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Vung Ang No.

1 Thermal Power Plant 2X600MW Project BOILER TrainingOperation

content
1. 2. 3. 4. 5 5. 6. 7. 8 8. 9. Overview. Boiler cold start start-up up process. Various kinds of the boiler start-up curves. Valves operation in the various stages. The boiler shutdown shutdown. normal operation adjustment. combustion tuning. T Troubleshooting. bl h ti Operation control picture.

1. Overview
1.1 Boiler start-up division. 1.2 The ways of the boiler start-up and shutdown. 1 3 Security and efficiency in the boiler start-up 1.3 start up process

1.1 Boiler start-up division


Generally the sub-critical unit, according to the temperature of the high-pressure cylinder, boiler start-up is divided as follows: Tua bin cao ap p tm180. zCold boiler start-up: zWarm boiler start-uptm180-350 . zHot boiler start-uptm350 . zVery hot boiler starttm 450 It is also divided into different kinds according to the boiler downtime. zVery hot boiler start-up:t1h. zHot boiler start-up:t8h . zWarm boiler start-up: 8h t 72h. zCold boiler start-up:t72h Boiler cold start-up there is no pressure in the boiler and its temperature is close to the environment. environment Other kinds of the boiler start-up are similar to the cold boiler startup. There is pressure and temperature in the boiler. They can be considered as the cold boiler start-up with starting certain periods and before the point, the work can be omitted or simplified.
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1.2 The ways of the boiler start-up


It will be used by the method of the turbine-boiler united sliding parameter to start and stop. According to the turbine design, there are two kinds of ways to start the boiler: steam go into i t high hi h pressure and d medium di pressure cylinders li d at t the th same ti times. steam t go i into t medium pressure cylinder. The main valves of the turbine will be shut down before the ignition and certain time after the ignition. g However speed p steam valves are full open. p The steam that is supplied pp by the boiler through the high and low pressure bypass is sent into the condenser. The steam volume will controlled by the valves fixed on the bypass system. In the process of the turbine-in turn, speed up, warm and synchronization of maintaining the same basic parameters of steam, steam the redundant steam is sent to the condenser through the pressure bypass. When main steam valves is fully opening, close the bypass. The unit entered the sliding pressure operation. In the end the boiler arrives the rated parameters and the turbine achieves the rated power. U i the Using th sliding lidi pressure operation, ti it can heat h t the th turbine t bi by b the th low-voltage, l lt lowl temperature steam. It can reduce heat stress and start-up heat losses. At the same time the superheater and reheater cooling has been improved. It shorts the start-up time. It reduces heat loss.
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1.3 Security and efficiency in the start start-up up


Compared with the normal operation, due to the work pressure and temperature changes at any time, the boiler conditions is more complex. So th f the four areas th that t we should h ld notice ti i is as f follows: ll The temperature of the components and working substance change at any time. As heating can not be completely uniform and the various components p in different p parts of different temperatures, p , it will inevitably y produce thermal stress. In this period we must protect the drum, headers, pipes, valves, etc from damage. The water cycle is not normal. The water wall is heated relatively largely. In addition addition, working substance do not pass through some heat surface or the flow is partial and small in the short time. If the heat is too strong, parts of the water wall, superheater, reheater might exceed the temperature that is allowed to use. F small For ll amount of f flue fl input, i low l temperature, unstable bl combustion, b i it i need to prevent fire and explosion to prevent equipment from damage. Except heating the surface, there is some loss in the exhaust steam, drainage, and heat loss. In low load stage, the loss in the combustion is also large.
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2. Boiler cold start-up process


2.1 Start-bypass system. 2.2 Cold start-up pp procedures. 2.3 Necessity to control the rising speed of the temperature and pressure. 2.4 The preparatory work for cold start-up. 2.5 Ignition 2.6 Turbine rolling, raising speed, synchronization 2.7 Rising up to the specified load. 2.8 Raising load. 2.9 Attentions

2.1 Start-bypass system


start-bypass system is assembled by boiler steam and water emission system, and turbine I, II-bypass system. Start-bypass yp system: y It will be used when the p power units start and shutdown or have emergency. Its function is to balance the steam between the boiler and turbine, to coordinate with the boiler combustion, to protect and regulate the power unit. Boiler emission system: In the boiler, emission ports and valves are set on all the headers, for example superheater headers, reheater headers. Ports for other boiler steam flowing are set in the bottom water headers in addition. Turbine I, II-bypass yp system: y I-bypass is high pressure steam bypass and it matches the high pressure cylinder of the turbine. II-bypass is low pressure steam bypass and it matches the low pressure of the turbine. g, the steam flows into the condensers through g IBefore the turbine running, bypass system, reheater system, II-bypass system. This will regulate the volume of steam that flows into the turbine and protect the reheater system. Through opening the I-bypass system, it can improve the reheater temperature and cool the reheater system.
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2.1 Turbine I, II-bypass system


The steam supplied by the boiler will not pass through superheater system or turbine partly or completely. It will flow into the condensers passing through reducing temperature and pressure system system. It can coordinate the volume of the steam between the boiler and turbine. At the stage of starting, it can also coordinate the steam temperature between the boiler and metal temperature of the turbine. When Wh turbine bi running, i ensure certain i opening i of f I, I II II-bypass b system, so that the pressure and temperature of the steam will achieve or be close to the design, will decrease the stress and lifetime of the turbine and will reduce the start time.

2.1 Turbine I, II-bypass system


When the load changes greatly in the short time, the rate of the boiler is smaller than the rate of the turbine. The steam flows through the bypass systems so that it can increase stability of the boiler in the transitive systems, condition. It can recycle the working substance and decrease noise of putting out the steam. When the rate of the turbine is changing, it can stop the turbine with boiler running to use the bypass. When the power units only supply electricity for itself, it can reduce the cost because the boiler can be running without oil oil.

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2.2 Cold start-up p procedures p


The sequence of cold start-up includes: to complete the all preparation work before startup to fill up water to blow the furnace igniting and warming up turbine rolling starts and increase the turbine speed Electric Generator synchronization to shut down the bypass system, start to burn coal and i increase the th b boiler il load l db boiler il blowdown bl d t to operate. t

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2.2 Cold start-up pp procedures


The general procedure of boiler start-up (1) ( ) To ignite g and setup p the initial coal consumption, p , drain vales for each heating g surface should be controlled, which will be used to warming up and drain out all deposit water. (2) Before TBS system put into operation, steam generated by boiler should be exhausted by the exhaust valve at the secondary SH outlet header header, and water shall be drained by the water during ignition. The exhaust valve and drain valve will be close when the turbine bypass is in running, the steam flow will be adjusted by the turbine bypass at this time. In order to maintain the required temperature and pressure increasing rate rate, as well as to warm up the piping lines lines, the exhaust steam flow, drain and bypass flow should be controlled.

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2.2 Cold start-up pp procedures


(3) Attention should be paid to the water circulation, drum water level and t of drum wall during the startup. The water quality should also be inspected, and silica washing might be taken in order to get the required water and steam quality. (4) In case that the steam parameter meets the requirement, turbine will be started, and gradually increase the turbine speed, warming up and connect to the power grid id for f initial i iti l load. l d It is i the th time ti to t start t t the th coal l supply l system t and d increase i the th coal input gradually. (5) While the steam flow from boiler outlet is same as that of the turbine inlet, the p shall increase the coal flow rate. The unit will start to follow sliding g operator operation model to increase pressure, temperature and load, and get the BMCR load finally (or the required load).

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2.2 Cold start-up pp procedures


(6) While the boiler load is stable and furnace combustion is well, auxiliary oil system will be shutdown, and the combustion will wholly relay on coal. (7) The steam temperature at SH outlet should not be higher than the allowable maximum temperature of IP turbine inlet and not lower than that of allowable minimum. (8) It should try to increase the RH steam temperature since it is normally low during the startup startup. Before the completion of turbine rolling, rolling the RH steam temperature should not be higher than the allowable maximum temperature of MP turbine inlet, and not be lower than that of allowable minimum.

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2.2 Cold start-up pp procedures

After all required general preparation has been done, the boiler water will be filled up to the startup level, which is little lower than the normal water level. Oil ignition and furnace purge could not be taken until the auxiliary system parameter of neighboring boiler meet the start up requirements and isolated isolated. The boiler startup procedure normally includeswarming up boilerturbine rollingynchronization and load increasing

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2.3 Necessity to control the rising speed of the temperature and pressure
Must control the temperature and pressure rising speed,Because of: 1In the process of the boiler cold start-up, the boiler changes from cold to hot. There will be a lot of the stress in certain parts of the boiler and turbine, especially thick parts. So it is necessary to control the rising speed of the temperature and pressure pressure, especially temperature. 2If the temperature and pressure rising too quickly, the combust rate will increase. So at the beginning of the cold start-up, the condition is as follows: The flowing in the water wall is small and un-equality. un-equality The quantity of the steam in the superheater and reheater is still smal. The flowing in economizer is zero sometimes (stop water supply). So too high combust rate will cause too high temperature in certain parts of water wall, the big stress, also too high temperature in certain parts of the superheater, reheater and economizer. So it is necessary to control the rising speed. p
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The allowance Temperature increase rate

Allow w Saturation Temper rature Increase Rate e

Temperature increase oC

Initial temperature

Initial drum pressure Mpa

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The allowance Wall temperature difference During Operation

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19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0

Drum pressure rising curve The Curve Of Relationship Between Allowance Boiler Pressure and Time Cold Startup

Drum pressure MP Pa

Please work in the curve right side.

the curve is based on the allowance saturated temperature increasing ratio 111/h
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Time-minute

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2.4 The preparatory work for cold start-up


1) Examine and ensure all the systems have the start-up conditions. 2) ) If p possess the condition of the water supply, pp y start the water p pumps p and p pump p water into drum through the water supply bypass system. Monitor the water level when the drum has the lowest level. Pay attention to monitor temperature contrast between the upper drum wall and below drum wall, not exceeding 50. Check the water pressure gauge and remote water level gauge. gauge When the water level have reached -100mm, stop the supplying water and open the recycle valves of the economizers. 3) Eliminate the oxygen from the feed water by heating and chemical ways. 4) Air blow in the furnace has been completed.

