Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 329

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent

TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 1
Do not delete this graphic elements in here:
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10 Fundamentals
TMO54048
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network
Planning) B10 Fundamentals
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 2
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 2
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 3
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 3
Objectives
By the end of the course, participants know:
GPRS Session Management,
TBF Management,
Location Management,
System Information Management,
Cell Selection and Re-selection,
Power Control and RLC Measurements,
Coding Scheme and Link Adaptation,
Radio Resources Re-allocation,
(E)GPRS Planning Principles,
(E)GPRS Network Planning,
Network Evolution Scenarios,
(E)GPRS QoS Enhancement Features,
(E)GPRS with GSM Capacity Enhancement Features
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 4
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 4
Objectives
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 5
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 5
Table of Contents
Switch to notes view!
Page
1 Basics 9
1.1 Service Overview GPRS 10
1.2 Service Overview EGPRS 11
1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes 12
1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 13
1.4 Dual Transfer Mode 14
1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 15
1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes 16
1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture 17
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture 19
1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane) 22
1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support 23
1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS 24
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects 25
1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure 43
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding 45
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding 48
1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview 53
1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) 54
1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism 55
1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS 56
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS 57
1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept 61
1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe 62
1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels 63
1.23 Master/Slave PDCH concept 65
1.24 Temporary Block Flow 66
1.25 Resources Sharing 68
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination 72
1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS 75
1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS 76
1.29 Attach procedure 77
1.30 PDP context activation 79
1.31 Location management 80
1.32 Routing Area 81
1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 82
1.34 TBF establishment 83
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access 84
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access 85
1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access 86
1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH 88
1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH 89
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH 91
1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects 94
1.40 TRX Classes Concept 95
1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS 98
2 Features 99
2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs) 100
2.1.1 Radio Network Impact 101
2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode 102
2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact 103
2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink 105
2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 107
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 108
2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 112
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 6
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 6
Table of Contents [cont.]
Switch to notes view!
Page
2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation 113
2.5.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 115
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working 116
2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 119
2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing 120
2.7.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 122
2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation 123
2.8.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 124
2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management 125
2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements 126
2.10.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 127
2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements 128
2.11.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 129
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 131
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview 132
3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established 136
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established 138
3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM 145
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode 147
3.6 GPRS redirection 158
3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview 160
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements 161
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm 165
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control 168
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control 172
3.12 Link adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics 175
3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control 176
3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision 178
3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up 179
3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic 181
3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview 182
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state 183
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs 186
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs 191
3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation 194
3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH 195
3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access 196
4 General (E)GPRS planning principels 197
4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level) 198
4.2 Packet data throughput 199
4.3 Reference performance point 200
4.4 Saturation effect 201
4.5 Cell area and throughput 203
4.6 Throughput <-> C/I 204
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 207
5.1 GPRS network planning 208
5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning 209
5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis 211
5.4 GPRS traffic calculationand PS traffic 212
5.5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile 214
5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications 215
5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior 216
5.8 Customer questionnaire 217
5.9 Traffic Model (Example) 219
5.10 User mapping 220
5.11 Multi-Service 221
5.12 QoS per User Application 222
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation 223
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods 228
5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result 233
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 7
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 7
Table of Contents [cont.]
Switch to notes view!
Page
6 (E)GPRS Network design 235
6.1 General 236
6.2 Frequency planning 239
6.3 Throughput 241
6.4 Link budget 242
6.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies 245
6.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies 246
6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service 247
6.8 GPRS Analysis 248
6.9 LA and RA planning 252
6.10 Quality of Service 262
7 Considerable features to react (E)GPRS target 265
7.1 General 266
7.1 Optimization campaign on parameters 267
7.2 MPDCH 268
7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption 271
7.4 User multiplexing 272
7.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing 273
7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation 274
7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation 276
7.8 Cell Reselection 277
7.8 GPRS Power Control 279
7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release 280
7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release 281
7.8.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process 283
7.8.3 Non-DRX feature 284
8 GPRS introduction into operational GSM network 285
8.1 General 286
9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS 293
9.1 Frequency Hopping 294
9.2 -cell 296
9.3 Dual Band 298
9.4 Concentric cell 301
10 E-GPRS 303
10.1 E-GPRS main differences 304
11 GPRS traffic calculation example 307
11.2 User and area distribution determination 310
11.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic 311
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic 312
11.5 Network capacity calculation 316
11.6 Traffic dimensioning 320
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 8
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 8
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 9
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 9
1 Basics
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 10
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 10
1 Basics
1.1 Service Overview GPRS
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPRS is a GSM feature
It has been introduced to provide end-to-end packet-switched (PS)
data transmission between MS users and fixed packet data networks
GPRS provides efficient utilization of the radio resources:
multislot operation
flexible sharing of radio resources between MS
resources are allocated only when data are transmitted
Charging is mainly based on data volume transmitted and not on the
connection time
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 11
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 11
1 Basics
1.2 Service Overview EGPRS
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
ETSI standardized solution and can be introduced in two ways:
CS enhancement: Enhanced circuit-switched data or ECSD
PS enhancement for GPRS EGPRS
EGPRS relies on the introduction of 8-PSK (Eight Phase Shift Keying)
modulation technique:
Same qualities in terms of generating interference on an adjacent
channel as GMSK makes possible to integrate EDGE channels into
existing frequency plan
8-PSK Symbol rate = GMSK Symbol rate, but one symbol represents now 3
bits instead of 1 bit in GMSK increased data rates
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 12
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 12
1 Basics
1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes
Four QoS classes (or traffic classes) are defined:
The conversational class will be very likely dedicated to real-time
conversation. Speech and video conferencing tools are some
examples of such applications
The streaming class corresponds to a real-time stream and enforces
mainly constraints on jitter. Video streaming or PoC (Push to tak
over Celullar) are typical applications for the streaming traffic class.
The interactive class corresponds to mainly to traditional Internet
applications like web browsing. Some differentiation can be done
between two services by using the traffic handling priority attribute.
The background class is typically corresponding to Best Effort
services. Applications that make use of this class might be e-mail
downloading, SMS, or even ftp downloading.
PFC procedure
Packet Flow Context (PFC) is a concept introduced starting with R99 3GPP release to ensure that the BSS
is involved in the R99 QoS negotiation. The interest of PFC is to differentiate on the radio interface the
conversational and streaming traffics and to reserve resources for these traffics. Without the PFC, the
BSS only knows the R97/98 QoS parameters (correspond to the interactive and background R99 QoS
classes). It enables to perform admission control and QoS based resource allocation in the BSS.
R99 QoS is taken into account if the PFC (Packet Flow Context) procedures are supported by the MS, the
BSS and the SGSN. It allows the BSS B9 to handle streaming and interactive traffics and also to negotiate
the QoS parameters.
R97/98 QoS should be also taken into account (OP12) if PFC is not supported by the MS or the SGSN in
order to handle interactive traffics or some specific applications as PoC (Push over Cellular).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 13
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 13
1 Basics
1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
QoS subfeatures are of great interest in traffic-driven networks
(number of sites determined by the traffic to be carried, not by the
coverage per site). They will define the actual traffic shape in the
cell by allocating, in a selective manner, resources for (CS and) PS
calls. Here a traffic capacity gain is expected (higher traffic levels
can be handled with feature activated than without).
Radio interface impact
a) Support of PFC feature by RLC/MAC :
- PFC_FEATURE_MODE: this 1 bit field is a part of the R99 extensions in the GPRS_Cell_Options. It is broadcasted on
BCCH (SI13) or PBCCH (PSI1, PSI13 and PSI14) and indicates to the MSs if the network supports the PFC feature.
- The PFC impact on the one phase access: "If the PFC_FEATURE_MODE is set in the system information and if a PFC
exists for the LLC data to be transferred then the PFI shall be transmitted along with the TLLI of the mobile
station in the RLC extended header during contention resolution. The PFI is not used for contention resolution but
is included to indicate to the network which PFC shall initially be associated with the uplink TBF.
b) RLC/MAC/ messages impacts:
- PI bit (PFI indicator) is created, it indicates the presence of the optional PFI field:
0 PFI is not present
1 PFI is present if TI field indicates presence of TLLI
The PFI field indicates a PFI coded as it is defined in TS 44.018.
RLC/MAC messages impacted are:
Packet Resource Request : PFI field is added
(EGPRS) Packet DL ACK/NACK: PFI field is added (if a Channel Request Description is also present)
UL (EGPRS) RLC data blocks : PFI field is added after the TLLI field (see 44.060 10.2.2 and 10.3a.2).
PFI is included in the following SM messages :
Activate_PDP_Context_Accept,
Activate_Secundary_PDP_Context_Accept,
Modify_PDP_Context_Request (sent by the network) and
Modify_PDP_Context_Accept (in case the request to modify is sent by the MS).
PFC_FEATURE_MODE is included in the MS_Network_Capability I.E. (which is sent in the Attach_Request and
RA_Update_Request GMM messages).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 14
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 14
1 Basics
1.4 Dual Transfer Mode
This feature allows a dual transfer mode capable MS to use a radio
resource for CS traffic and simultaneously one or several radio
resources for PS traffic.
Single slot operation DTM MSs are not supported in Alcatel BSS
because the implementation of these MSs is difficult compared to
the throughput expected in PS services. Only multislot operation
DTM MSs are supported.
In Alcatels implementation, the Gs interface is required to support
DTM to ensure CS paging co-ordination. It avoids the BSS to ensure
the paging co-ordination.
While in dual transfer mode, the BSS only allocates full rate PDCH to
the MS.
The dynamic Abis feature allows to simplify the radio resource
allocations. It avoids defining new TBF re-allocation triggers.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 15
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 15
1 Basics
1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Some restrictions towards BSS in deploying DTM exist. They are
presented below:
Half rate
O Support of half rate configurations (one single timeslot encompassing one half
rate circuit channel + one half rate packet channel) was not considered in the
first implementation of DTM.
Inter-cell handovers
O The number of inter-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls, as an
inter-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session. Therefore,
handover causes having a low priority should be inhibited for the time the MS
is operating in DTM.
Intra-cell handovers
O The number of intra-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls, as an
intra-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session.
Hierarchical networks
O As (E)GPRS are preferentially offered in macro cells, the BSS shall ensure that
at least one PDCH can be used in micro cells to re-direct the MS towards the
macro cells. It means that the BSS shall allow a PDCH used by a MS operating in
DTM mode to be shared by other (E)GPRS MS.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 16
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 16
1 Basic
1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes
Multislot
Class
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
RX Timeslots 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8
TX Timeslots 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 4 6 2 3 4 4 6 8
Sum of
Timeslots
2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
EGPRS MS is characterized by two multislot classes:
GPRS multislot class
EGPRS multislot class
Typically, EGPRS multislot class < GPRS multislot class
E.g. the multislot class of the mobile can be 3 RXs + 2 TXs (class 6) in pure GPRS
mode and 2 RXs + 1 TX (class 2) in pure EGPRS mode
Type 1: class 1-12, class 19-29 recognized as class 10
Type 2: class 13-18, allocation is limited to max. 5+5 timeslots
(check also P.323)
MS type
Type 1 are simplex MSs, i.e., without duplexer: they are not able to transmit and receive at the same time
Type 2 are duplex MSs, i.e., with duplexer: they are able to transmit and receive at the same time
Rx
The maximum number of received time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The receive TS shall be
allocated within window of size Rx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no transmitted TSs
shall occur between receive TS within a TDMA frame. This does not take into account the measurement window
(Mx).
Tx
The maximum number of transmitted time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The transmitted TS shall
be allocated within the window of size Tx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no received
TS shall occur between transmit TS within a TDMA frame.
SUM
The maximum number of transmitted and received time slots (without Mx) per TDMA frame.
The meaning of Ttb, Tra et Trb changes regarding MS types.
For SIMPLEX MS (type 1):
- Ttb is the minimum time (in time slot) necessary between the Rx and Tx windows.
- Tra is the minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of the next TDMA in order to
be able to open a measurement window.
- Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.
For DUPLEX MS (type 2):
- Ttb is the minimum time necessary between 2 Tx windows belonging to different frames.
- Tra is the minimum time necessary between 2 Rx windows belonging to different frames in order to be
able to open a measurement window.
- Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 17
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 17
1 Basics
1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture
(E)GPRS defines a network architecture dedicated to packet service
domain, with radio access, which allows service subscriber to send
and receive data in an end-to-end packet transfer mode
(E)GPRS uses the BSS architecture, but defines a fixed network
(GPRS backbone) which is different from the NSS, and which links
the BSS to PDNs (packet data networks). The BSS is used for both
circuit-switched and (E)GPRS services
The BSS has 2 clients:
the MSC, for circuit-switched services (A interface)
the GPRS backbone network, for GPRS (Gb interface)
O one or more 64 kbit/s channels on one or more 2 Mbit/s links
O Gb interface: Layer 1 specified in GSM 08.14
The protocol stack defined in the stage 2, GSM 03.60
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 18
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 18
1 Basics
1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture [cont.]
(E)GPRS general architecture
Gb
Interface
PDN
GPRS
backbone
Gi
Packet Switched services domain
BSS
MSC/VLR PSTN
Circuit Switched services domain
A
Interface
GPRS network = IP network
Note: Additional IP routers might be used to route the information between the GSNs (intra-PLMN
backbone network). All the elements connected to this backbone have private permanent IP addresses.
Signaling protocols:
MAP/TCAP/SCCP/MTP on Gr, Gd and Gc (through the SGSN for the latter),
GTP/UDP/IP on Gn, BSSAP+/SCCP/MTP on Gs,
GMM/SM/LLC on Gb/Um.
Gc: for Network-Requested PDP contexts Activation (the GGSN asks the HLR for SGSN Routing Information).
Gs: defines the Network Mode of Operation I. It allows to perform LA + RA combined Location Update, and
PS and CS Paging Coordination.
Gr: exchange of Subscription Information at Attachment Phase.
Additional interfaces:
Gf (to the EIR).
Gd to deliver the SMS to the mobiles via the GPRS network (SGSN option and subscriber feature).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 19
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 19
1 Basics
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture
Packet Control Unit (PCU) function is defined by the GSM standard:
controls the (E)GPRS activity in a cell
handles RLC/MAC functions
may be either implemented in the BTS, BSC or the SGSN
Alcatel choice:
PCU implemented in a new network element, A 9135 MFS (Multi-BSS Fast
Packet Server)
smooth and cost effective introduction of the GPRS
The standard specifies that the PCU function shall be implemented in one of the 3 following entities:
BTS,
BSC,
after the BSC (in the SGSN for instance)
The implementation of the PCU functions determines the position of the Gb interface. ALCATEL chose the
MFS integration in order to offer a faster implementation inside the BSS as well as an easier maintenance
and supervision.
MFS: Multi BSS Fast packet Server.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 20
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 20
1 Basics
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.]
Alcatel packet-switched service domain architecture:
BTS
Internet/
Intranet
SGSN GGSN MFS BSC
Fire-
wall
Other
PLMN
Packet domain
Gn Gb Ater
Abis
MS
Gi
Gp
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 21
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 21
1 Basics
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.]
GPRS backbone is an IP network and is composed of routers:
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), at the same hierarchical level as the
MSC, which is linked to several BSSs. It keeps track of the individual MSs
location and performs security functions and access control
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), which is linked to one or several
data networks, provides interworking with external packet-switched
networks and is connected with SGSNs via an IP-based GPRS backbone
network
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 22
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 22
1 Basics
1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane)
NS
Network Service
GSM 08.16
RLC
Radio Link Control
GSM 04.60
http
Hypertext Transfer
Protocol
relay
MAC
MediumAccess
Control
GSM 04.60
LLC
Logical Link Control
GSM 04.64
Physi cal
Link Layer
L1bis
Layer 1bis
GSM 08.14
Um Abis / Ater MS MFS BTS Gb SGSN
L1-GCH
Layer 1GPRS
Channel
L2-GCH
Layer 2GPRS
Channel
BSSGP
BSS GPRS Protocol
GSM 08.18
UDP
User Datagram
Protocol
RFC 768
TCP
TransmissionControl
Protocol
RFC 793
or:
IP
Internet Protocol
RFC 791
GTP
GPRS Tunneling
Protocol
GSM 09.60
Gn GGSN
SNDCP
Subnetwork
Dependent
Convergence
Protocol
GSM 04.65
Ethernet
FR
Frame Relay
ATM
Asynchronous
Transfer Mode
E1 (PCM30)
G.703 / G.704
Gi
rel ay
relay
TCP
Transmission Control
Protocol
RFC 793
RLC
Radio Link Control
GSM 04.60
MAC
MediumAccess
Control
GSM 04.60
L1-GCH
Layer 1 GPRS
Channel
L2-GCH
Layer 2 GPRS
Channel
NS
Network Service
GSM 08.16
BSSGP
BSS GPRS Protocol
GSM 08.18
LLC
Logical Link Control
GSM 04.64
SNDCP
Subnetwork
Dependent
Convergence
Protocol
GSM 04.65
IP
Internet Protocol
RFC 791
GTP
GPRS Tunneling
Protocol
GSM 09.60
IP
Internet Protocol
RFC 791
and/or:
or:
UDP
User Datagram
Protocol
RFC 768
TCP
Transmission Control
Protocol
RFC 793
or:
Ethernet
FR
Frame Relay
ATM
Asynchronous
Transfer Mode
E1 (PCM30)
G.703 / G.704
IP
Internet Protocol
RFC 791
and/or:
or:
A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

