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nitc syllabus

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nitc syllabus

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(Applicable from 2010 Admission onwards)

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

MARCH 2010

15

16

Pre-requisite: MA 1001 Mathematics I L 3 Total Hours: 56 Hrs T 1 P 0 C 3

Module 1: Probability distributions (15 Hours) Random variables, Binomial distribution, Hyper- geometric distribution, Mean and variance of a probability distribution, Chebyshevs theorem, Poisson distribution, Geometric distribution, Normal Distribution, Uniform distribution, Gamma distribution, Beta distribution, Weibull distribution. Joint distribution of two random variables. Module 2: Sampling distributions and Inference concerning means (14 Hours) Population and samples, The sampling distribution of the mean ( known and unknown ), Sampling distribution of the variance, Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Point estimation and interval estimation, point estimation and interval estimation of mean and variance, Tests of hypothesis, Hypothesis concerning one mean, Inference concerning two means. Module 3: Inference concerning variances proportions (13Hours) Estimation of variances , Hypothesis concerning one variance, Hypothesis concerning two variances , Estimation of proportions , Hypothesis concerning one proportion , Hypothesis concerning several proportions, Analysis of r x c tables, Chi square test for goodness of fit. Module 4: Regression Analysis (14 Hours) Bi-variate Normal distribution- joint, marginal and conditional distributions. Curve fitting, Method of least squares, Estimation of simple regression models and hypothesis concerning regression coefficients, Correlation coefficient- estimation of correlation coefficient, hypothesis concerning correlation coefficient. Estimation of curvilinear regression models, Analysis of variance:- General principles, Completely randomized designs, Randomized block diagram, Latin square designs, Analysis of covariance. References: 1. Johnson, R. A., Miller and Freunds Probability and Statistics for Engineers, 6 th edition., PHI, 2004. 2. Levin R. I. & Rubin D. S., Statistics for Management, 7th edition, PHI, New Delhi, 2000. 3. S.M. Ross, Introduction to Probability and statistics for Engineers, 3 rd edition, Academic Press(Elsevier), Delhi, 2005.

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PH2001

Pre requisites: Nil Total Hours: 56

CLASSICAL MECHANICS

L T P C 4 0 0 4

Module 1 (12 hours) Review of Newtonian formulation - free body diagrams, laws of motion, conservation laws, circular motion, calculus of variation, least action principle, generalized coordinates, Lagranges equations, applications of Lagrangian formulation. Module 2 (16 hours) Central force problem - equations of motion, orbits, Virial theorem, Kepler problem, scattering in a central force field. Small oscillations - eigenvalue problem, frequencies of free vibrations and normal modes, forced vibrations, dissipation. Module 3 (12 hours) Rigid body motion: Orthogonal transformations, Euler angles, Coriolis effect, angular momentum and kinetic energy, inertia tensor, Euler equations, applications, rotating top. Module 4 (16 hours) Hamiltonian formulation - Legendre transformations, Hamilton equations, cyclic coordinates and conservation theorems, principle of least action, canonical transformations, Poisson brackets and Liouvilles theorem, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, action-angle variables, classical field theory - Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of continuous systems. References: 1. Herbert Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, II Edition, Narosa Publishers 2. R. G. Takwale and P.S. Puranik, Introduction to Classical Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill, 1979 3. Landau and Lifshitz, Mechanics, III Ed. Pergamon press, 1976 4. K. R. Symon, Mechanics, 3rd edition Addison-Wesley, 1971 5. Spiegl M. R.,Theoretical mechanics, Schaum Series, McGraw Hill, 1982

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PH2002 THERMODYNAMICS

L T 1 P C 3 0 0 3

Pre-requisites: Nil Total Hours: 42hrs Module 1 (8 hours) Macroscopic and microscopic models, thermal equilibrium, zeroth law, concept of temperature, work, PV diagrams, quasi-static processes, concept of heat, work and heat, internal energy, first law of thermodynamics, adiabatic processes, heat capacities, enthalpy of a system Module 2 (12 hours) Conversion of work to heat vice versa, heat engines, statements of the second law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, conditions for reversibility, Carnot cycle, Carnot heat engines and refrigerators, thermodynamic temperature scale; absolute zero and Carnot efficiency, entropy concept, TS diagrams, entropy and reversibility, entropy and second law, increase of entropy, disorder and relation to microstates Module 3 (14 hours) Thermodynamic state variables - characteristic functions, enthalpy, free energy, Gibbs and Helmholtz functions, Legendre transformations, Maxwells relations, T -dS equations, Clausius-Clayperon equation, applications - Joule-Thomson process, chemical reactions, phase equilibria, phase diagrams, IC engines Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, two stroke and four stroke engines, jet propulsion and turbo engines Module 4 (8 hours) Phase transitions introduction to first order and second order transitions, third law, Nernst theorem, kinetic theory - collisions mean free path, ideal gas, equation of state, Van der Waals equation, non-ideal gases, heat transfer - equations of heat conduction and radiation, black body radiation

References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Zemansky, M.W and Dittman R. H., Heat and Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill ,1987 Sears,F.W., and Sallinger,G.L.: Thermodynamics, Kinetic theory and Statistical Thermodynamics, Narosa, New Delhi, 1995 H. B. Callen, Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatics, Wiley student Ed., 1985 Cengel A Y, and Boles A M, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 5th edition, TMH, 2006 Jones I. B, Dugan R. E., Engineering Thermodynamics, Prentice Hall, 1995

