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We have now looked at a couple of different ways to nd velocities and accelerations. Any acceleration or velocity can be found by applying these methods. Once these procedures are known and understood, it is advantageous to look at kinematic expansions for velocity and acceleration. The expansions can be used directly for calculation or can be used as an aid to bring physical signicance to the equations. The expressions were derived in class and homework.

6.3.1 Velocity

To nd a velocity, f V p , using a kinematic expansion, we must still begin with a position vector Rqp . Rqp begins at some point xed in frame f , the base point q, and terminates at the point p. As we have done before, we also select an intermediate frame f . So far, this is exactly the same procedure used when applying equation (5) from section 6.2.3 (Kinematics, second look). But now introduce a point q which is xed in frame f , and rewrite Rqp as the sum of two vectors. Rqp = Rqq from q to q Then nd the velocity by using

f

Rq p from q to p

Vp =

V p + f V q + f Rq p

(6)

Certain choices of Rqq , Rq p , and f may make the rst two terms easy to determine since

f

Vp Vq

= =

d qp R dt fd Rqq dt

We might also note that the sum of the 2nd and 3rd terms in Eqn. (6), f V q + f f Rq p is sometimes dened as the transport velocity. This is the velocity that the point p would have if it was xed in f . Example, on the problem illustrated below: A bug is walking around on a record which is spinning at a constant angular velocity . The record player is aboard a atbed truck moving down a straight road at constant velocity v. We are asked to nd the velocity of the bug with respect to the ground using Eqn. (6).

Example problem: bug on turntable, carried on a truck. To solve this, we use the following steps: 209

1. Redraw the gure with the appropriate unit vectors and dene any variables which are not given.

Unit vectors are added to the problem, and a few variables are dened frame g frame t frame r frame e point 0 point C point B angle xed to the ground xed to the truck xed to the record rotating with the bug such that e r is always directed from C to B xed on the ground at the center of the record and therefore xed in both frame r and frame t the bug angle made by e r with r 1 (xed in r)

2. List the symbols used in Eqn. (6) with those that you have chosen to correspond in the problem

frames

Equation f f

Problem g r 0 C B 1 + re Dt r 1 Dt re r

q q points p qp R vectors Rqq qp R 3. Rewrite Eqn. (6) for the problem of interest

g B

V = rV B + gV C + g r (re r )

g r r

= r 3 = r 3

210

VB

r d (r e r )

dt dt r = r e r + ( 3 ) (re r ) e = r e r + r

e d (r e r )

r + r e r e

g C

1 V = vt

g r

re r

= r 3 re r = re

6. Solution:

gV B

e =r e r + r + vr 1 + re velocity of bug with velocity bug would have if he/she respect to the record just sat on record

g B

)e 1 + r V = vt e r + r( +

6.3.2 Acceleration

To nd an acceleration, f a p , using a kinematic equation, we dene the same frames, points and vectors, then use the following equation

f p

a =

qp a p + f a q + f f Rq p + f f ( f f R ) + 2 f f

Vp

(7)

Two of the terms here have names which are widely used.

f

f ( f f Rq p ) = 2 f f

f

Vp

Since mass times centripetal acceleration is the negative of what is frequently called centrifugal force, it is sometimes recognizable in less complicated problems. Coriolis acceleration is the origin of a sideways force felt, for example, if you try to walk radially outward on a spinning playground merry-go-round. Example: Find now the acceleration of the bug with respect to the ground. Since we have already redrawn the gure and dened the symbols, move straight to the third step. 3. Rewrite equation (7) for the problem of interest.

g B

a = r a B + g r r e r + g r (g r re r ) + 2 g r rV B

211

4. Note any angular velocities and angular accelerations which may be needed.

g r

g d g r

dt

g d r 3

dt

=0

since is constant

r B

e (r e r + r ) dt dt e d rV B + r e r V B = dt ed e r e = (r er + r ) + 3 (r e r + r ) dt 2 )e + 2 )e = (r r r + (r r = (b)

g C

r d rV B

rd

a =

g d gV C

dt

g dvt 1

dt

=0

g r

re r = 0 (d)

g r

since g r = 0

re r

= r 3 re r = re

g r

( re r ) = r 3 re = r2 e r

g r

(e) 2 g r r V B e = 2r 3 (r e r + r ) = 2 re 2re r

6. Solution:

g B

2 r2 2r )e + 2 + 2r a = (r r r + (r r )e

6.3.3 Summary

Using kinematic expansions is not difcult to do but requires practice. You also need to have the equations available and understand what the symbols mean. It is probably the most widely used method of calculating velocities and accelerations.