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2.4 The preparatory work for cold start-up


5) All the meters is qualified, for example, flame meters. The power unit connect, MFT (main fuel trip), OFT (Oil fuel trip) and other protect set are qualified. 6) Before B f th b the boiler il i ignition, iti using i th the steam t supplied li d b by auxiliary ili boiler b il to t heat h t the water, so that it can reduce the start-up time and save the oil for starting. The parameters of the steam are about 350, 0.98MPa and flow is about 50t/h. It can raise the pressure to 0.49MPa. 7) After satisfying the ignition condition, close the beside boiler and ignite with oil. The process of the heating should be slow. The temperature rising speed of the drum wall should be less than 1.5 /min. The allowed temperature contrast between the betwee t e upper uppe drum d u wall wa and a d the t e lower owe drum d u wall wa is s according acco d g to d diagram ag a . 8) Prevent that steam temperature is too low and water flows into the heating pipe. 9) Start the air heater, and use hot wind recycle system to protect the air heater. 10) ) Regulate g the furnace air p pressure, ,p prepare p to ignite. g

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2 5 Ignition 2.5
Get the ignition picture of the FSSS from DCS, check the ignition condition. Remotely or on the spot ignite the burners by using oil oil. After ignition, monitor the water level and water quality. Start the systems of down medicating and sampling. Control the combust and ensure the the blow-off, furance outlet air temperature p is lower than 538 , the temperature p difference of the upper and lower drum wall is less than 50. Control the valves for drainage fixed on the heat surfaces to warm the pipes and drain the water. After all water has been drained, shut the valves timely to protect heat surfaces. But the valves for the drainage fixed on the superheater system can be closed late because they can low the pressure. Stop boiler water supply, start the recirculating system to protect the economizer. i Control the combustion rate and turbine bypass systems to regulate the steam flow. Thus it can control the speed of the steam pressure and temperature.
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2.6 Turbine rolling, raising speed, synchronization


Along with combustion rate increasing, the steam parameters achieve the parameters requested by the t bi (main turbine ( i Steam St temperature t t i is 340.the th pressure i is 5 5.88MPa. 88MP the th steam t flow fl is i 220t/h reheater h t Steam temperature is 300.the pressure is 1.01MPa). Before the turbine running, ensure the steam is qualified and the level protect system has been started. Control the steam temperature p and combustion rate and use the high g and low bypass yp systems y to control the steam parameters. If necessary, start the temperature reducing system and drain valves fixed on the superheater to control the steam. Pay attention to water level and pressure in the drum. After the turbine rolling, gradually turn off the valves fixed on the bypass systems. The steam will pass th through h th the t turbine. bi It can satisfy ti f th the t turbine bi running i and d primary i l load d( (about b t 5%) avoiding idi too t much h adjustment in combustion.

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2.6 Turbine rolling, raising speed, synchronization


When the power unit with primary load load, maintain the temperature and pressure of the steam. The turbine maintain the running speed and the generator is on synchronization. When the opening of the turbine valves is 90%, usually completely close the valves of the bypass. bypass After on synchronization, increase combustion and pressure in the drum according to P19 . Control the temperature rate of the main steam at about 0.73/min until it achieves desigh value 541. Control the temperature rate of the reheater steam at about 0.85 /min until it achieves specified value 541. After on synchronization, open the damper fixed at reheater side and then set it auto. Check the drain valves of the reheater have been closed. Make sure that the probe for measuring the wind temperature has been quitted.
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2.7 Rising up to the specified load


After the turbine has primary load, the steam completely flows into the turbine. Th f The furnace and dh hot t wind i dt temperature t h have b been raised i d hi high. h At thi this ti time, i ignite it the burners with coal gradually. Then regulate the boiler combustion. Power unit raise the temperature and load according g to the start-up p curve ( (rising g speed p of the temperature p is less than 1.5/min and the pressure less than 0.1MPa/min). However, load rate is mainly controlled by the turbine, not by the boiler, so load rise up to the target value according to the turbine request. In addition addition, steam temperature will achieve the specified value earlier than the steam pressure achieved. Steam pressure can achieve the specified value earlier than the load (depending on the opening of the turbine regulating valves). If the steam pressure achieves the specified earlier than the load, increase the opening of the turbine regulating valves and raise the coal. coal In condition of constant pressure pressure, raise the load to specified value.

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2.8 Raising load


During the load raising, start the primary air fan and make them auto run keep the pressure of primary air 4-6Kpa run. 4-6Kpa. z Start one mill, pay attention the drum water level and other parameters, and control the combustion. z Check the PC ignition ignition, furnace pressure. pressure And then reduce the oil properly. z Start the steam temperature control systems to avoid the temperature of the superheater p and reheater too high. g

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2.8 Raising load


zWhen rising to 10% BMCR, change the steam resource of AH sootblower by boiler self. zWhen rising to 15% BMCR, run steam temperature control system zWhen rising to 20% BMCR load, open the main water supply valves run the feedwater control system. Now water supply will according to mainsteam flow flow,drum drum water level and feedwater flow flow.before before this load control the drum level by feedwater bypass valve opening. z When rising to 40% BMER load, check the quality of water and steam. If not good, stop raising load and increase the opening of blowoff ff valve l and d eliminate li i t th the silicon ili until til the th quality lit of f the th steam t is i good. d

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0.9

The S Silicon n Cont tent Cu urve During Opera D ation

0.8

(ppm) Water Silica Conten nt

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2 .

0.1

0 8.00

10.00

12.00

14.00

16.00

18.00

20.00

22

Drum pressure MpaMPa

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2.8 Raising load


z When boiler load is more than 50%BMCR, start the boiler interlock systems and alarm systems. z When Wh the h fi first mill ill load l d achieves hi 60-70%BMCR, 60 70%BMCR start the h second. d z When the two mills load achieves 60-70%BMCR, start the third and reduce the oil guns gradually. z With boiler load rising, start the fourth and the fifth. zWhen the combustion is stable, we can stop all the oil guns. zWhen boiler load is more than70%BMCR, run sootblowing system and make the whole blowing.

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2.8 Raising load


zWhen superheater and reheater steam temperature is above 530, auto run the steam temperature control system and gas damper. damper z Base on the operating condition, BMS, CCS, and SCS will operate automatically. zAll the drain valves and vent air valves should be opened p before ignition. g zThe rising rate of temperature, pressure and boiler load must be strictly according to the start-up curves. zThe metal temperature difference between the upper and the lower of d drum should h ld not tb be more th than 50.

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2.9 Attentions
Maintain the water level at 0 +/- 100 mm Set the regulation of the coal and air fully auto or manual so that it can coordinate di t th the coal l with ith th the wind i d and d can avoid id the th detonation. d t ti Maintain the oxygen: 8-10 at the time of the ignition. Boiler water is qualified. When start the pulverized coal feeder, avoid temperature at the exports of the pulverized coal feeder too high (not more than 130 . Forbid to ignite the burner with beside burner. After coal on fire, pay attention to the pressure wave motion in the furnace, flame, and combustion stability. According to the load and start-up condition, increase the fuel and air. Regulate th secondary the d air i t to maintain i t i pressure contrast t t between b t th the windbox i db and d th the furnace is about 1.5Kpa. Timely start the reducing temperature systems to control the temperature.
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3. Various kinds of the boiler start-up curves


3.1 Boiler Cold Start-up curve

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3.2 Boiler Warm Start-up curve

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3. 3 Boiler Hot Start-up curve

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3. 4 Boiler Very Hot Start-up curve

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3.4 Valves operation in the various stages


Valves operation Valves B f Before start-up t t Air valves in the drum Steam sampling Water sampling Blow off = Blow down Water meters Water drain meters Medicating Economizer import header drain valves Open If necessary, open the valves If necessary, open the valves If necessary, open the valves Open Close If necessary, open the valves Close St t Start-up When 0.180.34MPa, close the valves If possible, open the valves If possible, open the valves If possible, open the valves Open Close If possible, open the valves Close O synchronization On h i ti Close If possible, open the valves If possible, open the valves If possible, open the valves Open Close If possible, open the valves Close

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3.4 Valves operation in the various stages


Economizer recycle y pipes pp Focus downcomer drain valves Ceiling import header drain valves Lower header at surrounding pipes p p and horizontal flue O Open Close Open Open When water supply, pp y close the valves Close When 0.180.34MPa, close the valves When 0.180.34MPa, close the valves Close Close

Close Close

Shield superheater import header drain valves Superheater import header drain valves Superheater export header drain valves

Open O Open Open

When 0.69MPa, turn down the valve When 0.69MPa, turn down the valve When 0.69MPa, turn down the valve

When 5%, close the valves When 5%, close the valves When 5%, close the valves 37

3.4 Valves operation in the various stages


Reheater import header d i valves drain l Reheater export header drain valves Shield Shi ld superheater h t export t header deflation valves Superheater export header deflation valves Reheater export header deflation valves Upper economizer header deflation valves Superheater connection pipes If necessary, open the h valves l If necessary, open the valves O Open Open If necessary, open the valves Close Open If necessary, open the valves If necessary, open the valves Wh 0.69MPa, When 0 69MP t turn d down the valve When 0.69MPa, turn down the valve If necessary, open the valves Close When 0.180.34MPa, close the valves Close Close When 5%, Wh 5% close l the valves When 5%, close the valves Close Close Close

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5. The boiler shutdown


The boiler shutdown is divided into two types: normal shutdown (planned examination or reserve) and accident shutdown. The latter is also divided into two types: MFT and urgent shutdown. shutdown The time of planned examination is long and it requests the boiler cools down. However the time of the reserve is short and the boiler maintains hot. All the planned examination, reserve or accident boiler shutdowns adopt variable parameter means. The boiler and turbine combines so that it can make the unit cool down fast. Variable parameter means usually includes the following steps: Preparation. decrease the load. Turbine slowing down. Stop the combust. decrease the pressure and cool down .

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5.1 Boiler operation in the shutdown


Preparation: blowing ash etc. Decrease the load: according to certain rate, for example: 1.5% MCR/min. The burners also decrease and at the time we can use oil to assist. With the fuel reducing, decrease the wind but the total of the wind not less than 30%. Turbine slowing g down: when turbine slowing g down, , start the bypass yp systems y and continue to decrease the boiler load. When the boiler load is about 5%, stop the combustion. Then we should control the p pressure and cooling g down speed. p The superheater p and reheater drain valves can be opened for some time.

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5.1 Boiler operation p in the shutdown


When the boiler cools down, finish the furnace blow. Then the boiler can be well ventilated with the nature. For the reserve boiler, after blowing, stop all the fan and close the damper. If urgent shutdown, after blowing, start the fan to cool down the boiler. If the smoke temperature is less than specified value(150 ), we can stop the air preheater. After Aft stopping t i the th water t supply, l start t t the th economizer i recycle l valves. l

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


Shutdown storage:

after shutdown, shutdown the chemical department can take related measures to reduce and avoid internal corrosion of the heating surface according to the duration and purpose of shutdown, and then carry out as required by chemical supervision. p Maintenance of the boiler is divided into wet storage and dry storage

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


Wet W t storage: t it shall h ll be b carried i d out t as follows f ll according di to t maintenance i t duration and maintenance requirements of each pressure part.

Maintenance period

Economizer, water wall Filled with

Superh eater

Main steam tube Reheater

Inlet/outlet steam pipe of the reheater

Short -term

Within one week

water+ nitrogen pressurization N2H4=200mg/l NH3=10mg/l

Filled with nitrogen

Filled with nitrogen

No treatment

No treatment

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


More than one week and d within ithi one month More than L ong term one month and within six months Filled with water+ nitrogen pressurization N2H4=300mg/l 300 /l NH3=10mg/l Filled with water+ nitrogen pressurization N2H4=700mg/l NH3=10mg/l Filled with water+ Above six months nitrogen pressurization N2H4=1000mg/l NH3=10mg/l Filled with nitrogen Filled Filled with nitrogen it with it nitrogen Filled with nitrogen it

Filled with nitrogen t oge

Filled with nitrogen

Filled with nitrogen t oge

Filled with nitrogen

Filled with nitrogen

Filled with nitrogen

Filled with nitrogen

Filled with nitrogen

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


.Operation methods for short-term maintenance: shutdown the boiler in normal way: after fire off, the chemical department shall add ammonia and diamine solution, tightly close the furnace, keep the air valve at the outlet of HT superheater open, and maintain natural circulation inside by residual heat when the temperature of boiler water drops below 180. and then close it when the temperature is lower than 150. The concentration of diamine solution in each part of the boiler shall be even even, diamine in boiler water shall be less than 200mg/L and PH value is about 10 as controlled by the chemical department. When the drum pressure is lower than 0.2MPa, still close each air valve, open nitrogen bypass relief valve, confirm that nitrogen pressure is above 0. 30MPa, then open nitrogen charge valves of the steam drum, the superheater and the main steam tube to fill nitrogen. Keep 0. 034Mpa nitrogen pressure in the steam drum and the superheater during 0.34 maintenance, see below.

