromnom koli- ruku predstavqa izuzetak po izra`enoj upotrebi ve}ih se-
~inom okresanih artefakata me|u kojima nisu zastupqeni ~iva. Za razliku od Lepenskog Vira, u [alitrenoj pe}ini,
pojedini, ina~e uobi~ajeni, osnovni tipovi oru|a. gde, zbog prirodnog okru`ewa, zemqoradwa nije mogla da odu-
Refugijalni karakter geografskog polo`aja Lepen- zme primat lovu i ribolovu, duga se~iva se ne javqaju u ve-
skog Vira i izolovanost u odnosu na globalna de{avawa }em broju, a o izvesnom stepenu zemqoradwe svedo~i nalaz
uslovili su delimi~no i lokalnu evoluciju ove industri- fragmentovanog `rvwa od sivozelenog pe{~ara. Kad je re~
je koja se ogleda najjasnije u pojavi moti~ica. Moti~ice su o [alitrenoj pe}ini, postoji mogu}nost da je ovaj speleo-
redak, ali karakteristi~an tip oru|a, koji se u malom po- lo{ki objekat pru`ao zaklon i slu`io kao privremeno bo-
stotku javqa na mezolitskim lokalitetima desne obale Du- ravi{te. Sezonske aktivnosti mogle su da budu vezane za lov-
nava, a kao pre`iveli element u star~eva~kom materijalu ne i ribolovne aktivnosti, pa ~ak i za `etvu na ograni~enim
sre}u se upravo i samo na Lepenskom Viru. povr{inama, a povremene za eksploataciju zelenosivog ro-
Posredne indikacije za uo~avawe uticaja starijih tra- `naca iz kre~wa~kih litica reke Ribnice. Stalna naseqa
dicija pru`a trapez S.M. 61 iz Velesnice (T. XVI/5) sa kon- verovatno bi trebalo locirati na prostoru na kojem se na-
kavnom, retu{iranom kra}om stranicom. Ovaj primerak laze lokaliteti Popovi}a brdo i Simi}a strana.
mo`e da se ve`e za eventualne tardenoazijenske uticaje sa Na Blagotinu je situacija ve} druga~ija. Broj se~iva
teritorije ju`ne, odnosno jugoisto~ne Rumunije. Me|utim, znatno raste, a wegovo procentualno u~e{}e (14,51 % nere-
postavqa se pitawe da li i analogni primerak sa Blagoti- tu{iranih i 2,68 % retu{iranih primeraka) deluje rela-
na (T. XVI/11) mo`e da se objasni takvim uticajima ili, pak, tivno skromno samo zbog izuzetno velikog broja odbitaka
procesom konvergentne evolucije, {to je ve} pomenuto kod od ro`naca i kvarcita, koji su vezani za nesumwiv polo`aj
transverzalne strele sa Blagotina (T. XIX/8). radionica u zemuni~kim objektima ZM 04, ZM 06 i ZM 07.
O uticaju starijih tradicija najslikovitije podatke Porast broja se~iva i ve}a koli~ina se~iva sa izra`enom
pru`aju nalazi sa lokaliteta Dowa Brawevina. Re~ je o ve- politurom posledica su prirodnih uslova koji su u blagom
oma izra`enoj mikrolitskoj komponenti koja se manife- pobr|u oko Blagotina omogu}avali razvitak zemqoradwe. O
stuje kroz prisustvo mikrose~iva i kroz lepo definisanu lovnoj ekonomici, koja nije bila napu{tena, a verovatno je
industriju geometrijskih mikrolita (Sl. 1; T. XVI/12–26). dobrim delom bila bazirana na zamkama i oru`ju od materi-
I dok pojava mikrose~iva mo`e da se protuma~i kako kao jala koji se nije sa~uvao, me|u okresanim artefaktima po-
rezultat specifi~nih potreba diktiranih ekonomikom, s sredne podatke pru`a nalaz transverzalne strele (T. XIX/8).
obzirom da mikrolitizacija nije bila uslovqena upotre- Nalazi sa Dowe Brawevine potvr|uju koliko su pri-
bom malih komada sirovinskog materijala ({to se obi~no rodni uslovi bitni u formirawu tipolo{ke slike okresa-
vezuje za re~ne oblutke), tako i uticajem tardenoazijenskih nih artefakata. Povoqan polo`aj pored velike reke i plod-
tradicija, dotle je pojava velikog broja (u odnosu na ostala na ravnica bili su osnovni pokreta~i za razvoj zemqoradwe
nalazi{ta) geometrijskih mikrolita, nesumwivo posledi- na ovom nalazi{tu. Kao posledica tako usmerene ekonomike
ca jo{ uvek jakih tardenoazijenskih uticaja, odnosno, bal- industrija se~iva zastupqena je sa 42,71 % u odnosu na uku-
kansko-dunavskog epigravetijena sa trapezima. pan broj okresanih artefakata. Specifi~nost ovog nala-
Na svim ostalim nalazi{tima artefakti od okresanog zi{ta ogleda se u paralelnoj egzistenciji i industrije se~i-
kamena su zastupqeni u formi koja ukazuje na jasno defi- va (i mikrose~iva i duga se~iva) i industrije geometrijskih
nisanu i {iroko rasprostrawenu standardizaciju oblika. mikrolita.