212

We now summarize the solution of kinematics problems in which the BKE (Basic Kinematic Equation) is used:

e d Aop

dt

u d Aop

dt

+ e u Aop

Two sets of unit vectors on a rigid body, and the angular velocity between them where

e d Aop u d Aop

dt dt

e u Aop

e u

= = = = =

rate of change of A (of p with respect to 0) as seen in e frame. rate of change of A (of p with respect to 0) as seen in u frame. 0 if p is xed in the u frame. angular velocity of the frame u with respect to the frame e. rate of change of Aop as seen in the e frame due to the rotation rate of the u frame (with respect to the e frame). If p is xed in the u frame, this is the total rate of change as seen in e.

The advantages of the BKE approach are that the BKE is a simple equation to remember and that it can be easily applied to complex problems involving several rotations (coordinate systems). A disadvantage is that sometimes the BKE method may require a few more steps than the method of using the kinematic expansions. On the other hand, the kinematic expansions are more difcult to recall, involve more notation and are more cumbersome in dealing with several rotations. Both methods are important and have advantages and disadvantages. In the Kinematic Cookbook, which follows, we will focus on the application of the BKE method. In order to make the method clearer, we will work through a specic example, called the Ant on a Cone Problem, which is described by P.W. Likins in Elements of Engineering Mechanics,McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. (Sections of this book are reprinted as part of the class notes.)

213

An ant, a, crawls along a meridian of a spinning cone, c, at a constant speed, v.

The ant on a cone problem, used to illustrate the application of the B.K.E. The cone is a right circular cone of height 4 inches and base radius 3 inches. It spins about its symmetry axis at the constant rate, , with clockwise rotation, as viewed from the base, b. The ant begins at the apex, A, at time t = 0 when 1, b 2 , and b 3 , respectively. unit vectors c 1 , c 2 , and c 3 coincide with b b Aa b Aa The problem is to nd V and a . 1. Always start from a stationary point, such as the apex A. 2. Specify the position vector with respect tot he stationary point:

rAa = vt u 3. Determine the minimum number of reference frames, N , required by adding the number of rotations, n (rotating coordinates) to one (for the inertial frame):

N = n+1 Note that N is the minimum. In this example, N = n + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2, but we have used an extra unit vector u , for convenience. u is along the meridian of the cone and is xed in the c reference frame. 4. Label the reference frames on the appropriate body. Convenient letters such as c for cone and b for base provide for easier-to-understand notation. 5. Determine the angular velocities of each frame:

b c

= c 3

6. Find the velocity by differentiating the position vector, using the BKE (Basic Kinematic Equation):

214

b Aa

bd

dt

rAa =

cd

dt

rAa + b c rAa

In our particular example we have written r Aa in terms of u . Before applying the BKE we nd the components of u in terms of components in the directions of the c unit vectors:

c3

c2

4"

u c1

3"

4 3 1 c 3 u = c 5 5 So that

b Aa

[vt (0.6c 1 0.8c 3)] + c 3 [vt (0.6c 1 0.8c 3)] dt = 0.6vc 1 + 0.6vt c 2 0.8vc 3 =

cd

b Aa

bd

b Aa

dt

cd

b Aa

dt

+ b c bV Aa

b Aa

cd

215

235

1. The disk, which has a radius of R, spins about a pin at point A with a constant angular rate of . The pin itself turns (t ). The arm BO also rotates at a constant rate , relative to an inertial observer. with shaft OA at a variable rate Determine a general expression for the angular acceleration of the disk relative to the inertial frame:

I d I D

2. A bead slides along the bent rod shown below, with a constant speed of 1 cm/s. The rod is rotating about the horizontal axis at a constant angular rate of = 0.5rad/sec.

Write a general expression for the acceleration of the bead relative to the ground. Find the acceleration (ie., a numerical value ) when the rod is vertical and the bead is 5 cm from point C. 3. A bead of mass m, connected by a linear spring to point q and constrained to slide along rod R as shown. The total length of the spring (time varying) is l . Rod R forms part of a four-bar mechanism, along with rods B 1 and B2 , each of which have (xed) length r. Pin joints exist at each of the 4 corners of this mechanism, so that as rod B 1 rotates through the variable angle (t ), rods B1 and B2 remain parallel.