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5.2 Boiler storage g after shutdown


Operation methods for long-term maintenance Shutdown the boiler in normal way. After fire-off, the chemical department shall add ammonia and diamine solution solution, tightly close the furnace furnace, keep the air valve at the outlet of HT superheater open, and maintain natural circulation inside by residual heat when the temperature of boiler water drops below 180. and then close it when the temperature is lower than 150. The concentration of diamine solution in each part of the boiler shall be even. When the drum pressure is lower than 0.2MPa, still close each air valve, open nitrogen bypass relief valve, confirm that nitrogen pressure is above 0. 30MPa, th open nitrogen then it charge h valves l of f the th steam t drum, d the th superheater h t and d th the main steam tube to fill nitrogen. Keep 0.034MPa nitrogen pressure in the steam drum and the superheater.

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


When the main steam temperature drops below 100, close nitrogen charge valves of the steam drum and the superheater, open Level I attemperating water valve, and slowly open the air valve of main steam tube to fill d i demineralized li d water in i the h superheater, h refer f to the h above b li list f for concentrations of diamine and ammonia. When water is overflowing from the air valve of main steam tube, then close it and Level I attemperating water valve, stop water filling. After the superheater and main steam tube are filled with water, still open the nitrogen charge valve to maintain 0.034MPa nitrogen pressure in the steam drum, the superheater and the main steam tube. When filling water in the superheater and the main steam tube, tube the difference of water temperature and wall temperature of the main steam tube shall be 50, pay attention to pressure of the superheater when filling water to avoid over pressure.

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5.2 Boiler after shutdown


Protection of the reheater a) When pressure of the reheater drops to 0. 20MPa, still close the air valve of it, open nitrogen it bypass b relief li f valve, l confirm fi that th t nitrogen it pressure is i above b 0.30MPa, and then open nitrogen charge valve of the reheater to fill nitrogen. b) When tube wall temperature of the reheater drops to 100, close nitrogen charge valve of the reheater, reheater open attemperating water valve of the reheater, reheater and slowly open air valve of the reheater to fill demineralized water in the reheater, refer to the above list for concentrations of diamine and nitrogen in water. cWhen water is overflowing from the air valve, close it to stop water filling. d) After confirming that the reheater is filled with water, still open its nitrogen charge valve to fill nitrogen, and maintain above 0.034MPa nitrogen pressure in the reheater system.

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


Precautions for wet maintenance Frequently check and ensure that nitrogen pressure in each system is above 0 034MP in 0.034MPa i maintenance. i t If the equipment has to be overhauled after shutdown, it only needs to discharge water in the overhaul part, which shall be filled with demineralized water ( (containing g ammonia and diamine) ) and nitrogen g after overhaul. As for short-term maintenance, test the water quality at the beginning. while for long-term maintenance, it needs to regularly test the water quality.

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


Dry maintenance In order to dry the reheater, DO NOT open HP/LP bypass, only open the air valve of HT reheater after shutdown of the turbine. shutdown the boiler after continuous running for one hour, control gas temperature at the outlet of furnace <540 when the boiler is running continuously. In addition, prevent other drain entering the reheater. After the boiler is dried and the reheater is running for one hour, hour shutdown the boiler in normal way, still keep HP/LP bypass close. When pressure of the reheater drops to 0.2MPa after shutdown, close the air valve of HT reheater, open nitrogen charge valve of the reheater to fill nitrogen, maintain nitrogen it pressure in i the th reheater h t system t above b 0.034MPa. 0 034MP After shutdown, when the drum pressure drops to 0.2MPa, still keep each air valve close, open the nitrogen bypass relief valve, open the nitrogen charge valves of the steam drum, , the superheater p and the main steam tube if the nitrogen g p pressure is above 0.30MPa.

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


After shutdown, when temperature of the boiler water is <150, enable water drainage of the hot boiler , open discharge valves of the boiler and the economizer. After water in the steam drum is discharged, g , open p the nitrogen g charge valve of the economizer if the nitrogen pressure is above 0.30MPa. After the water wall and economizer are emptied, immediately close discharge valves of the boiler and the economizer. M i t i nitrogen Maintain it pressure in i the th water t wall, ll the th economizer, i the th superheater h t and the main steam piping above .034MPa. If the boiler has been relieved and to be maintained, firstly vacuumize the boiler and the reheater system, y , and then fill nitrogen. g . Regularly test the purity of nitrogen in maintenance, open nitrogen bypass relief valve when it drops, and fill while discharging till its purity is acceptable. nitrogen pressure in each system during this process still must be not lower than 0 0.034MPa. 034MPa

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


Maintenance during overhaul or repair: If the boiler unit has to be overhauled after shutdown, wet or dry maintenance is unavailable, apply passivation before shutdown to form a passivation protection film on the inner surface of the tube wall, so as to t avoid id corrosion i of f boiler b il in i overhaul. h l Passivation P i ti operation ti is i shown h as follows: f ll Shutdown the boiler in normal way, still keep one water pump running. When temperature of the boiler water drops below 180, the chemical department shall add ammonia and diamine solution, control 300400mg/L diamine in boiler water and PH value about 10 50 k 10.50. keep th the di diamine i concentration, t ti ti tightly htl close l th the f furnace, k keep th the air i valve l at t th the outlet tl t of f HT superheater open, and maintain natural circulation inside by residual heat when the temperature of boiler water drops below 180. and then close it when the temperature is lower than 150. The concentration of diamine solution in each part of the boiler shall be even.

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5.2 Boiler storage after shutdown


When pressure of the steam drum drops to 0.78MPand 0.39MPa, carry out intermittent blowdown respectively for half a minute. K Keep 0.39MPa 0 39MP pressure of f the th steam t drum d for f about b t two t hours h i in convenience i for f forming a passivation protection film on the inner wall of tube. When the pressure drops to 0.2MPa, open all air valves, discharge valves and drain valves for water drainage g of the hot boiler . If the overhaul lasts for more than one month, on the basis to dry with surplus heat during water drainage of the hot boiler, bibulous silica gel shall be installed in the steam drum, lower water drum, economizer and superheater header.

53

6. normal operation adjustment


The boiler operation refers to the motion which is after the power unit start-up. In the power unit, the turbine and boiler combine together. The main work in the boiler running is to monitor and regulate the various parameters, to satisfy the demands that the turbine requests, and to make sure the boiler works safely . In the boiler running, kinds of the parameters are changing all the time. Constant is relative. Boiler running is a moving process. The boiler will be affected by various factors, factors so that the parameters will deviate the design. design The task in the running is to maintain the parameters changing in safe and economic areas. The running is divided into two types: auto regulate and man hand regulate. The power units adopt high auto regulate system and supply man hander regulate plans.

54

6.1 operation and control task


Make sure that the boiler parameters achieve the specified value and satisfy the turbine request. Maintain steam pressure and temperature the steady and normal normal. Make sure that the water and steam are qualified. Balance the water supply, and maintain the water level in the drum. Maintain the good combustion, reduce the heater loss, and improve the boiler efficiency. Timely regulate the boiler running, and make the boiler run in the safe and economic condition.In the boiler running, auto equipment will be used to monitor the parameters. If necessary, we can regulate the parameters by manual.

55

6.2 Monitor and adjustment contents


The main parameters in the boiler are as follows: primary steam pressure, primary steam temperature, reheater steam temperature, water level, furnace pressure, etc. I order In d t to ensure th the b boiler il runs safely f l and d economically, i ll various i parameters should be monitored and controlled. z Load z Steam pressure z Steam temperature z Water and steam quality z Boiler soot soot-blowing blowing z Water level and metal temperature in the drum z Metal temperature in the heater surface z Wet equipment q p operation p z Boiler running and prevention law z Coordination control, interlock and alarms z Combustion adjustment and furnace pressure
56

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.1. Adjustment of boiler load:
Load on and load down of the boiler can be realized through correspondingly increase or reduce fuel amount, load change rate when the boiler is loading on or loading down is shown as follows: Below 50%BMCR: 2%/min.. 2%/min 50%70%BMCR: 3%/min.. Above 70% BMCR: 5%/min.

57

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.2 Steam pressure
When the boiler runs at the constant pressure, we should maintain the primary steam pressure at various loads. If the steam pressure is too low, the heater loss of the power unit will grow. If the steam pressure is too high, it is dangerous to the boiler pressure parts. When boiler running normally, maintain the steam pressure waves at design value: 0.138 Mpa. Avoid big changes of the wind and coal coal. prevent pressure from waving severely.

58

6.3.3 Control of water level of the steam drum


During boiler operation, the normal drum water level will be at centre line of drum. The permitted fluctuate range of normal water level will be 100mm alarm and trip number as fellows( Setting relative to normal water level( mm))
Item above blow

LOW WATER ALARM BOILER TRIP LOW WATER LEVEL BOILER TRIP LOW WATER LEVEL HIGH WATER LEVEL ALARM +150

-150

Required

-230 Automatic after 20 sec time delay -280 280 AUTOMATIC Required Automatic (after 20 sec time duration) AUTOMATIC Optional
59

BOILER TRIP HIGH WATER LEVE +200 BOILER TRIP HIGH WATER LEVE +230 BOILER FEEDPUMP TRIP +762

6.3.3 Control of water level of the steam drum


Water level of the boiler shall be based on the indication of in-situ differential pressure water gauge of the steam drum drum. After overhaul and in special cases, cases use steam drum water level sampling tester to check the in-situ water gauge under rated steam pressure when it is running. At least two accurate in-situ water levels are put into use for monitoring the water level as the basis for adjustment in startup, shutdown and operation of the boiler boiler. Try to put feedwater adjustment in auto mode and still strengthen the monitoring of water level. Refer to the adjustment of steam and feedwater flow when the auto mode fails and it switches to the manual mode. DO NOT increase or reduce suddenly and avoid great change of the water level. Frequently pay attention to the feedwater pressure, if it influences water filling, contact the turbine department to increase the feedwater pressure or startup the standby pump. otherwise, the boiler must step down for running to ensure normal water supply. In normal operation, DO NOT use the emergency drain valve to adjust the water level, close the recirculation valve of economizer tightly to avoid water entering the steam drum because of short short. In normal operation, each shift shall check the indication of water gauge of steam drum 60 in the master control room and the in-situ water gauge, and shall wash the water gauge if it is inexplicit or the water level is dull.