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PH2003 OPTICS

L 3

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P C 0 3

Pre-requisites: Nil Total Hours: 42hrs Module 1 (12 hours) Electromagnetic radiation, visible spectrum, geometrical and physical optics, laws of reflection and refraction - Huygens principle, Fermats principle, principle of reversibility, Stokes relations, reflection external and internal, phase changes on reflection, matrix methods in paraxial optics, aberrations classification and removal Module 2 (12 hours) Coherence - temporal and spatial, spectral bandwidth of source and coherence time, two beam interference, Youngs double slit, Michelson interferometer, Fabry-Perot interferometer and etalon (description), Diffraction - Fresnel, Fraunhofer diffraction, single slit diffraction, beam spreading, rectangular and circular apertures, Rayleighs criterion of resolution, multiple slits, diffraction grating, free spectral range, resolution and dispersion Module 3 (12 hours) Polarized and unpolarised light - matrix representation of polarized light, plane polarized, circularly polarized and elliptically polarized light, matrix representation of polarizers, production of polarized lightdichroism, birefringence, quarter wave plate and half wave plate, double refraction, Glan-air prism and Wollaston prism, reflection from dielectric surfaces, Brewsters law, optical activity Module 4 (6 hours) Light sources - incandescent, discharge and laser, fiber Optics, systems and applications, human eye, its capabilities and limitations, binocular vision, eye piece, microscope, telescope - properties and design considerations References: 1. Pedrotti, F. L. and Pedrotti, L. S., Introduction to Optics, Prentice Hall, 1987 2. Ghatak, A., Optics, Tata-McGraw-Hill, 1981 3. Hecht,E., Optics, Pearson Education, 2003 4. Meyer-Arendt, J.R., Introduction to Classical and Modern Optics, II Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1988 .

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PH2004 ELECTROMAGNETICS

Prerequisites: Nil Total Hours: 56 L 3 T 1 P 0 C 3

Module 1 (15 hrs) Cartesian coordinate system, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems, scalar and vector fields, complex numbers and phasor technique, coulombs law applications, Gauss law- applications, divergence of electric field, energy and potential of a moving point charge in an electric field, the line integral, potential and potential difference, potential due to system of point charges, potential gradient, energy density in the electric field, electric dipole, dielectrics, Poissons and Laplaces equationsapplications Module 2 (13 hrs) Steady magnetic field, Biot-Savart law, Amperes circuital theorem, curl of magnetic field, Stokes theorem, steady state equations for electric and magnetic field, scalar and vector magnetic potentials, force on a moving charge, force between differential current elements, magnetic dipole moment due to a current loop, inductance and mutual inductance Module 3 (14 hrs) Time varying field and Maxwells equations, Faradays law, displacement current, Maxwells equations, retarded potentials, plane wave propagation in free space, wave propagation in dielectrics, wave propagation good conductors, power flow in electromagnetic field-Poyntings theorem Module 4 (14 hrs) Wave guides - uniform plane wave propagation in an arbitrary direction, parallel wave guide, TE, TM and TEM modes, rectangular wave guides and cavity resonator, dispersion and group velocity, reflection and refraction of plane waves, dielectric slab guide, ray tracing and graded index guide References: 1. W H Hayt and John A Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics, 6 nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Company Limited, 2001 2. N Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetcs, 5th edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2003 3. D. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 2 nd ed., Prentice Hall, 1989

L T P C 4 0 0 4

Module 1: Chemical Kinetics (12 hours) Arrhenius theory Determination of Arrhenius parameters. Collision theory of bimolecular gas phase reactions Derivation of rate equation. Collision theory of unimolecular reactions Lindemans equation, Hinshelwoods modification - Transition theory Eyrings equation Comparison of the theories Kinetics of opposing, Consecutive, Parallel reactions. (first order examples) - Chain reactions H2 - Cl2 &H2-Br2 reaction Steady state approximation. Branching chain H2 + O2 reaction explosion limits Kinetics of reaction in solution Role of solvent Primary and secondary salt effects - Mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis Enzyme catalysis Michaelis Menten theory Koshlands induced fit model

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Module 2: Chemical Thermodynamics (10 hours) Concept of free energy and entropy Conditions for spontaneity of process Conditions for equilibrium Derivation of law of chemical equilibrium from thermodynamics Vant Hoff reaction isotherm Study of dissociation equilibria PCl5 PCl3 + Cl2 degree of dissociation from density measurements Thermodynamics of dilute solutions Derivation of depression of F P and elevation of boiling point from thermodynamical consideration Lowering of VP and osmotic pressure vant Hoffs laws of osmotic pressure Vant Hoff theory of dilute solution Association and dissociation of solutes Vant Hoffs factor phase rule Definition giving examples Derivation from thermo dynamics Simple eutectic system. Module 3: Electrochemistry (10 hours) Debye Hickel theory of strong electrolytes ( derivation of equation not required) Debye Hickel limiting law Ionic strength theory of conductometric titrations - Thermodynamics of cell reactions Enthalpy Entropy, Free energy changes from emf of cells Nernst equation Potentiometric titration theory Electrode kinetics Structure of electrode surface Helmholts Perrin, Guoy chapman and Stern models, Butter Volmer and Tafel equations - Polarography Half wave potential, Diffusion current, DME, Ilkovic equation Analytical applications.

Module 4: Chemistry of Surfaces (10 hours) Adsorption Langmuirs adsorption isotherm, BET equation, Gibbs adsorption isotherm, Reactions at surfaces unimolecular and bimolecular reactions Langmuir Himshelwood mechanism Colloidal surfactants classification anionic, Cationic and non- inorganic surfactants micelles structure CMC determination Stabilizing action of surfactants Sol-gel transformations Emulsions Applications of colloidal surfactants. References 1. 2. 3. A. W. Adamson and A. P. Gast, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 6th Edition, John Wiley: New York, 1997. K. J. Laidler, Chemical Kinetics, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education: New Delhi, 2004. Jom Bockris and AKN Reddy, Modern Electro chemistry-Vol I and II

Text Books 1. 2. P. W. Atkins and J. D. Paula, Physical Chemistry, 7th Edition, Oxford University press: New York 2002. G. K. Vemullapalli, Physical Chemistry, Edition Prentice hall: New Delhi 2004.

