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Prof. Muhammad Tayyab Iqbal Mehar [MA Eng.

MA Linguistics, ELT, BCS]

Basics of English

BY:

Prof. Muhammad Tayyab Iqbal Mehar


BCS, M.A. English, E.L.T, M.A. Linguistics Dip. In English Language with phonetics and phonology Certified Teacher Trainer of Punjab Education Foundation (Govt. of Pakistan) Project director: Modern College Lahore. V. Principal Pioneer Model School and Language Center 211- A Block Sabzazar Multan Road Lahore. 0334-4200927, 0323-4428249, 0312-4428249 Tayyab_iqbal24@yahoo.com, Tayyab_iqbal24@hotmail.com Blog: http://tayyab24.blogspot.com

Prof. Muhammad Tayyab Iqbal Mehar [MA Eng. MA Linguistics, ELT, BCS]

Some basic rules for spellings:


1. Using I Before E:
Use i before e, except after c, or when sounded as "a" as in "neighbor" and "weigh." EXAMPLES: believe, chief, piece, and thief; deceive, receive, weigh, and freight COMMON EXCEPTIONS: efficient, weird, height, neither, ancient, caffeine, foreign

2. Dropping the Final E


Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. EXAMPLES: ride + ing = riding guide + ance = guidance hope + ing = hoping entire + ly = entirely like + ness = likeness arrange + ment = arrangement COMMON EXCEPTIONS: truly, noticeable

3. Changing a Final Y to I
Change a final y to i before a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. EXAMPLES: defy + ance = defiance party + es = parties pity + ful = pitiful try + es = tries try + ing = trying copy + ing = copying occupy + ing = occupying COMMON EXCEPTIONS: journeying, memorize

4. Doubling a Final Consonant


Double a final single consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel when both of these conditions exist: (a) a single vowel precedes the consonant; (b) the consonant ends an accented syllable or a one-syllable word. EXAMPLES: stop + ing = stopping admit + ed = admitted occur + ence = occurrence stoop + ing = stooping benefit + ed = benefited delight + ful = delightful

Prof. Muhammad Tayyab Iqbal Mehar [MA Eng. MA Linguistics, ELT, BCS]

Contractions:
Sometimes in the English language, you may come across words that have been contracted. We usually contract (shorten) words in English to join two words together . An apostrophe () is normally placed where the missing letter, or letters, would be if the two words were complete. He is Hes She is Shes Who is Whos They are Theyre Have not Havent Would have Wouldve He would Hed (Hed love to go to the zoo. He would love to go to the zoo.) He had Hed (Hed already done by the time I got there. He had already done by the time I got there.) I am Im (Im very pleased. I am very pleased.) I have Ive (Ive been there in the last year. I have been there in the last year.) You have Youve (You have been looking ill recently. Youve been looking ill recently.) He will Hell (Hell do it tomorrow. He will do it tomorrow.) We are Were (We are going later. Were going later.) Are not Arent (We are not going there again! we arent going there again!) Did not didnt ( We did not do that right. We didnt do that right.) Does not Doesnt (That does not appear to fit right. That doesnt appear to fit right.) Must not Mustnt (You must not do that again. You mustnt do that again.) Is not Isnt ( That is not correct. That isnt correct.) Ought not Oughtnt ( You ought not. You oughtnt.) Shall not Shant (I shall not. I shant.) With informal contractions, an apostrophe is hardly ever used. Going to Gonna What are you Whatcha Want a Wanna

Prof. Muhammad Tayyab Iqbal Mehar [MA Eng. MA Linguistics, ELT, BCS]

SILENT LETTERS
Here are some examples of silent letters in English words: Silent N Silent D Silent G Damn Wednesday Sign Hymn Handsome Resign Autumn Badge Gnarl Column Handkerchief Design Edge Foreigner Hedge Gnome Silent U Guard Guess Guitar Building Rogue Guest Biscuit Tongue Silent H Why When Which What Whether Ghost White While Honest Honour Hour Silent L Palm Yolk Almond Salmon Talk Walk Half Silent K Knot Knitting Know Knee Knock Knight Knuckle Knickers Silent T Soften Listen Match Butcher Castle Christmas Silent B Bomb Crumb Climbing Thumb Lamb Doubt Limb Plumber

Silent W Wreck Wrestling Whole Sword Two Wrong Writing Wrist Wrinkle

Some common words which are wrongly pronounced


Some words which are wrongly pronounced. Adjective Handkerchief Dressed Boy Joy Call Student Our Hour Honour Isle Work Park Towel Shower Flower Baby Talk Walk Call Lawyer Go Bomb Climb Lamb Agree Woman Dawn pressed messed