6.3.3 Control of water level of the steam drum


Strengthen monitoring and adjustment of water level in the following cases: 1.Supply pressure and flow change greatly. 2.The safety valve is activated or returned and the boiler is blowing down. 3.The load is changing and the HT heater trips. 4.Startup/shutdown the feed pump, carry out impulse starting and synchronization when starting or stopping the boiler. 5.The feed pump and regulation device are out of service. 6 The emergency drain valve is opened or closed. 6.The closed 7.When switching the regulating valve control and rotation speed control of the feed pump, and two electric pumps. 8.Bearing gp parts are leaking. g 9.When opening or closing regulating valve and bypass valve of the turbine, as well as drain valves of the superheater and main steam tube. 10.When the combustion is instable or in flame blackout.
61

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.4 Steam pressure
Pay attention P tt ti to t mill ill system t and d eliminate li i t the th uncommon phenomenon, h f for example, out of coal, coal block. Especially note the steam pressure changes when the mill system is in uncommon condition, for example, start-up, shutdown ash removal shutdown, removal, blow off. off Pay attention to the steam pressure and timely regulate the pressure when the load changes.

62

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.4 Steam pressure

63

6.3 normal operation adjustment


1.The 1 The adjustment of main steam pressure in operation mainly depends on combustion combustion, it also can be realized through changing the evaporation of boiler or load of the unit. Outlet pressure of the superheater is controlled at 17.350.2 MPa.g, steam pressure of the reheater changes with the main steam pressure, its outlet pressure shall be controlled at 4.18MPa 4 18MPa or below in general. general 2.When the boiler is running at sliding parameters (the speed regulating valve of the turbine is fully opened, steam temperature is ensured at specified value, steam pressure and load for operation are adjusted through combustion of the boiler, this is called as operation at sliding parameters.), the steam pressure shall change stably and slowly. Control of steam parameters at each stage is shown below: Operation condition B-MCR 100%RO 75% RO 60% RO 45%RO 30% RO Main steam flow (t/h) 2028 1853 1315 1032 803 390 Main steam pressure (MPa)17.43 17.29 13.48 10.66 8.25 5.97

6.3.5 Adjustment of steam pressure and evaporation

64

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.5Adjustment of steam pressure and evaporation
3When the steam p pressure is under auto control, , still strengthen g monitoring g to avoid over modulation or under modulation. when switching the failed auto mode into manual mode, pay attention to the smoothness and lead of adjustment as well as the mix proportion of air and coal. 4When HT heater of the turbine fails and stops, avoid over pressure of the reheater and over temperature of the superheater. otherwise, properly reduce the load of boiler. 5Pay attention to check HP/LP bypass to avoid over pressure of loss of pressure of the reheater in normal operation. 6Avoid g great increase or reduction of air q quantity y and coal in operation p to avoid rapid p fluctuation of steam pressure.

65

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.5Adjustment of steam pressure and evaporation
7Strengthen monitoring the operation of pulverizing system, care about coal stoppage, t clog l of f coal l and d pulverized l i d coal l as well ll as other th cases, treat t t in i good d time ti for any abnormality. 8When the load changes, activation or deactivation of the pulverized coal feeder, HT bypass yp switch, , coal q quality y sudden change, g , auto control device failure, , blowdown, soot blowing, slaging beating, superheater drain and emergency drain switch is easy to bring about the changes of main steam pressure, so it shall be adjusted in good time. 9In order to ensure safe and economical operation of the boiler unit, unit apply constant pressure operation mode under high load (the mode keeping stable superheated steam pressure and controlling load of the unit by adjusting the opening of speedregulating steam valve is called as constant pressure operation), and apply operation at sliding parameters under low load. load when the load is lower than a certain value, recover constant pressure operation, i.e. the composite mode: constant pressure operation-operation at sliding parameters- constant pressure operation.
66

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
1.When the boiler is running normally, closely monitor and ensure that the temperatures of superheated steam and reheated steam of the boiler are acceptable (5414), alarm value +545, the temperature difference of them does not exceed 30, tube walls of the superheater and the reheater are not over temperature. 2.The temperature of superheated steam is controlled via changing water spray of the primary y attemperating p g water of the superheater. p The p primary y spray p y desuperheating p g and secondary acts as a master controller and can ensure no over temperature of the tube wall of plate superheater. the secondary spray desuperheating is put in when spray amount of the primary desuperheater is limited or the primary desuperheating amplitude is not satisfying, so as to ensure no over temperature of the tube wall of HT superheater. 3.The control of reheated steam temperature is mainly realized via changing the opening of flue gas damper, the reheated steam temperature is controlled through changing the amount of flue gas flowing along LT reheater side by adjusting the opening of damper. in emergency, the emergency spray desuperheater on the reheater inlet tube in the LT section can be employed for controlling the steam temperature at the inlet of reheater reheater, air input can be properly increased under low load as an assistant method for adjusting the reheated steam temperature.

67

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
4.Try to put the steam temperature in auto control, and closely monitor the changes of steam temperature. make full consideration to the retardation of steam temperature when the auto mode fails and then it switches to the manual mode, especially the reheated steam temperature shall have enough aiming off, the operation shall be stable, spray changes shall be even, and it must ensure that the steam temperature after desuperheating is not lower than the saturated temperature +11 under the pressure at any time. 5.regulating steam temperature via the flue gas damper, operate the damper in order, so as that the sum of opening of flue gas dampers on the superheater side and the reheater side is always more than 100%. 6.When the reheated steam temperature p is higher g than the specified p value, , the system y automatically opens the emergency spray valve. 7.Close the spray valve tightly when it is under low load, the turbine trips and MFT activiates. 8.Steam temperature shall be controlled strictly as specified and it shall be treated according to accident treatment specifications p if it is out of limit, , so as to ensure safety y of the equipment. q p

68

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
9.Strengthen steam temperature monitoring in the following cases: 9.1Combustion is instable or it goes out. 9.2The pulverizing system is started or stopped. 9.3The steam pressure changes greatly. 9.4The load or water level changes greatly. 9.5Air quantity and air distribution mode change. 9.6Fineness or quality of pulverized coal changes. 9.7It has severe slaging and soot deposit inside or is under soot blowing. 9 Feedwater pressure is 9.8 i instable i or its i temperature changes greatly (such ( as start/stop HT heater). 9.9Water seal at the bottom is damaged or the furnace and gas pass is leaking in quantity.

69

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
10. Adjustment when the temperature of superheated steam is too high: 10 1Properly increase the quantity of attemperating water. 10.1 water 10.2Properly reduce excess air ratio. 10.3Strengthen soot blowing of the water wall. 10.4If the steam temperature is rising abnormally because of slaging beating, ash removal and soot blowing, temporarily stop doing so. 10.5If steam temperature on one side or the wall temperature is rising abnormally because of excessive deviation of gas temperature, try to adjust it and eliminate the deviation deviation. 10.6Stop some burners or the pulverizing system if necessary to reduce furnace heat release rate. 10.7If the steam temperature is rising abnormally because that the attemperating water pipe is clogged, firstly try to reduce steam temperature, and then backwash the desuperheater. 10.8If the quantity of attemperating water is influenced by its pressure, properly increase the pressure and monitor water level of the steam drum at the same time time.
70

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
11. Adjustment when the temperature of superheated steam is too low: 11 1Properly reduce the quantity of attemperating water or parallel off the 11.1 desuperheater for a short time, temporarily open the operation desk of attemperating water for drainage if necessary. 11.2Properly increase excess air quantity. 11.3Strengthen soot blowing of the superheater. 11.4When the steam temperature drops to 480, immediately open LT superheater drain valve, care about the changes of salinity in boiler water and steam. lower the water level quickly if it is too high. 11.5If the steam pressure is high while its temperature is low, open PCV valve for pressure relief and improve the steam quality when superheat degree of steam is <150, 12.Check and close HP bypass tightly to avoid its leakage and overtemperature at the outlet of reheater while monitoring the temperature of reheated steam.

71

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
z Superheater steam temperature is regulated by ,attemperator systems. attemperator system roughly regulates the temperature. attemperator system finely regulates the temperature. attemperator system controls the temperature of the shield superheater not lower than the setting value (above the saturation temperature 28 , however it is a recommendable value). attemperator system controls the final temperature

72

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
zReheater steam temperature is regulated by damper which is set at the flue. We can turn up the opening of the damper to change the smoke flow which pass through the reheater system side. So the reheater steam temperature is regulated. As the superheater steam temperature, we can also start the attemperators which are installed i ll d on the h reheater h export pipes i to regulate l the h temperature. In I addition, ddi i changing the furnace wind is one of the assistance means.

73

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
The attemperator system includes the following parts: steam line, spray nozzle, Venturi mixing, thermal sleeve.

74

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.6 Control and adjustment of steam temperature:
Recommend Temperature

The Recommended Temperature Value And Alarm Value Of Main Steam After Spray Attemperation
Alarm Temperature p

Temper rature

75 Boiler Drum Work Pressure or RH Intel Pressure

Gas temperature damper

Reheater flue

Superheater flue Front surround wall centre Partition wall centre gas Rear surround wall centre damper

damper

sga

supporter
Supporter Support centre Drive device Linkage 76

400

Ash hooper

gas temperature damper


Advantages of the gas temperature damper:

) Because the temperature of the superheater and reheater is regulated ) ) )

conversely, reasonably coordinating with the load , so the range load of the control is wide. The reheater system has no middle header and is simple. It reduces resistance it and di improve the th recycle l efficiency. ffi i No effect on the combustion. Little effect on the smoke temperature at the exports of the economizer ( )so they have little effect on the efficiency.Installation convenient. running reliable. operation simple.

77

regulate steam temperature by damper

) heat transference patterns: ) ) )


z superheater superheater-radiation radiation as main transference z Reheater-convection as main transference Process of regulating steam temperature and superheater and reheater steam temperature feature along with the load: Load down reheater temperature down flow down through the reheaterreheater temperature up. Load down superheater temperature up flow up through the reheater flow down through the superheater superheater temperature down

78

Curve about gas temperature damper

79

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.7 Water and steam quality
In order to reduce the salt which is in the steam, we must control the quality of the water supply and purify the steam to satisfy the steam requirements. In order to monitor the q quality y of the supply pp y water, , boiler water and steam, , samplings and valves are installed on the supply pipes, ranked pipes, drum, steam pipes, superheater inlet header, reheater inlet and outlet header. The sampling for steam also has sampling head. Based on past experience of the actual operation operation, as long as control the quality of feed waterand boiler water to meet the requirements, steam quality will be in full compliance with standards and do not need to conduct regular sewage.