Basic and advanced level experiments in mechanics, electromagnetics, optics, heat and thermodynamics

References: 1. 2. A.C. Melissinos, J. Napolitano, Experiments in Modern Physics, Academic Press, 2003 R. A. Dunlop, Experimental Physics, Oxford Univ. Press, 1988

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MA2002: MATHEMATICS IV

Pre-requisite: MA 1001 Mathematics I, MA 1002 Mathematics II L 3 Total Hours: 56 Hrs T 1 P 0 C 3

Module 1: Series Solutions and Special Functions (15 Hours) Power series solutions of differential equations, Theory of power series method, Legendre Equation, Legendre Polynomials, Frobenius Method, Bessels Equation, Bessel functions, Bessel functions of the second kind, Sturm- Liouvilles Problems, Orthogonal eigenfunction expansions. Module 2: Partial differential Equations (16 Hours) Basic Concepts, Cauchys problem for first order equations, Linear Equations of the first order, Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations of the first order, Charpits Method, Special Types of first order equations, Classification of second order partial differential equations, Modeling: Vibrating String, Wave equation, Separation of variables, Use of Fourier Series, DAlemberts Solution of the wave equation, Heat equation: Solution by Fourier series, Heat equation: solution by Fourier Integrals and transforms, Laplace equation, Solution of a Partial Differential Equations by Laplace transforms. Module 3: Complex Numbers and Functions (13 Hours) Complex functions, Derivative , Analytic function, Cauchy- Reimann equations, Laplaces equation, Geometry of Analytic functions: Conformal mapping, Linear fractional Transformations, Schwarz Christoffel transformation, Transformation by other functions. Module 4: Complex Integration (12 Hours) Line integral in the Complex plane, Cauchys Integral Theorem, Cauchys Integral formula, Derivatives of analytic functions.Power series, Functions given by power series, Taylor series and Maclaurins series. Laurents series, Singularities and Zeros, Residue integration method, Evaluation of real Integrals.

Text Book: 1. Kreyszig E, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 8th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999 . 2. I.N. Sneddon, Elements of Partial Differential Equations, Dover Publications, 2006. 3 . Wylie C. R. & Barret L. C., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 6 th Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York,1995. 4. Donald W. Trim, Applied Partial Differential Equations, PWS KENT publishing company, 1994.

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PH2005

Pre-requisites: Nil Total Hours: 56

QUANTUM MECHANICS

L T P C 0 0 3 2

Module 1 (18 hours) Review of wave mechanics, Dirac formalism, Hermitian and unitary matrices, eigenvales and eigenvectors, basis transformations, commutation relations, Born interpretation, measurement theory, expectation values, uncertainty principle, position and momentum representation, time evolution, Hamiltonian operator, Schrdinger, Heisenberg and Interaction pictures, Schrdinger equation Module 2 (14 hours) One dimensional potential problems, charged particle in external magnetic field, simple harmonic oscillator- operator formalism, energy eigenstates, Schrdinger equation for the oscillator, semi-classical approaches WKB method Module 3 (14 hours) Angular momentum - infinitesimal rotations, rotation operator, angular momentum operators, commutation relations, eigenvalues, matrix representation, orbital and spin angular momentum, central field problem, hydrogen atom, orbitals Module 4 (10 hours) Symmetry, conservation laws, degeneracy, density matrix, pure and mixed states, connection to partition function, introduction to path-integral formalism, harmonic oscillator in path integral formalism References: 1. David. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, , 2nd Ed., Pearson Education, 2005 2. J. J. Sakurai , Modern Quantum Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1999 3. R. Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, II Ed., Springer, 1994 4. Constantinesc and Magyari, Problems in Quantum Mechanics, , Pergamon, 1974 5. L. I. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics, III Ed., McGraw Hill, 1968

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Module 1 (12 hours) Need for statistical physics, models of macroscopic systems, macro states and micro states, phase space, Liouville's theorem, energy quantization, fundamental postulate of equilibrium statistical mechanics, microcanonical ensemble, Gibbs paradox, enumeration of microstates, canonical ensemble, partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities, entropy, fluctuations, grand canonical ensemble

L T P C 4 0 0 4

Module 2 (10 hours) Classical ideal gas, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, equipartition theorem, virial theorem, specific heat of gases, real gases, paramagnetism, Langevin and Brillouin functions, Curie's law, nuclear spins, ortho and para hydrogen, negative temperature concept, system of harmonic oscillators Module 3 (12 hours) Systems of identical, indistinguishable particles, spin, symmetry of wavefunctions, bosons, fermions, Pauli's exclusion principle, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, degeneracy, ideal Fermi gas and ideal Bose gas, applications free electron gas, liquid helium, radiation, specific heat of crystalline materials Einstein and Debye theories Module 4 (8 hours) Introductory ideas on phase transitions and criticality, models for ferromagnetism Ising and Heisenberg models, introduction to microscopic simulations Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics References: 1. E. Atlee Jackson, Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, Prentice-Hall, 1968 2. R. K. Pathria Statistical Mechanics, 2nd Ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996 3. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics McGraw-Hill, 1985 4. Kerson Huang, Statistical Mechanics, 2nd Ed, John Wiley, 1987 5. Herbert B. Callen, Thermodynamics 2nd Ed., Wiley, 2005