Artefakti od okresanog kamena sa lokaliteta Dowa Blagotin koji se nalazi daleko na jugoistoku u odnosu
Brawevina svojim datovawem u fazu Star~evo IIa i geo- na Dowu Brawevinu, odnosno jugozapadno od Velesnice, pred-
grafskim polo`ajem nalaze se locirani u prostoru i vre- stavqa specifikum, ne samo po nalazu arhai~nih chopping
menu tako da industrija dugih se~iva nastupa u vreme kada tools, ve} i po artefaktima kao {to su grubi diskoidni
su tradicije balkansko-dunavskog epigravetijena sa trape- struga~ na kortikalnom odbitku sa analogijom na Lepen-
zima na tom prostoru jo{ uvek jake, {to rezultuje parale- skom Viru, trapez sa konkavnom u`om stranicom sa analo-
lizmom ove dve industrije. gijama na Velesnici i Lapo{u (Rumunija) i transverzalna
Ostali tipovi oru|a zastupqeni u relevantnom broju, strela sa analogijama na mezolitskim i neolitskim nala-
kao {to su struga~i, postru{ke, perforateri, oru|a sa dle- zi{tima zapadne Evrope, odnosno na lokalitetu Kuina Tur-
tastim retu{em ili oru|a sa jami~astim retu{em, zajedni~- kului – Dubova. Da li je pojava ovih artefakata rezultat
ka su karakteristika pomenutim nalazi{tima. Zastupqeni kulturnih uticaja ili je re~ o usamqenim primerima kon-
su u razli~itim procentima i kori{}eni su u svakodnevnim vergentne evolucije pokaza}e tek budu}a istra`ivawa i
aktivnostima pri obradi razli~itih vrsta materijala. pore|ewe primeraka iz novih zbirki artefakata od okre-
Na osnovu analize materijala prikazanog u ovom radu, sanog kamena. U svakom slu~aju, industrija se~iva nije zna-
relevantni osnovni tipovi oru|a, odnosno wihova procen- ~ila na svim prostorima kona~ni i potpuni prekid sa mi-
tulna zastupqenost koja mo`e da odredi globalni karakter krolitskim se~ivima i industrijom trapeza mezolitskih
industrije okresanog oru|a star~eva~ke kulture su se~iva kultura, kako to pretpostavqa R. Tringam.
(neretu{irana ili retu{irana) i geometrijski mikroli- Neujedna~ene koli~ine artefakata od okresanog kame-
ti. Svi ostali tipovi kao {to su struga~i, postru{ke, per- na sa pojedina~nih nalazi{ta i naro~ito razli~it pristup
forateri, retu{irani odbici, oru|a sa dletastim ili ja- obradi materijala, kao i nedostatak materijala sa lokali-
mi~astim retu{em, su zajedni~ka karakteristika ve}ine teta lociranih ju`no od Blagotina, predstavqaju veliku
nalazi{ta. Wihovo nepostojawe u materijalu pojedinih prepreku u dono{ewu zakqu~aka koji bi mogli da imaju sve-
naseqa, verovatno je pre rezultat slu~ajnosti da nisu ot- obuhvatni karakter i da omogu}e lak{e i {ire pore|ewe.
kriveni prilikom iskopavawa, nego ~iwenice da takvi ti- Na`alost, podaci o uslovima nalaza primeraka obra|enih
povi oru|a nisu bili poznati u okviru te lokalne indu- u ovom radu, kao i datovawe samih lokaliteta, takvi su da
strije. »Oqu{teni« artefakti na nalazi{tima pomenutim ne omogu}avaju formirawe tipolo{ke slike po fazama u
u ovom radu na kojima su zastupqeni, predstavqaju minor- razvitku star~eva~ke kulture. Sre}na okolnost za obradu
nu pojavu i ne mogu da budu protuma~eni kao jedna od rele- ovog materijala je u ~iwenici da evolutivne promene u in-
vantnih karakteristika. Usamqeni i interesantni, ali dustriji artefakata od okresanog kamena tokom neolita
bez zna~aja za formirawe globalnih karakteristika tipo- skoro da potpuno zamiru. To zna~i da su neke razlike uo~e-
logije artefakata od okresanog kamena star~eva~ke kultu- ne na pojedinim nalazi{tima identi~nog datovawa, lokal-