80

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.7 Water and steam quality If the quality of the boiler water is over the requirement, regular sewage can be
acted t d on th the condition diti th that t primary i steam t pressure i is l less th than 5 5.17MPa. 17MP M Monitor it the water level of the drum. The time lasts less than 30 seconds. In high load, avoid the regular sewage. In the following situation the regular sewage should be prohibited: Boiler anomalies (except high level) When sewage system is out of work When water pumps have failure or switch When the power plant load is increasing or decreasing

81

6.3 normal operation p adjustment j


6.3.7 Water and steam quality Steam Quality y Index during g Operation p
Content Conductibility through Cation Resin H+ at 25 Sio2 Fe+2/+3 Cu+2 Na+ Unit s/cm Ppb Ppb Ppb Ppb Value <0.3 <20 <20 <5 <10
82

6.3 normal operation p adjustment j


6.3.7 Water and steam quality Feedwater Quality Standard during Operation
PHat 25 Solved Oxygenug/L Feug/L Cuug/L g Total Hardnessumol/L Oilmg/L HydrazineN2H4ug/L Cation conductibilityus/cm 9.0-9.5* 7 20 5 0 0.3 1050 0.3 03
83

6.3 normal operation p adjustment j


6.3.7 Water and steam Boiler Waterquality Quality Standard during Operation
Content CLPhosphatePO4 T t lS Total Salt lt Hardness PH SiO2 ug/kg Unit mg/L mg/L mg/L /L umol/L 1 0.53 20 0 99.5 95 0.25

84

6.3 normal operation p adjustment j


6.3.8 Boiler blowdown
(1) Blowdown shall be carried out as required by and under the supervision of chemist. Regular blowdown shall try to be carried out under low load. (2) Before blowdown, completely check the system, confirm that the equipment is in good condition condition, each valve is at proper location and there is no factor influencing its blowdown. in addition, lighting on the site is sufficient, and only special wrench can be used when closing valves by hand as required. (3) In most cases cases, it only needs continuous blowdown blowdown. under special conditions conditions, when water deposit generates or the treatment effect is not good, high salinity may cause carryover, so the blowdown can be carried out in the lower part of water wall, details of which will be determined by the chemist through water quality test. test

85

6.3 normal operation p adjustment j


6.3.8 Boiler blowdown
(4) Operation methods for program-controlled blowdown in the lower part of water wall are shown as follows: 4.1 Sludge deposit in the lower part of water wall shall be discharged via intermittent blowdown at 24h interval in general. Properly raise the water level of steam drum then, fully open the intermittent blowdown main valve and primary i blowdown bl d valve l in i regular, l slowly l l open the th secondary d valve. l blowdown bl d of a single circulation loop must not exceed 30s. close the secondary valve, and then close the primary loop, close the intermittent blowdown main valve after blowdown of each loop. blowdown of two loops at the same time is not allowed. 4.2 Closely observe the change of silicon content in water during startup/shutdown and normal operation of the boiler, increase the blowdown capacity if it is out of standard, and load down till the water is qualified if necessary. (5) Adjust the continuous blowdown capacity according to chemical requirements for continuous blowdown of the boiler in operation.

86

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.8 Boiler blowdown
(6) ( )Q Quality y of steam and water of the boiler deteriorates or continuous blowdown capacity is insufficient or the continuous blowdown flash tank is failed and isolated, open electric adjustment angle valve from the continuous blowdown flash tank to the intermittent blowdown flash tank to increase continuous blowdown capacity, and close the valve in good time after troubleshooting or quality of steam and water is acceptable. (7) In blowdown, check whether the piping system and valve are clogged or leaking or not. completely check whether each blowdown valve is closed tightly or not after blowdown for half an hour hour. otherwise otherwise, close the main blowdown valve valve. (8) Blowdown is forbidden in the following cases: 8.1When the boiler fails (except when the water level is high). 8 2When the blowdown system fails 8.2When fails. 8.3When the feed pump is enabled/disenabled or is switching for failure. 8.4When the unit loads on or down.
87

6.3 normal operation adjustment


6.3.9 boiler soot-blowing
z Sootblowing g system y includes decompression p stops, p , soot blowing gp pipelines, p , their fixtures, guidance devices, soot-blowers, etc. In the boiler furnace, the level flue, the rear shaft, air pre-heater, etc. are installed with steam soot-blowers. z The steam of the soot-blowing comes from shield superheater, the steam parameter about 18 18.1Mpa 1Mpa435. z When the sootblowings are working, pay attention to changes of the primary steam temperature and pressure, furnace pressure. Ensure the steady combustion. z If sootblowers do not p promote a p position to the limit, , they y are p prohibited for back operation. z when the boiler load keeps stable at 70%BMCR, the boiler heating surface should be cleaned completely by sootblowing. Further cleaning during the normal operation will be depended on the actual ash deposit status status. The recommendation is to run the sootblowing system once 8 (eight) hours.

88

7. combustion tuning
7.1 purpose
stable combustion of the boiler is the key task for safe and economical operation of the unit. When it is burning normally, ignition distance of fuel is proper and it burns stably in the boiler, the flame shall not directly scour the water wall, and its i fullness f is i good, thermal load of f the furnace f shall be even, and temperature difference at the outlet of furnace and flue gas on both sides of each sections of gas pass must not exceed the design value l (not ( t exceeding di 20 in i general l if not t specified ifi d in i design), d i ) so as to t reduce heat loss due to incomplete combustion, improve operation economical efficiency of the boiler and ensure no over-temperature of the heating surface at each stage. stage

89

7.2 Key y factors influencing g combustion conditions


:
1 Features F t and d combustion b ti characteristics h t i ti of f coal: l 2 Air quantity required for complete combustion of fuel. 3. Reasonably organize the operation mode of burner. 4 Air quantity proportioning of the whole combustion system. 5 Maintain proper high furnace temperature, proper temperature of the primary p y and secondary y air. 6 Reasonably adjust the coal pulverizing system and keep qualified coal fineness.

90

7 3 combustion Systerm introduce 7.3


7.3.1 combustion systerm summary introduce
Ball B ll pulverizer l i i applied is li d in i this thi project, j t together t th with ith primary i air i (PA) direct firing system. This PC system has the character of simple structure, few equipments, low resistance of coal pipes, low electricity consumption, convenient maintenance, reliable operation etc. Under boiler rated load ( (BRL), ) it i can maintain i i a lower air/coal i / ratio i compared to medium i speed pulverizer and can achieve higher PC consistency as well. The system is equipped with six (6) ball pulverizers. And each pulverizer supplies PC for four burners. Each boiler is equipped q pp with twenty y four ( (24) ) concentrated HALF-PAX burners, which are located on boiler front arch and rear arch (twelve nos of burners are arranged on each arch).

91

7.3 combustion Systerm introduce


7.3.2 Primary air & vent air pipe
the PC-air first g go through g the eccentric reducer to be accelerated, most coal particles travel along the outer radius of the elbow due to centrifugal force, 50% PA and 10% 15% PC is extracted after the PC concentrated-device, and be transferred down to the vent air nozzle by the vent pipe to burn in the furnace. the minimum PA flow velocity at coal pipe should not be less than 18m/s.

92

7.3 combustion Systerm introduce


7.3.3 Primary air & vent air pipe
Twenty Twenty four (24) burners are designed for boiler rated load capability. The concentrated HALF-PAX burner is equipped with a cylindrical sliding damper has two SA zones with adjustable vanes located in each zone which can enhance the ignition. Two portions of SA pass through inner air zone and outer air zone separately, A small portion of the SA is admitted through the inner air zone and swirled to aid the ignition. The outer SA passes th through h the th outer t air i zone to t supply l the th required i d air for complete combustion.

93

7.3 combustion Systerm introduce


7.3.4 Sliding Air damper and air zone disk
Through control the openning of Sliding air damper,we can get different total air for different burner. Throngh control the openning of air zone disk,we can change the portion of inner SA and outter SA The recommend position: cylindrical damper opening:80% air zone disk opening :50%

"Cooling" g p position when the burner is out of service25% "Coal firing" position, which is the balanced position during operation50% "Light-off" position80%.

94

7.3 combustion Systerm introduce


7.3.5 Inner air & outer air vane control
The vortex strength of the inner SA can be changed by the opening of the adjustable vanes The maximum opening of the inner SA adjustable vane is 60, the minimum is 20 opening of the inner SA adjustable vane is 45 the maximum opening p g of the outer SA adjustable vane is 80, the minimum is 40, opening of the outer SA adjustable vane is 60
95

Pulling the sliding ring outward closes the vanes, and pushing the sliding ring inward opens the vanes.

7 3 6 Sliding air damper and air zone control 7.3.6

96

7.3 combustion Systerm introduce


7.3.7 Windbox and Secondary Air Control
Open windbox is adopted in this boiler, which are located above and below f front t arch h and d rear arch.Burner hB secondary d air i enters t th the upper windbox, i db and d staging air enters the lower windbox. The open windbox is designed to be able to adjust the air distribution for combustion optimization, and makes the burning secondary air matching with coal flow from thePC exhauster , the air flow amount of burner secondary air and staging air can be adjusted by the windbox inlet damper. To measure accurate flow amount, measuring device is needed to mount at the upstream of each damper. Burner secondary air p and staging g g air damper p can regulate g the air amount as well as the damper staging air . One boiler is equipped with twenty four Vent Air nozzles, with eight nozzles on front wall, 12 nozzles on rear wall, they are located below burners, and with 525mm horizontal offset to burners. The Vent Air pipe is equipped with pneumatic isolation valve, When some burner needs to be out of service, close the pneumatic isolation valves, when some burner needs to be in service, open the pneumatic isolation valve.
97

7.3.7 Windbox and Secondary Air Control


There are staging g g air p pipes p below each burner, , every y staging g g air p pipe p is equipped with electricdamper, which is split to two nozzles, each boiler has fourty eight (48) such nozzles, with twenty four (24) on front wall, twenty four (24) on rear wall. Staging air is extracted from bottom of windbox, and staging air nozzles enter furnace with a 20angle to horizontal. The electric damper has service position and cooling position, generally, it is on service position when the corresponding burner is in service, and it is on cooling position when the corresponding burner is out of service. the flame shape can be changed and the nozzle can be cooled by adjusting its opening. In virtue of the high designed velocity of staging air and reasonable angle enters furnace can benefits left up flame and control the flame shape, the staging air chiefly functions at the addition air for complete combustion and improving air/coal mixing. mixing

98

7.3.8 Burner design g figure(design g ( g coal, , RO Boiler Rated Condition


ITEM Primary y air temperature p Second air temperature Air temperature enter mill Primary i air i velocity l i (at ( nozzle) l ) Second air velocity (inner zone) Second air velocity (outer zone) Vent air velocity Staging air velocity Primar air ratio (at nozzle) Primary no le) Secondary air ratio Vent air ratio Staging air ratio Coal fineness R90 UNIT m/s / m/s m/s m/s m/s % % % % % VALUE 130 349.5 280 19 19.5 19.6 38.5 22.2 47.45 97 9.7 54.9 9.7 24.19 4
99

7.4 Combustion tuning

1.Try to put into related auto burning device in CCS, such as induced draft fan, forced draft fan, primary air, secondary fan and fuel control devices are put into auto operation. in addition, strengthen the monitor of combustion, switch into manual control in good time if the auto mode fails, and contact thermal personnel for t t treatment. t 2. In normal operation of the boiler, load-on and load-down rate of the unit shall be adjusted according to load change rate specified. pay attention to keeping normal medium di temperature in i the h process. When Wh l loading di on, firstly fi l increase i the h air i quantity, and then the fuel amount. whereas, firstly reduce fuel amount and then the air quantity.