e
x
a
m
p
l
e
www
WorldWide Web
Physi cal
RF Layer
Physical
Link Layer
Physical
RF Layer
L1bis
Layer 1bis
GSM 08.14
For the exact purposes of the tracing, please refer to Introduction to GPRS & E-GPRS Quality of Service
Monitoring It can be said from this protocol stacks diagram that after allocation of a GCH by the BSC to
the MFS, the data carried over the GCH are transparent for the BSC.
The RLC function defines the procedures for segmentation and reassemble of LLC PDUs into RLC/MAC
blocks and, in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, for the Backward Error Correction (BEC) procedures
enabling the selective retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks. In RLC acknowledged
mode of operation, the RLC function preserves the order of higher layer PDUs provided to it. The RLC
function provides also link adaptation. In EGPRS in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, the RLC
function may provide Incremental Redundancy (IR).
The MAC function defines the procedures that enable multiple mobile stations to share a common
transmission medium, which may consist of several physical channels. The function may allow a mobile
station to use several physical channels in parallel, i.e., use several time slots within the TDMA frame.
For the mobile station originating access, the MAC function provides the procedures, including the
contention resolution procedures, for the arbitration between multiple mobile stations simultaneously
attempting to access the shared transmission medium. For the mobile station terminating access, the
MAC function provides the procedures for queuing and scheduling of access attempts.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 23
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 23
1 Basics
1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support
BTS: Support of EGPRS (EDGE) in all BTS A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution
equipped with TRA transceiver:
O G1 MK2 and G2 with DRFU: GPRS only, CS-1 and CS-2 only
O A9100 EVOLIUM (G3): GPRS only, CS 1-4
O A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution (G4): (E)GPRS, CS 1-4, MCS 1-9
micro BTS: support of EDGE in micro BTS A9110-E
O Micro BTS A9110 (M4M): GPRS only, CS 1-4
O Micro A9110-E (M5M): (E)GPRS, CS 1-4, MCS 1-9
BSC A9120 (G2)
MFS A9135
TC A9125 (Transcoder)
O G2 and G2.5
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 24
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 24
1 Basics
1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS
Q
I
010
011
100
101
111
110
001
000
Q
I
111
110
001
000
100
101
010
011
I
Q
110
100
000
010
101
001
011
111
t
Q
I
010
011
100
101
111
110
001
000
Q
I
010
011
100
101
111
110
001
000
Q
I
111
110
001
000
100
101
010
011
Q
I
111
110
001
000
100
101
010
011
I
Q
110
100
000
010
101
001
011
111
I
Q
110
100
000
010
101
001
011
111
t
Q
I
Q
I
dB
(147 bits)
P
N
0
-20
8-PSK = Phase Shift Keying
8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information
is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time
An 8PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio
path which allows to tripled the data transmission rates
GMSK = the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying belongs to a subset of phase modulations
8-PSK = 8-state Phase Shift Keying
8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information is conveyed by the amplitude
of the carrier which varies over time.
An 8-PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path, which allows to triple
the data transmission rates.
Modulation gross bit rate
The normal burst is divided into 156.35 symbol periods. A normal burst has a duration of 3/5.2
seconds (577 s). (3GPP TS 05.02).
For GMSK modulation, a symbol is equivalent to a bit (3GPP TS 05.04)
A GMSK burst is composed of 156.35 bits (6 tail bits + 26 training sequence bits + 116 encrypted bits
+ 8.25 guard period (bits))
Modulation gross bit rate = (156.35 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 270 Kbit/s
For 8-PSK modulation, one symbol corresponds to three bits (3GPP TS 05.04).
An 8-PSK burst is composed of 156.35 x 3 = 468.75 bits (18 tail bits + 78 training sequence bits + 348
encrypted bits + 24.75 guard period (bits)).
Modulation gross bit rate = (468.75 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 810 Kbit/s
Amplitude varies constant Carrier envelope
EGPRS GPRS / EGPRS Packet radio service
810 Kbit/s 270 Kbit/s
Gross bit rate per
carrier
200 KHz 200 KHz Channel spacing
Phase modulation Frequency modulation Modulation type
8-PSK GMSK
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 25
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 25
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects
TRA GMSK output power 8-PSK output power
900 MP 45 W / 46.5 dBm 15 W / 41.8 dBm
900 HP 60 W / 47.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm
1800 MP 35 W / 45.4 dBm 12 W / 40.8 dBm
1800 MP 60 W / 47.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm
900 EDGE+ 45 W / 46.5 dBm 30 W / 44.8 dBm
1800 EDGE+ 35 W / 45.4 dBm 30W / 44.8 dBm
Nominal output power (P
N
) of the transmitter represents the
average power during the active burst
GMSK average power is identical to GMSK peak power
8-PSK peak power is equal to GMSK peak power but the 8-PSK average
power is lower than the peak power
8-PSK power < GMSK power
the difference is called average power decrease (APD) or power
back off
G3 TREs are not able to handle the 8-PSK modulation. Only G4 TREs (also called TRA) are EDGE capable.
The TRA sensitivity is as follows :
GMSK : - 111 dBm.
8-PSK : - 108 dBm for MCS5, - 99 dBm for MCS9.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 26
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 26
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]
Unbalanced BTS configuration
O Case 1: BS_TXPWR_MAX=0
O Case 2: BS_TXPWR_MAX<>0
APD, takes into account the
BS_TXPWR_MAX and consequently the
Effective GMSK Sector Power
O Always 8 PSK pwr GMSK pwr
APD = 0 if 8 PSK pwr > GMSK pwr
O Used by Link Adaptation process
8-PSK Delta power ( 8-PSK) considers
only the GMSK sector power without the
BS_TXPWR_MAX
O 8-PSK 3 dB indicates that is a high
power TRE
GMSK POWER
8-PSK POWER
ATTENUATION
BS_TXPWR_MAX
8-PSK
APD
GMSK LEVELING
LEGEND
OUTPUT PWR
@ BTS ant.
connector
SECTOR
GMSK
8-PSK TRE 1
8-PSK TRE 2
HP TRE 1 MP TRE 1 HP TRE 1 MP TRE 2
-8PSK
= APD
-8PSK
= APD
APD = 0
Case 1 Case 2
APD: Average Power Decrease
The back-off between average GMSK and 8-PSK output power comes from physics since 8-PSK is a non
constant envelope modulation unlike GMSK.
As a consequence power amplifiers can not be used at their maximum power. This results in a difference
between mean output powers for GMSK and 8-PSK modulations.
Output power handling
The BTS sets all the TRE which transmit GMSK output powers at the same level which is the minimum
value among the maximum TRE output power in a sector and in a given band.
On a TRE, the maximum GMSK output power is higher than the maximum 8-PSK output power.
An O&M parameter (BS_TXPWR_MAX) allows a static power reduction of the maximum GMSK output
power of the sector.
The TRE transmit power in 8-PSK shall not exceed the GMSK transmit power in the sector.
The BTS determines for each TRE, the difference between the 8-PSK output power of the TRE and the
GMSK output power of the sector (8-PSK delta power).
According to the 8-PSK delta power value, a TRE is called High Power or Medium Power.
When a GCH channel is activated, the BTS sends the 8-PSK delta power to the MFS.
Together with BS_TXPWR_MAX (static power reduction), the 8-PSK delta power allows the MFS to
determine:
- a possible attenuation (BS_TX_PWR) for the 8-PSK DL RLC block emission, in order not to exceed the
GMSK power of the sector (for GMSK DL RLC block, the attenuation is BS_TXPWR_MAX).
- an Average Power Decrease which is the difference between the 8-PSK output power and the GMSK
output power after having taken into account BS_TXPWR_MAX. The Average Power Decrease is taken
into account in the link adaptation tables.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 27
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 27
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]
Example:
GSM 900, a mix BTS sector configuration is considered:
O ANc combined with 4 TRA (TRAs = EGPRS capable TRE):
O TRE 1 (BCCH): 60W GMSK (25W in 8-PSK)
O TRE 2..4: 45W GMSK (15W in 8-PSK)
O BS_TXPWR_MAX = 2 dB;
RESULTS:
1
st
step: Output power at BTS antenna connector (after combiner and
duplexer stage):
O TRE 1 GMSK = 43.4 dBm; 8-PSK = 39.6 dBm
O TRE 2..4 GMSK = 42.1 dBm; 8-PSK = 37.4 dBm
2
nd
step: LEVELING (BTS automatic GMSK power balancing):
O TRE 1..4 GMSK = 42.1 dBm (Sector GMSK power)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 28
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 28
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]
3
rd
step: 8-PSK Delta computation
O TRE 1 = 42.1 39.6 = 2.5 dBm < 3 dBm recognized as HP TRE
O TRE 2..4 = 42.1 37.4 = 4.7 dBm recognized as MP TREs
4
th
step: static attenuation (only on GMSK power)
O TRE 1..4 GMSK = 42.1 2 = 40.1 dBm (Effective GMSK Sector Power)
5
th
step: GMSK power 8-PSK power ?
O YES, since 40.1 dBm 39.6 dBm 37.4 dBm no reduction of 8-PSK
power
6
th
step: APD computation
O APD TRE 1 (BCCH) = 40.1 39.6 = 0.5 dBm
O APD TRE 2..4 = 40.1 37.4 = 2.7 dBm
3GPP 05.08 constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency: BCCH
frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level. A tolerance has been
introduced with 8-PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed If APD is
greater than 2 dB, a static power attenuation should be applied or EGPRS capability
should not be activated on the BCCH TRE
Radio Network Planning Impact
Frequency hopping is not recommended for E-GPRS (MCS-1 to MCS-9) Therefore, the system is allocating
a higher priority for the packet-switched traffic for non-hopping TRX in a cell. In addition, the non-
hopping TRX may benefit from a special radio planning with higher reuse cluster size, in order to ensure
higher C/I conditions and offer better throughputs, both for GPRS and EDGE. APD should be considered in
the A9155 planning tool for the throughput estimation (based on interference calculation per pixel
approach) and also to determine the 8-PSK coverage. The IR gain should also be considered in the
throughput estimation. 3 dB can be taken for the average IR gain. PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is a flag at cell
level which indicates whether the operator wishes to allocate packet on the BCCH TRX with highest
priority. Actually, is recommended to activate GPRS/EDGE traffic on the BCCH TRX due to its high RCS.
However the activation of EDGE on the BCCH TRX should be performed cautiously. 3GPP Rec. 05.08 has
defined a constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency. This frequency shall usually be
transmitted at a constant level. A tolerance has been introduced with 8-PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB
is allowed. Depending on the configuration in the BTS, it may happen that the difference between GMSK
and 8-PSK power on the BCCH TRX is greater than 2dB. A possible solution for this constraint, in case of a
BTS (e.g. ANc combined) equipped only with MP TRX (most of the cases) is presented below: The BCCH
MP TRX will be replaced by a HP TRX (to take also advantage from 8-PSK 25W power and <3dB)
BS_TXPWR_MAX will be set to 2 dB The difference between GMSK and 8-PSK power on BCCH TRX will be:
(42.1 2) 39.6 = 0.5 dB which respects the ETSI constraint. The drawback is that CS and GPRS service
may be affected by the GMSK output power reduction.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 29
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 29
Reminder : limitation of B8 Release
OThe BTS is levelling the output power of each TRE on a sector basis.
OThe level of output power, on a frequency band basis, is adapted to the lower TRE
output in the sector after coupling(s).
OFor example, if a sector is configured with a TRGM (35W) and a TRAG (45W), the
output power of the sector is automatically levelled to 35W.
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
Introduction (1 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 30
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 30
Reminder : coupling stage
OAntenna coupling is the stage which handles
combining functions as well interface with
the antennas.
OAntenna Network Combiner (ANc) performs
these functions for up to 4 TRXs.
OAs shown in the figure, if the
by-pass function is used (up to 2 TRX),
the TRE signal doesnt suffer the 3dB
attenuation.
OFor configurations of higher capacity (more
than 4 TRX), a combiner stage can be added
(ANY)
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
S plitter S plitter WBC
TR X 1
TX RXn RXd
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
S plitter S plitter WBC
TRX 3
TX RXn RXd
TRX 4
TX RXn R Xd
TXA RXA RXdivA RXdivB RXB TXB
S plitter S plitter WBC
TR X 1
TX RXn RXd
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
S plitter S plitter WBC
TRX 3
TX RXn RXd
TRX 4
TX RXn R Xd
S plitter S plitter S plitter S plitter WBC WBC
TR X 1
TX RXn RXd
TR X 1
TX RXn RXd
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
S plitter S plitter S plitter S plitter WBC WBC
TRX 3
TX RXn RXd
TRX 3
TX RXn RXd
TRX 4
TX RXn R Xd
TRX 4
TX RXn R Xd
TXA RXA RXdivA RXdivB RXB TXB
Antenna A
TXA - RXA -RXdivB
Splitter WBC
TRX 1
TX RXnRXd
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
Splitter
Splitter
LNA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter Splitter WBC
Antenna B
TXB- RXB - RXdivA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter
LNA
-1 dB
-3 dB
By-pass
By-pass
Introduction (2 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 31
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 31
Reminder : coupling stage
OAs the lowest TRE output power defines
the final one on the sector, in case of
un-symetric configuration, the more
coupled stage influences the less one.
OThis is shown on the example here,
when adding a 3
rd
TRX (the by-pass
function is removed on both sides)
OThe 3dB loss impacts all TRX
of the cell
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
Antenna A
TXA - RXA - RXdivB
Splitter WBC
TRX 1
TXRXnRXd
TRX 2
TXRXnRXd
Splitter
Splitter
LNA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter Splitter WBC
Antenna B
TXB- RXB - RXdivA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter
LNA
TRX 3
TXRXnRXd
Introduction (3 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 32
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 32
Two options available in B9:
As of before : Balanced Configuration
O One single output power for all TRX in the same band
New Alternative : Unbalanced Configuration
Goal of the new Unbalanced Configuration:
Benefit of higher output power for coverage gap/ better indoor penetration
Benefit of the higher power provided by latest TRX versions
Principle :
2 output power levels in the cell
Based on the concentric cell principle
O The cell is declared as a concentric cell
Automatic mapping of TRE of highest power in the outer zone
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
Description of the new feature
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 33
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 33
Unbalanced TRX Output Power in B9
OThe principle of the feature is to define a specific concentric cell in which the output
power balancing is performed on a zone basis instead of sector basis.
OWhen the feature is activated, the BSS system ensures that the more powerful TREs are
mapped on TRX configured on the outer zone, and the less powerful ones, on the TRX
configured on the inner zone.
Pre-requisites
OThe cell is of type concentric mono-band
OThe cell is not shared
Benefits
OAllows a smooth introduction of High Power GMSK (e-g better coverage, without
replacing all TREs
OUpgrade of 2 TRXs / cell in by-pass mode towards 3 TRXs w/o impact on coverage and
w/o need of Low Loss Configuration (higher CAPEX)
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
Description of the new feature (1 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 34
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 34
Specificities of concentric cells
O A concentric cell is a cell made of two virtual zones : one Inner and one Outer
O A group of TREs transmits with higher power (Outer Zone), while the other group transmits with
lower power (Inner Zone). All the TREs work on the same band and cover the same cell.
O There is only one BCCH, and it must be managed by the group of TREs of higher power in order to
guarantee the coverage of both zones.
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
Description of the new feature (2 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 35
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 35
Feature activation
Activated at OMC through a new parameter: EN-Unbalanced-Output-Power
When activated, it introduces a new kind of concentric cell. In this cell, the
balancing of the output power will be performed on a zone basis.
The existing current mechanism is kept if the feature not activated.
Algorithm & System impacts
The BTS informs the BSC, for each TRE, about the GMSK and 8PSK output power
(after coupling).
The BTS informs the OMC through HW audit about the output power of each TRE for
GMSK and 8PSK modulation
When the feature is activated, the BSC maps on the HP TRE the TRX configured by
the operator on the outer zone and on the others the TRX of the inner zone.
The information of unbalanced output power activated is transmitted to the BTS by
CDM at sector level. For each TRE, the output power computed by the BSC after
TRX/RSL mapping is also transmitted to the BTS by CDM.
1 Basics
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS sector
Description of the new feature (3 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 36
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 36
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
TRE MP (45W) TRE HP (60W)
At antenna connector 46,5 47,8
Not combi ned 45,5 46,8
Combi ned 42,1 43,4
Type of TRE
Output power in dBm, in GMSK (900 MHz)
ANB
MP
HP
60W
Outer zone Inner zone
Without new
feature
With new
feature
Without new feature With new feature
45,5 46,8 45,5
-BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER
45,5
Example 1 :
2 TRE not combined
1 Medium Power TRX
+1 High Power TRX
Example 1 :
2 TRE not combined
1 Medium Power TRX
+1 High Power TRX
Examples of configurations (1 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 37
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 37
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
TRE MP (45W) TRE HP (60W)
At antenna connector 46,5 47,8
Not combi ned 45,5 46,8
Combi ned 42,1 43,4
Type of TRE
Output power in dBm, in GMSK (900 MHz)
Example 2 :
3 Trx in mixed mode:
2 TRX MP (46,5 dBm)
1 TRX HP (47,8 dBm) in
ByPass
Example 2 :
3 Trx in mixed mode:
2 TRX MP (46,5 dBm)
1 TRX HP (47,8 dBm) in
ByPass
Outer zone Inner zone
Without new
feature
With new
feature
Without new feature With new feature
42,1 46,8 42,1
-BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER
42,1
ANC
MP MP HP
B
P
Examples of configurations (2 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 38
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 38
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
TRE MP (45W) TRE HP (60W)
At antenna connector 46,5 47,8
Not combi ned 45,5 46,8
Combi ned 42,1 43,4
Type of TRE
Output power in dBm, in GMSK (900 MHz)
Example 3 :
3 Trx in combined mode:
2 TRX HP (47,8 dBm),
1 TRX MP (46,5 dBm)
Example 3 :
3 Trx in combined mode:
2 TRX HP (47,8 dBm),
1 TRX MP (46,5 dBm)
Outer zone Inner zone
Without new
feature
With new
feature
Without new feature With new feature
42,1 43,4 42,1
-BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER
42,1
ANC
HP HP MP
Examples of configurations (3 / 3)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 39
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 39
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
HMI name Definition Sub-
system
Instance OMC-R
access
Range / Def
value
Recommended rule
EN-Unbalanced-
Output-Power
This parameter activates the feature
Unbalanced output power on the cell
BSC Cell CAE/Change
able
0-1
Def:0
When the flag is activated;
it is recommended to set
the TPM parameter to 0 for
all TRX of the outer zone.
Innerzone-
Output-Power
This parameter defines the BTS output
power on the inner zone for a
concentric cell wtih the Unbalanced
TRX output power feature activated
BSC Cell CAE/Display
ed
0-255
Def:255
Mandatory rule:
This parameter is displayed
and meaningfull only if the
En-Unbalanced-Output-
Power is set to True
Outerzone-
Output-Power
This parameter defines the BTS output
power on the outer zone for a
concentric cell with the,Unbalanced
TRX output power feature activated
BSC Cell CAE/Display
ed
0-255
Def:255
Mandatory rule:
This parameter is displayed
and meaningfull only if the
En-Unbalanced-Output-
Power is set to True
TRE-8psk-
Capability
This parameter gives the 8PSK power
level that a TRE is capable to emit
BSC TRE CAE/Display
ed
0-255
Def:255
TRE-GMSK-
Capability
This parameter gives the GMSK power
level that a TRE is capable to emit
BSC TRE CAE/Display
ed
0-255
Def:255
Logical parameters
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 40
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 40
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
OMC-R parameters view (at cell level)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 41
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 41
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
Impact on Counter RMSPw3 (MAX_POWER_PER_TRX)
Counter definition: Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS
antenna output connector in dBm. The power takes into account the
different losses (cables, internal combiners) and the internal/ external
levelling but it does not take into account the BS-TXPWR-MAX, attenuation
required by the OMC_R.
Impact of the feature: If the feature is activated, the counter shall be set,
by the BTS, to the power required by the BSC for the corresponding TRE.
(TRE on which the TRX is mapped).
Counters & Indicators impact
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 42
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 42
Impact on RNO indicators
Creation of 2 new indicators in B9, calculated per TRX from the counters RMSPw3 and
RMS20. RMS20 provides the band (GMS or DCS) of the TRX.
The 2 indicators are expressed in Watts, and defined as follows:
RMS_DL_Power_max_TRX_900:
if RMS20= 6 or 2 or 0 (GSM850 or E-GSM or P-GSM)
then RMS_DL_Power_max_TRX_900 = log(RMSPW3)
else RMS_DL_Power_max_TRX_900 = "0"