re, jesu i nalazi grubih diskoidnih struga~a na kortikal- nog karaktera i da su vezane za lokalni razvoj privre|ivawa,
nim odbicima, transverzalna strela i chopping tools. za eksploataciju sirovina razli~itog kvaliteta i stepena
Pojava dugih se~iva osnovna je karakteristika star~e- obradivosti, kao i da mogu da proisteknu iz individualne
va~ke kulture i vezana je sigurno za odre|ene procese u ve{tine u izradi artefakata. Neolit je doneo izvesnu
unapre|ewu zemqoradwe. Ovakva se~iva, ako ne u dominant- standardizaciju koja se ogleda u smawenom broju osnovnih
nom broju, onda u zna~ajnom broju svakako, javqaju se na ve- tipova oru|a, me|u kojima najva`nija postaju se~iva, koja
}ini nalazi{ta pomenutih u ovom radu. Izuzetak bi bilo najve}u primenu nalaze u kompozitnim alatkama, mada ~e-
jedino pe}insko nalazi{te, [alitrena pe}ina, gde je re- sto poprimaju i karakter vi{enamenskog oru|a. Vi{ena-
dukovan broj se~iva posledica ekonomike diktirane pri- menska upotreba se na osnovu upotrebnih tragova ogleda i
rodnim okru`ewem, kao i naseqa na lokalitetima U{}e na artefaktima kao {to su struga~i ili postru{ke, oru|a sa
Kameni~kog potoka i Kwepi{te, gde je po svemu do{lo do strmoretu{iranim prelomom, odnosno, sa dletastim retu-
specijalizacije u proizvdowi dobara, koja nije bila okre- {em, a posebno je izra`ena upotreba kombinovanog oru|a
nuta zemqoradwi. [alitrena pe}ina se po maloj zastupqe- koje u sebi mo`e da sjedini funkcije do tri osnovna tipa.
nosti se~iva izdvaja i u odnosu na ostala izrazito brdsko- Na osnovu do sada publikovanog i u ovom radu obra|enog
-planinska nalazi{ta, kao {to su lokaliteti u Crnoj Gori, materijala, tipologijom kvarcitnih artefakata bila bi,
gde je ekonomika morala da bude identi~na, ali sa izra`e- ustvari, zaokru`ena celokupna tipologija artefakata od
nim prisustvom dugih se~iva koja ~ak predstavqaju domi- okresanog kamena star~eva~ke kulture. Novi nalazi i obrada
nantu u industriji okresanih artefakata. materijala koji se jo{ uvek nalazi u muzejskim zbirkama mo-
Mikrolitska komponenta u star~eva~koj kulturi svoju gli bi ovu tipologiju da obogate novim osnovnim tipovima
pojavu duguje uticaju tardenoazijena, koji je bio tokom me- artefakata. Bilo bi veoma zna~ajno ako bi bili obelodawe-
zolita veoma rasprostrawen u zapadnoj, centralnoj, ali i ni novi tipovi ili primerci projektila, zatim novi pri-
isto~noj Evropi, odnosno, balkansko-dunavskom epigrave- merci chopping tools, ako bi obsidijanski primerci mogli da
tijenu sa trapezima koji je vezan za prostor Ma|arske, Ru- se ve`u za lokalne pojave te stene vulkanskog porekla, kao i
munije, Bugarske, Srbije i Gr~ke. Uticaji tih kasnomezo- da se obrade novi primerci artefakata za izradu okresanog
litskih kompleksa najizra`eniji su na Dowoj Brawevini oru|a, me|u kojima bi se na{li i primerci od kosti i roga.
kroz prisustvo brojnih trapeza i verovatno i mikrose~i- Na sada{wem stepenu istra`ivawa mo`emo zakqu~i-
va, dok se na Velesnici ogledaju u prisustvu trapeza karak- ti da razvitak artefakata od okresanog kamena tokom sta-
teristi~nog oblika, sa konkavno retu{iranom u`om stra- rijeg i sredweg neolita nesumwivo pokazuje izra`ene ka-
nicom, koji ima analogije u primerku sa tardenoazijenskog rakteristike stagnacije i postepenog opadawa, {to nago-
nalazi{ta Lapo{ u Rumuniji. ve{tava neumitni kraj u dugoj evoluciji te vrste oru|a.