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Prerequisites: Nil Total Hours: 42 hrs Module 1 (6 Hours) Voltage and current sources, circuit theorems - superposition theorem, Thevenin's theorem, thevenizing a circuit with two voltage sources, thevenizing a bridge circuit, Norton's theorem, Thevenin - Norton conversions, maximum power transfer theorem, star-delta transformations Module 2 (14 Hours) Special diodes - Schottky diode, LED, seven segment displays, use of LED as a display, varactor diode, photo diode, tunnel diode - their characteristics and applications, photodiode as a photo detector and photo-voltaic cell, unipolar devices, FET, MOSFET diac, triac, SCR, sensor, photo transistor, ICs (analog, digital), soldering and de-soldering, transistor as a switch, operational amplifier theory, frequency effects, negative feedback, linear and non-linear amplifier circuits, regulated power supplies, thyristors, oscillators and timers, basic principle of sinusoidal oscillator, R-C phase shift and Wein Bridge oscillators, tuned oscillators - Collpits and Hartley, crystal oscillator, active filters, voltage controlled oscillator, Phase Locked Loop (PLL) - operating principles and applications, A/D and D/A converters, sample-and holdcircuit Module 3 (12 Hours) Review of digital principles - algebra for logic circuits, logic gates, logic families, MOSFET as switch, TTL and CMOS inverters circuit description and operation, other TTL and CMOS gates, electrical behaviour of logic circuits, combinational logic modules - decoders, encoders, multiplexers, demultiplexers and their applications, three state devices, comparators, programmable logic devices, sequential logic circuits - design and analysis of synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits Module 4 (10 Hours) Introduction of microprocessor and microcontroller, block diagrams, bus organization, pin details, diagrams, data and address deviation, microprocessor system design and programming, data communications and interfacing, memory Read Only Memory (ROM), EPROM, flash, static and dynamic random access memories References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Malvino, A.P, Electronic principles, Tata-McGraw Hill, Ed VI, 2002 Malvino, A.P, Digital computer electronics, Tata-McGraw Hill, Ed V, 2002 Floyd T. L, and Buchla, Basic operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, III Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2003 Taub & Schilling: Digital Integrated Electronics, McGraw Hill, 2003 M.Morris Mano, Digital Logic and Computer Design, Prentice Hall of India, 2005 Floyd T. L., Digital Fundamentals, VIII Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2004 Tocci R. J., and Widmer N. S., Digital Systems: Principles And Applications; VIII Edition; Prentice- Hall of India, 2002 Cook N P., A first Course in Digital Electronics, Ed II, Prentice Hall, 1999 Malvino A. P., Digital Computer Electronics; Tata Mc-Graw Hill, 2004 A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith Microelectronics Circuits Oxford University Press , India, 2005 Malvino & Leach, Digital Principles and applications Tata Mc. Graw Hill , 2000 R.A. Gayakwad Op amps and Linear Integrated Circuits Prentice Hall of India, 2001 Balbir Kumar and Shail B.Jain, Electronic Devices and Circuits Prentice Hall of India, 2007

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Prerequisites: PH 2004 Electromagnetics Total hours: 42

L T P C 3 0 0 3

Module 1 (11 hrs) Transmission lines - line terminated by resistive load, transmission line discontinuity, lines with reactive and nonlinear resistive elements, lines with initial conditions and logic gates, short circuited lines, line terminated by arbitrary load, transmission line matching, Smith chart applications, the lossy line Module 2 (11 hrs) Radiation - potential functions and electromagnetic field, potential functions for sinusoidal oscillations, oscillation electric dipole, radiation from quarter wave monopole or half wave dipole Module 3 (10 hrs) Antenna fundamentals, directional properties of dipole antennas, travelling wave antennas, two element, horizontal patterns in broadcast arrays and linear arrays Module 4 (10 hrs) Numerical methods in electromagnetics - finite difference methods, method of moments, determination of transmission line parameters, finite elements method, finite difference time domain method References: 1. N Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetcs, 5th edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2003 2. Edwards C Jordan and Keith G.Balmain, Electromagnetic wave and radiating system 2 nd edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2006 3. W H Hayt and John A Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics, 6nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Company Limited, 2001

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Pre-requisite: Nil Total Hours: 42 Module 1: Stereochemistry (10 hours) Concept of chirality and molecular dissymmetry, Recognition of symmetry elements and chiral centers, Prochiral relationship, Homotopic, Enantiotopic and disteriotopic groups and faces, Recemic modifications and their resolution, R and S nomenclature, Geometrical isomerism E and Z nomenclature, Conformational analysis : cyclohexane derivatives, Stability and reactivity, Conformational analysis of disubstituted cyclohexanes. Module 2: Study and Description of Reaction Mechanisms (10 hours) Definition of reaction mechanism, Thermodynamic data, Kinetics, Substituent effects, Linear free energy relationships, Hammett equation and related modifications, Basic mechanistic concepts like kinetic vs thermodynamic control, Hammond postulate, Curtin-Hammett principle, Isotope effects, Acid-base catalysis and Nucleophilic catalysis, Nucleophilic substitution, Various types, Stability and reactivity of carbocations, Nucleophilicity and basicity, Leaving group effect, Steric effects in substitution reactions, Classical and non-classical carbocations. Module 3: Pericyclic Reactions (10 hours) Pericyclic rections : Definition, Classification, Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition, Sigmatropic reactions, Electrocyclic reactions, Examples of ring closing and ring opening reactions of butadiene and hexatriene, Cycloaddition reactions [2 ] and [4 ] cycloadditions; Woodward Hoffmann rules, FMO approach, Stereochemical aspects and synthetic utility of the above reactions, Sigmatropic rearrangement limited to Cope and Claisen rearrangements: examples and synthetic utility. Module 4: Functional Groups Interconversions (12 hours) Functionalization of alkenes: Hydroboration, Dihydroxylation, Epoxidation, Oxidative cleavage; Oxidation: oxidation of hydrocarbons, Alcohols and Ketones; Reduction: catalytic hydrogenation, Reduction by dissolving metals, Reduction by hydride transfer reagents. L 3 T 0 P 0 C 3

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E.L. Eliel and S.H. Wilen, Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994. W. Carruthers and I. Coldham, Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis , Cambridge University Press, UK, 2000. Jerry March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure, JohnWiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1992. F.A. Carey and R.J. Sunburg, Advanced Organic Chemistry, Part B: Reactions and Synthesis, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2001. F.A. Carey and R.J. Sundberg, Advanced Organic Chemistry PART A Structure and Mechanisms, Kluwer Academic and Plenum Publishers, New York, 2000.