RMS_DL_Power_max_TRX_1800:
if RMS20= 1 or 3 (DCS1800 or DCS1900)
then RMS_DL_Power_max_TRX_1800 = log(RMSPW3)
else RMS_DL_Power_max_TRX_1800 = "0"
Both are consolidated at cell level by performing the sum on all TRX.
1 Basics
Unbalanced TRX Output Power
Counters & Indicators impact
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 43
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 43
1 Basics
1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure
In order to be transmitted over the air interface, the LLC data is
segmented at RLC layer into packets, called (E)GPRS radio blocks
Radio block characteristics:
a block is the smallest data unit assigned to an user
one radio block is always entirely assigned to one user; inside a block
there is no multiplexing of different users possible
the whole information belonging to one radio block is transmitted upon
channel coding, in a certain timeslot over 4 consecutive TDMA frames
the data amount carried in one (E)GPRS radio block is:
O 456 bits in GPRS (GMSK modulation)
O 464 bits in EGPRS (GMSK modulation)
O 1392 bits in EGPRS (8-PSK modulation)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 44
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 44
EGPRS Radio Block (data transfer)
RLC/MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions
RLC Data Field: LLC PDUs bytes; contains one or two RLC data blocks
Block Check Sequence (BCS): for error detection of the data part
Header Check Sequence (HCS): for error detection of the header part
1 Basics
1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure [cont.]
GPRS Radio Block (data transfer)
MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions
RLC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions
RLC Data Block: bytes from one or more LLC PDUs
Block Check Sequence (BCS): used for error detection
MAC header RLC data block RLC header BCS
BCS HCS RLC/MAC header RLC data block 1 RLC data block 2
only MCS-7/8/9
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 45
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 45
1 Basics
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding
Channel coding provides error detection and error correction
Essential for managing the impairments on the air interface
Data rates in GPRS on the air interface
The netto data rates on the air interface depend on the channel coding
procedure
For (E)GPRS, different channel coding levels are applied depending on
the actual radio conditions
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 46
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 46
1 Basics
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Four different coding schemes, CS-1 to CS-4, are defined for the
GPRS Radio Blocks carrying RLC data, and are applied depending
from the actual radio conditions
The first step of the channel coding procedure is to add a Block
Check Sequence (BCS) for error detection
For CS-1 to CS-3, the second step consists of pre-coding USF
(except for CS-1), adding four tail bits and a half rate
convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give
the desired coding rate
For CS-4 there is no coding for error correction
The most protected mode is CS-1 which is therefore always used for
GPRS signaling (even for EGPRS)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 47
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 47
1 Basics
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Scheme Modulation
schemes
Coding schemes
for RLC data block
Code
rate
Maximum data rate
per TS (RLC payload)
[kbps]
CS-4 GMSK No coding 1.00 20.0
CS-3 GMSK Half rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.75 14.4
CS-2 GMSK Half rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.66 12.0
CS-1 GMSK Half rate convolutional
coding
0.50 8.0
8
12
14.4
CS-1
CS-2
CS-3
CS-4 20
GMSK
modulation
Header + Protection
Maximum User Payload [kbps]
USF BCS
rate 1/2 convolutional coding
456 bits
puncturing
Interleaving of GPRS Radio Block over 4
consecutive TDMAs (4 PDCH)
GPRS RADIO BLOCK
Release B8
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 48
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 48
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding
Nine different coding schemes are defined: MCS-1 to MCS-9
First step of the EGPRS coding procedure, is to add a Block Check
Sequence (BCS) to each RLC data block, for error detection
Second step consists of adding six tail bits (TB) and a 1/3 rate
convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give
the desired coding rate
The Pi (puncturing schemes) for each MCS correspond to different
puncturing schemes achieving the same coding rate
O Puncturing is a technique of removing bits in predetermined locations of the
data block after the block has been channel coded
O MCS-9, MCS-8, MCS-7, MCS-4, MCS-3: are possible P1, P2, and P3
O MCS-6, MCS-5, MCS-2, MCS-1: P1 and P2 are possible
The puncturing process consists of transmitting only some of the coded bits obtained after the rate 1/3
convolutional coding. Depending on the considered puncturing scheme, different coded bits are transmitted.
Therefore, when the receiver receives two versions of the same RLC block sent with two different puncturing
schemes, it obtains additional information leading to an increased decoding probability.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 49
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 49
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
MCSs are divided into 4 different families: A, A, B and C
Each family has a different basic payload unit:
O 37 bytes: family A
O 34 bytes: family A (padding)
O 28 bytes: family B
O 22 bytes: family C
When switching to MCS-3 or MCS-6 from MCS-8, 3 or 6 padding bytes, are
added to the data bytes
Within a family different throughputs are achieved by transmitting a
different number of basic payload units within one block
impact on retransmission
O Offset the GPRS disadvantage on retransmission
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 50
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 50
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
8.8
11.2
14.8
11.2 x 2 = 22.4
14.8 x 2 = 29.6
11.2 x 4 = 44.8
padding (MCS-3/6) 54.4
14.8 x 4 = 59.2
MCS-1
MCS-2
MCS-3
MCS-4
MCS-5
MCS-6
MCS-7
MCS-8
MCS-9
8.8 x 2 = 17.6
GMSK
8-PSK
Header + Protection
Maximum User Payload [kbit/s]
37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets
MCS-3
MCS-6
Family A
MCS-9
28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets
MCS-2
MCS-5
MCS-7
Family B
22 octets 22 octets
MCS-1
MCS-4
Family C
34 +3 octets 34 +3 octets
MCS-3
MCS-6
Family A
padding
MCS-8
34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets
The main GPRS imperfections are linked to:
the design of the GPRS coding schemes which were designed independently from the others with
their own data unit.
the fact that once the information contained in an radio block has been transmitted with a certain
CS, it is not possible via the Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) mechanism to retransmit with
another CS.
- This could lead to the release of the TBF and to the establishment of a new one in order to
transmit the LLC frame.
EGPRS coding schemes have been designed to offset this problem. Four MCS families have been created
with for each of them a basic unit of payload.
This allows the re-segmentation of the RLC data blocks when changing of modulation and coding
schemes (within the same family).
- Example: if one MCS-6 radio block has not been received correctly by the receiver and if radio
conditions have degraded in the meantime, it is possible to re-send the same information in two
radio blocks with MCS-3 (more protection).
The level of protection applied (MCS usage) in case of retransmissions is in line with the radio
conditions.
The different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units
within one radio block. When 4 payload units are transmitted, these are split into 2 separate RLC blocks
(i.e., with separate sequence numbers).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 51
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 51
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
MCS-9 basic payload unit = 37 bytes = 296 bits
MCS-9 RLC data block = 2 x basic payload unit =2* 296 bits = 592 bits
MCS-9 RLC payload throughput= 592 bits / 10 ms = 59.2 Kbps
USF HCS
RLC/MAC
header
E FBI
RLC Data Block
= 592 bits
BCS TB E FBI
RLC Data Block =
592 bits
BCS TB
36 bits
3 bits
135 bits 1836 bits 1836 bits
SB=8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits
puncturing puncturing
P3 P1 P2 P1 P2 P3
45 bits 612 bits 612 bits
1392 bits
Rate 1/3 convolutional coding Rate 1/3 convolutional coding
puncturing
Interleaving of the EGPRS Radio Block over 4 consecutive TDMAs
EGPRS MCS-9 RADIO BLOCK
MCS-9 Example:
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 52
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 52
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Scheme Modulation
schemes
Coding schemes
for RLC data block
Code
rate
Maximum data rate per TS (RLC
payload)
[kbps]
MCS-9 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
1.00 59.2
MCS-8 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.92 54.4
MCS-7 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.76 44.8
MCS-6 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.49 29.6
MCS-5 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.37 22.4
MCS-4 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
1.00 17.6
MCS-3 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.80 14.8
MCS-2 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.66 11.2
MCS-1 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional
coding, punctured
0.53 8.8
Uplink
transfer
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 53
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 53
1 Basics
1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview
(M)CS schemes are dynamically selected based on the quality of the
radio channel, in order to maximize the throughput
Two different mechanisms exists for GPRS and EGPRS:
CS Adaptation in case of GPRS TBF mode and
Link Adaptation (LA) in case of EGPRS TBF mode
Selection of the most suitable (M)CS is based on measurements
reported by the MS for the downlink path and by the BTS for the
uplink path
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 54
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 54
1 Basics
1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ)
In the ARQ method, when the receiver detects the presence of
errors in a received RLC block, it requests and receives a re-
transmission of the same RLC block from the transmitter
The retransmission can be performed using:
Type-I ARQ mechanism. This applies for both GPRS and EGPRS mode
Type-II hybrid ARQ mechanism, also called Incremental Redundancy (IR).
This applies only for DL EGPRS mode
IR is optional for the BTS, but is mandatory for the EGPRS MS (3GPP
requirement)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 55
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 55
1 Basics
1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism
In the selective type-I ARQ mechanism, the receiver discards the
erroneous blocks, and indicates in the acknowledgement messages
the reference of these erroneous blocks for their retransmission.
Then, the sending side has to retransmit the erroneous data RLC
blocks
MS
Uplink RLC data block B1 / PDTCH (1)
MFS
Packet UplinkAck/Nack /PACCH (3)
Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (2)
Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (4)
Uplink RLC data block B3 / PDTCH (5)
The Block 2 has been
unsuccessfully received
MS retransmits the uplink
RLC data block B2
With the type 1 ARQ mechanism, the decoding of a re-transmitted RLC block does not use the previously
transmitted versions (not correctly received) of this RLC block. The decoding of a RLC data block is only
based on the current transmission.
The type 1 ARQ mechanism is always used for the GPRS and in uplink for the EGPRS (B8 release case).
In EGPRS, only type I ARQ applies in uplink (B8 release case). The network implicitly sets the type I mode
by ordering the MS to use a specific MCS and setting the resegment bit to 1 in the Packet UL Ack/Nack
message (resegment bit = 1 indicates to the MS that the retransmitted RLC data block shall be resegmented
according to the commanded MCS (next lowest MCS in the same MCS family than the one used for the initial
block)).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 56
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 56
1 Basics
1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS
GPRS CSs are designed independently from the others with its own basic
payload unit size, so the family concept does not exists in GPRS
Before its transmission over the radio interface, the LLC frame is segmented
into payload units according to CS that will be used to transmit the radio
block
In case of erroneous reception, the RLC data block can be retransmitted
only with the same CS (segmentation is not possible)
If the radio conditions have changed and the coding rate is not appropriate to
them, the receiver will never be able to decode the retransmission of the RLC
data block. This will lead to the release of the TBF and the establishment of a
new one in order to transmit the LLC frame
In order to avoid this problem, the choice of the CS on the network side has to
be made carefully. This often results in an non-optimized use of the radio
interface, leading to a reduction of network capacity compared with its
theoretical capacity
G
P
R
S

D
R
A
W
B
A
C
K
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 57
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 57
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS
MCSs have been designed to offset the GPRS disadvantage
MCS family concept is applied
In EGPRS, in case of retransmission request (type-I ARQ) for a RLC data
block, the same or a next lower MCS within the same family is used
The retransmission can be performed with or w/o RLC data segmentation (e.g.
from MCS-9 to MCS-6 w/o, and MCS-6 to MCS-3 with segmentation)
When one RLC data block is retransmitted with a lower MCS, the coding rate is
decreased by two, but the redundancy transmitted is increased
That increases the capability to decode the radio block !
Retransmission operates in connection with the link adaptation
E.g. if the LA mechanism orders the usage of MCS-5 and the first transmission of
an erroneous RLC block was with MCS-6, the transmission will be performed with
MCS-3. The blocks that are sent for the first time will be transmitted with the
last-ordered MCS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 58
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 58
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]
Type-II ARQ (IR) is an efficient combination of 2 techniques:
Automatic Repeat reQuest : in case of error detection in a received RLC block, a
re-transmission of the same RLC data block is requested
Forward Error Correction : adds redundant information to the user information at
the transmitter, the receiver uses the info to correct errors causes by radio
disturbances
In the IR mechanism:
The information which is sent first results from an initial puncturing scheme
(PS1) applied to the encoded RLC data block
If an error is detected by the receiver:
O the received message is stored
O selective retransmission of the RLC data block is requested
O a second puncturing scheme (PS2) is applied to the same MCS, by the sender
O the receiver decodes (combines) the resulting message together with the previously
received message(s)
O multiple retransmission can be requested until decoding succeeds
The type 2 ARQ mechanism or incremental redundancy (IR) is an ETSI function, mandatory for the EGPRS MS receiver
(downlink path) and optional for the BTS receiver (uplink path). In B8 release, the IR feature is only available on the
downlink path. It is important to notice that the IR feature is always running in the EDGE MS receiver (except in case
of MS memory shortage). The DL incremental redundancy is not used for the signaling blocks, the GPRS data blocks
and the data blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. It is only used for the EGPRS data blocks in RLC acknowledged
mode.
In the type II ARQ mechanism (IR):
the first emission of a RLC data block is done using a first puncturing scheme (PS1),
in case of re-transmission of this RLC block, the transmitter uses the same MCS or a MCS of the same family
than the one used for the initial block. On the DL path, depending on the value of the parameter
EN_FULL_IR_DL, re-segmentation of the RLC block may be performed or not,
at the output of the demodulator, the receiver combines the information of soft bits corresponding to the first
transmission of the block and its different re-transmissions, thus increasing the decoding probability of the RLC
block.
Remark : according to the 04.60 (RLC/MAC layers) GSM recommendation, the soft-combining inside the MS
receiver is only performed between an :
- MCSx block and MCSx block (that is the same MCS is used for the re-transmission),
- MCS9 block and an MCS6 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units),
- MCS7 block and an MCS5 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units).
If the "MS OUT OF MEMORY" field is set by the mobile in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message, the type I ARQ shall
apply in the MS receiver (ARQ without IR). This occurs when the memory for IR operation runs out in the MS (that is
when the memory of the MS is full due to the storage of the different versions of a RLC block not correctly decoded).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 59
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 59
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]
puncturing
scheme 1
puncturing
scheme 2
Nack
MS BTS MFS
Data Block
Data Block
Data Block
Data Block
Data Block
Data Block
(1) The BSS sends a DL data block
using the puncturing scheme P1 and
MCS-6. B1 is not successfully
decoded by the MS. The MS stores
the received block
(2) The MS requests a selective
retransmission of the erroneous
block, in the next EGPRS Packet DL
Ack/Nack
(3) The MS retransmits the DL data
block using a new puncturing
scheme P2 and the same MCS-6.
If the block header is correctly
decoded, the MS decodes the data
making soft combination with the
previous transmission
In the puncturing scheme selection for re-transmission, 2 cases have to be considered:
if the selected MCS has not changed : if all the different punctured versions of the data block have been
sent, the procedure shall start over and PS1 shall be used, followed by PS2, then by PS3 (if available for
the considered MCS), so that the PS selection is cyclic,
if the selected MCS has changed : the PS to be used is indicated by the table below.
Previous MCS New MCS Previous PS New PS
PS1 or PS3 PS1 MCS9 MCS6
PS2 PS2
PS1 PS3 MCS6 MCS9
PS2 PS2
MCS7 MCS5 PS1, PS2 or PS3 PS1
MCS5 MCS7 PS1 or PS2 PS2
All other combinations Any PS1