100

7.4 Combustion tuning


3. Observe the flame profile in the boiler when it is running. the flame shall be bright golden yellow, and evenly fill in the furnace if it is normal. Maintain good combustion and fullness inside when adjusting, adjusting thermal load on both sides are close to each other, temperature of flue gas on both sides of the heating surface of each section is also close. Adjusting secondary air damper, off-gas damper of burner and regulating lever/blade in the wind box can realize satisfying burning flame, flame vertical regulation of regulating lever/blade of the burner can change the shape of coal flow at the outlet of nozzles. when the regulating lever/blade retracts, the coal flow diffuses. when the regulating lever/blade extends, the coal flow contracts. Together with other dampers, it can adjust the position of flame in the furnace and flame profile to avoid unfavorable flame scouring. The ignition point close to furnace arch cannot be too high to avoid damage to burner nozzles because of overheating. Flame shall penetrate through the lower part of the furnace, and then turn upwards f from the th center. t F Frequently tl check h k th the operation ti of f each hb burner i in operation ti to ensure its stable ignition.

101

7.4 Combustion tuning


4. Adjust induced draft and forced draft quantity, maintain furnace pressure between -20-50Pa, furnace pressure alarm value at 980Pa, furnace pressure protection value at 1960Pa (no delay). delay) adjust the secondary air quantity to ensure 1.5kPa wind box/furnace pressure as required, increase fuel amount and air quantity according to the load. 5. Oxygen content in flue gas shall be kept within 36%, so as to avoid slaging, incomplete combustion and secondary burning of rear gaspass arising from oxygen deficiency, as well as avoid instable burning, exhaust power consumption p increase of fan because of excessive oxygen yg loss and p content. The changes of air quantity and oxygen content in flue gas shall be closed monitored in operation, air quantity must not be less than 25% at any time.

102

7.4 Combustion tuning


6. Regularly check the combustion of boiler, adjust and maintain proper air/coal ratio to reach good burning condition. An ideal operation condition diti is i that th t the th number b of f burners b put t into i t operation ti satisfies ti fi load l d requirement of the boiler. When it loads down to lower than the minimum stable output of burner, stop some burners and pulverized coal feeders, and ensure the concentration of other service burners. The distribution of thermal load on furnace section shall be kept even when stopping burners. 7. If it does not burn stably arising from abnormal operation or the quality of fuel, it is preferable to put into some or all ignition oil guns of the coal burner. 8. Coal fineness shall be satisfying, convey speed in pulverized coal pipe must be more than 18m/s.

103

7.4 Combustion tuning


9. When the quality of coal becomes bad, properly adjust the off-gas damper, reduce the speed at the outlet of coal nozzle, improve the coal concentration of flow at the outlet of coal nozzle nozzle. in addition, addition properly adjust the anti-vortex blade and increase the intensity of vortex at the outlet of the primary air coal nozzle, which are helpful for coal ignition and stable combustion. Feed oil in good time to support combustion and avoid it loss of ignition when it still burns unstably after adjustment. adjustment 10. In normal operation of the boiler, frequently check air leak of the proper gas p pass, , check the tightness g of each p part. each valve and hole shall be and g closed tightly, and the bottom ash hopper shall be sealed well.

104

7.5 The burner trouble shooting and the recommended solution


TROUBLE PROBABLE CAUSE 1Abnormality of lighter flame. 2Lean coal-air mixture to burner. 3Inadequate burner swirl or high transition zone air flow 4Low temperature of PA and SA. CORRECTION 1To adjust the flame configuration or position. 2.To increase coal-air ratio 3 Check/reset inner/outer vane and /or inner transition zone damper setting. 4To increase the temperature of SA and PA. Leave igniters in service until furnace and secondary air temperature are sufficient based on experience 1To increase the PC flow for higher burner heat input. 2Check PC feeders and PC supply. 3NO soot blowing to the burner area when the boiler load is lower than 50% BRL. 105

Ignition difficulty

Flame failure after startup

Igniters removed too early 1The Th boiler b il operating ti load l d is i below design minimum firing rate. 2 Interrupted PC feeding to b burner. 3Flame failed by soot blowing

Flame failure during the normal operation ti

7.5 The burner trouble shooting and the recommended solution


TROUBLE Uneven Flame Slag build-up on burner thtoat Sparklers in the furnace Ignition far away from the burner nozzle PROBABLE CAUSE Poor secondary air distribution Flame impinging on burner throat Pulverized coal to coarse CORRECTION To check air damper and vanes, Increase opening of outer spin vane.

To adjust the pulverizer classifier To reduce the opening of inner/outer vanes, and re-calibrate the PA flow rate 1Refers to the PC Feeder Manual 2Check primary air flow and pc temperature. 3To increase the induced draft of furnace 106

Higher SA or PA velocity 1Poor PC feeding 2Unstable ignition at nozzle 3 Poor furnace draft control

Furnace pressure fluctuation

7.6 Oxygen control


The Curve About Economizer Outlet Oxygen Content And Boiler Load (Design Coal)

107

8 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting principle When accident happening, the captain should be under the unified leadership in d t l d inaccordance duty-leader i d with ith the th provisions ii of f this thi regulation, l ti promptly tl take t k all possible measures to lift the accident on the threat to the security of persons and equipment, correct handling of accidents to prevent the accident further. Uuder ensuring the premise of personal and equipment safety, should make every effort toquickly restorehe normal run quickly, with meeting the system load requires. After treated a accident, operating personnel should faithfully record the time of the accident happened, the phenomenon and the measures taken. And keep the printing p g records, recording g curves etc. in a saft p place for the accident analysis y If the accident occurred at shift changes, the treatment should be completed by current shift, then proceeding shift change.
108

8.1 lost flame


1.Phenomena:
MFT action, primary fan as well as the following auxiliary euipment tripped, the power of the powder feeder and powder feeder tripped, oil tripped valve and oil angle valve closed, and accompanied with sound and light alarms. Negtive pressure indications of furance increases rapidly . Dark in boiler, can not see flames from the watching fire hole, fire inspection lights all out, no flame display on CRT screen. Drum water level increased after the instantaneous drop, p steam temperature, p steam pressure drop. As a result of burst pipes caused by fire, the watching fire hole and the other part could has emitted flue gas and steam, the water level continued to decline (Reheater tube exceptions) exceptions).

109

8.1 lost flame


2.Reasons:
The negative pressure in furance pressure is too high. The automatic process procedure unnormal when occurs the process exception RB. C lb Coal badly dl or coal l kind ki d mutations, t ti combustion b ti deterioration. d t i ti The heated surface in furance serious blow off. Long-term low load running, the furance temperature low caused due to the surplus air volume overlage When Low-load operating, the adjustment operation improper, oil is not stable combustion. Fuel oil System Failure, such as poor fuel atomization, oil mixed with water, fuel pressure loss, etc.. Boiler soot blowing, g, slag g removal operation p without p prior contact or improper p p operation. p Bottom seal has been damaged to a lot of moisture or cold air leakage into the furance. The primary and secondary air imbalance. Fineness of PCis too thick. C b ti control Combustion t lf failure il or protection t ti device d i malfunction. lf ti When the load lower, gas shutter opening is too large.

110

8.1 lost flame


3 Treatment:
Sure to check MFT action when fire have been extingished, or immediate manual MFT immediate, strictly prohibited to restore burning using Knock method. All the unit control way y shoula be switched to manual for the boiler. report p duty leader to call for reducting unit load rapidly. Manually maintain the normal level in the drum, confirme the warm water withdrawn. After extingished causes identified, try to remove and make purging. MFT reversion, then re-igniting in according with the requirement of the hot state to restore the normal operation. If the fire of unknown cause or a short period of time is difficult to remove, regard as hot standby shutdown for processing.
111

8.2 drum excess water


1.Phenomena:
g alarm signal, g , indicatiing g at high g water level of the water. The water level high Water flow unnormally greater than the steam flow. When full water Seriously, the main steam temperature decline sharply in the main steam temperature, p , occurring g water impact p in main steam pipe ,flange joints to take out white steam. When water level protection put into, the emergency drainage gates open automatically. When the water level high to three values, MFT action.

112

8.2 drum excess water


2.Reasons:
Steam turbine gate gate, high-pressure high pressure bypass gate open too fast fast, too big big, or safety seat gate opened, so that the pressure drop of drum too fast, resulting in rapid vaporization of boiler water to form a false water level. Water Pump Automatic failure or governor of water supply pump working abnormal to make water flow is much greater than the steam flow. Working conditions change too much, do not adjust in time. G Gauge indication i di ti is i not t correct, t so that th t operating ti personnel l incorrect i t judge. j d Lax monitoring of the water level, adjust the improper or misoperation.

113

3 Treatment: 3.Treatment:

8.2 drum excess water

If the water level instruction is incorrect, contact maintenance or thermal personnel for handling rapidly. q surveillance, , when drum water level more than three values but the MFT If inadequate is not action, should contrasting with the water level gauge, after identified as full of water, immediately MFT manually for handling. After manual MFT , the water level control change to manual immediately, to reduce water volume. At the same time , proofread the water level.open the the accident Drainage door after identifiing as drum excess water . Where is the water supply pump governor failure, manual can not reduce water flowrate, should stop the fault pumps and start standby pump with linkage or manual operating to control water flowrate. flowrate If the water level continues to rise to three values, MFT should be action, or else manually MFT. After e MFT, , check c ec reducted educ ed warm w waterthat w e has s been bee automatically uo c y closed, c osed, or o or o else e se manually shut down, at the same time open the superheateroutlet steam trap. Identify and eliminate causes of failures. After the drum water level up to normal water level, ready for re-igniting. If causes of fd drum excess water t unknown k or can not tb be eliminated, li i t d it b be regard d as h hot t standby shutdown for processing.
114

8.3 Lack of water


1.Phenomena:
Water level low signal alarm, alarm indication of water level indicator be in the lower level. Water flow is less than the steam flow (in the case of water levels caused by water wall tube or economizer tube rupture, rupture this phenomenon is the opposite). When a serious water shortage, the overheated steam temperature rise, superheaterwalltemperature rise and over over-temperature. temperature The water level as low as three values, MFT action.

115

8.3 Lack of water


2.Reason:
Feed water automatically failure. Feed water motor-operated valve errors. Feed water pressure low, feed water flow rate inadequate or water system severe leakage caused by water supply pump or water supply system failur. failur A serious leak of sewage gate strictly. Accident release valve misopen or serious leak. Drum safety valve can not to return to valve seat for a long time after it take takeoff. Water cooling wall, economizer piping severe leakage. Unit load reduced sharply to result in vapor pressure escalating sharply, resulting l i in i short-term h l low-level l l false. f l Water level indication is not correct, so that operating personnel having a incorrect diagnosis. Lax monitoring of the water level, level improper adjustment, adjustment or misoperating. misoperating
116

3 Treatment: 3.Treatment:

8.3 Lack of water

If the water level instruction is incorrect, contact maintenance or thermal personnel for handling rapidly g the water level gauge g g and confirming g the water level lower, , After Proofreading the water level control immediately is chang to manual , increasing the water volume. Where is the water supply pump governor failure, manual can not increase water flowrate, flowrate should stop the fault pumps, pumps should start standby pumpr pumpr, and stop failed pump as necessary. Less combustion, appropriate to reduce the load, but load can not reduce too fast to avoid pressure increases, causing a false low level, resulting in MFT. Immediate stop the periodic discharge and continuous discharge. Check water supply, sewage systems and the emergency drain valve position is correct, whether the leak. If water ater a automatic tomatic fail failure re ca caused sed b by flo flow fl fluctuation ct ation of temperat temperature re red reduced ced water, should be out of temperature reduced water and feedwater automatically , by mannul to maintain drum level.
117

8.3 Lack of water


If the drum water level continues to drop to three values, MFT should be action, else or manually y MFT. After MFT, may continue to increase to the amount of water until the water level back to normal, water shortage to be identified and eliminated, can ready for re-igniting. WIf causes of f water t shortage h t unknown k or can not tb be eliminated, li i t d it b be regard d as hot standby shutdown for processing. If operating staff negligence, not found in the process of water level reducting, the water level have reached the three values when found, , should make an emergency shutdown. Not allow to the unauthorized water after shutdown . it be regard as hot standby shutdown for processing.. And reporting to duty leader. re-water supply and starting boiler is decied by the Chief Engineer.