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Pre-requisites: Nil Total Hours: 42

L T P C 0 0 3 2

Studies of diode and transistor characteristics, rectifiers and regulators, experiments with op-amps, negative feedback amplifiers, electronic voltmeter and ammeter, active filters, RC oscillators, LC oscillators, timers and multivibrators, instrumentation amplifier, frequency to voltage converter, phase locked loop circuits, modulation and demodulation, experiments on digital principles, digital logic circuit design, experiments with micro processors, micro controllers and programming, displays and interfacing References: 1. Zbar, Albert P.Malvino and Michael A.Miller , Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual Part B, Tata Mc-Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, 1994 2. Albert Paul Malvino, Electronic Principles, 5th Edition, Tata Mc-Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi,1993 3. Albert Paul Malvino and Donald P.Lcach , Digital Principles and Applications, 5th Edition, Tata Mc-Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, 1994 4. Ramesh S. Gaonkar , Microprocessor Architecture: Programming and its Applications with the 885/8080A latest edition (5th edition),Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, Bangalore, Madras, 2002 5. Thomas L. Floyd, Digital Fundamentals, 9th edition, Prentice Hall, 2005 6. M.Morris Mano, Digital Design, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 2001 7. M.Morris Mano, Digital Design, 4th edition, Prentice Hall, 2006

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L T P C 4 0 0 4

Module 1 (10 hours) Addition of angular momenta, Clebsch-Gordon coefficients, tensor operators, Wigner-Eckart theorem, identical particles, distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions, exchange degeneracy, projection operator, bosons and fermions, Slater determinant, Pauli's exclusion principle Module 2 (14 hours) Stationary perturbation theory, first and second order eigenvalue, degenerate perturbation theory, applications effect, time dependent perturbation, transition rate, approximations, scattering theory, Born approximation, applications approximation to wave function and energy to- harmonic oscillator, Zeeman effect, Stark Fermi golden rule, sudden and adiabatic partial wave analysis, variational method and

Module 3 (10 hours) Maxwells equations, plane waves and perturbation theory, transition probability, absorption and emission, dipole transitions and selection rules, forbidden transitions, spontaneous emission, simulated emission Module 4 (8 hours) Relativistic effects, Klien-Gordon equation, Dirac equation, Dirac matrices, spinors, positive and negative energy solutions, physical interpretation, nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation References: 1. David. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, 2nd Ed, Pearson Education, 2005 2. J. J. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Addison Wesley, Revised Ed., 1999 3. R. Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, 2nd Ed., Springer, 1994 4. L. I. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics, 3rd Ed., McGraw Hill, 1968 5. Constantinescu and Magyari, Problems in Quantum Mechanics, Pergamon, 1974

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Pre-requisite: Nil Total hours: 42 hrs Module 1 (10 hours) Classification of condensed matter - crystalline and noncrystalline solids, liquids, crystalline solids bonding and internal structure of solids - van der Waals forces, dispersion, orientational and inducting interactions, ionic, covalent and metallic bonds stability considerations, the hydrogen bond, forces of repulsion, coordination number, cohesive energy of a solid, crystal structure and reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone, X-Ray diffraction, structure factor and extinction rules, ideas of wave vector and vector space, Bragg condition in vector form, experimental determination of crystal structures - Laue method, rotating crystal and powder method Module 2 (10 hours) Vibrations of a classical lattice - normal modes of lattice and its normal mode spectrum, quantummechanical picture - second quantization of phonons, phonon specific heat, phonon density of states, thermal expansion, heat capacity of solids Einstein and Debye models, thermal conductivity - lattice conductivity, electronic contribution thermal conductivity of metals high, low, and very low temperature range values Module 3 (12 hours) Drude model, basic assumptions, electrical and thermal conductivity based on Drude theory, Fermi-Dirac statistics, free electrons, density of allowed wave vectors, Fermi momentum, energy and temperature, electrical and thermal conductivity, failures of the free electron model, band theory of solids - nearly free electron model, tight binding approximation, dependence of electron energy on the wave vector (E-k diagram), periodic potential, density of states, Bloch theorem, Bloch functions, Kronig-Penny model, electrons in periodic potential, orbitals in a band, band symmetry and Brillouin zones Module 4 (10 hours) Quantum theories of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, spin waves and magnons, domain structure of ferromagnetic substances, antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and ferrites, Superconductivity - Meissner effect, London equation, type I and II superconductors, thermodynamics, superconducting band gap, Cooper pairs, flux quantization, BCS theory, Josephson effect, squids References: 1. Ashcroft and Mermin, Solid State Physics, Harcourt Asia, 2001 2. Kittel C, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Wiley, 2007 3. Rosenberg, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Oxford University Press, 1995 4. Michael Marder, Condensed Matter Physics, Wiley, 2004 5. P. M. Chaikin, Principles of Condensed Matter Physics. Cambridge University Press, 2000

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Module 1 (6 hours) Programming with MATLAB Basics, code fragments, functions, good programming practices, testing and debugging, MATLAB for plotting and graphics Module 2 (12 hours) Finding the roots of a function - bisection, Newton-Raphson method, secant method, convergence, applications to quantum Mechanics, the propagator method, double well, one-dimensional crystal etc. systems of linear equations - Gauss, Gauss-Jordan elimination, matrix inversion, MATLABs linear equation solver, systems of non-linear equations, Newtons method, applications in non linear dynamics Module 3 (12 hours) Lagrange interpolation, the Airy pattern, Hermite interpolation, cubic spline interpolation, MATLABs interpolation routines, approximation of derivatives, curve fitting by least squares, general least squares fitting, least squares method and orthogonal polynomials, non linear least squares fitting Module 4 (12 hours) Numerical integration, quadrature, simpsons and trapezoidal method, errors and corrections, Romberg integration, MATLABs integration routines, ordinary differential equations - Eulers method, Runge-Kutta methods, convergence, adaptive step sizes, applications to quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, introduction to Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods

L T P C 3 0 0 3

References: 1. Paul DeVries and Javier Hasbun: A First Course in Computational Physics, 2nd ed, Jones and Bartlett, 2010 2. Tao Pang: An Introduction to Computational Physics, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, 2006 3. S. S. Shastry: Introductory methods of numerical analysis, 3rd ed, Prentice-Hall of India, 2003

