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Exercise 1 BINARY SOLID LIQUID DIAGRAM

ALVINEZ, Charmaine Grace C. CHEM112.1 3L

Groupmates

Prof. Anabelle T. Abrera Laboratory Instructor

Date performed: 19 November 2012 Date submitted: 25 November 2012

I. Data and Results


100 90 80 70 temperature 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 time 500 600 700 800 900

Figure 1.1 Graph of Run 2 trial 1

100 90 80 70 Axis Title 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Axis Title 600 700 800 900 1000

Figure 1.2 Graph of Run 2 Trial 2

100 90 80 70 Axis Title 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Axis Title

Figure 1.3 Graph of Run 3 Trial 1.

100 90 80 70 Axis Title 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 Axis Title 800 1000 1200

Figure 1.4 Graph of Run 3 Trial 2.

100 90 80 70 Axis Title 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Axis Title

Figure 1.5 Graph of Run 4 Trial 1.

100 90 80 70 Axis Title 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 Axis Title 500 600 700 800

Figure 1.6 Graph of Run 4 Trial 2.

90 80 70 60 Axis Title 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Axis Title 400 500 600

Figure 1.7 Graph of Run 5 Trial 1.

100 90 80 70 Axis Title 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Axis Title

Figure 1.8 Graph of Run 5 Trial 2.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Series1 Series2

Figure 1.9 Binary Solid Liquid diagram of diphenylamine and naphthalene.

Table 1.1 Data for the Break and Arrest Temperatures for each mole fraction of naphthalene. Run b Break temperature Average Arrest temperature Average I II I II 1 1 79 79 79 2 0.8673 76 76 76 23 23 23 3 0.8099 63 64 63.5 29.5 28 28.75 4 0.7245 72 73 72.5 44 42 43 5 0.5690 66 62.5 64.25 40 34 37 6 0 52 51 51.5 7 0.2072 63 65 64 40 35.5 37.75 8 0.3048 62.5 61 61.75 33 33.5 33.25

Mean arrest

33.79

Table 1.2 Data for the Gibbs phase rule of the binary phase diagram. Nature of phases Number of phases Number of components I Melt 1 2 II Solid A + melt 2 2 III Solid B + melt 2 2 IV solid 1 2

Degrees of Freedom 2 1 1 2

II. Discussion

In this experiment a solid liquid phase diagram for diphenylamine and naphthalene were constructed by taking the temperature every ten seconds for each binary mixture. The temperature against time were plotted to determine the break and arrest temperatures. The break and mean arrest temperatures were plotted against the mole fraction of naphthalene. From the graph, the eutectic temperature and the eutectic composition were determined. The graphs for each runs were shown on Figures 1.1 to 1.8 . The data for the break and arrest temperatures were shown on Table 1.1. Shown on Figure 1.9 was the binary solid liquid diagram for diphenylamine and naphthalene.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

melt

melt + diphenylamine

II

melt + naphthalene III


Series1 Series2

solid naphthalene and diphenylamine IV

Figure 1.10 Components and Phases of the Phase Diagram.

The liquidus line separates all the melt phase from the melt + solid phase. The solidus line separates the melt + crystal phase from the all solid phase. The eutectic point is the point at which all three phases coexist. In the experiment, A is diphenylamine and B is naphthalene. The diagram was interpreted using the Gibbs phase rule as shown on Table 1.2 and Figure 1.10. There were two compositions and since the experiment was done under fixed atmospheric conditions the equation was reduced to three less the number of phases. For the all liquid and all solid phases, the degrees of freedom, F, was 2. For the melt + diphenylamine and the melt + naphthalene, the F was 1. A certain point can be deduced from the phase diagram shown above. The melting points of the pure components can be seen. The melting point of diphenylamine found from experiment was 64OC while the melting point of naphthalene was 78OC. However, the melting point for the mixture was found to be 33.79OC. The melting point for the mixture was lower than that for the two components.

The eutectic temperature found from the experiment was 33.79OC while the eutectic composition was approximately 43% naphthalene. To achieve a eutectic mixture, it is necessary to adjust the ratio of the components and the melting temperature of the alloys is less than the temperatures of the pure components. Phase diagrams are utilized in metallurgy and electronics industry. Alloys are metal solutions that have different properties from those of its components. By alloying, some of the important properties of metals can be improved.

IV. Summary and Conclusion The solid liquid phase diagram for diphenylamine and naphthalene was constructed. The diagram was interpreted using the Gibbs phase rule. There were two components so the Gibbs equation was reduced to three less the number of phases. For the all solid and all melt, the number of degrees of freedom was two. For the melt + diphenylamine and melt + naphthalene, the number of degrees of freedom was one. The eutectic temperature was 33.79OC and the eutectic composition was 57% naphthalene. Eutectics is often applied in metallurgy and in electronics industry.

V. Recommendation The experiment can be done with ease by students. It is recommended to use other components for the construction of a phase diagram.

VI. References ATKINS, P. 2006. Physical Chemistry. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. SHACKELFORD, J.F. Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers. NJ: Prentice Hall.