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Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian

Period C 3/9/09

Review Questions pg. 348


1. Reading Focus
a. What impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia?
i. In the 1800s, Westerners (the Dutch, British, and French) used
modern armies and technology to colonize much of Southeast Asia.
The Dutch East India Company went out to dominate the rest of
Indonesia. At the same time, rulers of Burma clashed with the
British and suffered major losses. Eventually, Britain annexed
Burma. The British also pushed south through Malaya. The bustling
port of Singapore grew up at the southern tip of the peninsula. Soon,
natural resources and profits from Asian trade flowed through
Singapore to enrich Britain. The French were building an empire on
the Southeast Asian mainland. French missionaries began winning
converts in what is today Vietnam. Vietnamese officials tried to
suppress Christianity by killing converts and missionary priests. The
French invade and seized a chunk of Vietnam. Over the next
decades, France would capture al of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They
introduced modern technology and expanded commerce and
industry.
b. How did Siam maintain its independence?
i. Sandwiched between British-ruled Burma and French Indochina lay
the kingdom of Siam (present day Thailand). King Mongkut did not
underestimate western power. Before inheriting the throne, he had
studied foreign languages and had read widely on modern science
and mathematics. He thus had a greater understanding of the West
than many other Asian rulers. He had to accept some unequal
treaties, yet he escaped becoming a European colony. He and his son
set Siam on the road to modernization. They reformed government,
modernized the army, and hired western experts to train Thais in new
technology. They abolished slavery and gave women some choice in
marriage. Mongkuts son bargained to remove the unequal treaties of
Britain and France. Eventually, both Britain and France accepted,
making Siam a neutral zone between them.
c. How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands?
i. American, British, and French whaling and sealing ships looked for
bases to take on supplies. The Untied States secured an unequal
treaty from Samoa, gaining rights such as extraterritoriality and a
naval station. Other nations gained similar agreements. Americas
sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. After resistance,
America annexed Hawaii. Also, the Spanish American War took
place in the Philippines.
2. Identify
Villalobos Eamon Barkhordarian
Period C 3/9/09

a. French Indochina
i. The French were building an empire on the Southeast Asian
mainland. French missionaries began winning converts in what is
today Vietnam. Vietnamese officials tried to suppress Christianity by
killing converts and missionary priests. The French invade and
seized a chunk of Vietnam. Over the next decades, France would
capture al of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
b. Mongkut
i. King Mongkut did not underestimate western power. Before
inheriting the throne, he had studied foreign languages and had read
widely on modern science and mathematics. He thus had a greater
understanding of the West than many other Asian rulers. He had to
accept some unequal treaties, yet he escaped becoming a European
colony. He and his son set Siam on the road to modernization. They
reformed government, modernized the army, and hired western
experts to train Thais in new technology. They abolished slavery and
gave women some choice in marriage.
c. Liliuokalani
i. Americas sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. When
Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani tried to reduce foreign influence,
American planters overthrew her in 1893. American then annexed
Hawaii in 1898.
d. Spanish-American War
i. In 1898, war broke out between Spain and the United States over
Cuba’s independence from Spain. During the Spanish-American
war, American battleships destroyed the Spanish fleet, which was
stationed in the Philippines. Filipino leaders declared their
independence from Spain. Rebel soldiers threw their support into the
fight against Spanish troops. The Filipino rebels expected the
American to recognize their independence. When it didn’t end that
way, Filipinos were disappointed. Filipino nationalist Emilio
Aguinaldo led Filipinos to battle against American forces.
Thousands of Americans and hundreds of thousands of Filipinos
died. In the end, Americans crushed the rebellion. Yet, the US set to
modernize the Philippines in a number of ways.
e. Emilio Aguinaldo
i. The Filipino rebels expected the American to recognize their
independence. When it didn’t end that way, Filipinos were
disappointed. Filipino nationalist Emilio Aguinaldo led Filipinos to
battle against American forces. Thousands of Americans and
hundreds of thousands of Filipinos died. In the end, Americans
crushed the rebellion.