118

8.4 water wall priming


1.Phenomena:
Water Level Indicator occur dramatic fluctuations dramatically in water level. level Seriously, Seriously can not see the water level. Main steam temperature is dropped rapidly S i l steam Seriously, t pipe, i water t hammer h occurs in i steam t pipe, i flange fl run out t steam. t Salinity in saturated steam and boiler water increases.

2.Reason:
Boiler water quality is poor, excessive suspended solids, or salt, containing oil. Failing to excessive sewage or chemical dosing too much. L d surge, steam Load t pressure d dropped d significantly i ifi tl .

119

8.4 water wall priming


3.Treatment:
Appropriate pp p to reduce the boiler load, , and maintain stability. y Turn the automatic feedewater to manual, appropriate to reduce the water level, while strengthening to wash control for the water level meter . Fully y open p with row of g gates and door accident drainage g g gate, , and enhance to feedwater, to improve the boiler water quality and to preventwater level too low. Control of steam temperature will be changed from automatic to manual. reduce the volume of temperature reducture water until the splitting desuperheater. Try to maintain steam temperature normal. Stop dose into boiler, and strengthen the boiler water sampling and analysis, timely give A guidance for sewage and drainage work timely timely. Before the boiler water quality improving, not allowed to increase the load. Fault elimination, , should be back to normal operation p .
120

8.5 Water wall damage


1.Phenomena:
furance pressure increase or positive positive, the combustion instability instability, severely severely, boiler extinguished, MFT action , and having abnormal sound from boiler. flue gas were emitted from the unsealing places of boiler. Water flowrate abnormal, abnormal greater than the steam flowrate flowrate. Wicket Fan abnormal, current increase. furance temperature and flue gas temperature decreases

121

8.5 Water wall damage


2.Reasons:
Water supply, boiler water quality failure, improper boilerwater so that the i inner wall ll scaling, li corrosion. i Combustor, soot blower installed improperly, causing water wall tube is worn, blowing loss. Improper installation of water cooling wall tubes, tubes maintenance techniques poor, materials failure, welding quality problem. Combustion unreasonable, long-term low-load run, local severe slaging in boiler , steam pressure dropped drastically, the water level is too low and d regular l sewage leaking l ki out t a lot l t of f excessive i etc. t result lt in i poor water t circulation.

122

8.5 Water wall damage


The pipe was blocked by foreign objects when maintenace so that poor water flow, local lack of cooling as overheating. Pipes were in high temperature zone,hapenning high temperature corrosion or the uneven distribution of the heat load so that cause the pipe wallsevere over-temperature in a long term term. Boiler severe water shortage, suddenly a lot of water entering into. A large slaging falled smash the ash bucket or water ccoling wall Improper operation, so that uneven heated or boiler running with superpressure . Happening explosion in boiler, damage to water wall tube. Neighboring pressure pipe leakage, damage to water wall tube

.
123

8.5 Water wall damage


3.Treatment
Reporting to duty leader,the operation mode will be turn to the boiler manual mode.When leakage is not serious, manually increased the water supply flowrate to maintain the normal water level. Simultaneously, less burning. As necessary, puting into fuel oil to stabilize burning. And reducing load to maintain run in short time, then shutdown. Strengthen to examinate the damaged parts parts, cattention to its development closely closely, Make preparations and take safety measures to prevent the accident further enlarge. If a serious leak, unable to maintain normal operation, should press MFT in hand to emergency shutdown. Keep a inducted i draft f fan f operation, i maintain i i the negative pressure infurance.stop the run after exhausting steam within the boiler. After boiler shutdown, should be shut down the recirculation valve on coal economizer when water entering . As far as possible maintain water level.Should can not maintain the water level, should stop water entering. Other operations after boiler shutdown are same as the normal shutdown operations.

124

8.6 Economizer tube damage


1.Phenomena:
Water supply flowrate is abnormally greater than the steam flow flow, drum level decline in severe or even difficult to maintain. The negative pressure in furance and the stack is smaller or positive pressure. Th induced The i d d shaft h ft f fan guide id vane opening i l large, a current ti increase. Economizer has abnormalsound nearby, spray steam outside at the unsealing locations. Temperature difference increase on both sides of Economizer,the flue gas temperature damaged side , exhaust gas temperature as well as primary and secondary air temperature of the air pre-outlet ofthe side decreased. Serious, economizer ash bucket overflow occurs.

125

8.6 Economizer tube damage


2.Reasons:
Water quality failed so that pipe wall corrosion. Water suplly flowrate, temperature changes too large and too frequent so that metal fatigue damage. Pipe material Unqualified, poor welding quality , poor installation and maintenance techniques. Fly ash abrasion or Economizer recombustion occured. In startup and shutdown process , not open water recirculation valve when stop water entering. Neighboring pressure pipe leakage, loss of economizer tube blowing.

126

8.6 Economizer tube damage


3.Treatment:
When Leakage is not serious, the water supply control mode turn from automatic to manual, then increasethe amount of the water , and stop all sewage and drainage work to maintain the water level. Simultaneously, by reducing the unit load maintain short run, and apply for shutdown. Strengthen to examine damaged parts, close attention to its developping closely, Make preparations and take safety measures to prevent the accident further enlarge. If a serious leak, unable to maintain normal operation, should press MFT in hand to emergency shutdown. Keep a inducted draft fan operation, maintain the negative pressure infurance.stop the run after exhausting steam within the stack. Th d The drum l level l Sh Should ld b be maintained i i d after f the h shutdown h d . close l all ll the h sewage , water discharge gates and economizer recirculation gata. If unable to maintain the water level, should stop the water entering. Contact Co tact Auxiliary u a y equ equipment p e t atte attendant, da t, stop ESP S run.the u .t e as ash w within t t the e eco economizer, o e , air preheater and ESP hopper exhausted . Other operations after boiler shutdown are same as the normal shutdown operations.
127

8.7 superheater tube damage


1 Phenomena:
Overheated steam pressure and flowrate decreased, water flow is abnormally greater t than th th the steam t fl flow. The pressure in furance and the stack increased or positive pressure.When a serious explosion the upper furance superheater tube will cause a combustion instability y and even extinguished. g There is abnormal sound at the locations defected and spray steam outside at the unsealing locations.. Drum water level rose instantaneous and then drop down. Overheated steam temperature varies with the leakage area. And when high t temperature t section ti d damaged, d steam t t temperature t d decline. li When Wh l low temperature section damaged, steam temperature rise. The temperature difference at both sides behind superheaterincrease ,the gas temperature p on one side damaged g decline . The openning of guide vane angle of the induced draft fan large, a current increase.

128

8.7 superheater tube damage


2.Reasons
Steam quality long-term failure long-term so that scaling or corrosion inside the pipe wall. Pipe material Unqualified, poor welding quality , poor installation and maintenance techniques, exsiting foreign body within pipes pipes Hydrophobicity not sufficient before starting,or low temperature water control improper when low load resulting in the pipe plugs to cause overheating. The structure of superheateris irrational, so that uneven distribution of steam, or steam t flow fl rate t is i too t low l to t make k wall ll cooling li poor. Combustion adjusting improper , the flame deflection or move up, or water cooling wall serious slaging so that the flue gas temperature entered into the superheaterarea is too high.

129

8.7 superheater tube damage


PC is too thick and oil spray gun poor to lead to secondary combustion. Start-stop mode is not correct, the parameters up/down speedof steam is too fast, so that excessive temperature difference inside and outside wall. wall Flying ash serious wear and tear, or the installation of sootblowers improper, blowing worn seriously. W Water supply l temperature is i too low, l causing i instability i bili of f superheated h d steam temperature or long-term over-temperature lead to alternating or overranging of wall temperature. Running in a long time, creeping inflation pipes. Superheater overpressure or blowing loss leaked out by Neighboring pipe under pressure. Water feeding is too high after the shutdown, water entering into the overheater, so that sudden change in wall temperature.
130

8.7 superheater tube damage


3.Treatment:
Immediately reporting to duty leader,the operation mode will be turn to the boiler manual l mode d when h l leakage k i is not t serious. i And A d reducing d i l load dt to maintain i t i run in short time, then shutdown. Strengthen to examinate the damaged parts, attention to its development closely. controlling g the wall temperature, p , in p particular the wall temperature p ofthe p pipe p explosion section and the back of the superheaterto prevent the accident further enlarge. If a serious leak, unable to maintain normal operation, should press MFT in hand to emergency shutdown. shutdown Keep a inducted draft fan operation operation, maintain the negative pressure infurance.stop the run after exhausting steam within the stack. Try to maintain the drum water level after the shutdown and close the drain valve, release l valve. l The Th economizer i recirculation i l i valve l should h ld be b opened d when h stop of water entering. Other operations after boiler shutdown are same as the normal shutdown operations.
131

8.8 Reheater tube damage


1.Phenomena:
The negative pressure in furance and the stack is smaller or positive pressure.in severe cases, spray steam outside at the unsealing locations. Reheater serious blow will cause combustion instability even extinguishing fire, MFT action. Reheated steam flow and outlet steam pressure drop, main steam flow rate i increased. d Reheater near have abnormal sound. The induced shaft fan guide vane opening large, a current increase.. Reheated steam temperature varies with the damaged locations.The locations The steam temperature of the damaged high-temperature section decrease , The steam temperature of the damaged low-temperature section rise,and wall temperature increased. Fuel gas temperature on both sides increases, the flue gas temperature on damaged side decreased.

132

8.8 Reheater tube damage


2R 2.Reasons :
Pipe material unqualified, poor welding quality, poor installation and maintenance techniques. Hydrophobicity not sufficient before starting,or starting or low temperature water control improper to result in the pipe plugs under low load high and low pressure bypass is not used properly in boiler start and stop, and safety valve etc. procedures so that cause reheater cooling inadequate or dry. Bypass system malfunction or high-pressure bypass leakage, so that the overtemperature and overpressure in the inlet of reheater. Flying ash and blowing badly worn or wear and high temperature corrosion occuring . Reheater structure is irrational so that the steam unevenly distributed ,or u flow rate is too low so that the wall cooling poor. Reheater secongdary g y combustion took p place. Reheated steam temperature instability or long-term over-temperature lead to alternating or overranging of wall temperature. Running in a long time, creeping inflation pipes. Bl i loss Blowing l leaked l k d out by b Neighboring N i hb i pipe i under d pressure.
133

8.8 Reheater tube damage


3.Treatment:
Immediately reporting to duty leader,the operation mode will be turn to the b il manual boiler l mode d when h leakage l k is i not t serious. i And A d reducing d i load l d to t maintain run in short time, then shutdown. Strengthen to examinate the damaged parts, attention to its development closely controlling the wall temperature, closely. temperature in particular the wall temperature ofthe pipe explosion section and the back of the superheaterto prevent the accident further enlarge. If a serious leak, , unable to maintain normal operation, p , should p press MFT in hand to emergency shutdown. Keep a inducted draft fan operation, maintain the negative pressure infurance.stop the run after exhausting remaining steam . Other operations after boiler shutdown are same as the normal shutdown operations.
134

8.9 safety valve fault


1.Phenomena:
When boiler steam pressure to reach or exceed the take-off pressure of relief valve, safety valve refuse to action. Boiler steam pressure does not reach the off pressure of the security gate, safety valve take-off in ahead. After security gates off, off the steam pressure has dropped below the pressure on his back seat. But ecurity gate is still not back seat or back seat is not tight. 2. Reasons: process, , check is not accurate. Poor installation and maintenance p The components of the safety valve deforme to jam, such as the to spring failure to be ON /OFF blocked, inflexible action : Valve core and valve seat stuck with each other or other parts of rust due to longt term closure,. l Frequently ON /OFF sothat sealing surface damaged by erosion.