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Prerequisite: Nil Total Hours: 42 hrs Module 1 (11 hours) Principles of cell structure and functions, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, Membrane structure and organization, Compositions of cell membranes, Electrical properties of membranes, Membrane transport proteins, Transport across cell membranes and its mechanism, Ion Channels Module 2 (11 hours) Cytoskeleton, Cytoskeleton and cell motility, Cell organelles-Nucleus, Ribosome, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Vacuoles, Endoplasmic reticulum, Peroxisomes, Endocytosis and exocytosis, Entry of viruses and toxins into cells, Intracellular vesicular transport, Intracellular compartmentalization and protein sorting. Module 3 (10 hours) Cell cycle, Cell division, Mitosis and Meiosis, Molecules involved in cell cycle, Cell adhesion and extracellular matrix, Cell junctions, Cell interactions in development and tissue formation, Cell cycle regulation, Apoptosis, Cancer development. Module 4 (10 hours) Membrane bound receptors, Autocrine, Paracrine and Endocrine models of actions, Signal amplifications, Role of cAMP in signal transduction, G proteins, Phosphorylation of protein kinases, Cell lines, Stem cells, Tissue Engineering. References: 1. B. Alberts, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, and M. Raff, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th Edn., Garland Science, 2008. 2. H. Lodish, A. Berk, C. A. Kaiser, and M. Krieger, Molecular Cell Biology, 6 th Edn., W. H. Freeman, 2007. 3. G. M. Cooper and R.E. Hausman, The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 4th Edn., Sinauer Associates Inc., 2006. 4. G. Karp, Cell and Molecular Biology, 5th Edn., Wiley, 2007. 5. J. E. Clis, N. Carter, K. Simons, and J. V. Small,, Cell Biology, 3rd Edn., Academic Press, 2005.

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L T P C 0 0 3 2

Module 1: Qualitative analysis of multifunctional organic compounds, Organic estimations based on functional groups. Separation Techniques. Module 2: Preparation of simple organic compounds and their identification by spectroscopic methods.

References: 1.Brian S. Furniss, A.I. Vogel, A.R. Tatchell, A.J. Hannaford, P.W.G. Smith, Vogels Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry, Longman and Scientific Technical, New York, 1989 2. F.G. Mann and B.C. Saunders, Practical Organic Chemistry, Longman, London, 1983

Experiments in solid state physics synthesis, characterization and measurements on materials References: 1. R.A. Dunlop, Experimental Physics, Modern Methods, Oxford University Press, New York, 1988 2.A.C.Mellisinos, Experiments in ModernPhysics, AcademicPress,1996 3. G. L. Squires, Practical Physics, Cambridge University Press, 1999

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Prerequisites: Nil Total Hours: 42hrs Module 1 (8 hours) Semiconductor materials, electronic grade silicon, Czochralski crystal growth, silicon shaping, crystal structure, energy bands, density of states, intrinsic carrier concentration, donors and acceptors, concept of band diagram (E-k and Energy vs. Distance) Module 2 (12 hours) Carrier drift, mobility effects, carrier diffusion, diffusion current density, carrier injection, Poissons and continuity equations, excess carriers, generation and recombination processes, high field effects, excitons formation, various types and properties quantitative analysis, shallow and deep impurities, high doping effects, screening, Mott transition, semiconductor hetero-junctions Module 3 (10 hours) Oxidation growth mechanisms and kinetics, oxidation techniques and systems, oxide properties, redistribution of dopants at interface, oxidation of polysilicon, oxidation-induced defects, lithography optical, electron beam, X-ray and ion beam lithography Module 4 (12 hours) Diffusion models of diffusion, Ficks one dimensional diffusion equation, atomic diffusion mechanisms, measurement techniques, fast diffusants in silicon, diffusion in SiO 2, diffusion enhancements and retardations, ion Implantation range theory, implantation equipment, annealing, shallow junctions, high energy implantation References:

nd

nd

2. Sze S. M., Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology, 2 edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2000 3. Ben G. Streetman and Sanjay Banerjee, Solid State Electronic Devices, Pearson Education, 2002 4. Donald A Neaman, Semiconductor physics and devices, McGraw Hill, 2003

Pre-requisites: PH2004 - Electromagnetics Total Hours: 42 hrs

L T P C 3 0 0 3

Module 1 (12 hours) Introductory concepts of laser and properties of laser beam, Einstein coefficients and light amplification, line broadening mechanisms, laser rate equation three level and four level systems variation of laser power around threshold, optimum output coupling Module 2 (10 hours) Optical resonators. modes of rectangular cavity quality factor, ultimate line width of the laser mode selection, Q switching different techniques, mode locking in lasers techniques for mode locking, spherical resonators

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Module 3 (10 hours) Laser systems Neodymium based lasers, CO2 laser and dye lasers, semiconductor lasers junction lasers, LED, free electron lasers Module 4 (10 hours) Applications of lasers - laser in industry and medicine, laser in precision measurements, laser induced fusion, light wave communications, laser in science, spatial frequency filtering and holography, defense applications of lasers References: 1. Ajoy Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Lasers theory and applications, 1 st edition Mcmillan India Ltd, 1984 2. Orazio Svelto, Principles of laser, 4th Edition Plenum Publishing corporation New York, 1998 3. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, John Wiley and sons 3rd edition, 1985

Module 1 (12 hours) Introduction to treatment of data, probability distributions - hypergeometric distribution, Chebyshevs theorem, inferences concerning means - point estimation, tests of hypothesis, hypotheses concerning one mean, operating characteristic curves, inferences concerning variances - estimation, hypotheses concerning one variance, two variances, inferences concerning proportions - hypothesis concerning one and several proportions, analysis of r c tables, nonparametric tests - sign tests, rank-sum tests, tests of randomness, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests, curve fitting - method of least squares, inference based on least squares estimators, curvilinear regression, multiple regression, correlation, multiple linear regression, analysis of variance Module 2 (14 hours) Light scattering and fluctuations - fluctuations and time-correlation functions, ensemble averaged timecorrelation functions, the spectral density, basic light scattering theory, results from electromagnetic theory, molecular approach to light scattering, scattering geometries, the light scattering experiment, coherence properties of scattered electric field, photoelectric detection of the scattered electric field, optical mixing spectrometers, scattered electric field, susceptibility fluctuations, intensity and spectrum of scattered light, approximation methods in scattering, small angle X-Ray scattering, small angle neutron scattering. Module 3 (8 hours) Microwave spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, spin resonance spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy Module 4 (8 hours) Scanning electron microscopy, function of SEM subsystems, SEM imaging modes, transmission electron microscopy , phase-contrast microscopy, confocal microscopy References : 1. Richard A. Johnson, Probability and Statistics for Engineers, 6 th Edition, Pearson Edn., 2000 2. Craig F. Bohren and Donald R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, Wiley-Interscience 1998