236

Write a general experession for the acceleration of the mass m relative to an inertial reference (assumed for the ground). Dene a convenient set of unit vectors to express this acceleration. 4. A power shovel is drawn in the picture below. The unit vectors d1 , d2 , d3 are attached to the cab, which can rotate through an angle (t ) relative to observer E , attached to the ground. The system e 1 , e 2 , e 3 is attached to observer E . The motion of jaws a and b, relative to the crane body c, is given by the angles (t ) and (t ). Observers A, B, and C are attached to parts a, b and c, respectively.

BV Oq

E V Oq

, and

C Os

237

5. A vertical disk of radius r rolls around a horizontal track of radius R. This track rotates at a constant rate of 0 about the about the same vertical axis. Using the set of vertical axis. The center of the disk moves at a constant angular rate of unit vectors, e r , e , e z , obtain the acceleration of point P, located on the edge of the disk when the point is at its highest position. (from Greenwood, Principles of Dynamics, 1988)

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240

241

242

246

Chapter 7

Dynamics

7.1 Practice Problems in Dynamics

1. On the following mechanics, the mass can slide along frictionless rails, a distance given by the variable x. A linear spring with constant K and unextended length L is attached to the mass and to a xed point on the ceiling as shown.

L m

(a) Derive the equation(s) of motion for this system. (b) How many degrees of freedom does this system have ? (c) How many states does this system have ? (d) Write the E.O.M.s in state variable form.

247

2. Derive the equations of motion for the following mechanism. The length of the pendulum, L is constant, and it can rotate through the angle as shown. The massless slider at point P can move along the frictionless rails, extending the spring a length of x. The spring constant is K and the un-stretched length of the spring is l . Assume a uniform gravity eld with acceleration of g in the direction shown in the drawing.

x

g

(a) Derive the equation(s) of motion for this system. (b) How many degrees of freedom does this system have ? (c) How many states does this system have ? (d) Write the E.O.M.s in state variable form. 3. The following mechanism lies in the horizontal plane (such that the acceleration of gravity is normal to the page) and can rotate freely through the angle . The mass can slide along frictionless rails, and is attached to 2 springs as shown. Each spring has a spring constant of K and an unextended length of L.

Ro

x(t)

(a) Derive the equation(s) of motion for this system. (b) How many degrees of freedom does this system have ? (c) How many states does this system have ? (d) Write the E.O.M.s in state variable form. 248

4. A model rocket, following ight, has deployed its parachute and is now descending to the ground as shown. Assume a uniform acceleration of gravity, and that the surface of the Earth can be considered an inertial observer. The force of aerodynamic drag on the parachute is given by:

FD = c I V PR

2 I V PR I V PR

, E , U . The position vector from the launch pad to the rocket ( RPR ) is given using the unit vectors S

E S

(a) Derive the equation(s) of motion for this system. (b) How many degrees of freedom does this system have ? (c) How many states does this system have ? (d) Write the E.O.M.s in state variable form.

249

Chapter 8

Equations of Motion (E.O.Ms) have been introduced at this point in the course. Recall that these are differential equations, (D.E.s) which describe the evolution of the state of a mechanical system, given the initial conditions at some time. In your differential equations course, you will see more of the theory behind D.E.s and some methods to analytically obtain a solution for certain types of D.E.s. In most engineering problems, however, it is not possible or practical to obtain a closed form solution. Therefore, in this course, we will look at how to apply computational methods and obtain a numerical solution to an E.O.M. To illustrate this, we choose a simple example problem for which the analytical solution is easily found. This will allow us to compare the results from each method. First, derive the E.O.M. for a weight attached to a rail such that it is constrained to fall only in the vertical direction, under a uniform gravity eld. This problem is illustrated below:

Weight k h j i

= g h and g = 9.8m/sec2 is the acceleration of gravity. This problem In which the position of the weight is given by ROP = xk has one degree of freedom (motion in the k direction) and is second order. The rst step in numerically integrating E.O.M.s (and doing a lot more, which you will learn about in later courses) is to write all of the E.O.M.s in state variable form . Since the E.O.M. is a 2nd order D.E. this will produce 2 rst order D.E.s. We do this by dening the states: 250