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 60
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 60
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]
B9 release: the IR mechanism is implemented in uplink and
downlink
This mechanism is associated with link adaptation in order to
provide superior radio efficiency on the air interface
IR feature is always running in the EGPRS MS receivers, except when
a memory shortage is reported by the MS the stored packets are
discarded and type-I ARQ is set !
Parameter for IR activation:
EN_FULL_IR_DL which enable or disable the RLC data segmentation for
retransmissions
O EN_FULL_IR_DL = disable; e.g. if MCS-5 is ordered by LA, and the first
transmission was with MCS-6 then, the retransmission is performed with MCS-3
(segmentation on the initial RLC data block, ARQ Type-I)
O EN_FULL_IR_DL=enable; even if MCS-5 is ordered, the retransmission is
performed with MCS-6 (no segmentation, ARQ Type-II)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 61
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 61
1 Basics
1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept
Packet Data Channel (PDCH)
(E)GPRS radio access method = GSM TDMA (8 timeslots per carrier)
One PDCH represents a physical channel (1 timeslot) dedicated to packet
data traffic (GPRS/EDGE), over the radio interface
PDCH group
The available PDCHs are grouped into PDCH groups
One PDCH group contains consecutive timeslots (without TS holes)
belonging to the same TRX, having the same radio configuration
O possible to have hopping and non hopping PDCH groups in one cell
maximum number of PDCH groups/cell is equal to 16 (equal to maximum
number of TRX / cell)
O 16 TRX/cell achieved with help of the B7 feature cell split over 2 BTSs, EVOLIUM BTS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 62
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 62
1 Basics
1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe
12 radio blocks (B0 to B11) form a 52-(E)GPRS multiframe
The frames 25 and 51 are idle frames and the frames 12 and 38 are
used for the PTCCH
One TDMA frame
= 8 TS (4,615 ms)
One PDCH
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 47 48 49 50
One 52 - multiframe (240 ms)
Block B0 Block B1 Block B2 Block B3
16
T
PTCCH
Block B11
51
X
idle
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 63
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 63
1 Basics
1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels
EGPRS is reusing the existing GPRS logical channels
Packet logical channels are mapped in one physical channel (PDCH)
using the technique of multiframing
The sharing of the PDCH is done on blocks basis
PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Channel) used for broadcasting
system information (SI)
PCCCH (Packet Common Control Channel) used to initiate packet
transfer
PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel)
PPCH (Packet Paging Channel)
PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 64
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 64
1 Basics
1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels [cont.]
PTCH (Packet Traffic Channel) used for user data transmission and
its associated signaling
PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) used to carry user data (LLC PDU
segmented is RLC/MAC blocks)
PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel)
O Bidirectional channel, dynamically allocated on block basis, used to carry
control data
O In Alcatel BSS is always allocated on one of the PDCHs on which PDTCHs are
allocated
PTCCH (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel) used for
continuous timing advance mechanism
O Bidirectional channel allocated on the same PDCH as the PACCH
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 65
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 65
1 Basics
1.23 Master/Slave PDCH concept
A PDCH which carries a PCCCH or/and a PBCCH channel is called
Master PDCH (MPDCH)
MPDCH which carries the PBCCH is called Primary MPDCH
O Primary MPDCH is the GPRS BCCH
MPDCH which carries only PCCCH is called Secondary MPCH
All other PDCHs, active as slaves, are called Slave PDCH (SPDCH)
B8 release:
MPDCHs are statically established only on BCCH TRX
Up to 4 MPDCHs can be supported per cell (max Nb_TS_MPDCH=4)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 66
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 66
1 Basics
1.24 Temporary Block Flow
The packet data call is a Temporary Block Flow (TBF)
For a data packet transmission, a temporary physical connection (TBF)
will be set up as an unidirectional link
Each TBF is unidirectional: Uplink TBF and Downlink TBF for the same
mobile are uncorrelated
One TBF allocates radio resources on one or more PDCH and comprise a
number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs
TBF is only temporary and maintained for the duration of the data
transfer
Either the mobile or the network can initiate a TBF
Temporary Flow Identity (TFI):
Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS.
Important:
Since B7, it is possible to establish 32 TBFs per PDCH group (See sub-session 2.2 for PDCH group
definition).
TBF
is a group of blocks dynamically allocated to one MS for one transfer of RLC blocks in one direction inside
one cell.
A Temporary Block Flow is a temporary, unidirectional physical connection across the Um interface,
between one mobile and the BSS. The TBF is established when data units are to be transmitted across
the Um interface and is released as soon as the transmission is completed.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 67
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 67
1 Basics
1.24 Temporary Block Flow [cont.]
TFI (Temporary Flow Identity)
RLC layer
Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS
TFI is unique on a given PDCH, in a given direction
A TBF is addressed by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI)
More than 32 TFI values per TRX (PDCH group) for each direction (i.e. DL
and UL)
TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity)
LLC layer
The TLLI identifies the logical link between the MS and the SGSN
The TLLI is allocated by the SGSN to the MS in Standby and Ready states
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 68
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 68
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing
Two different resource sharing mechanisms exists:
PDCH multiplexing
Multislot usage
Allows optimum usage of the available radio resources
PDCH Multiplexing
PDCH multiplexing refers to the sharing of one PDCH by more than two users
(TBFs)
It occurs when there are more requests for PDCH resources than available PDCHs
A maximum number of UL/DL_TBF can share the same PDCH in UL and DL
direction respectively
O MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH=6; MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH=10
When a PDCH is shared between an UL GPRS TBF and a DL EGPRS TBF, then the DL
EGPRS shall be limited to GMSK (i.e. MCS-4) GPRS MS becomes candidate for
radio resource reallocation
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 69
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 69
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]
Multislot usage
Refers to the case when 1 user can request at once more than 2 PDCH
resources for the data transmission
Up to 5 PDCH on different (but consecutive) timeslots on the same
frequency could be allocated to one mobile at the same time (MS
multislot capability)
O B8 release supports 4+2 slots for Type 1 MS and 5+5 for Type 2 MS
The PDCH blocks will be consecutively transmitted over the PDCH
only if there is no user multiplexing
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 70
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 70
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]
PDCH Multiplexing example:
lets assume that the data for user 1 has a length of 3 blocks (length of
TBF 1=3 blocks) and is transmitted over PDCH #2
as soon as one block of user 1 was entirely transmitted, another user 2
can use the same PDCH #2 to transmit the blocks of its own TBF of e.g.
length = 4 blocks, followed by the user 3 transmission...
the blocks of user 1, user 2 and user 3 will not be transmitted in
consecutive order:
O as soon as one block of user 1 is transmitted, another block of user 2 can be
transmitted, continued with a block of the user 3 over the same PDCH #2
Multislot usage example:
User 1 has (1+1) and users 2 & user 3 have (3+1) MS multislot capability
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 71
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 71
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]
PDCH Multiplexing and Multislot Usage example
User 1:
no multislot
capability
User 2:
withmultislot
capability
User 3:
withmultislot
capability
TFI =5
TFI =9
TFI =13
PDCH 2
PDCH 1
PDCH 3
User 1 User 1
User 2 User 2
User 2
User 2
User 2
User 2
User 2
User 2
User 2
User 3
User 3
User 3
User 3
User 3
User 3 User 3
Multislot capability
Block n+1 n+2 n+3 n+4 n+5 ...
User multiplexing
n
User multiplexing
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 72
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 72
1 Basics
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination
DL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH)
MS decodes all blocks on its allocated PDCH
The MS can identify the PDCH blocks intended for it by TFI present on
the RLC block header
UL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH)
For an UL TBF, the mobile receives one USF (Uplink State Flag) per
PDCH to be used during the TBF
If the MS receives its USF on the DL block n of PDCH 5, it can transmit in
UL using the block n+1 of PDCH 5
Downlink PDTCH and PACCH blocks multiplexing:
The multiplexing of the different MSs is performed thanks to the TFI which is present in the RLC block
header.
An MS decodes all the blocks of all its allocated PDCHs and keeps the blocks carrying its TFI in the RLC
header.
Uplink PDTCH and PACCH for a UL TBF:
At UL TBF establishment, a MS receives a USF (Uplink State Flag, 8 values, MAC header) per allocated
PDCH.
If the MS receives its USF on the downlink block n of PDCH I, it can transmit in uplink using the block
n+1 of PDCH i.
NB: the values of the USF are entirely dedicated to PDTCH and PACCH transfers. See further (MPDCH and
RRBP) The TFI is use in the UL as well: each mobile shall put its TFI in the UL header of the UL blocks
during a UL TBF, as well as in the RLC header of the UL PACCH blocks of a DL TBF. So we can say that the
de-multiplexing of the blocks is achieved by the use of a TFI.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 73
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 73
1 Basics
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont.]
Uplink PACCH for a DL TBF :
By the means of the polling mechanism, periodically an UL PACCH block
is allocated during DL transfer, e.g. to allow an MS to request the
establishment of an UL TBF by including a Channel Request description in
a Packet DL Ack/Nack message
the MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF
use of the RRBP (Relative Reserved Block Period) field transmitted in
downlink
O RRBP values indicates the number of TDMA frames the MS shall wait before
transmitting its uplink RLC/MAC block
a special USF value is used: USF = no emission
RRBP: Relative Radio Block Period
Allocation of a PACCH block for the sending of acknowledgements in the UL of blocks received in the DL:
The MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF
Use of the RRBP field transmitted in the downlink (MAC header) in association with the TFI of the DL
TBF in the RLC header.
At the exact occurrence of the RRBP, a special USF value is used for the UL TBF taking place on the same
PDCH: USF=no emission.
It is a semi-boolean parameter. The RRBP field of a RLC/LAC block is checked each time by the MS whose
TFI is written in the RLC header.
When S/P is false, no UL PACCH is scheduled.
When the RRBP field is valid, the value gives the number of blocks to wait before sending its PACCH
block in the UL
S/P is false means MS has to send an acknowledgement message to the MFS.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 74
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 74
Example of a Uplink Block Flow scheduling:
1 Basics
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont.]
Downlink Uplink
Block
number
TFI USF RRBP
Bn TFIa USFj
Bn+1 TFIb USFk PDTCHj
Bn+2 TFIa USFj +3 PDTCHk
Bn+3 TFIb FREE PDTCHj
Bn+4 TFIb No
Emission
PRACH
Bn+5 TFIb USFj PACCHa
Bn+6 TFIa USFk PDTCHj
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 75
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 75
1 Basics
1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS
Idle
Ready
Standby
GPRS
attach
GPRS
detach
PDU transmission
Timer
expiry
Timer
expiry
Idle
the MS is not attached to the
packet network: paging is not
possible
Ready
the MS location is known with
the cell accuracy
Standby
the MS is attached to the
network: paging is possible
the MS location is known with
the RA accuracy
Idle: the MS is not attached to the network: paging is not possible.
Standby:
the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible.
the MS location is known in the CN with the RA accuracy.
Ready:
the MS location is known with the cell accuracy.
timer T_READY keeps the MS in the Ready state just after data transfer.
Packet Idle Mode:
no Temporary Block Flow exists. Upper layers can require the transfer of an LLC PDU which, implicitly, may trigger the
establishment of TBF and transition to packet transfer mode.
the MS listens to the PBCCH and to the paging sub-channel for the paging group the MS belongs to in idle mode. If PCCCH is not
present in the cell, the mobile station listens to the BCCH and to the relevant paging sub-channels.
Packet Transfer Mode:
In packet transfer mode, the mobile station is allocated radio resource providing a Temporary Block Flow on one or more physical
channels. Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite directions.
Transfer of LLC PDUs in RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided.
When selecting a new cell, mobile station leaves the packet transfer mode, enters the packet idle mode where it switches to the
new cell, read the system information and may then resume to packet transfer mode in the new cell.
The timers regulating the transition between states are SGSN timers, not tunable in the BSS. Caution: Idle mode in GPRS and Idle
mode in GSM are two different states.
A GSM MS in Idle mode is attached to a MSC and can be paged
A GPRS MS in Idle mode is NOT attached to a SGSN, so it cannot be paged but can monitor the GPRS information broadcast in the
SI13 of the BCCH.
Standby is the closest GPRS MS state to Idle GSM.
The MS state in the SGSN shall be considered apart from the Packet Transfer Mode in the BSS:
MS in Standby mode can be in Packet Transfer Mode.
MS in Ready mode can be in Packet Idle Mode.
The detach procedure is usually triggered by the MS. Three other types of detach are triggered by the CN:
HLR Detach,
SGSN Detach upon SGSN overload,
SGSN Detach upon timer.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 76
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 76
1 Basics
1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS
Packet Transfer Mode (PTM)
MS is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs for the transfer of
LLC PDUs. Continuous transfer of LLC PDUs is possible
Packet Idle Mode (PIM)
No TBF exists and the MS is also not trying to establish an UL TBF
GMM states versus RR operating modes:
GMM States RR Operating Modes
GMM Ready
PTM: TBF opened
PIM: TBF closed but GMM ready timer is still running
GMM Standby
PIM: There is no on-going TBF established and GMM ready
timer is no more running
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 77
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 77
1 Basics
1.29 Attach procedure
Aim
to access to GPRS services, a MS must first make its presence known to
the network by performing a GPRS attach to the SGSN
GPRS attach function is similar to IMSI attach
MS authentication
Ciphering key generation
TLLI allocation (derived from the new P-TMSI)
Subscriber profile request to the HLR
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 78
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 78
1 Basics
1.29 Attach procedure [cont.]
Results
A logical link between the MS and the SGSN is created
MS is in Standby state and may activate a PDP context
MS location is known (RA accuracy)
MS is available for paging via the SGSN
Charging information is collected
Combined GPRS and IMSI attach is possible for class A/B MS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 79
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 79
1 Basics
1.30 PDP context activation
Aim
in order to send and receive GPRS data, the MS must activate the PDP
(Packet Data Protocol) address, which it wants to use
Results
the MS is known in the corresponding GGSN (the GGSN knows the SGSN
where the MS is located) and data transmission with external data
network can begin
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 80
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 80
1 Basics
1.31 Location management
MS enters in a new cell
New cell inside the current RA
MS in Ready state
New cell belongs to a new RA New cell belongs to a new LA
RA/LA update RA update Cell update
When the MS is in Ready State, it performs a Cell Update.
The MS sends any LLC frame in the new cell with its TLLI in the header.
The Cell and RAC information is added by the BSSGP at the programming of the BSSGP frame
RA Update:
The MS sends an RA Update Request message containing the identity of the MS, the old RAI and the
Update Type. The update type is either enter a new RA or periodical RA update.
The BSS adds the cell global Identity when transferring the message into a BSSGP frame towards the
SGSN.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 81
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 81
1 Basics
1.32 Routing Area
As total paging is more frequent with GPRS service together with
GSM paging, Routing Area (RA) was defined which may be smaller
than Location Area (LA)
One RA is a subset of one and only one LA
RAI (RA Identity) identifies several cells
The MS location in Standby state is known in the SGSN at the RA level
The MS is paged in its RA when MT traffic (MS in Standby State) arrives at
the SGSN
One RA is served by only one SGSN
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 82
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 82
1 Basics
1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO)
NMO
CS Paging
Channel
PS Paging
Channel
Characteristics
I
PCCCH PCCCH - Gs interface
- MPDCH
CCCH CCCH - Gs interface
- no MPDCH
Packet data channel (not applicable) - Gs interface
II
CCCH CCCH - no Gs interface
- no MPDCH
III
CCCH PCCCH - no Gs interface
- MPDCH
CCCH CCCH - no Gs interface
- no MPDCH
Paging Coordination
Since B7, all the possible combinations with the MPDCH are:
NMOIII,
NMOI with MPDCH.
According to the NMO offered and the packet mode of the MS (Packet Transfer Mode or Packet Idle Mode),
the routing of the PS paging and the CS paging changes.
The NMO setting is done from the OMC-R via the NETWORK_OPERATION_MODE parameter.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 83
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 83
1 Basics
1.34 TBF establishment
Several modes of TBF establishment in UL and DL exists:
In PIM mode
O UL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation)
O DL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation)
In PTM mode
O UL TBF establishment during a DL TBF on the uplink PACCH
O DL TBF establishment during a UL TBF on the downlink PACCH
The TBF establishment is performed through two types of access requests:
O One phase access request
O Two phase access request
B8: The BSS preferentially establishes an EGPRS TBF to an EGPRS MS
provided that an EGPRS Packet Channel request message has been
received and that there are EGRPS resources (i.e. radio resources supported
by an EGPRS capable TRX) available in the cell, otherwise a GPRS TBF will
be established
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 84
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 84
1 Basics
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access
MS is in PIM mode:
MS BTS BSC MFS
The MS
switches
on the
assigned
PDCH
TA calculation
RACH
Channel request + TA
Channel request
Resource
allocation
AGCH
Immediate assignment
Immediate assignment
TFI, USF, TAI, TA
Packet UL assignment, polling
TFI, USF, TAI
PACCH
Packet UL assignment
Packet control Ack
PACCH
Resource
activation
RLC data block (TLLI, TFI)
PACCH
Packet UL Ack/Nack
PDTCH
1
2
3
TLLI, TFI
Also PRACH Also PRACH
Also PAGCH Also PAGCH
(EGPRS Packet)
(E)GPRS mode
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 85
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 85
1 Basics
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access
1 allocation of only one PDCH because the multi slot capability of
the MS is not known
Even if the Packet EGPRS Channel Request provides the MS multislot
class, only one PDCH is allocated
2 sending of the Packet UL assignment in order to force the MS to
send an acknowledgement (polling mechanism)
3 contention resolution mechanism :
suppose two MS send a (EGPRS Packet) Channel Request at the same
time
each MS sends its TLLI (and TFI)
the TLLI is present in the acknowledgement from the MFS
the MS with the wrong TLLI is discarded
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 86
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 86
1 Basics
1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access
MS is in PIM mode:
MS BTS BSC MFS
The MS
switches
on the
assigned
PDCHs
TA calculation
RACH
Channel request + TA
Channel request
Resource
allocation
AGCH
Immediate assignment
Immediate assignment
TBF starting time, TA
PACCH
Packet resource request
Resource
activation
Packet UL assignment
PACCH
Packet UL assignment, polling
Packet resource request
TFI, USFs, TAI, TLLI
PACCH
Packet control Ack
Packet control Ack
Single block
allocation
TLLI
RLC data block
PDTCH
Also PAGCH Also PAGCH
Also PRACH Also PRACH
(EGPRS Packet)
(E)GPRS mode
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 87
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 87
1 Basics
1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access [cont.]
2 phases access is necessary when the MS wants either to :
Use RLC unacknowledged mode
Give its multislot class
Give QoS parameters (Peak_Throughput_Class, Radio_Priority)
Main difference:
Packet Resource Request message
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 88
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 88
1 Basics
1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH
MS is in PIM mode:
MS BTS BSC MFS
LLC PDU
Resource
allocation
Immediate assignment
TFI, TAI
Immediate assignment
PCH
Packet DL assignment, polling
TFI, TAI
PACCH
Packet DL assignment
PACCH
Packet control Ack
Packet control Ack
TA calculation
Timing Advance / Power control
PACCH
TA / PC
PDTCH
RLC data block
1 PDCH
allocated
4 access bursts
PDCH(s)
allocated
Also PPCH Also PPCH
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 89
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 89
1 Basics
1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH
The BCCH indicates if GPRS is supported in the cell:
SI3/4: GPRS supported or not
SI13 position on BCCH used for GPRS
SI3: RA_COLOUR (routing area color) field present if GPRS
supported
If GPRS is supported :
SI13 is broadcasted on the BCCH
SI13 broadcast instead of retransmission of SI 1
Note: do not confuse RA_COLOUR and RA Code. The former is used as a flag which has two uses for the MS
entering a new cell:
to know if the GPRS service is supported in the cell (RA_COLOUR has a value different from -1).
to trigger an RA update when the value of the RA_COLOUR changes. It is easy to monitor because it is
broadcast often.
The Routing Area Code is necessary for the RA update procedure (message content).
The SI13 takes the place of a few SI1 occurrences.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 90
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 90
1 Basics
1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH [cont.]
SI 13 content (non exhaustive):
RAC: routing area code
NMO: network mode of operation
PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, PAN_MAX: radio link supervision
ALPHA: GPRS uplink power control
T_AVG_T, T_AVG_W: calculation of average levels
PC_MEAS_CHAN: level measurements on BCCH/PDCH
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER: packet cell re-selection mode
Access Burst Type : 8 bit or 11 bit access burst
EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST: EGPRS capable MS shall use EGPRS
PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message for uplink TBF establishment on the
(P)RACH (En_EGPRS = True)
BEP_PERIOD: Bit error probability (BEP) filter averaging period
E
G
P
R
S