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3. Bruce J. Berne and Robert Pecora, Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and Physics, Dover, 2000 4. Benjamin Chu, Laser light scattering-basic principles and practice, Dover Publications, 2nd Edn., 2007 5. Colin N. Banwell and Elaine M. McCash, Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, Tata McGrawHill, 1994 6. Willard, Merritt, Dean and Settle, Instrumental methods of analysis ,6th edition, CBS ,1986 7. J. Goldstein, D Newbury, David Joy, Patrick Echlin, Eric Lifshin, Linda Sawyer and Joseph Michael, Scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray micro analysis, 3rd Edition, Springer, 2003 8. David B. Williams and C. Barry Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics, 2nd Edition, Springer, 2009 9. Peter W. Hawkes and John C. H. Spence (Editors), Science of microscopy, Vol-1, Springer, 2006 10. Jerome Mertz, Introduction to optical microscopy (1 st Edn), Roberts and Company, 2009 11. Th. Zemb and P. Lindner (Editors), Neutrons, X-Ray and light-scattering methods applied to Soft Condensed Matter Physics, North Holland, 2002 12. Ryong Joon Roe, Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer science, Oxford University Press, 2000

Prerequisites: Nil Total Hours: 42hrs

L T P C 3 0 0 3

Module 1 (10 hours) Scope and importance of environmental studies, renewable and non-renewable resources, natural resources - forest, water, mineral, food and energy and land resources, study of problems, role of individual in conservation, equitable use of resources and sustainable lifestyles Module 2 (10 hours) Eco systems - structure and function, producer, consumer and decomposer, energy flow, ecological succession, food chains, forest, grassland, desert and aquatic ecosystems, biodiversity and conservation Module 3 (14 hours) Environmental pollution, air, water, soil, marine, thermal, noise pollution, nuclear pollution - radiation hazards and environmental degradation, measurement of radioactivity, effects on human health, radiation protection, methods of prevention of pollution - waste management, disaster management, environmental ethics, sustainable development models, water conservation, climate change and global warming - ozone layer depletion, carbon dioxide accumulation, nuclear holocaust management, consumerism and waste products, nuclear waste products and management, plastic wastes and electronic waste Module 4 (8 hours) Human population and environment, family welfare, human health and environment, human rights References: 1. 2. E. Bharucha, Environmental Studies, Universities Press, 2005. UGC Syllabus on environmental studies available at http://www.ugc.ac.in/inside/syllabus.html

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L T P C 0 0 3 2

Programming with MATLAB/ C/ C++/ FORTRAN (Choice of student) algorithms for root extraction, solving linear equations, interpolation and extrapolation, curve fitting, numerical integration and solving ordinary differential equations with applications to physics problems

References: 1. Paul DeVries and Javier Hasbun: A First Course in Computational Physics, 2/e, Jones and Bartlett, 2010 2. Tao Pang: An Introduction to Computational Physics, 2/ed, Cambridge University Press, 2006 3. S. S. Shastry: Introductory methods of numerical analysis, 3/ed, Prentice-Hall of India, 2003

Pre-requisites: Nil

Students may undertake short research projects under the direction of members of the faculty, normally 3 hrs/week. A written, detailed report describing the project and results is required. Students may opt to undertake internship in the field of Physics / Applied Physics / Technology with help from the Department of Training and Placement, by undergoing in-plant training of at least one-month duration in reputed industries/research centers in the country. The industrial training is expected to be undertaken during the semester recess. The student shall make a final report on this training and an oral presentation before an evaluation committee.

Module 1 (12 hours) Physical origin of nonlinear polarizations, second order nonlinear phenomena general methodology, electromagnetic formulation and optical second harmonic generation, phase matching, other second order nonlinear processes, Optical Parametric Oscillation (OPO), frequency up-conversion, quasi phase matching, quasi phase matching in crystal dielectric waveguides Module 2 (10 hours) Third-order nonlinear optical processes, optical Kerr effect, stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, four-wave mixing and phase conjugation, frequency tuning in parametric oscillation

L T P C 3 0 0 3

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Module 3 (10 hours) Linear electro-optic effect, electro-optic modulation, amplitude modulation, phase modulation of light, transverse electro-optic modulators, high-frequency modulation considerations, transit-time limitations to high-frequency electro-optic modulation, traveling wave modulators, electro-absorption and electroabsorption modulators, electro-optical effect in Liquid crystals Module4 (10 hours) Noise in optical detection and generation introduction, measurement of optical power, noise - basic definitions and theorems, spectral density function of a train of randomly occurring events, shot noise, Johnson noise, spontaneous emission noise in laser oscillators, detection of optical radiation, optically induced transition rates, photomultiplier, noise mechanisms in photo multipliers, heterodyne detection with photomultipliers References : 1. Amnon Yariv and Pochi Yen, Photonics Optical electronics in modern communications 6th edition, Oxford University Press 2007 2. Ajoy Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics, 1st edition, Cambridge University Press 1991 3. Robert W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Academic Press, New York 2008 4. N Bloembergen , Nonlinear Optics, Benjamin Press, New York 1964

Pre-requisites: Basic course on Quantum Mechanics Total Hours: 42hrs

L T P C 0 0 6 3

Module 1 (10 hours) General properties of nuclei, nuclear decay, nuclear binding energies and forces, nuclear forces - charge independence, isospin symmetry, nuclear models - shell model, evidence for shell structure, magic numbers, filling of the shells, ground state and excited states, liquid drop model Module 2 (10 hours) Nuclear decay, basic beta decay process, gamma decay, angular momentum and parity selection rules, life times for gamma emission, theory of alpha particle emission, nuclear reactions classification and kinematics Module 3 (12 hours) Neutron interactions, flux, attenuation and cross section, neutron moderation, fission process, chain reactions, criticality and multiplication, nuclear reactors, reactor operation, fuels and nuclear cycles, components of nuclear reactors, reactor design and types, fusion, thermonuclear reactions in plasma, breeder reactors, fast-breeders, nuclear shielding and reactor safety Module 4 (10 hours) Radiation interaction with matter, radiation detection, detectors and counters, radiation protection and environment, radiocarbon dating, nuclear tracer techniques in industry, production of isotopes, Isotope separators, applications to medicine and agriculture