Note that this has the form of a function, in which the input is the state (x 2 in this case) and the output is the rst derivatives of the states (x 1 and x 2 ). MATLAB has a built-in function, ode45 which performs numerical integration of systems of equations in state variable form. The syntax of this function is described in the following excerpts from the online help pages: [T,Y] = ode45(ODEFUN,TSPAN,Y0) with TSPAN = [T0 TFINAL] integrates the system of differential equations dy = f (t , y) from time T0 to TFINAL with initial conditions Y0. Function ODEFUN(T,Y) must return a column vector dt corresponding to f (t , y). Each row in the solution array Y corresponds to a time returned in the column vector T. To obtain solutions at specic times T0,T1,...,TFINAL (all increasing or all decreasing), use TSPAN = [T0 T1 ... TFINAL]. Now, we will apply this to the falling weight problem above. First, a matlab function in the le eom.m is created which contains the E.O.M.s in equation 2 above. This function takes two variables as input: time (t) and one 2 1 matrix (x) that contains the states x1 and x2 . It produces one variable as output: a 2 1 matrix (xdot) that contains the rst derivative of each state. (Listing of function eom.m)

function xdot = eom(t, x) xdot(1) = x(2); xdot(2) = -9.8; xdot = xdot; return

The name of the function containing the E.O.M.s (in this case eom) is given as an input to ode45. A short script le runeom shows this syntax. (Listing of runeom.m)

x0 = [p0, v0]; % initial conditions ti = [t0, tf]; [t, xhist] = ode45(eom, ti, x0); phist = xhist(:,1); vhist = xhist(:,2);

(0)) of the weight are given as p0 and v0 In this script, the initial conditions for the position (h(0)) and speed ( h respectively. These are placed into the 2 1 array x0, representing the state at time 0. This is one input to ode45. The other input is the array Ti, containing the start and end times. The outputs are two arrays: xhist which contains an n 2 array, each row gives the values of the 2 states at time steps between the start and end time. t is an n 1 array which gives the values for the time corresponding to when the states in xhist occur. (0) = 0m/s (the weight is In the following example, this is demonstrated with initial conditions of h(0) = 100m and h lifted 100 meters up and released). This is integrated for 4 second.

251

After runeom completes, the arrays t and xhist are checked and it is found that 65 time steps were generated. The two states are then plotted as functions of time, in the following graphs:

>> size(xhist) ans = 65 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 2

subplot(2,1,1) plot(t, xhist(:,1)) ylabel(h(t) (m)) xlabel(Time (sec)) title(Demonstration of ODE45 - Jim Garrison) subplot(2,1,2) plot(t, xhist(:,2)) xlabel(Time (sec)) ylabel(dh/dt (m/s))

252

80 h(t) (m)

60

40

20

0.5

1.5

2 Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

10 dh/dt (m/s)

20

30

40

0.5

1.5

2 Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

(0)t 1 gt 2 h(t ) = h(0) + h 2 (t ) = gt h This function is computed and plotted on top of the solution from ode45 and, as expected, the two give the same results.

>> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

t_calc = [0:0.5:4]; h_calc = p0 + v0 * t_calc - 0.5 * (9.8) * t_calc.^2; hdot_calc = -9.8 * t_calc; subplot(2,1,2) plot(t, xhist(:,2), t_calc, hdot_calc, o) subplot(2,1,1) plot(t, xhist(:,1), t_calc, h_calc, o) xlabel(Time (sec)) ylabel(h(t) (m)) title(Comparison of ODE45 vs. Analytical Soln. - Jim Garrison) subplot(2,1,2) xlabel(Time (sec)) ylabel(dh/dt (m/s))

253

80 h(t) (m)

60

40

20

0.5

1.5

2 Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

10 dh/dt (m/s)

20

30

40

0.5

1.5

2 Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

254

Chapter 9

Final Thoughts

Of the thousands of ways computers have been misused, simulation tops the list. The reasons for this widespread abuse are not hard to nd: 1. Every simulation simulates something, but theres no particular reason it should simulate what the simulator had in mind. 2. Computer outputs are readily mistaken for gospel, especially by people who are working in the dark and seeking any sort of beacon. 3. Simulation languages have succeeded in making it easier to achieve impressive simulations, without making it easier to achieve valid simulations. 4. There are no established curricula based on extensive practical experience. Thus, everyone is an expert after writing one simulation, of anything, in any language, with any sort of result. 5. The promise of simulation is so great that its easy to confuse hope with achievement. - Simulation: Principles and Methods, Graybeal and Pooch, 1980

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