c
e
l
l
The MS has to get SI13 information on a regular basis:
each time the SI13 content is updated (PSI field = SI13_CHANGE_MARK set to 1).
every 30 seconds max (even if the TBF has to be interrupted).
Through 2 different ways: SI13 on the BCCH or PSI13 in a PACCH block.
The MS has always the time to switch on PSI13 in NMOIII and/or NMOI with a Master PDCH because
PBCCH blocks are always after a I or X TS within the 52 multi-frame.
Access Burst Type: it defines the access burst (8 bits or 11 bits) to be used on the PRACH, PTCCH and the
Packet Control Ack on a PACCH.
When the Master Channel is present in the cell, the System Information Type 13 message has different
contents from those described above. It mainly consists of:
The radio description of the Primary Master Channel (in terms of time slot number, training
sequence code and frequency parameters).
One GPRS Mobile Allocation (MA), if frequency hopping is used for GPRS. This is the GPRS MA of the
Primary Master Channel, if hopping. If the Primary Master Channel is not hopping, the MA
corresponds to the hopping TRX(s) used for GPRS, if any.
Three modes of cell reselection have been defined by the 3GPP Standard for GPRS MSs. These Network
Control (NC) modes, known as the NC0, NC1 and NC2, are shortly described below:
NC0: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to
the network.
NC1: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally it sends measurement reports
to the network.
NC2: the GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It sends measurement reports to
the network. The network controls the cell reselection.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 91
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 91
1 Basics
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH
Presence of a PBCCH (primary MPDCH) in the cell is indicated by a
PBCCH description in the SI13 message
Primary MPDCH presence is possible only in NMO I or in NMO III
Secondary MPDCHs presence are in indicated in PSI 2 message broadcast
on the PBCCH channel
All (E)GPRS MS monitor the PBCCH to receive the PACKET SYSTEM
INFORMATION messages (PSI)
Without PBCCH configured in the cell:
In PIM, MS receive SI13 sent on BCCH
In PTM, MS receive PSI 13 (=SI13) sent on PACCH
Not possible to indicate to a MS, GPRS re-selection parameters (C31 and
C32 criteria)
Cell Parameters
NMO, MS Timers, DRX info, RLS parameters, etc.
PRACH access control parameters
access burst type, access control class, etc.
PCCCH organization parameters
BS_PBCCH_BKLS, BS_PAGCH_BLKS_RES, BS_PRACH_BLKS
The GPRS cell adjacencies are the same for a MS in Packet Idle Mode as for a MS in Packet Transfer Mode.
The GPRS cell adjacencies are equal to CS cell adjacencies.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 92
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 92
1 Basics
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]
PSI 1 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)
Cell and BSS parameters
PRACH access control parameters
Description of the configuration of the packet control channels
O number of blocks per 52 multiframe
Power control parameters
PSI 2 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)
Cell allocation
GPRS mobile allocation : HSN + list of frequencies
PCCCH description : list of TS and frequency configuration
Circuit-switched parameters
Cell Identification : CI, RAC, LAC, MNC, MCC
PSI3, PSI3bis:
One PSI3 instance shall be sent and, as a minimum, one PSI3bis instance shall be sent as well
There may be up to 16 PSI3bis instances.
Reselection parameters: C31_HYST, C32_HYST, GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYST, PRIORITY_CLASS,
HCS_THR, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS
Neighbor cell parameters: BSIC, BCCH frequency, SI13 PBCCH location, GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN,
GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET, GPRS_PENALTY_TIME,
GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET.
Up to 32 neighboring cells may be defined. The field Same_RA_As_Serving_Cell provides complementary
information for reselection process.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 93
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 93
1 Basics
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]
PSI 3 / 3bis
BA(GPRS) list (identical to GSM BA list, neighboring cells BCCH)
Cell selection and re-selection parameters for (non-)serving cells
LSA identification of serving and neighboring cells
PSI 8 CBCH information (TS, freq., if there is CBCH in the cell)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 94
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 94
1 Basics
1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects
One Abis link is made of 31 64 kb/s timeslots
A 16 kb/s transmission channel is called a nibble
One timeslot is made of 4 nibbles
A transmission channel established for carrying (E)GPRS traffic is called a
GCH (GPRS channel). One GCH uses one Abis nibble and one Ater nibble
Two main types of Abis nibbles:
Basic nibbles
O Carry CS traffic
O Carry also PS traffic but only coded with (M)CS-1 or (M)CS-2
Extra nibbles
O Come from additional Abis timeslots for support of high speed packet traffic
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 95
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 95
1 Basics
1.40 TRX Classes Concept
To support high data throughputs, Alcatel has developed a solution,
which aims at providing the best trade-off between offered radio
throughput and impact on the telecom resource consumption
This solution is based on the concept of multiple classes of TRX,
which support more or less data throughput. The higher the packet
class, the higher the maximum data throughput, the higher the
impact on BSS Telecom resources
Five TRX classes (1 to 5) have been defined
The Operator defines per cell the number of TRXs of each class
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 96
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 96
1 Basics
1.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.]
TRX
Packet Class
G3 or G4 TRX
Class 1
Simple
Class 2
Double
Class 3
Triple
Class 4
Quad
GPRS CS 1,2
EDGE MCS 1,2
GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5
GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6
GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Supported (Modulation and) Coding schemes Supported (Modulation and) Coding schemes
Class 5
Quintuple
GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Max 22 kbps
Max 30 kbps
Max 54 kbps
Max 59 kbps
Abis TS per TRX
2
4
6
8
10
Max 12 kbps
EGCH
An EGCH is made up of a pool of GCHs (from 1 to 5): One main GCH and a pool of auxiliary GCHs (the
GCH uses the basic 16k Abis nibble).
TRX class
The TRX class is defined at MFS level. For a TRX class n, the MFS will use n GCHs to establish one EGCH.
The TRX class varies with the hardware TRX capabilities (TRX type, Hardware PS capability). Higher the
TRX class is, higher the PDCH throughput is.
AterMux resources allocation
In case of EGCH establishment, from one to five AterMux nibbles will be necessary. Nibbles have not to
be contiguous.
These nibbles will be taken:
- on free nibbles of at least one already switched 64 Kbit/s channel, or,
- on free nibbles of one or more already switched 64 Kbit/s channels and on an additional 64 Kbit/s
channel, switched for this purpose, or,
- on 1 or 2 additional 64 Kbit/s channels, switched for this purpose.
When possible, the first possibility will be chosen.
When establishing a PDCH, the number of GCH links per radio time slot is determined according to the
TRX class, the PDCH type (SPDCH/MPDCH), and the AterMux congestion state.
Abis Interface
Several Abis nibbles are also used to handle a throughput higher than 16Kbit/s. Abis configuration is
static due to hardware constraints.
Depending on the requested throughput, a radio time slot needs up to 4 extra Abis nibbles in addition to
the basic one.
As all radio time slots of a TRX must have the same throughput capability, a TRX needs up to 8 extra Abis
time slots. These extra Abis time slots are called a TRX transmission pool.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 97
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 97
1 Basics
1.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.]
Example 1: TRX class 1, up to CS-2 / MCS-2
Example 2: TRX class 4, up to CS-4 / MCS-8
Basic
Timeslots
TRX
Abis
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
TS0 TS2 TS1 TS5 TS4 TS3 TS7 TS6
Basic
Timeslots
Abis
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
TS1 TS2 TS3
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
Basic Nibble
Extra Nibbles
TS0
Timeslots
6 Extra
TRX
TS0 TS2 TS1
TS5 TS4 TS3 TS7 TS6
Radio Timeslot
1 PDCH = 4 terrestrial nibbles
= 1 basic nibble also used for voice
+ 3 additional nibbles used only for
packet traffic
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 98
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 98
1 Basics
1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS
BSC
BTS
EVOLIUM
BTS
Primary Abis
Secondary Abis
Primary Abis
Secondary Abis
EVOLIUM
BTS
BTS
Topology 1
Topology 2
The secondary Abis is fully dedicated to packet data
Two topologies exists
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 99
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 99
2 Features
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 100
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 100
2 features
2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs)
In B9 a number of procedures have been introduced to achieve
better performances for GPRS cell reselections:
Packet PSI Status procedure
O reducing the duration of the phase where the MS acquires PSI in the target cell
Packet SI Status procedure, same scope as above for SI in the target cell
Network Assisted Cell Change procedures
O reducing, in NC0 and NC2 mode, the duration of the phase where the MS
acquires target cell (P)SI, in the serving cell
CCN mode procedure (Cell Change Notification)
O allowing, in NC0 mode, the MS to indicate its wish to perform a cell reselection
Cell System Information distribution
Cell ranking with load criteria
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 101
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 101
2 features
2.1.1 Radio Network Impact
The B9 added improvements allow reducing the time dedicated to a
Cell Reselection in packet mode.
These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster CR to a
new cell or less number of CRs performed in a cell, will result in a
higher aggregated throughput in the cell.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 102
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 102
2 features
2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode
This feature allows improving access time to the GPRS network
ping test down to 350 ms
It also improves the throughput in some cases.
The feature main benefits are: reduced (may be 0) delay before next UL transmission (no new TBF to establish) and
reduced DL TBF establishment, when it follows an UL TBF. Expected effects:
In uplink, it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction, and it
avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF.
In uplink, it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction, and it
avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF.
in downlink, it allows to perform more often the TBF establishment on concurrent TBF and it saves the DL bandwidth
by sending dummy UI commands (on the DL TBF is in delayed release state) if a concurrent TBF exists.
Both effects are expected to improve the end-to-end transmission delay and consequently to reduce the transfer
duration.
The mechanism proposed has the following characteristics:
Extended Uplink TBF shall be used whenever allowed by the MS capabilities.
The BSS shall be able to acquire the MS capability as fast as possible, using the Radio Access capability update
procedure (or information stored in other GPUs).
When the MS does not support the extended UL TBF mode , the BSS will use the normal release procedure, and apply
the delayed Final PUAN procedure if T_Delayed_final_PUAN is not 0.
If the MS capabilities are not yet known by the BSS at UL TBF establishment, the BSS shall be able to switch to
extended UL TBF mode if the MS capabilities are received before the release of the uplink TBF has been initiated.
During the uplink TBF extension (i.e., after the last LLC frame has been received from the MS and no data is being
transmitted by the MS), it allows the network to initiate sending of data to the MS without performing a downlink
TBF establishment oncommon control channels.
It allows the MS to send data from newly arrived LLC frames after the countdown has started.
While in the delayed state the network must allocate some radio blocks, to allow the MS to restart the uplink
transfer whenever required by the application.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 103
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 103
2 features
2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact
Traffic model changes: the feature will modify the number of UL TBF
activation+release on PACCH for all TCP/IP based applications and
WAP.
The feature will also modify the average duration of an uplink TBF,
and as a consequence increase the number of MS multiplexed in
uplink.
If necessary to reserve a certain bandwidth in uplink for QoS, then
the maximum number of MS in UL on the concerned PDCH should be
limited. (the current default value is of 5 MS multiplexed in uplink)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 104
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 104
2 features
2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact [cont.]
Some parameters are to be handled in order to set up and configure
this feature:
EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF: To enable the extended TBF mode feature
on the uplink.
T_MAX EXTENDED_UL: maximum duration of the extended uplink
TBF phase.Recommended rule: value between 1s and 2s.
EN_FAST_USF_UL_EXTENDED: to enable/disable the transmission
of USF every 20ms in extended mode, when the extended UL TBF
feature is activated.
EN_RA_CAP_UPDATE: Flag to enable/disable the Radio Acces
Capability update on Gb. Recommended rule: should be enabled if
EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF is enabled and RA cap. update is supported
by SGSN.
It is recommended not to activate simultaneously extended UL TBF
feature (flag EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF) and the DL PDU rerouting
feature (flag EN_AUTONOMOUS_REROUTING).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 105
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 105
2 features
2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink
In B9 support of MCS-5 to MCS-9 coding schemes in UL was
introduced. The table below shows highlighted in gray the
throughput when these coding schemes are used:
Release Modulation Coding scheme User data rate
B8 GMSK CS-1 8.0 kbit/s
B8 GMSK CS-2 12.0 kbit/s
B8 GMSK CS-3 14.4 kbit/s
B8 GMSK CS-4 20.0 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-1 8.4 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-2 11.2 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-3 14.8 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-4 17.6 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-5 22.4 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-6 29.6 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-7 44.8 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-8 54.4 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-9 59.2 kbit/s
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 106
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 106
2 features
2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink [cont.]
In B9 release, Incremental Redundancy may be activated for both
the DL and UL paths. Thanks to Incremental Redundancy, the link
adaptation procedure can be more aggressive: if the chosen MCS is a
bit too optimistic, IR increases the probability of data recovery and
increases data rates considerably specially in poorer radio conditions
for higher MCSs.
The link adaptation mechanism in UL is based on measurements
(MEAN_BEP, CV_BEP) done by the BTS on the radios blocks received
from the mobile. To take into account MCS-5 to MCS-9, the BSS
algorithm for link adaptation needs new link adaptation
MEAN_BEP/CV_BEP tables. These tables are the same as the one
already used for DL.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 107
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 107
2 features
2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
8PSK in the UL should be considered in the planning tools for the
throughput and coverage estimation (based on interference
calculation). It impacts cell range estimates if the link-budget is UL
limited. The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput
estimation. 2 dB can be taken for the average IR gain.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 108
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 108
2 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9
Actually, Counter Improvements for Release B9 feature covers
four candidate sub-features for B9:
Support of distributions: It introduces a new concept of counters
called distributions to obtain improved statistics on (E)GPRS
resource usage.
Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level: It allows an operator to
consolidate each indicator defined at cell level per GPU. This
operation is very useful to follow possible lacks of GCH or GPU
resources in a given GPU.
Counters defined at TRX level: It introduces a few counters defined
at TRX level to follow the radio and transmission resource usage.
New MFS counters: It consists in defining a few new counters to ease
the dimensioning and optimisation of (E)GPRS networks.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 109
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 109
2 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]
Support of distributions
Counter # Mnemonic Rationale
P453a DISTRIB_UL_TBF_DURATION The distribution of the UL TBF duration is interesting to:
- Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling, Web browsing, FTP transfers,
etc.).
- Check the validity of the UL TBF duration reported by the PM counters. For
instance, the average is meaningless if long TBFs are not distinguished from short
TBFs.
- Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields.
The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a
deep field analysis.
P453b DISTRIB_DL_TBF_DURATION Same rationale as P453a but for the DL direction
P454a DISTRIB_UL_TBF_VOLUME
The distribution of the UL LLC volume is interesting to:
- Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling, Web browsing, FTP transfers,
etc.).
- Check the validity of the UL LLC volumes (measured in bytes) reported by the PM
counters. For instance, the average is meaningless if long TBFs generating high
UL LLC volumes are not distinguished from short TBFs generating small UL LLC
volumes.
- Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields.
The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a
deep field analysis.
P454b DISTRIB_DL_TBF_VOLUME Same rationale as P454a but for the DL direction
P455a DISTRIB_UL_PDCH_UNIT_AL
LOC
The distribution of the number of PDCH units assigned to an UL TBF is required to
check whether non-optimal allocations come from a lack of radio resources. In this
case, parameters like MAX_PDCH, MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD can be increased.
P455b DISTRIB_DL_PDCH_UNIT_AL
LOC
Same rationale as P455b but for the DL direction

Support of distributions
Actually, Support of distributions is an enhancement for the feature Radio Measurement Statistics
(RMS), introduced on release B7.2, in order to get statistics on radio measurements such as RXLEV,
RXQUAL, interference level, timing advance, MS or BS transmitted power, etc.
This sub-feature introduces a new concept of counters to monitor PS resource usage. The existing PS
counters count a number of events occurring during the reporting period (i.e. every hour). However, such
counters do not allow retrieving the distribution of the events. For instance, existing counters allow
evaluating the averaged duration of the TBFs. However, it is interesting to know what is the proportion of
short TBFs compared to long TBFs, to evaluate the type of GPRS traffic, to understand the throughput
measured in the fields, etc.. New counters, called distribution, were introduced. The B7.2 RMS feature
is based on the following principles:
- The operator can launch RMS from the OMC-R on a per cell or per BSC basis for a given duration (up to 23
hours).
- The radio measurements are monitored the closest to the observed functions, i.e. in the BTS.
- During the observation period, it is possible to launch extended measurement reporting in order to get
measurements on radio frequencies not used for CS/PS traffic in the cell.
The measurements are usually reported in vectors made of 10 values (or matrixes made of several
vectors). The ranges of each vector are defined by 9 thresholds. These thresholds are changeable at the
OMC-R.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 110
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 110
2 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]
Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level
Reference Definition Instance
P105c Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. Cell
P105d Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. Cell
P105e Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the GPU. Cell
P105f Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the GPU. Cell
P105g Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Cell
P105h Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Cell

The sub-feature consists in allowing the operator to consolidate cell
counters P105c/d/e/f/g/h at GPU level.
Also, without this consolidation, it is up to the MFS to perform the
consolidation, which is in contradiction with the usual principles.
Indeed, it is not the role of the MFS to perform computation on
counters.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 111
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 111
2 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]
New MFS counters
Counter
number
Mnemonic Rationale
P38f CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_US
ED_UL_CELL
This counter is used with P451a to quantify the overlapping of the UL TBFs on the
PDCHs. For instance, a high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs
observed in the fields are low.
P38e CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_US
ED_DL_CELL
Same rationale as P38f but for the DL direction.
P451a CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_UL
_TBF_CELL
This counter is used with P38f to quantify the overlapping of the UL TBFs on the
PDCHs. For instance, a high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs
observed in the fields are low.
P451b CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL
_TBF_CELL
Same rationale as P451a but for the DL direction.
P452 CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL
_TBF_GMM_SIG_CELL
This counter is used to quantify the part of the GMM signalling traffic over the whole
(E)GPRS traffic. For instance, this information is required to know how many radio
resources should be configured to carry only GMM signalling traffic.
P98f NB_SUSP_UL_TBF_REL This counter is defined to obtain a more accurate indicator for TBF drops. Operators
are carefully analysing the TBF drop rate that it is one of the main (E)GPRS QoS
figures.
P98e NB_SUSP_DL_TBF_REL Same rationale as P98f but for the DL direction.

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 112
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 112
2 features
2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
The new counters and distributions should allow us to improve the
existing (E)GPRS traffic model (i.e. better accuracy of the model can
be achieved) but no impact on radio and other telecom
performances is expected.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 113
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 113
2 features
2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation
The purpose of this feature is to give to the MFS all the radio
timeslots that are usable for PS traffic, according to the whole BSS
load (CS and PS loads). The MFS needs no more to request radio
timeslots to the BSC; instead the MFS is always aware of all the
available radio timeslots.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 114
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 114
2 features
2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation [cont.]
Main principles:
CS and PS allocation separation with expected result of higher mean TBF
throughputs.
to give to the MFS all the radio timeslots that are usable for PS traffic
MIN_SPDCH
MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD
MAX_SPDCH
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT
reserved for PS priority for PS priority for CS reserved for CS
Max PS traffic when high CS traffic
Max PS traffic without CS traffic
Max CS traffic without PS traffic


MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is computed by the BSC and defines the number of SPDCHs that are allocated to the MFS
(based on the whole BSS load)
The allocated SPDCHs are always those having the highest priority for PS allocations and their positions are
provided to the MFS within a new message called Radio Resource (RR) Allocation Indication message
TBFs allocated in the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone cannot be pre-empted (T1 re-allocation) when
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value decreases
Periodically, the MFS sends to the BSC a Radio Resource Usage Indication message. This message contains
the allocated SPDCHs in the MFS as well as their usage. This message is used by the BSC to estimate the PS
load
If required, the MFS may pre-empt a few SPDCHs to give them back to the BSC. The MFS uses the same
Radio Resource Usage Indication message to indicate to the BSC the de-allocated SPDCHs and to
acknowledge the allocation of new SPDCHs
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 115
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 115
2 features
2.5.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
The Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation feature brings
around 100 ms gain in the DL or UL TBF establishment duration; as
the maximum number of radio resources is allocated to the MFS, the
TBF establishment duration (DL or UL) is reduced compared to the
B8 solution (if the MFS requests for additional radio resources to
establish the TBF). This could lead to an increase in the average TBF
throughputs at cell level.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 116
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 116
2 features
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working
On one hand, the feature aims to improve the 3G-neighborhood
description in 2G cells and on another hand, is consistent with the
cell reselection strategy in B9.
2G/3G Interoperability feature comprises two sub-features:
Improved 3G cell reselection
Load based 3G HO filtering
The Improved 3G cell reselection is an improved version of the B8
Improved GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection feature (based on Cell
instanciation of FDD frequency list and 3G search deactivation). The
Load based 3G HO filtering is a new B9 feature which allows regarding
the current load in the BSS and the UTRAN coverage in order to be able
to reject an external hand-over coming from the UTRAN.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 117
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 117
2 features
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont.]
Improved 3G cell reselection
The B9 Improved 3G cell reselection feature allows the operator to
declare per 2G cell basis the 3G neighbor cells (the FDD UMTS frequencies
and the scrambling codes). Maximum 3 FDD UMTS frequencies may be
declared per cell basis. When knowing in advance the frequency and the
scrambling code of a 3G cell, an MS should require 10 to 20ms to
synchronize on that cell.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 118
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 118
2 features
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont.]
Load based 3G HO filtering
Regarding the current load, the BSS may reject an external hand-over
coming from the UTRAN, provided the hand-over has not been triggered
by an emergency cause, i.e. provided the hand-over request does not
carry a cause type uplink/downlink quality/strength.
Radio Network Planning Impact
These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster 2G-to-3G cell
reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a loded
condition. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell or in
less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 119
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 119
2 features
2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster 2G-to-3G
cell reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a
loded condition. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in
the cell or in less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 120
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 120
2 features
2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing
This feature provides a solution to share the Ater and Abis nibbles
between the radio timeslots of a TRX so that the transmission
resources left available by a PDCH can be re-used by other PDCHs
as long as those PDCHs belong to the same TRX. Thus allows
reducing the waste of transmission bandwidth on the Ater and Abis
interfaces.
Terminology
M-EGCH
- The term M-EGCH (Multiplexed-EGCH) is used to refer to a link established between the MFS and the
BTS. An M-EGCH is defined per TRX (instead of an EGCH per radio timeslot in release B8).
GCH
- A GCH is the 16kb/s channel between the MFS and the BTS. It is composed of an Ater nibble and an
Abis nibble cross-connected together in the BSC. The MFS or the BTS periodically send blocks on a GCH
every 20 ms.
GCH frame
- In 20 ms period (also called block period), a number of 320 bits of this GCH can be used: this is the
frame.
Segment
- A segment is formed by a part of an RLC block (after its segmentation on the M-EGCH link) and a GCH
header (different for first segment and subsequent segments). RLC data might be padded or a segment
can be a no-data segment.
- Note that in B9 a frame can be constituted of several segments belonging to different RLC blocks as
now all the RLC blocks sent on several PDCHs of a TRX are multiplexed on the same M-EGCH link.
Padding bits are added to the RLC blocks segments to fill the frame to 320 bits.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 121
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 121
2 features
2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing [cont.]
The M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing solution allows to share a given
number of GCHs at a TRX level, i.e between the radio timeslots of
one TRX, so that:
the transmission resource left available by one TBF mapped on a set of
RTS and being idle (eg, in establishment or delayed release phase) is
automatically reused by another TBF mapped on the same RTSs or on
another set of RTSs (as long as those sets of RTS are on the same TRX ).
an increase of MCS, i.e. of throughput experienced by one TBF, does not
lead to an increase of transmission links need since this increase can be
compensated by a decrease of MCS experienced by another TBF.
The GCH left while the control blocks are transferred can also be re-
used by other TBFs (which is not the case in B8); indeed control
blocks are encoded with CS1 and do not use an entire 320-bit frame.
The Statistical Multiplexing introduces a new segmentation of the radio blocks on the M-EGCH link: the blocks of
all the PDCHs of the TRX are sent one after the other without padding between them. As in B8 a block for a PDCH
can be spread over several 320-bit frames but after its last segment the block of another PDCH can be started (if
the remaining transmission capacity is sufficient). So a fixed 320-bit frame can have up to 2 or 3 segments of
variable size. As in B8, the unused part of a 320bit frame (once all the PDCHs have been scheduled) is filled with
padding and the unused GCHs with a NODATA PDU.
The EGCH layer is highly impacted to support the statistical multiplexing and is renamed M-EGCH layer in B9.
This feature only applies to G3 and G4 TRX while the G2 DRFU TRX uses a B7.2 like GCH stack (1 GCH allocated
per PDCH to support up to CS2 TBFs).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 122
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 122
2 features
2.7.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Statistical multiplexing at M-EGCH layer does increase the BSS PS
capacity without running out of Abis/Ater resources. Increase of BSC
capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher PS throughputs
and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop probabilities.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 123
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 123
2 features
2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation
This feature enables, on the Abis, to dynamically allocate nibbles
among the different TREs used for PS traffic in a given BTS.
Compared to B8, it allows a higher average Abis bandwidth per PDCH,
the BSC capacity in terms of TRXs is increased, and in some BTS
configurations it may avoid to deploy a second Abis link. The extra
Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level.
Radio Network Planning Impact
Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher
PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop
probabilities.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 124
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 124
2 features
2.8.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher
PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop
probabilities.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 125
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 125
2 features
2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management
Deals with the determination of the number and of the nature of the
16k GCH channels inside each M-EGCH. It is implemented as a
transmission resource manager. The transmission resource manager
is located at MFS/GPU level. It handles both Abis and Ater resources
at GCH level.
It is in charge of:
Creating and removing the M-EGCH links
Selecting, adding, removing, and redistributing GCHs over the M-EGCH
links
Managing transmission resource preemptions
Managing Abis and/or Ater congestion states,
Optionally, monitoring M-EGCH links usage, according to the (M)CS
of their supported TBFs (UL and DL).
Abis nibbles sharing rules:
To ensure that, anytime, each cell of a given BTS would be able to support PS traffic, we should
guarantee a minimal number of Abis nibbles to every cell in the BTS. Consequently, it has been
decided that basic Abis nibbles are only shared at cell level (i.e. among TRXs of the same cell or
sector). This restriction prevents some cells from using the whole Abis nibbles of the BTS as a given
cell cannot use the basic Abis nibbles of another cell. However, Extra (and Bonus) Abis nibbles are
shared at BTS level.
Ater nibbles sharing rules:
A given amount of Ater transmission resource is allocated per GPU. Afterwards, this Ater
transmission resource is shared among the four DSPs of the GPU thanks to the GPU on-board Ater
switch.
Only 64K Ater TS are handled at GPU-level between DSPs. Thus, a 64K Ater TS may be moved from
one DSP to another if, and only if, all its four 16K Ater nibbles are free. This is the unique restriction
to Ater nibbles sharing at GPU-level.
Furthermore, to prevent the above restriction from disturbing the First GPRS traffic in a cell, an
Ater reserve shall always be available. The Ater reserve consists on one or several free 64K Ater TSs
and is defined per GPU. Every 64K TS of the Ater reserve may be connected to any DSP of the GPU to
fulfil GCH requests:
to establish the initial GCH in a cell with the Fast Initial GPRS Access feature activated, or;
to ensure the First GPRS traffic in a cell with no active initial GCH.
Each time a 64K TS is taken from the Ater reserve, a process is launched to retrieved another 64K TS
to replace it in the Ater reserve. This is done by means of GCH pre-emption on the Best effort traffic
supported by the GPU.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 126
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 126
2 features
2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements
The goal of the feature is to monitor the usage of each allowed AMR
codecs (FR or HR), and to provide statistics information on timing
advance.
This feature allows monitoring the proper operation of AMR and the
quality of the radio coverage in a cell. It also gives the possibility to
tune the AMR parameters. Indeed, statistics about frame erasure
rate in uplink and comparison between codec distribution and RXLEV
allow assessing the voice quality, and adapting AMR thresholds to
the situation of a given cell.
RMS_I1 Indicators:
Mnemonic Definition Formula
RMS_AMR_FR_UL_BAD Number of bad speech frames using any
AMR FR codec in uplink
RMS44a
RMS_AMR_HR_UL_BAD Number of bad speech frames using any
AMR HR codec in uplink
RMS45a
RMS_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL Number of speech frames using one
AMR FR codec in uplink per Rxlev on
the uplink path
RMS46a
RMS_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL Number of speech frames using one
AMR HR codec in uplink per Rxlev on
the uplink path
RMS48a
RMS_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL Number of speech frames using one
AMR FR codec in downlink per Rxlev on
the downlink path
RMS47a
RMS_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL Number of speech frames using one
AMR HR codec in downlink per Rxlev on
the downlink path
RMS49a