0 1 2 3 cm

4 5 6

Plate I – 1–3 precores; 4–6 conical microcores

1, 3, 4, 5 chert; 2, 6 quartzite
1, 2, 4–6 Blagotin; 3 Donja Branjevina
Tabla I – 1–3 prejezgra; 4–6 koni~na mikrojezgra
1, 3, 4, 5 ro`nac; 2, 6 kvarcit
1, 2, 4–6 Blagotin; 3 Dowa Brawevina


1 2

5 6

0 1 2 3 cm
7 8

Plate II – 1–3 conical microcores; 4–8 conical cores

3, 4, 7, 8 chert; 1, 2, 5, 6 quartzite
1, 2, 4–6 Blagotin; 3, 8 Donja Branjevina; 7 [alitrena pe}ina
Tabla II – 1–3 koni~na mikrojezgra; 4–8 koni~na jezgra
3, 4, 7, 8 ro`nac; 1, 2, 5, 6 kvarcit
1, 2, 4–6 Blagotin; 3, 8 Dowa Brawevina; 7 [alitrena pe}ina

1 2

5 6

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate III – 1, 2 wedge-shaped microcores; 3–6 wedge-shaped cores

2, 3, 4, 6 chert; 1, 5 quartzite
1, 3, 4, 5 Blagotin; 2, 6 Donja Branjevina
Tabla 3 III – 1, 2 klinasta mikrojezgra; 3–6 klinasta jezgra
2, 3, 4, 6 ro`nac; 1, 5 kvarcit
1, 3, 4, 5 Blagotin; 2, 6 Dowa Brawevina


1 2 3

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate IV – 1–3 cylindrical microcores; 4–7 cylindrical cores

1, 4, 5 chert; 2, 3, 6, 7 quartzite
1, 4, 5 Donja Branjevina; 2, 3, 6, 7 Blagotin
Tabla IV – 1–3 cilindri~na mikrojezgra; 4–7 cilindri~na jezgra
1, 4, 5 ro`nac; 2, 3, 6, 7 kvarcit
1, 4, 5 Dowa Brawevina; 2, 3, 6, 7 Blagotin

1 2 3

5 6

0 1 2 3 cm
8 9

Plate V – 1–7 globular microcores; 8, 9 globular cores

1–5, 8 chert; 6, 7, 9 quartzite
1, 2, 6–9 Blagotin; 3–5 Donja Branjevina
Tabla V – 1–7 globularna mikrojezgra; 8, 9 globularna jezgra
1–5, 8 ro`nac; 6, 7, 9 kvarcit
1, 2, 6–9 Blagotin; 3–5 Dowa Brawevina


1 2 3

6 7

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate VI – 1, 2 quadrangular microcores; 3–5 quadrangular cores; 6 bipolar microcore; 7 bipolar core
1, 3–7 chert; 2 quartzite
1, 5 Donja Branjevina; 2, 3, 4, 6 Blagotin; 7 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka
Tabla VI – 1, 2 kvadarska mikrojezgra; 3–5 kvadarska jezgra; 6 bipolarno mikrojezgro; 7 bipolarno jezgro
1, 3–7 ro`nac; 2 kvarcit
1, 5 Dowa Brawevina; 2, 3, 4, 6 Blagotin; 7 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka

1 2

3 4 5

7 9

0 1 2 3 cm
10 11

Plate VII – 1, 2 discoid cores; 3–6 asymmetrical microcores; 7–9 asymmetrical cores; 10, 11 reutilized cores
1–3, 6, 7, 10, 11 chert; 4, 5, 8, 9 quartzite
1 Popovi}a brdo; 2, 6, 7 Donja Branjevina; 3, 4, 8, 9 Blagotin; 10 Knjepi{te; 11 [alitrena pe}ina
Tabla VII – 1, 2 diskoidna jezgra; 3–6 nepravilna mikrojezgra; 7–9 nepravilna jezgra; 10, 11 reutilizovana jezgra
1–3, 6, 7, 10, 11 ro`nac; 4, 5, 8, 9 kvarcti
1 Popovi}a brdo; 2, 6, 7 Dowa Brawevina; 3, 4, 8, 9 Blagotin; 10 Kwepi{te; 11 [alitrena pe}ina


1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

10 11 12 13

0 1 2 3 cm
14 15 16

Plate VIII – 1–8 flakes and blades for preparation/rejuvenation of cores; 9–16 reutilized flakes and blades for
preparation/rejuvenation of cores / 1–16 chert
1–3 Knjepi{te; 4, 5 [alitrena pe}ina; 6–9 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 10–15 Donja Branjevina; 16 Livade
Tabla VIII – 1–8 odbici i se~iva za pripremu/podmla|ivawe jezgara; 9–16reutilizovani odbici i se~iva za
pripremu/podmla|ivawe jezgara / 1–16 ro`nac
1–3 Kwepi{te; 4, 5 [alitrena pe}ina; 6–9 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 10–15 Dowa Brawevina; 16 Livade

1 2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16

0 1 2 3 cm
17 18 19 20 21 22

Plate IX – 1–14 unretouched flakes; 15–22 unretouched blades

1–4, 7–9, 15–22 chert; 5, 10–14 quartzite; 6 obsidian
1 Velesnica; 2–4 Knjepi{te; 5, 6 Donja Branjevina; 7–22 Blagotin
Tabla IX – 1–14 neretu{irani odbici; 15–22 neretu{irana se~iva
1–4, 7–9, 15–22 ro`nac; 5, 10–14 kvarcit; 6 opsidijan
1 Velesnica; 2–4 Kwepi{te; 5, 6 Dowa Brawevina; 7–22 Blagotin


1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15 16 17

21 22

0 1 2 3 cm
18 19 20

Plate X – 1–22 unretouched blades

1–3 quartzite; 4–6 quartz; 7–22 chert
1–22 Blagotin
Tabla X – 1–22 neretu{irana se~iva
1–3 kvarcit; 4–6 kvarc; 7–22 ro`nac
1–22 Blagotin

1 2 3 4

5 6

0 1 2 3 cm 10 11

Plate XI – 1–11 retouched flakes

1–6 chert; 7–11 quartzite
1–3 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 4–11 Blagotin
Tabla XI – 1–11 retu{irani odbici
1–6 ro`nac; 7–11 kvarcit
1–3 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 4–11 Blagotin


3 4 5

8 9


7 11 13

10 14

0 1 2 3 cm 15 16

Plate XII – 1–16 retouched blades

1–16 chert
1–11 Blagotin; 11, 12 [alitrena pe}ina; 13–16 Donja Branjevina
Tabla XII – 1–16 retu{irana se~iva
1–16 ro`nac
1–11 Blagotin; 11, 12 [alitrena pe}ina; 13–16 Dowa Brawevina

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 cm

7 8 9 10

11 12 13

14 15

Plate XIII – 1–6 endscrapers on flake; 7–10 endscrapers on blade; 11, 12 double endscrapers;
13 discoid endscraper; 14, 15 discoid cortical endscrapers / 1–15 chert
1 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 2, 3, 11, 14, 15 Blagotin; 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13 Donja Branjevina; 7 Knjepi{te;
9, 10 [alitrena pe}ina
Tabla XIII – 1–6 struga~i na odbitku; 7–10 struga~i na se~ivu; 11, 12 dvojni struga~i;
13 diskoidni struga~; 14, 15 diskoidni kortikalni struga~i / 1–15 ro`nac
1 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 2, 3, 11, 14, 15 Blagotin; 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13 Dowa Brawevina; 7 Kwepi{te;
9, 10 [alitrena pe}ina


1 2 3

4 5 6

7 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate XIV – 1–3 single-edged sidescrapers; 5 double-edged sidescrapers; 6 denticulated sidescraper;