135

8.9 safety valve fault


3. Treatment:
When the steam pressure reach the take-off pressure of the safety valve (including EBV valve) but refuse to move , the EBV valveof the should open , and appropriate reducc the heat load. After safety valve take- off,if the steam pressure has dropped below the back seat pressur still not back seat , should take measures to spot check. Wh the When th pressure overranging, i all ll the th security it gates t refused f d to t move without ith t pressure relief means, should immediately stop boiler runing. When one or several of security gates malfunction, the evaporation of boiler should be controlled within the exhaust steam volume of normal safety valve . After safety valve take-off, the steam pressure has dropped to below pressure on his back seat. still not back seat by taken the various measures and when steam temperature, steam pressure, water levels etc.can be sustained, should be immediately shutdown . Should make the re-calibration for the abnormal security gates as necessary.

136

8.10 reburning in rear gas duct


1. Phenomena: Flue gas temperature, hot air temperature and steam temperature areabnormally rose sharply, the oxygen contents in the flue gas are abnormally descreased . The negative pressure within flue ductd changes dramatically and smaller. Sparks or smoke were found from the flue hole. explosion-proof gate serious action when ti is severe. If occurring secondary combustion in the air preheater, the current of the air preheater h t swing i and di increase , shell h ll t temperature t rise i up , severe the th air i preheater is jammed when it is severe.

137

8.10 reburning in rear gas duct


2.Reasons
Did not conduct adequate fan power before starting or after extinguishing . When boiler start /stop process or low load running, the furance temperature low or the amount of excess air too less and coal pulverizing system starts prematurely, result in incomplete combustion, combined with a lower smoking rate, , so that accumulation of fuel within the stack. Atomization of oil gun bad, so that a large number of grease and unburned pulverized coal accumulated on the tail heated surface. Burner working improperly, improper ratio of air and pulverized coal, negative pressure infurance i f is i too t large, l the th flame fl center t upward d cause a lot l t of f Combustible materials into the stack. Coal is too thick. Bottom air leakage leakage. Air preheater and flue blowing Failing to implement, resulting in accumulation of combustible materials.

138

8.10 reburning in rear gas duct


3. Treatment:
If the exhaust gas temperature does abnormally rise 20 , should immediately check h k th the wall ll t temperature t and d th the fl flue t temperature t of f each h sections. ti put t the steam blowing of the abnormal area into. At the same time , the control mode of unit is turned into the boilermanual. Adjusting the combustion mode control the metal wall temperature at the specified value . And report to duty leader to request descreasing unit load. By taking some measures, if the exhaust gas temperature continious to rise abnormally to 250 , should be manually MFT emergency shutdown. At this time, must not ventilated. After shutdown, stop the induced shaft fan, air preheater to continue running. Close all the air and fuel gas baffles. Continue to put the steam soot blower into for extingushing. If not reduce the fire, flue gas temperature continues to rise, should contact the turbine into high-and low bypass to prevent overheating tubes were burned.

139

8.10 reburning in rear gas duct


Waiting for the fire goes out to normal temperature ,stop the extingushing and soot blowing. Slowly open the manhole for inspecting to determine fire-free, and then start the induced shaft fan for ventilating 5 - 10 minutes. If the air preheater fouling serious, it should be restarted after washing. before you start to be fully hydrophobic, and then open the blower and induced shaft fans. After the air preheater ventilatiing and dry, can re-igniting. In the above process, the other operations is treated as hot standby shutdown processing. Should maintain the normal water level and higher steam parameters. Aft d After determining t i i equipment i t undamaged d d , can b be i ignitied iti d i in according di t to requirements with hot state starting . If the equipment was seriously damaged, and can not resume normal operation , then be ttreated as the normal shutdown processing processing.

140

8.11 slaging
1. Phenomena:
The slaging can be found from the watching hole of the furance , furance t temperature t rise i up. If large slaging suspended above the cold hopper, dark inside the hopper, and ash content reducing. slaging or bridging around the burner will disturb the aerodynamic field in the boiler to affect on combustion. Serious, coal jet be blocked, the primary air pressure is increased, PC be ejected out at untight parts around the burner . f furance slaging l i to t make k steam t temperature t t and df fuel l gas temperature t t rise i . When convection tube of furance outlet blocked, the furance pressure increase and even positive, while the pressure at the pressure points within stack decresed . When slaging or sticking ash is severe, will affect the boiler load.

141

8.11 slaging
2.Reasons:
Melting point of Coal ash low , sulfur content high , the metal content high in coal powder. Long-term overload operation or hypoxia run. furance air leakage, especially air leakage at the bottom. Burner not working properly or the adjustment unreasonable, lead to the power field disturbance, , the flame center skewed or upward, p , melting g coal washed directly y the coal heated surface. Long-term oil leakage of oil gun or atomized poor to lead to oil oil droplets carrying and gathering dust on the heated surface . Failing g to heated surface of the water wall and furance outlet for soot blowing, g, so that heated surface appearance of pollution. Ash blowing equipment failure, ash blowing and slaging removing not timely result in accumulated into slaging. Not exclude timely the slaging around the watching fire hole and the burner , so it spread. p

142

8.11 slaging
3.Treatment:
Strengthen the soot blowing. The slaging around the watching fire hole and the burner as well as the slaging slag in time to prevent the accumulation of cinder spreading. Oil leakage of oil gun and bad atomizing etc. defects be eliminated in time . If fo found nd slaging tendenc tendency ,should sho ld adj adjust st the flame flame, and appropriate red reduce ce the full degree of flame to prevent flame up and painting wall. Appropriately increasing the excess air ratio, while minimizing the leakage. Ensure the normal operation of coal pulverizing system. When slaging or sticky ash serious to difficulty to hole the normal running or endanger the safety of heating surface, application shutdown in time to play slaging, cleaning. And the burner shoud be adjusted and repaired in shutdown and clean heated surfaces.

143

8.12 gas damper failure


1.Common Faults
Baffle actuator, Baffle actuator transmission link link, pin failure or baffle distortion jam, jam switch failure. Baffle fouling wear, deformation, close lax. Baffle suddenly shut down or control failure

144

8.12 gas damper failure


2.Treatment:
Regular switch on /off the gas damper to maintain a flexible easy to use. If f found d problems, bl contact t t maintenance i t personnel l to t treat t t in i time. ti All the baffles be closed for some reason suddenly, smoke channel is interdicted, boiler pressure surge. Should be promptly treated as follows: Immediately force to open the flue baffle closed automatic(baffle thermostat baffle or air preheater flue gas damper). If force to open success, hold or immediate recovery boiler to normal operation. If force to open failure, by pressing MFT emergency botton in manual l shutdown h td i immediately. di t l And A d simultaniously, i lt i l immediately i di t l stop t the th blower, and confirm that primary fan and powder milling system has been shutdown. Beware of large pressure lead to the fire accident.

145

8.12 gas damper failure


Immediately dispatch person to the site to check and shake hands to open the flue baffle automatic closed, promptly notify the maintenance personnel. Aft th After the b baffle ffl i is opened, d i immediately di t l start t t th the i induced d d shaft h ft f fan and d bl blower for purging the furance and flue duct, a comprehensive soot blowing be made to the heated surface after the completion of purging. After fault elimination,and , order restore unit operation p be issued by y duty y leader, restore the boiler operation in according withstarting requirements.

146

8.13 Fuel oil System Failure


1 Common fault
1.Oil leakage in flange, valve packing room, the oil gun and metal hose interface, pressure gauge pipe etc. in fuel system. 2.Oil pipeline burst at the elbow etc. strength weak parts 3.Solenoid valve does not open, can not be closed, internal leakage. guns bad, , blocked. 4.Atomized oil g 5.Oil gun, igniting gun advance and retreat is not in place. 6.Oil mixed with water, fuel pressure low or fuel pressure loss. 7.Oil temperaturel ow or frozen in Winter, difficulty to flow. 8.The steam purge valve of oil pipe untight. steam leakage into the pipe lead to the fuel temperature too high. 9. check valve of oil pipe untight, fuel leakage into the steam pipe.

147

8.13 Fuel oil System Failure


2 Troubleshooting
Every Monday, the day shift on a regular basis, make the oil gun tests, and t tour for f the th oil il system t . If the th problem bl are di discovered, d should h ld contact t ti in time maintenance staff to handle the problem and take decisive measures. If discovering oil with water, to promptly notify the depot attendant. For oil pressure low or fuel p p pressure loss, , should contact the depot p attendant to restore the oil pressure rapidly. When fuel difficulty to flow in Winter, to try to heat or purge, and raise oil temperature to maintain smooth flow in oil pipe and oil gun. No use open flame when heated heated.

148

8.13 Fuel oil System Failure


When Fuel system leak out, sould identify rapidly the leakage points, try to be isolated. But to try to reduce the scope of isolation, efforts to maintain the boiler running .At At the same time time, make the necessary security measures, measures strengthen inspection to prevent fire. In case of fire should be extinguished timely . When Oil pipeline explosion or fire, threatening the safety of persons or equipment, i t should h ld b be shutdown h td i immediately, di t l quickly i kl cut t off ff th the oil il source, contact oil pump room to stop oil pump outage. At the same time,for firefighting . Fault removed, consult the relevant departments to decide whether to start the boiler. If the valve of the fuel system can not be closed tightly, please contact maintenance to ensure the valve tight throughout the pipe no leak.

149

9 Operation control picture


Feed water system

150

9 Operation control picture


Steam temperature control system

151

9 Operation control picture


blow down system

152

9 Operation control picture


AIR-GAS system

153

9 Operation control picture


ID fan system

154

9 Operation control picture


pulverizer system

155

Operation control picture

SH metal temperature system

156

Operation control picture

RH metal temperature system

157

9 Operation control picture


SA b box

158

9 Operation control picture


FD f fan system t

159

9 Operation control picture


PA f fan system t

160

9 Operation control picture


Mil system Mile t

161

9 Operation control picture


F Furance system t

162

Operation control picture


steam t system t

163

Operation control picture


AIR and d fl flue gas system t

164

Operation control picture


Fl Flame detector d t t system t

165

Operation control picture


Fl oil Flue il system t

166

Operation control picture


F Furance system t

167

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