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 127
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 127
2 features
2.10.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Knowing which codecs are the most used, and comparing them with
link level in the cell, the operator could assess the voice quality and
possibly adapt the AMR parameters (definition of the subset,
thresholds and hysteresis).
These parameters are different for AMR FR and AMR HR, information
shall be provided separately for AMR FR and AMR HR.
The codecs used in UL and in DL can be different; therefore
interpretation of results would be easier if results are provided
separately for uplink and downlink.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 128
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 128
2 features
2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements
The aim of this feature is to provide statistics information on
timing advance, in order to understand geographical traffic
distribution in a cell, to identify resurgences and hot spots.
The improvement RMS_I2: Timing advance is a good indicator
about the mobile position relative to a cell.
Its usage in RMS B7.2 is very limited: only measurement reports
done over a TA threshold are available, along with the max
measured TA. This information is not detailed enough to
understand geographical distribution in a cell, in order to identify
resurgences and hot spot.
RM_I2 Indicators:
Mnemonic Definition Formula
RMS_TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE The distribution of number of
measurement reports for which the value
of timing advance is in TA band
RMS50a
RMS_TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAN
D
The average value of RXLEV per TA band
in uplink.
RMS51
RMS_TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAN
D
The average value of RXLEV per TA band
in downlink.
RMS52
RMS_TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BA
ND
The average value of RXQUAL per TA
band in uplink.
RMS53
RMS_TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BA
ND
The average value of RXQUAL per TA
band in downlink.
RMS54

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 129
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 129
2 features
2.11.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
This RMS improvement described here would provide help to the
operator for optimization of his network planning, through
identification of these resurgences and hot spots. Detecting hot
spots can be very useful in order to re-design that part of the
network in a most adapted way to the experienced traffic load.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 130
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 130
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 131
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 131
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 132
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 132
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview
In GSM, when an MS in idle mode
moves from cell A to cell B, it
performs a cell reselection applying
the C1 or C2 criteria. In dedicated
mode, MS performs a handover
For (E)GPRS, the MS does in GMM
READY state (PTM) cell reselection
O In the old cell an abnormal TBF release
takes place. In the new cell the MS
establishes a new resource. (Different to
handover in GSM, where the new channel
is reserved by the network in advance)
RA B
RA A
selection
reselection
Cell 1
Cell 2
Cell 3
LA 1
LA 2
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 133
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 133
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]
Three modes of cell reselection have been defined for a MS in GPRS
packet transfer mode:
NC0 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without
sending measurement reports to the network
NC1 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection.
Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network
NC2 mode: (E)GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It
sends measurement reports to the network. The network controls the
cell reselection
B9 release supports NC0 and NC2 modes
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER parameter defines whether the MS or the
BSS controls the cell reselections
O NC0 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 0
O NC2 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 3
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 134
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 134
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]
The attached (E)GPRS mobiles use different criteria, depending on whether
the PBCCH is present or not in the serving cell
No PBCCH in the serving cell:
O GMM standby:
O Only NC0 mode is applied. Cell reselection is identical to the basic GSM cell reselection in idle mode.
C1 and C2 criteria are used
O GMM ready:
O NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C1
NC2
, C2
NC2
criteria are used
O NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used
PBCCH established in the serving cell:
O GMM standby:
O Only NC0 mode is applied. C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used
O GMM ready:
O NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C1
NC2
, C31
NC2
and C32
NC2
criteria are used
O NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used
In GSM
C1 = A - Max (0,B) with:
- A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
- B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - MS_TXPWR_MAX + POWER_OFFSET(1800)
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) when Penalty_time<31
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET when Penalty_Time=31
In GPRS ready and standby states, cell reselection is performed by the MS except for a class A MS while in
dedicated mode of a circuit switched connection, in which case the cell is determined by the network
according to the handover procedures.
For a class B MS which can combine GSM and GPRS states, C1 criterion is used when the MS simultaneously
attached to both, the network and the MS is in Packet Idle Mode (refer to GSM 05.08).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 135
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 135
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]
Independent from the presence of the PBCCH
the GPRS cell adjacencies
O are the same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer mode
O are set equal to the CS cell adjacencies (i.e. the BA(GPRS)=BA(BCCH) list )
So, recommendation is to enable the GPRS service on all cells in order
to prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 136
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 136
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established
The same procedure as in GSM, with the following criteria applied:
C1: the pathloss criterion, for cell selection and reselection
C2: for cell reselection
C1 criterion: the path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0
C1 = A - Max(B,0)
A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
O RLA_C = Received Level Average for CS service
O RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = Minimum received signal level at the MS
required for access to the system
O MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = Maximum TX power level an MS may use
when accessing the system
O P = Maximum RF output power of the MS
The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell.
In the above equations, the following notations mean:
AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) is the average received signal level measured by the MS on the BCCH of the cell n.
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) or GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) is the minimum received signal level required to
perform an access to the cell n.
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) or GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) is the maximum transmit power of the MS
when accessing the cell n.
P(n) is the maximum output RF power of the MS in the BCCH frequency band of the cell n. P(n) gives the MS
Radio Access Capability Information Element provided in the Packet Resource Request message or in the DL
LLC PDU. In the NC cell reselection procedure, the parameter P(n) shall always refer to the RF power
capability of the GMSK modulation.
Note that all values are expressed in dBm.
The cell ranking criterion parameter C2NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion. This
criterion applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established.
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n.
PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 137
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 137
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established [cont.]
C2 criterion:
PENALTY_TIME <> 11111
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY OFFSET * *
H(PENALTY_TIME - T)
O non-serving cells: H(x) = 0 for x < 0; H(x)= 1 for x 0
O serving cells: H(x) = 0
O T is a timer implemented for each cell in the list of strongest carriers. T shall be started
from zero at the time the cell is placed by the MS on the list of strongest carriers
O CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET may be used to give different priorities to different bands when
multiband operation is used
O TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C2 for the duration of PENALTY_TIME
after the timer T has started for that cell.
PENALTY_TIME = 11111
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND = 0 then C2 = C1
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 138
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 138
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established
The following criteria are applied for cell reselection:
C1: when C1< 0
C31, C32: when a non-serving cell is evaluated to be better than the
serving cell
C1: the pathloss criterion
Is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell reselection for GPRS
in the same way as for GSM Idle mode criterion
Same as defined, but with specific GPRS parameters:
C1 = A - Max(B,0)
A = RLA_P - GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
O GPRS specific parameters, are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 139
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 139
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
C31: the signal level threshold criterion parameter for hierarchical
cell structures (HCS)
Is used to determine whether prioritized hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell
re-selection shall apply
For cells that fulfill C31criteria (C31>0):
O The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value, among those cells that
have the highest priority class, among those cells that have highest LSA priority
If no cell fulfils the C31 criterion:
O The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value, among all the neighbor
cells
C32: cell ranking criterion parameter is used to select cells among
those with the same priority class
The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31
NC2
is used in hierarchical cellular networks to determine
whether the signal level received from a neighboring cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards cell n
based on a non-radio priority criterion. This criterion parameter is used only if there is a PBCCH established
in the serving cell. HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical GPRS
cell reselection criterion. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. Contrary to the
C31 criterion implemented in the MS, the Alcatel BSS does not manage the timer T implemented for each
cell to monitor the time a neighboring cell is present in the list of the strongest carriers. Therefore, the
Alcatel BSS always assumes that GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = 0. As the
GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, and C31_HYST are used to control the
triggering conditions of a cell reselection, they are not taken into account in the criterion C31
NC2
and
C32
NC2
parameters.
The cell ranking criterion parameter C32
NC2
is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion. This
criterion applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established. GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)
applies a positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the neighboring cell n. The cell n denotes
either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. If the parameter C32_QUAL is set, the determination of
C32
NC2
is modified so that the neighboring cell n having the highest AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 among all the
neighboring cells is applied a GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (only if the offset is positive) and no
GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is applied to the other neighboring cells.
The MFS shall take care of avoiding ping-pong effects between the old cell and the new cell (i.e., circular
NC cell reselections). For that purpose, the MFS handles an anti-ping-pong timer and an anti ping-pong
offset, respectively called T_NC_PING_PONG and NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET. While the timer
T_NC_PING_PONG is running the neighboring cells are disfavored by the offset NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET
(expressed in dB) in the cell ranking process.
The MFS starts the anti-ping-pong timer at the creation of the NC2 context for the MS.
The MFS stops the anti ping-pong timer at the deletion of the NC2 context.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 140
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 140
C31 criterion
Serving cell:
C31(s) = RLA_P(s) GPRS_HCS_THR(s)
Neighbor cell:
C31(n) =
O RLA_P is the received level average for PS service (i.e. C value)
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]

GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
<>
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
=
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n)
= RLA_P(n) GPRS_HCS_THR(n)
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n)
= RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n)
T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n)

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 141
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 141
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
The following parameters are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving
cell:
GPRS_HCS_THR is the signal threshold for applying HCS GPRS and LSA re-
selection
Min: -110 dBm; Max: -48 dBm; Default: -84 dBm
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS is the HCS priority of the cell
Min: 0 (lowest); Max: 7 (highest); Default: 0
GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the time during which the
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET is active in neighbour cells
Min: 10s; Max: 320s ; Default: 10s
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C31/C32 for the
duration of GPRS_PENALTY_TIME after the timer T has started for that
cell
Min: 0; Max: infinity (coded 7); Default: 0
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 142
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 142
C32 criterion
Serving Cell:
C32(s) = C1(s)
Neighbor cell:
C32(n) =
O GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is used to apply an permanent offset for GPRS cell
reselection in neighbor cells
Min: -52 dBm; Max: +48 dBm; Default: 4 dBm
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]

GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
<>
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
=
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n)
= C1(n) +
GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)
= C1(n) +
GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) -
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n)
T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n)
= C1(n) +
GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)
= C1(n) +
GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)

C1 is the same as in GSM except that
A = RLA_P GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: listening capacity of MS in the cell
B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P: talking capacity of MS in the cell
C1 shall be positive and as high as possible
C32:
if C32_QUAL=1, positive GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET value shall only be applied to the
neighboring cell with the highest RLA_P value of those cells for which C32 is compared above.
If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) >0, the cell has a bonus to reselection
If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) <0, the cell has a handicap for reselection
In Packet Idle Mode, the MS shall make one measurement for each BCCH carrier monitored every 4
seconds, as well as more than one sample per second for each BCCH carrier.
A list of 6 strongest cells shall be kept updated at a rate of at least one update per running average
period.
In Packet Transfer Mode, the MS shall monitor a list of 6 strongest non-serving cell BCCH carriers. It shall
attempt to check the BSIC for each of these 6 strongest cells at least once every 10 seconds.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 143
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 143
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
C32 is an improvement of C2. It applies an individual offset and
hysteresis value to each pair of cells, as well as the same temporary
offsets as for C2.
Additional hysteresis values apply for a cell re-selection that requires
cell or routing area update
With C32, neighbor cells can be favored through the
GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) broadcast on the PBCCH. This allows
favoring neighbor cells e.g. based on their frequency band
C32 also gives the possibility to temporarily penalize neighbor cells
having the same priority as the serving cell (contrary to C31 that
penalizes cells of different priorities). The penalty is computed
based on the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) and
GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) parameters, like for C31
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 144
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 144
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
If cell B is belonging to another Routing Area (RA) than cell A, the
MS has to make RA update
additional hysteresis are applied to avoid unnecessary RA updates:
O CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS hysteresis for cell reselection applied on C1
criterion (no PBCCH), when the new cell is in a different LA or, for a GPRS MS,
in a different RA, or when a GPRS MS is in GMM ready state
O RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS indicates in both STANDBY and READY state the
additional hysteresis which applies on C31 and C32 (with PBCCH) when
selecting a cell in a new RA
C31_HYST: Determines whether an additional cell hysteresis shall be
applied to the C31 criterion in same RA, in READY state
GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS additional hysteresis
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 145
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 145
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM
THERE ARE NO HANDOVERS IN GPRS
The MS is performing now Cell Reselection during a TBF
it leaves the coverage area of the cell or enters in a building
if a neighbor cell is better (from C Criterion point of view), the MS
performs a cell re-selection abnormal TBF release happens
in the new cell, a new TBF is automatically established, after (P)SI
information acquisition
only the remaining data from the old TBF will be sent then
automatically
Coding scheme adaptation is active in parallel and independently
triggered
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 146
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 146
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM [cont.]
CS 1
CS 2
Throughput
[kbit/s]
Time
[s] t1 t2 t3 t5 t4 t0
Average
Throughput
Throughput
TBF 1 (Cell 1) TBF 2 (Cell 2)
Data Call Duration
1. CS change
1. CS change
Cell
Re-Selection
Typical GPRS data transmission with cell reselection
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 147
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 147
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode
In NC2 mode of operation, the BSS controls the cell reselections of
all MS when in packet transfer mode (PTM) or of all MS when in GMM
Ready state (depending on the selected NC2 deactivation mode)
While the NC2 mode is activated for the concerned MS, the MS sends
packet measurements reports (PMR) to the BSS
Aim: NC2 mode is to limit the number of reselections to the strict
necessary ones increased data throughput
Alcatel NC2 implementation allows to favor GPRS traffic inside GPRS
preferred cells (GPRS redirection)
O Particular layer (e.g. macro)
O Particular frequency band (e.g. GSM 900)
reduced impact on signaling load
Each time the MS performs a cell reselection, the data transfer is interrupted and a retransmission of some
LLC PDUs may be required:
The on-going TBF is released in the old cell.
The MS performs the PSI or SI acquisition in the new cell.
Then, the MS establishes a new UL TBF in this cell to send a Cell Update message to the SGSN.
The MFS deletes or reroutes towards the new cell the LLC PDUs stored in the old cell.
- if they are deleted, a retransmission is needed.
Finally, the data transfer is re-started (after a DL TBF establishment, in case of DL transfer).
All these steps degrade the data throughput or the page access time perceived by the enduser.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 148
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 148
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
NC2 activation
An MS transit to NC2 mode when it receives a PACKET MEASUREMENT
ORDER message from the BSS, at the beginning of a data transfer. It
provides mainly the NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T which is the reporting
period of NC measurements sent by the MS while in PTM (default = 0.96s)
Measurement reporting and processing
MS periodically reports its NC2 measurements on PACCH through a
PACKET MEASUREMENT REPORT
The BSS handles the following measurements:
O UL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF
O DL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF
O DL serving and neighbor cells: RXLEV measurements of BCCH
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER is a cell parameter tunable at the OMC-R.
The R97 and R98 MSs are differentiated from the other MSs. Indeed, all the MSs shall support the NC2
mode, however since no network manufacturer has implemented the NC2 mode, the R97 and R98 MSs
may not have been sufficiently tested and therefore there is a risk of interoperability with these MSs.
The Packet Measurement Order message is used to activate and de-activate the NC2 mode of operation
for a given MS.
Activation
- The Packet Measurement Order (NC2) message is sent when:
establishing the first Downlink TBF of the Packet Transfer Mode or when re-establishing the
DL TBF while T3192 is running and there is not any on-going UL TBF.
no measurement report has already been received for that MS during its on-going packet
transfer(s) (UL and/or DL).
the MS has not been forced to operate in NC2 mode by a Packet Cell Change Order message
(during an intra-RA cell reselection).
De-activation
- The Packet Measurement Order (RESET) message is sent at the end of the data transfer, in
case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2 deactivation at the end of the packet transfer.
- When the MS goes back to the STANDBY state, in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2
deactivation at GMM Ready timer expiry.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 149
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 149
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Cell reselection detection
NC2 reselection are triggered only for EMERGENCY or for POWER BUDGET
causes:
O Cause PT 1: Too low DL received signal level
O Cause PT 2: Detection of a better cell
O Cause PT 3: Too bad DL radio quality
O Cause PT 4: Too bad UL radio quality
The criteria calculated by the BSS in NC2 mode are very near from those
used by the MS in NC0 mode. This ensures that the target cell selected
by the MS in NC0 mode or by the BSS in NC2 mode are identical in quite
all cases
O C1
NC2
, C2
NC2
, C31
NC2
and C32
NC2
criteria are calculated by the BSS and the
parameters defined for cell reselections in NC0 are re-used
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 150
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 150
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Cause PT1: Too low DL received signal level
AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 < NC_DL_RXLEV_THR + Max(B
NC2
,0)
O NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = -110 dBm (Never) deactivates Cause PT1
O Cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1
NC2
< 0 assuming that the
(GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced by NC_DL_RXLEV_THR
threshold
C1
NC2
: Pathloss Criterion parameter
O C1
NC2
(n) = A
NC2
(n) max(B
NC2
(n),0)
O No PBCCH
A
NC2
(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n)
B
NC2
(n) = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n)
O PBCCH established
A
NC2
(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n)
B
NC2
(n) = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n)
The cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1
NC2
< 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
threshold is replaced with NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 151
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 151
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Cause PT2: Detection of a better neighbor cell
AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR
and
{
No PBCCH:
C2
NC2
(n) > C2
NC2
(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n)
PBCCH established:
C32
NC2
(n) > C32
NC2
(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n)
}
O NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n) defined per cell adjacency link
O NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR = -110 dBm (Never) disables Cause PT2
O The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell
Cause PT2 is checked among the neighboring cells n upon receipt of a Packet Measurement Report message. It is
triggered if the value C2
NC2
or C32
NC2
of one neighboring cell n exceeds the value C2
NC2
or C32
NC2
of the serving
cell s by at least the O&M hysteresis NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s,n) defined per cell adjacency link (respectively
whether or not there is a PBCCH in the serving cell).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 152
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 152
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
C2
NC2
: Cell ranking criterion parameter
used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion and applies only in
serving cells where there is no PBCCH established
PENALTY_TIME(n) <> 11111:
C2
NC2
(n) = C1
NC2
(n) + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
PENALTY_TIME(n) = 11111:
C2
NC2
(n) = C1
NC2
(n) CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
O CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the
cell n
O PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive
or negative
O The n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 153
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 153
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
C31
NC2
: signal level threshold criterion parameter
Used in hierarchical networks to determine whether the signal level
received from a neighbor cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards
cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion
Used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell
C31
NC2
(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) HCS_THR(n)
O HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical
GPRS cell reselection criterion
O The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 154
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 154
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
C32
NC2
: cell ranking criterion parameter
Used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion
Applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established
Cell n is the serving cell:
C32
NC2
(n) = C1
NC2
(n)
Cell n is a neighbor cell:
C32
NC2
(n) = C1
NC2
(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
O GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) applies an positive or negative offset which favors
or disfavors the neighbor cell n. Cell n denotes either the serving cell or a
neighbor cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 155
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 155
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Cause PT3: Too bad downlink radio quality
AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR
O NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT3 is triggered due to a
too bad RXQUAL in DL (while the MS is in PTM)
Min: 0; Max: 7; Default: 7; step size: 0.1
O NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never) deactivates Cause PT3
Cause PT4: Too bad uplink radio quality
AV_UL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR
O NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT4 is triggered due to a
too bad RXQUAL in UL (while the MS is in PTM)
Min: 0; Max: 7; Default: 7; step size: 0.1
O NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never) deactivates Cause PT4
Cause PT4
is checked only for the serving cell whenever one UL RLC data block is correctly received for the on-
going UL TBF provided that T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the computation of the first
UL samples of the UL TBF.
T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an
NC cell reselection for a very short TBF.
Cause PT3
is checked only for the serving cell each time a (EGPRS) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message is received
provided that the DL TBF is not in delayed release state and provided that the T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID
seconds have elapsed since the receipt of the first Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message of the DL TBF.
T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an
NC cell reselection for a very short TBF.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 156
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 156
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Candidate cell evaluation
Cell Filtering: this process removes from the list candidates the cells to
which a previous NC2 cell reselection failed
Cell ranking:
O No PBCCH
O The cell are ranked to their C2
NC2
value. The best cell candidate is the cell having the
highest C2
NC2
value
O PBCCH established
O The cell are ranked based on the C31
NC2
and C32
NC2
criteria. Among the cells, the best
cell is the cell with the highest C32
NC2
value among:
o For cells that fulfill C31
NC2
criterion (C31
NC2
>0):
Those cells having the highest PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
o If no cell fulfill C31
NC2
criterion:
All cells
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 157
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 157
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Cell reselection execution
The network triggers the cell reselection by sending a PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER message
NC2 deactivation
Two modes via the O&M parameter NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE:
O NC2 deactivation at the end of packet date transfer
O NC2 deactivation at Ready timer expiry
On-going data transfer (1)
MS Cel l A
Packet Measurement Report (2)
Cel l B SGSN
(3)
Packet Cell Change Order (4)
UL LLC PDU (8)
UL TBFestablishment (7)
Flush-LL PDU (9)
Flush-LL-Ack PDU (10)
(6)
Packet Control Ack. (5)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 158
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 158
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.6 GPRS redirection
Thanks to NC2 activation for MS in PTM
B8 release GPRS redirection is actually a NC cell reselection that is
triggered at the beginning of the PTM in the serving cell even if the
radio link is good
Redirect the MS towards a target cell more appropriate to carry PS
traffic
The operator may wish to favor GPRS traffic in a particular
layer/band:
MULTILAYER NETWORK, it may be more efficient to define GPRS
resources in the UPPER LAYER only
O Reduce the number of cell reselections
O Microcells have smaller traffic capacity and is assigned to CS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 159
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 159
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.6 GPRS redirection [cont.]
MULTIBAND NETWORK, it may be more efficient to favor GPRS
traffic in the 900 MHz band, due to its better indoor penetration
MS GPRS mainly used in indoor environment
Gain in stability of the GPRS session
Operator must tune the NC parameters so that a NC cell reselection
is systematically triggered at the beginning of a data transfer on
receipt of the first Packet Measurement Report
E.g. NC cell reselection Cause PT1 can be always activated by setting
NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = - 47 dBm (Always)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 160
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 160
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview
GPRS power control is only implemented in uplink in open loop
configuration
GSM recommendation 05.08
During open loop power control, the MS adapts its output power in
UL per block (i.e. 4 timeslots), based on the measured average
signal strength in DL
Open loop:
There is no indication by the BTS whether the output power was
sufficiently low or high: the same path loss in UL and DL is assumed by
the MS
When accessing the network on the (P)RACH the MS uses the output
power defined by (GPRS_)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, which is
broadcasted on the (P)BCCH
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 161
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 161
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements
MS (E)GPRS performs the necessary LEVEL measurements for power
control algorithm, either on the BCCH of the serving cell or on the
PDCH (carrying the PACCH):
The choice is made according to PC_MEAS_CHAN parameter, which is
broadcasted on the BCCH:
PC_MEAS_CHAN = 1, measurements on PDCH (default)
O 24 measurements in 480 ms
PC_MEAS_CHAN = 0, measurements on BCCH
O 12 measurements in 480 ms
The LEVEL measurements are averaged with recursive filtering
algorithms
The average levels are calculated by the MS in PIM and PTM modes,
thus proper average level available at transfer start
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 162
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 162
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]
Averaging
Recursive Filtering (in the MS) to obtain average level
Recursive Filtering Formula:
C
n
=a
*
SS
n
+ (1-a)
*
C
n
-1
O C
n
is the DL level average calculated by the MS (C
n-1
=previous value)
O SS
n
is mean of received signal level of 4 bursts
O a is the forgetting factor
Packet Idle Mode
a = 1 / [min (n, max (5,T_AVG_W/T
DRX
) ) ]
O T
DRX
= parameter which considers the number of measurements that are made
and the paging group; T
DRX
=BS_PA_MFRMS
O BS_PA_MFRMS = number of multiframes needed to send all paging groups
O T_AVG_W = 2
k/2
/6 (k=1..25, recommended k < 12) is the signal level filter
period for PC in PIM
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 163
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 163
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]
GSM averaging window size
(A_LEV_PC)
Default value of k Range to investigate
2 4 [1-7]
4 7 [5-9]
6 8 [6-10]
8 8 [6-10]
10 9 [6-10]
12 9 [6-10]
14 9 [7-10]
16 9 [7-10]
Packet transfer Mode
a = 1/[6* T_AVG_T] on BCCH
a = 1/[12* T_AVG_T] on PDCH
T_AVG_T= 2
k/2
/6 signal level filter period for PC in PTM
k for T_AVG_T for measurements on BCCH or on PDCH:
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 164
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 164
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]