7–11 perforators on flakes; 12–15 perforators on blades / 1, 3–15 chert; 2 quartzite
1 Velesnica; 2, 5, 7–10, 13–15 Blagotin; 3, 11 Donja Branjevina; 4, 6, 12 Knjepi{te
Tabla XIV – 1–3 jednostruke postru{ke; 4, 5 dvostruke postru{ke; 6 nazup~ana postru{ka;
7–11 perforateri na odbicima; 12–15 perforateri na se~ivima / 1, 3–15 ro`nac; 2 kvarcit
1 Velesnica; 2, 5, 7–10, 13–15 Blagotin; 3, 11 Dowa Brawevina; 4, 6, 12 Kwepi{te

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16

17 18 19 20

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate XV – 1–12 truncations with abrupt retouch; 13–20 chisel like tools
1–20 chert
1–9, 20 Donja Branjevina; 10–12, 16–19 Blagotin; 13–15 Knjepi{te
Tabla XV – 1–12 oru|a sa strmoretu{iranim prelomom; 13–20 oru|a sa dletastim retu{em
1–20 ro`nac
1–9, 20 Dowa Brawevina; 10–12, 16–19 Blagotin; 13–15 Kwepi{te


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25

26 27 28 29 30

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate XVI – 1–3 geometric microliths/segments; 4–29 geometric microliths/trapezes;

30 geometric microliths/rectangle / 1–30 chert
1 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 2, 7–11 Blagotin; 3, 12–26 Donja Branjevina; 4 Knjepi{te; 5 Velesnica;
6 [alitrena pe}ina; 27–30 Popovi}a brdo
Tabla XVI – 1–3 geometrijski mikroliti/segmenti; 4–29 geometrijski mikroliti/trapezi;
30 geometrijski mikroliti/pravougaonik / 1–30 ro`nac
1 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 2, 7–11 Blagotin; 3, 12–26 Dowa Brawevina; 4 Kwepi{te; 5 Velesnica;
6 [alitrena pe}ina; 27–30 Popovi}a brdo

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10


12 13 14 15 16

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate XVII – 1–7 tools with notched retouch; 8–16 »splintered tools«
1–4, 6–13, 16 chert; 5, 14, 15 quartzite
1, 2, 8 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 3, 9–11 Knjepi{te; 4, 5, 12–15 Blagotin; 6 [alitrena pe}ina;
7, 16 Donja Branjevina
Tabla XVII – 1–7 oru|a sa jami~astim retu{em; 8–16 »oqu{tena oru|a«
1–4, 6–13, 16 ro`nac; 5, 14, 15 kvarcit
1, 2, 8 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 3, 9–11 Kwepi{te; 4, 5, 12–15 Blagotin; 6 [alitrena pe}ina;
7, 16 Dowa Brawevina


1 2 3 4

6 7

9 10

0 1 2 3 cm
11 13 12

Plate XVIII – 1–13 combined tools / 1–13 chert

1 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 2 Simi}a strana; 3 7, 12, 13 Popovi}a brdo; 4, 6, 8 Knjepi{te; 5 Toplik;
9 Velesnica; 10 Blagotin; 11 [alitrena pe}ina
Tabla XVIII – 1–13 kombinovana oru|a / 1–13 ro`nac
1 U{}e Kameni~kog potoka; 2 Simi}a strana; 3 7, 12, 13 Popovi}a brdo; 4, 6, 8 Kwepi{te;5 Toplik;
9 Velesnica; 10 Blagotin; 11 [alitrena pe}ina

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 cm


0 1 2 3 cm

0 1 2 3 cm

Plate XIX – 1–6 combined tools; 7–9 projectiles; 10 tranchets; 11, 12 »chopping tools«
1–12 chert
1 Simi}a strana; 3, 4, 9 Popovi}a brdo; 2, 5, 6 Donja Branjevina; 7 Ora{je; 8, 11, 12 Blagotin; 10 Lepenski Vir
Tabla XIX – 1–6 kombinovana oru|a; 7–9 projektili; 10 moti~ice; 11, 12 »chopping tools«
1–12 ro`nac
1 Simi}a strana; 3, 4, 9 Popovi}a brdo; 2, 5, 6 Dowa Brawevina; 7 Ora{je; 8, 11, 12 Blagotin; 10 Lepenski Vir