References: 1. Kenneth S. Kran, Introductory Nuclear Physics, John Wiely & Sons, 1988 2. R. L. Murray: Nuclear Energy An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems and Applications of Nuclear Processes, 5th Edition, Butterworth-Heineman, 2000 3. J. R. Lamarsh and A. J. Baratta: Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2001

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4. Enge, H.A, Introduction to Nuclear Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1971 5. R. Stephenson, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 2nd Intl. ed., McGraw-Hill, 1958

PH4051 SEMINAR

Pre-requisites: Nil Total Hours: 28 Each student shall prepare a technical paper and make a 30 minute oral presentation on a current research topic relevant to Physics / Applied Physics / Technology to the rest of the class, after scrutiny and approval of the faculty- in charge of seminar. The oral presentation and a final technical report are evaluated by faculty members in charge of seminar.

PH4052 PROJECT

Pre-requisites: Nil Students are required to take up an investigative project in Physics / Applied Physics / Technology in Physics department or in any other department in NIT Calicut to complete the degree requirements. The project work commenced in VII Semester may be continued in VIII Semester, normally 3 hours/week. At the end of the semester, a thesis written in an acceptable style describing an original research project, and a successful oral defense of the thesis topic before a project evaluation committee are required.

Prerequisite : Nil

L T P C 3 0 0 3

Module 1 (9 hours) General foundations of economics - engineering economics - nature of the firm - forms of organizations - objectives of firms - demand analysis and estimation - individual - market and firm demand determinants of demand - elasticity measures and business decision making - price - income and cross elasticities of demand - theory of the firm - Production functions in the short and long run - law of variable proportions - returns to scale. Module 2 (11 hours) Cost concepts - short run and long run costs - fixed - variable and semi variable costs - economies and diseconomies of scale - real and pecuniary economies - product markets - market structure competitive market - imperfect competition (monopoly - monopolistic & oligopoly) and barriers to entry pricing in different markets - differential pricing. Module 3(11 hours) Break even analysis - time value of money - discounting and compounding - interest rates - depreciation replacement and maintenance analysistypes of maintenance - types of replacement problem determination of economic life of an asset - replacement of an asset with a new asset - capital budgeting. Module 4 (11 hours) Macroeconomic aggregates - gross domestic product - economic indicators - models of measuring national income - inflation - fiscal and monetary policies - monetary system - money market - capital market Indian stock market - development banks - changing role of Reserve Bank of India.

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Reference 1. Gregory.N.Mankiw - Principles of Macro Economics, Cengage Learning,4 th Edition, 2007 2. Gupta, S.B., Monetary Economics, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi,4th Edition, 1998. 3. Guruswamy,S., Capital Markets, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi,2nd edition, 2009. 4. James L.Riggs, David D. Bedworth, Sabah U. Randhawan , Engineering Economics, Tata Mcgraw - Hill 4th Edition , 2004. 5. Misra, S.K. and V.K. Puri, Indian Economy Its Development Experience, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, 27th Edition, 2009 6. Pindyck, R.S,, D.L Rubinfield and P.L. Mehta , Microeconomics, Pearson Eductaion,6 th Edition, 2008 7. Samuelson, P.A. and W.D. Nordhaus ,Economics,Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. 1998. 8. William .J.Baumol and Alan.S. Blinder, Micro Economics Principles & Policy, Cengage Learning, Indian Edition 9th edition, 2009. PN : Supplementary materials would be suggested / supplied for select topics on Indian economy

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L T P C 3 0 0 3

Module 1 (10 hours) Review of basic quantum mechanics and solid state physics, bulk semiconductor physics, macroscopic, mesoscopic physics, classification based on characteristic length scales, size quantization, quantum confinement in solid-state systems, semiconductor homojunctions and heterojunctions - crystal growth techniques Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD), characterization of semiconductor multilayers, semiconductor heterostructures, band engineering, layered structures, quantum wells and barriers, superlattices Module 2 (10 hours) Nanoscale probes scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning probe microscopy STM, AFM and NSOM, fabrication - lithography and pattern transfer, nanoimprint technologies, etching wet and dry chemical etching, ion implantation, metallization, dielectric deposition, selected area growth and overgrowth Module 3 (12 hours) Dimensionality 2D, 1D and 0D structures, quantum wells infinitely deep square well, square well of finite depth, parabolic well, occupation of subbands, modulation doping, optical properties of semiconductor quantum wells, semiconductor superlattices, formation of minibands, 1D and 0D structures (quantum wires and quantum dots), practical realization Module 4 (10 hours) Lasers, modulators, detectors and solar devices - basic principles of double-heterojunction semiconductor lasers, single and multiple quantum well lasers, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), quantum wire and quantum-dot lasers, quantum well optical modulators, photodetectors, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs), solar cells References: 1. M. J. Kelly, Low-dimensional semiconductors: materials, physics, technology, devices, Oxford University Press, 1995. 2. J. H. Davies, Physics of low dimensional semiconductors, Cambridge University Press, 1998 3. J. Singh, Semiconductor devices, basic Principles, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2001 4. M. Jaros, Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Microstructures, Oxford University Press, 1989

PH4053 PROJECT

Pre-requisites: Nil

L T P 0 0 12

C 6

Students are required to take up an investigative project in Physics / Applied Physics / Technology in Physics department or in any other department in NIT Calicut to complete the degree requirements. The project work commenced in VII Semester may be continued in VIII Semester, normally 3 hours/week. At the end of the semester, a thesis written in an acceptable style describing an original research project, and a successful oral defense of the thesis topic before a project evaluation committee are required.

42

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