20
25
30
35
40
45
50
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 106 111 116 121 126 131 136 141
RXLEV_DL GSM average practical GPRS average
Averaging
Tuning of k: average mechanism convergent between GSM and GPRS
O Comparison between GSM averaging and the practical GPRS averaging with
A_LEV_PC=2 and K =4:
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 165
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 165
Each block is transmitted by the MS with the output power P
CH
:
P
CH
=min (
0
-
CH
-
*
(C+48), (GPRS)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH))

0
: is the maximum classmark power of the MS
O = 39 dBm in GSM 900/850/400
O = 36 dBm in GSM 1800/1900

CH
: is sent to the MS. This parameter is used for grading the power
control to a target received level at the BTS side
O Min:0; Max: 62; Default: 30 dB in GSM 900, 24 dB in GSM 1800
: is send to the MS. This parameter can be described as a reactivity
factor. The 05.08 GSM recommendation suggest to use o = 1 in order to
have an open loop power control
C : is the DL level average calculated by the MS
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 166
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 166
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.]
Tuning of
CH
and
Idea: Tune PC algorithm to balance DL and UL paths

O = 1 (according to GSM 05.08)

CH
O tune
CH
in order to reach the Minimum UL Level (RXLEV
UL
) at the BTS
O
CH
=
0
- 48 - RXLEV
UL
- P
BTS
Balanced DL and UL paths:
P
MS
- RXLEV
UL
= P
BTS
RXLEV
DL
O P
BTS
: BTS power; P
MS
: MS power
O RXLEV
UL
: Received level at BTS side
O RXLEV
DL
: Received level at MS side (C value in the PC formula)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 167
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 167
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.]
Example: Tuning of
CH
and
Settings:
MS_Power_MAX = 33 dBm
P
BTS
after connector = 40 dBm

= 1

CH
tune
CH
in order to reach the Minimum RXLEV
UL
at the BTS side
assume RXLEV
UL
= - 80 dBm
O
CH
=
0
- 48 - RXLEV
UL
- P
BTS
O
CH
= 33 - 48 - (-80) - 40 = 25 dBm
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 168
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 168
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control
It relies on RXQUAL except between CS3 and CS4 adaptation, where
the new metric I_LEVEL_TNi (interference level) is also considered
If CS-4 is used, the MS is allowed to report RXQUAL = 7
AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term average), AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long Term
average) and AV_SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) are respectively
averaged values at MFS side, of the RXQUAL and I_LEVEL_TNi
measurements received from the MS in Packet DL Ack/Nack
messages
AV_RXQUAL_ST
O Triggering condition AV_RXQual_ST aim to decrease the coding scheme number
as fast as possible when the radio conditions degraded significantly. Reaction
would be much slower if it was only based on a long-term average, which could
results in a TBF release
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 169
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 169
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]

O&M threshold
and hysteresis
new CS
current CS
- AV_RXQUAL_ST
- AV_RXQUAL_LT
- AV_SIR
MS MFS
(RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi)
Packet DL Ack/Nack
(RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi)
Packet DL Ack/Nack
Averaging
Link
adaptation
Interference measurements performed during
idle frames of the 52 multiframe (twice during
240ms):
I_LEVEL_TN 0 = I > C
I_LEVEL_TN 1 = C - 2dB < I C
I_LEVEL_TN 2 = C - 4dB < I C - 2dB
I_LEVEL_TN 3 = C - 6dB < I C - 4dB
...
I_LEVEL_TN 14 = C - 28dB < I C - 26dB
I_LEVEL_TN 15 = I C - 28dB
MFS uses the I_LEVEL_TNi received to calculate
the AV_SIR value
In case of DL GPRS TBF with PDCH allocated on
BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the
BCCH TRX, the MS does not report any
interference levels usage of BLER (Block
Erasure Rate) instead of interference levels
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 170
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 170
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Current
CS
CS
i
-> CS
i+1
CS
i
-> CS
i-1

CS1 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_1_2
-
CS2 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_2_3
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT
OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_ST
CS3
AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_3_4
AND
AV_SIR > CS_SIR_DL_3_4
(CS3_BLER < CS_BLER_DL_3_4)
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT
OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_ST
CS4 -
AV_SIR < CS_SIR_DL_3_4 + CS_SIR_HST_DL
(CS4_BLER > CS_BLER_DL_4_3)

Coding Scheme changing decision for a downlink GPRS TBF:
As it has been observed (in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation) that some MS do not report
any interference measurements when the BCCH carrier is included in the frequency hopping sequence of
the allocated PDCH, the algorithm described above is slightly modified in the MR2 version of the B8
release.
A new triggering condition is used for the CS change between CS3 and CS4. This new triggering condition
shall be applied only to the TBF that do not report any interference level measurements. Each time a
Packet DL Ack/Nack message is received:
either it contains no interference measurements and the new algorithm is applied,
or it contains interference measurements and the standard algorithm is applied.
With the new algorithm, the interference level is replaced by the BLER (RLC BLock Error Rate):
the CS3 BLER is used for a CS change from CS3 to CS4,
the CS4 BLER is used for a CS change from CS4 to CS3.
Remarks :
case of a DL TBF with PDCH allocated on the BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH TRX :
the MS does not report any interference level measurements in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message (no
interference measurements on the BCCH carrier),
case of a DL TBF with PDCH having the BCCH carrier belonging to the frequency hopping sequence :
depending on MS implementation, some MS may not report any interference measurements (behavior
observed in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation).
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 171
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 171
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]

AV_RXQUAL_LT
AV_SIR
CS1
CS2
CS3
CS4
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3
C S_QUAL_DL_3_4
0
7
0
15 CS_SIR_DL_4_3 CS_SIR_DL_3_4
CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)
CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)
CS3
or
CS4
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT
CS_HST_DL_LT and CS_HST_DL_ST are introduced to have hysteresis
mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding schemes:
The change from CS-3 to CS-4 is not only based on AV_RXQUAL_LT for the two following reasons:
RXQUAL range only goes down to 0.2%. However, the change of the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 will
probably have to be done for even lower values. Indeed, when the coding scheme is CS-4, in static
(AWGN), a BLER of 0.1 (typical value of the BLER threshold to change from CS-3 to CS-4) is obtained for a
raw BER of 1-(1-0.1)1/456 = 2.10-4. This raw BER would be larger in multipath channels but is likely to
remain below 0.2%. This means that CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 should be close to 0 and that a condition based on
RXQUAL is not sufficient to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4.
If the changes from CS-3 to CS-4 and from CS-4 to CS-3 are based on different metrics, a Ping-Pong effect
may occur. Indeed, it may happen that the conditions to change from CS-3 to CS-4 and CS-4 to CS-3 are
simultaneously true in some situations.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 172
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 172
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control
O&M threshold
and hysteresis
new CS
current CS
- AV_RXQUAL_ST
- AV_RXQUAL_LT
UL RLC block
Averaging
Link
adaptation
MS MFS BTS
RXQUAL
measurement
UL RLC block (RXQUAL)
UL RLC block (RXQUAL)
It is based only on RXQUAL,
measured by the BTS
Interference measurements
are not reported by the BTS
to the MFS
AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term
average), AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long
Term average) are averaged
values of the RXQUAL received
from the BTS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 173
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 173
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Current
CS
CS
i
-> CS
i+1
CS
i
-> CS
i-1

CS1 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 -
CS2 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_2_3
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT
OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_ST
CS3 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_3_4
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT
OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_ST
CS4 -
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT
OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_ST

Coding Scheme changing decision for uplink GPRS TBF:
AV_RXQUAL_ST is a short term average whereas AV_RXQUAL_LT is a long term average. The short term
average is used to react quickly in case of fast degradation of the radio conditions.
X = FH or NFH: two thresholds are available for hopping and non-hopping TRXs.
Y = ACK or NACK: two thresholds are available for RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes.
The thresholds should be chosen so that:
CS_HST_UL_ST > CS_HST_UL_LT > 0
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 174
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 174
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]

AV_RXQUAL_LT
AV_SIR
CS1
CS2
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3
0
7
0
15
CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)
CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)
CS3
CS4
CS3 or CS4 (hysteresis)
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS_HST_UL_LT and CS_HST_UL_ST are introduced to have
hysteresis mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding
schemes:
In the uplink, the RXQUAL is available in CS-4 and the SIR measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS
so far. Therefore, it is possible to also use RXQUAL measurements to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4
or from CS-4 to CS-3, contrary to the downlink algorithm, where the SIR was used.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 175
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 175
Two new metrics are introduced in EGPRS, Mean_BEP (mean Bit error
Probability) and CV_BEP (Coefficient of Variation of BEP), to offset the fact
that RXQUAL, does not provide an accurate estimation of the bit error rate
of the radio channel
BEP measured on burst basis, is a reflection of the current C/I, time dispersion
of the signal and the velocity of the terminal
The variation of BEP value over several bursts also provides additional
information regarding velocity and frequency hopping
The mechanism is more efficient than in GPRS, since measurements are taken on
every burst and not only during the idle frames
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.12 Link adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics

=
=
4
1 i
i burst block
BEP
4
1
MEAN_BEP


=
= =
|
.
|

\
|

=
4
1 i
i burst
2
4
1 k
4
1 i
i burst k burst
block
BEP
4
1
BEP
4
1
BEP
3
1
CV_BEP
For more details about MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages performed by the MS, refer to 3GPP 05.08.
Raw measurements on a radio block basis
For EGPRS (that is during an EGPRS DL TBF), the MS shall calculate the following values, for each radio block (1 radio
block = 4 bursts) addressed to it (the DL TBF TFI contained in the radio block must be decoded) :
Mean Bit Error Probability (BEP) of a radio block:
Coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability of a radio block:
In the above equations, the BEP is measured on a burst basis by the MS before channel decoding.
Averaging of the raw measurements on a TS basis
The raw measurements made by the MS on a radio block basis are averaged by the MS per TS (TN in the below
equations) and per modulation type (GMSK (MCS1 to MCS4), 8-PSK (MCS5 to MCS9)) as follows:

with (Rn gives the reliability of the averaged quality parameters)


In the above equations :
n is the iteration index, incremented for each DL radio block,
e is a forgetting factor and is calculated according to the BEP_PERIOD cell parameter (new in B8, OMC-R changeable),
SEE NEXT SLIDE

=
=
4
1
4
1
_
i
i burst block
BEP BEP MEAN


=
= =
|
.
|

\
|

=
4
1
2
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
3
1
_
i
i burst
k i
i burst k burst
block
BEP
BEP BEP
BEP CV
n block,
n
n
1 n
n
n
n
MEAN_BEP
R
x
e N MEAN_BEP_T )
R
x
e (1 N MEAN_BEP_T + =

n block,
n
n
1 n
n
n
n
CV_BEP
R
x
e CV_BEP_TN )
R
x
e (1 CV_BEP_TN + =

0 R , x e R e) (1 R
1 n 1 n n
= + =

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 176
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 176
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control
Average Power
Decrease in 8-PSK
IR
link adaptation
tables
new CS
current CS
MS MFS
(Mean_BEP, CV_BEP)
EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack
Link
adaptation
Decision tables are
different
depending on whether the
Incremental Redundancy
is activated or not
The link adaptation is based in DL on Mean_BEP and CV_BEP
measurements reported by the MS in every EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack
message
The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (0..31) and 8 different
CV_BEP values (0..7), per modulation type
xn denotes the existence of quality parameters for the nth block, i.e. if the radio block is intended for this MS. xn values 1 and 0
denote the existence and absence of quality parameters, respectively
Measurements reporting
A MS shall report the overall MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP (instead of reporting the RXQUAL and SIGN_VAR values) per
modulation type (that is GMSK_MEAN_BEP, GMSK_CV_BEP and/or 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP, 8-PSK_CV_BEP depending on the
received blocks since the last channel quality report sent to the network) averaged over all allocated channels
(timeslots) as follows:
,
where n is the iteration index at reporting time and j the TS number.
The MS reports the Mean_BEP and CV_BEP values to the MFS in the Channel Quality Report included in the EGPRS
Packet DL Ack/Nack and Packet Resource Request messages.
The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (MEAN_BEP_0 to MEAN_BEP_31). The mapping between the calculated
Mean_BEP value (linear scale) and the reported Mean_BEP value (logarithmic scale) depends on the used modulation (two
mapping tables are given in the 05.08 GSM recommendation : one for GMSK and one for 8-PSK).
The MS can report 8 different CV_BEP values (CV_BEP_0 to CV_BEP_7). The mapping between the calculated and the
reported values is identical for the GMSK and 8-PSK modulations.
Measurements and reporting at BTS side
The BTS measures for each UL burst the BEP and calculates for each UL radio block (4 bursts) the Mean_BEP and the
CV_BEP = Std_BEP / Mean_BEP. The Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP are reported on a radio block basis by the BTS to the MFS.


=
j
(j)
n
j
(j)
n
(j)
n
n
R
N MEAN_BEP_T R
MEAN_BEP
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 177
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 177
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)
new CS
current CS
UL RLC block
Averaging
Link
adaptation
MS MFS BTS
CV_BEP, Mean_BEP
computation
UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)
Average Power
Decrease in 8-PSK
IR
link adaptation
tables

In the UL, Mean_BEP and
CV_BEP are computed in
the BTS and sent to the
MFS, in each radio block
The MFS averages Mean_BEP
and CV_BEP and then, a
decision can be taken on
the link adaptation
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 178
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 178
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision
The MFS verify if a MCS change is needed each time it receives new
MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP measurements, based on the following algorithm:
IR activated
?
GMSK / 8-PSK
?
APD value
GMSK tables 8-PSK tables
MCS 1..4 MCS 5..9
GMSK / 8-PSK
?
APD value
GMSK tables 8-PSK tables
MCS 1..4 MCS 5..9
RLC Acknowledge Mode
YES NO
GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK GMSK
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 179
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 179
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up
TRX <--> TRX transmission pool
ordered list of TRXs
for PS traffic
TRX <--> TRE
TRX ranking
for PS traffic
TRX transmission
pool set-up
TRX characteristics
TRX transmission pools
TRX ranking
PS capable TRXs (TRX_PREF_MARK = 0) are
ranked at BSC side for PS traffic (from the
highest to the lowest), according to the following
criteria :
O TRX supporting the BCCH, if PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0
O TRX capability (EGPRS capable High Power, then
EGPRS capable Medium Power and finally non-
EGPRS capable)
O Dual Rate capability (FR, then DR)
O Size of the PDCH-group
This ranking will be used in the reverse order for
CS traffic
TRX transmission pool set-up
O A TRX transmission pool groups, together extra Abis nibbles for one TRX
O The biggest TRX transmission pools are allocated to the TRXs having the highest
priority for PS traffic.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 180
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 180
Example:
5 TREs in a cell
O 1 G4-HP TRE
O 2 G4-MP TREs
O 2 G3 TREs
PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 (false)
5 TRXs
O TRXa, TRXb, TRXc, TRXd: TRX_PREF_MARK = 0 (PS capable)
O TRXe: TRX_PREF_MARK <> 0 (non PS capable)
3 DR TRXs
Pool types
O 1 type 4
O 1 type 2
O 2 type 1
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up [cont.]
TREs

Dual Rate
usage
associated
TRXs
PS capable
TRX ranking
associated
transmission
pool
G4 - HP FR TRXa 1 type 4
G4 - MP FR TRXb 2 type 2
G4 - MP DR TRXc 3 type 1
G3 DR TRXd 4 type 1
G3 DR TRXe

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 181
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 181
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic
Max_EGPRS_MCS
O&M
GPRS capability
(CS2/CS3/CS4)
Max_GPRS_CS
TRX GPRS
capability
- HW PS
capability
- TRX
t
BSC
EGPRS capability
(MCS 1-MCS 9)
En_EGPRS
TRX EGPRS
capability
TRX capabilities are determined at MFS
side, taking into account:
For GPRS: the max CS configured
(MAX_GPRS_CS)
For EGPRS:
O TRX type (n=1 to 5), received from BSC
O hardware PS capability of each TRX,
received from the BSC
O En_EGPRS (parameter to allow or not EGPRS
in the cell), received from the BSC
O Max_GPRS_CS (parameter which gives the
highest usable CS in the cell), received from
the BSC
O Max_EGPRS_MCS (parameter which gives
the highest usable MCS in the cell)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 182
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 182
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview
To offer high throughput to EGPRS MSs :
EGPRS TBFs are preferentially allocated on high class TRXs
Multiplexing, on the same PDCH, a DL EGPRS TBF with an UL GPRS TBF
has to be avoided, since in this case, the DL EGPRS is limited to GMSK
(i.e. MCS4) new PDCH state: EGPRS
To fairly share throughput between EGPRS TBFs:
A higher number of EGPRS TBFs has to be piled up on high class TRXs
than on low class TRXs. This ratio has to take into account the maximum
throughput which can be offered by each class of TRX
specific TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs
To optimize GPRS throughput (i.e. high class TRX usage), as long as
it does not conflict with EGPRS traffic
A new reallocation trigger (T4) is created in order to reallocate an UL
GPRS TBF which is multiplexed with a DL EGPRS TBF
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 183
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 183
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state
All the following PDCH states are related to establish TBFs:
Empty : PDCH established, but no established TBF
Active : at least one established TBF and the number of established TBFs
is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH
Busy : the number of established TBFs is greater or equal to
N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller than MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH /
MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH
Full : number of established TBFs is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH /
MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 184
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 184
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.]
New state for GPRS PDCH
PDCH used in DL direction by 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF, i.e PDCH does
not belong to a class 1 TRX
meaningful only
O for non-EGPRS capable MS
O only in UL direction
When meaningful, it overwrites active and busy states but not the
full state
Avoids multiplexing of UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF, in order
to not reduce the EGPRS throughput
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 185
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 185
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.]
MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH
Full
N_TBF_PER_SPDCH
Busy Active Empty
DOWNLINK
MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH
Full
N_TBF_PER_SPDCH
Busy Active Empty
UPLINK
[EGPRS] [EGPRS]
One SPDCH has one state per direction (i.e., one state for the UL, one state for the DL). This state depends on the type of the MSs (EGPRS
capable or non-EGPRS capable) for which the radio resource (re)-allocation algorithm is called.
radio resource allocated to the MFS, but associated transmission resources are not allocated (i.e., the PDCH is not established). All
the following states are related to established PDCHs:
empty:
the PDCH is established, but no established TBF.
active:
For GPRS TBF: at least one established TBF and the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH.
For EGPRS TBF: at least one established EGPRS TBF and the number of EGPRS TBFs (1) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH.
busy:
For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS and EGPRS TBFs) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller than
MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (1) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller than
MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
full:
For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (3) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
EGPRS (2)
PDCH used in the DL direction by an 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF (i.e., the PDCH does not belong to a class 1 TRX).
This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the UL direction.
When meaningful, it overwrites active and busy states (but not the full state).
(1): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid to establish EGPRS TBFs on PDCHs with a low EGPRS capability, because of GPRS
TBFs.
(2): The aim of this new state is to avoid multiplexing UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF, in order not to reduce EGPRS throughput.
(3): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid radio resource allocation failure because of the restricted list of EGPRS capable
TRXs.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 186
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 186
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs
Specific conditions are defined for TRX selection in case of
allocation or reallocation for EGPRS capable MS
To allocate EGPRS TBFs preferentially on TRX which allows a high
throughput
Principle:
As long as the TRXs with the highest throughput do not support a
maximum number of EGPRS TBFs, the other EGPRS capable TRXs are not
taken into account by the algorithm
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 187
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 187
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Following internal variables are defined:
N_TRX_EGPRS : number of TRXs on which EGPRS MSs are served in EGPRS
mode
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current(TRXi) : maximum number of EGPRS TBFs per
PDCH, currently allocated in TRXi
N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj
O It defines for each EGPRS TRX capability (MCSi) in the cell the number of
EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve
upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability (MCSj).
O Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi / Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj
with Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that
can be achieved at RLC/MAC per PDCH using MCSx encoding
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 188
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 188
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
EGPRS TRX capability
(MCSi)
Immediately lower TRX
capability (MCSj)
N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj
MCS3 MCS2 1
MCS4 MCS2 1
MCS5 MCS2 2
MCS6 MCS5 1
MCS2 2
MCS6 1
MCS7 MCS5 2
MCS2 4
MCS6 1
MCS8 MCS5 2
MCS2 4
MCS8 1
MCS9 MCS6 2
MCS5 2
MCS2 5

All the values between MCS2 and MCS9 are possible because of the
O&M parameter Max_EGPRS_MCS
Different used thresholds :
N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj are internal parameters which define for each EGPRS TRX capability, in the cell, the
number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs
with a lower EGPRS capability.
This value depends on the throughput gap between 2 consecutive TRXs inside the ordered (according to TRX
Rank) list of EGPRS capable TRXs.
N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj = Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi DIV Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj
Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that can be achieved at RLC/MAC per
PDCH using MCSx encoding.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 189
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 189
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Example
Assuming that in a cell the following TRXs are EGPRS capable:
TRXa: EGPRS capability = MCS9
TRXb: EGPRS capability = MCS5
TRXc: EGPRS capability = MCS5
TRXd: EGPRS capability = MCS2
TRXe: EGPRS capability = MCS2
Two thresholds are used :
O N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 = 2
O N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 = 2
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 190
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 190
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
CELL START
TRXa
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXi) = 0
(with i = a, b, c, d or e )
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
OR
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
TRXa, TRXb, TRXc
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa)
= N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5
TRXa, TRXb, TRXc, TRXd, TRXe
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb)
= N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
AND
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc)
= N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
OR
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 191
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 191
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs
A) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the highest
number of non-busy PDCHs in the direction of the bias are preferred
B) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the highest
number of non-full PDCHs in the direction of the bias are preferred
C) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the highest
number of non-busy PDCHs in the direction opposite to the bias are
preferred
D) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the highest
number of non-full PDCHs in the direction opposite to the bias are
preferred
HIGH HIGH
LOW LOW
I
M
P
O
R
T
A
N
C
E
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 192
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 192
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
E) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number
of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred
It is preferred to multiplex an EGPRS TBF with a GPRS TBF, rather
than with another EGPRS TBF
F) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number
of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction opposite to the bias are
preferred
G) The candidate timeslot allocations which are on a TRX with
highest priority are preferred
H) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number
of established GPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred
H has a lowest priority than G, in order to avoid to establish
EGPRS TBFs on low class TRXs, because of GPRS TBFs
HIGH HIGH
LOW LOW
I
M
P
O
R
T
A
N
C
E
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 193
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 193
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
I) The candidate timeslot allocations which have all their PDCHs
established are preferred. If all the preferred best candidate
timeslot allocations require additional PDCHs, then a request is sent
to the BSC and the algorithm is stopped
J) If the MS has already one or 2 TBFs established, preference is
given to the candidate timeslot allocation which does not require a
T2 reallocation of the on-going TBFs
K) The candidate timeslot allocation with the PDCHs that have the
lowest index is preferred
HIGH HIGH
LOW LOW
I
M
P
O
R
T
A
N
C
E
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 194
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 194
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation
B8 release: 4 types of TBF reallocations:
T1: re-allocation to maintain a TBF alive despite a pre-emption
T2: re-allocation of an on-going TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF
T3: re-allocation to offer a better throughput to an on-going TBFs
O One triggering condition is added to the T3-reallocation for EGPRS TBF
EGPRS TBFs can become candidate in the 2 following cases:
O B7.2 conditions (i.e. sub-optimal allocation)
O new in B8, where the TRX capability is taken into account
T4: re-allocation condition completely new, to move an UL GPRS TBF
sharing one PDCH with a DL EGPRS TBF onto PDCHs which do not support
a DL EGPRS TBF
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 195
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 195
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH
Min_PDCH: O&M parameter per cell
The minimum number of radio timeslots reserved for PS traffic
B8 release: Min_PDCH takes into account:
The pre-allocated SPDCH but not established (w/o GCH resource)
The SPDCH pre-allocated and established for the fast initial (E)GPRS access
The MPDCH represented by the parameter Nb_TS_MPDCH
Thus, the initial allocation process take into consideration:
EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 0 (false)
O MIN_PDCH - Nb_TS_MPDCH SPDCH are requested to the BSC and pre-allocated on
the TRX with the highest priority
EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 1 (true)
O MIN_PDCH - Nb_TS_MPDCH - 1 SPDCH are requested to the BSC and pre-allocated
on the TRX with the highest priority
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 196
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 196
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access
Also called : Immediate UL TBF establishment
To provide always one established PDCH, usable for UL GPRS and UL
EGPRS TBFs, even if there is no PS traffic at all
A TBF can be immediately established without requesting
transmission resource connection to the BSC
EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS, parameter per cell
flag to indicate whether or not one Slave PDCH for (E)GPRS traffic usage
will be statically established in the cell
O Min: 0; Max: 1; Default 0
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 197
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 197
4 General (E)GPRS planning principels
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 198
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 198
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level)
Note: the throughput values are ETSI requirements, the C/I values are valid for TU3, SFH enabled
CS-2
CS-1
C/I = 9 dB
Level of neighbor-cell
Level (dBm)
Distance
RL/MAC net
Data Throughput
(kbit/s)
12
8
10.8
7.2
C/I = 13 dB
Level of serving cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 199
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 199
Packet data
throughput (ETSI)
Maximum (error
free
transmission) on
Air Interface
at BLER=10%
Degradation of
RLC by Level
and Interference
System Scheme Max RLC data through-
put (RLC payload)
[kbps]
RLC data throughput
at Reference Point
(BLER=10%)
[kbps]

EGPRS MCS-9 59.2 53.3
MCS-8 54.4 49.0
MCS-7 44.8 40.3
MCS-6 29.6 26.7
MCS-5 22.4 20.2
MCS-4 17.6 15.9
MCS-3 14.8 13.3
MCS-2 11.2 10.1
MCS-1 8.8 7.9

GPRS CS-4 20.0 18.0
CS-3 14.4 13.0
CS-2 12.0 10.8
CS-1 8.0 7.2

4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.2 Packet data throughput
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 200
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 200
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.3 Reference performance point
ETSI ->Simulation of coding scheme performance under different
environment and fading conditions
typical urban environment with mobile speed of 3 km/h (TU3)
typical urban environment with mobile speed of 50 km/h (TU50)
typical hilly terrain with mobile speed of 100 km/h (HT100)
typical rural area with mobile speed of 250 km/h (RA250)
The impact of Level and interference has been studied in order to
find the minimum required Level and C/I ratio for the reference
error performance, defined by a block error rate Block Error Rate
(BLER) of 10%, the reference performance point
Why is this important?
Saturation effect
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 201
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 201
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.4 Saturation effect
Throughput curve as required by ETSI for CS-1and CS-2, typical urban environment with MS speed 3 km/h TU3 with SFH
C/I
0
4
8
12
16
20
3dB 7dB 11dB 15dB 19dB 23dB 27dB
kbit/s
CS1
CS2
The reference performance point is
reached at BLER@10%.
The following data rates can be achieved at this point:
CS-1: C/I=9 dB =>7.2 kbit/s (saturation: 8 kbit/s)
CS-2: C/I=13 dB =>10.8 kbit/s (saturation: 12 kbit/s)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 202
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 202
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.4 Saturation effect [cont.]
By increase of the C/I ratio, the data throughput increases
because less retransmission has to be performed (less data
blocks are erroneous)
since saturation occurs. e.g. for CS-1 starting with 7.2 kbit/s at a C/I
ratio of 9dB
With an increasing C/I ratio the data throughput increases only little up
to its maximum value of 8kbit/s (saturation point)
Due to this saturation effect, a further increase of the C/I ratio does
not have large impact on the data throughput of a single coding
scheme: possibly a switch to a higher CS may occur (C/I ~ 7 dB for
CS-1 to CS-2)
Reference Performance Point : A tradeoff between the
maximisation of the network throughput and excessive C/I
constraints.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 203
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 203
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.5 Cell area and throughput
Level of serving cell
1. Throughput at CS-2 saturation point
2. Throughput at CS-2 reference performance point 3. Throughput at CS-1 saturation point
4. Throughput at CS-1 reference performance point
CS-2
CS-1
C/I = 9
dB
Level of neighbor-cell
Level (dBm)
Distance
12
8
10.8
7.2
C/I = 13 dB
RL/MAC net
Data Throughput
(kbit/s)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 204
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 204
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.6 Throughput <-> C/I
ETSI requirements and Alcatel values for C/I
co
and C/I
adj
for CS and
GPRS (PDCH) GSM 900 (Requirement for GMSK modulation: C/I
adj
= C/I
co
18dB)
Packet switched
CS1 CS2
GSM 900 Circuit
switche
d TU3 TU3
ideal
FH
TU50 TU50
ideal FH
TU3 TU3
ideal
FH
TU50 TU50
ideal
FH
PDTCH
C/I co-
channel
ETSI
9 13 9 10 9 15 13 14 13
C/I adj-
channel
ETSI
-9 -5 -9 -8 -9 -3 -5 -4 -5
C/I co-
channel
Alcatel
11.5 6.7 7.5 6.5 13.1 10.3 11.1 10.8
C/I adj-
channel
Alcatel
-9 -13 -12 -13 -6 -8.8 -8.2 -9

In general: With
higher coding
scheme, higher
C/I ratios
required
GPRS
functionality
more sensitive
against
interference
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 205
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 205
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.6 Throughput <-> C/I [cont.]
GPRS
C/I Throughput
Common
channel
Interferer
TU 50
no FH
5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
TU50 (900 MHz) no fh
C / I
c o
[dB]
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

1
3

J
u
l

2
0
0
0

0
9
:
4
5
:
4
4
CS4
CS3
CS2
CS1
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 206
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 206
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 207
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 207
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 208
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 208
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.1 GPRS network planning
Two different cases are possible to introduce GPRS service:
GPRS Greenfield planning means
O dedicated analysis of GPRS network design
O All GPRS cells will be designed for maximum throughput performances
O So the (GPRS) cell ranges could be smaller as used to be in a pure GSM
network, designed for speech service only
Introduction of GPRS to operating GSM cells
O GPRS performance is strongly depending on GSM network quality
O Cell ranges are depending from GSM service planning
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 209
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 209
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning
Measures to reach GPRS QoS
RA Planning+ CAE Data
GPRS Throughput Analysis
- Traffic Analysis
- Field strength prediction
- Mutual interference calculation
- GSM/GPRS frequency planning
- Cell specific interference calculation
- TRX assignment to GPRS service
GPRS features
GSM features
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 210
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 210
GPRS traffic calculation
Traffic Analysis
PS Traffic
User Profile
User Behavior
Market applications
Customer questionnaire
Traffic model: Example
GPRS traffic calculation
O Straight forward
O Erlang C
O Traffic tool
Different traffic calculation
procedure for packet traffic
compared to speech traffic
calculation
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 211
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 211
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis
The traffic analysis is done to have the amount of resources
(frequencies) one needs to fulfill GSM+GPRS traffic
CS traffic demand (Circuit Switched, derived from Erlang B formula)
PS (Packet Switched) traffic demand has also to be taken into
account for the capacity calculation
What is PS or GPRS traffic?
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 212
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 212
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.4 GPRS traffic calculationand PS traffic
The PS traffic demand (or user throughput demand) is derived from
an average traffic data volume generated by each type of GPRS
subscriber
GPRS traffic volume is given on a monthly basis as sum of used
applications data volume.
Today all PS traffic values are based on assumptions until useful
experience values are available
The traffic values are collected in a traffic model
In general, the traffic from PS services is depending on:
User profile
User behavior
Market applications and service distributions
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 213
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 213
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic [cont.]

User profile
Market applications
and serv i ce distri butions
User behavior Customer
Questionnaire
Traffic calculation
Traffic model
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 214
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 214
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile
A user profile defines a typical user for packet data services, using a
certain amount of applications
It is useful to limit the amount of user profiles to keep the calculation
simple, e.g. two profiles can be introduced, business and private user
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 215
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 215
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications
Market applications
Different services are possible for packet data use e.g. new designed
services or services known from the fixed network
Market applications and user profiles are related to each other, thus
some applications are assigned to one user profile only
Each service is characterized by its occurrence: action time per month
and the related bit rate per action.
In some applications, the data exchange traffic is oriented to downlink,
in some others to uplink. Generally the downlink traffic is preponderant
in asymmetrical applications such as: web browsing, information
downloading, audio downloading etc.
This shall be taken into account for the dimensioning process: so the
dimensioning will be downlink oriented.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 216
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 216
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior
Important for the user behavior is the daily distribution
Duration and occurrence time of busy hour (BH), assumption busy hour is
same for CS and PS
The user distribution over the planning area
Following definitions can be only expected values for the
introduction of GPRS (homogeneous traffic distribution over the cell
area is assumed)
GPRS subscriber percentage (%), related to the total (CS+PD) subscriber
number
GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber
number
Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to
morphostructure
Daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 217
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 217
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.8 Customer questionnaire
Customer questionnaire
Data collection from Operator -> Forecast data
To keep process simple ->12 Points questionnaire
1. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers)
2. Blocking at air interface (speech)
3. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub)
4. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes
5. Percentage of GPRS subscribers related to the total amount of GSM
subscribers
6. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 218
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 218
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.8 Customer questionnaire [cont.]
7. User profile definition
8. Market applications definition and relation to user profiles
9. PS user behaviour/distribution:
O daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month)
O GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber number
O geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to
morphostructure
10. Number of BTS in the existing network
11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses
12. Number of TRX/BTS, in accordance to morphoclass
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 219
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 219
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.9 Traffic Model (Example)
The table summarizes
the assumptions made
for the traffic profiles of
GPRS subscribers
(days/month): business
22 days, private 30
Total GPRS Users 7%: 2%
private and 5 % business
urban = 70% business,
50% private
rural = 30% business,
50% private
User Profile Business Private
Market Application during GPRS
introduction
during GPRS
introduction
Update/Month 6 -
Kbytes 20 -
Remote access (e.g. WEB data bases gen-
eral and specific (law, medicine, ...)
Mbytes/Month 0.117 -
mail/Month 24 3
Kbytes 150 30
E-mail+Attachment
Mbytes/Month 3.516 0.0878
Pages/Month 25 10
Kbytes 100 100
WWW
Mbytes/Month 2.441 0.977
info/Month 25 20
Kbytes 60 60
Information (e.g. Location, event, trans-
portation services)
Mbytes/Month 1.464 1.17
usage/Month 8 2
Kbytes 75 75
e-Commerce
(e.g. On-line shopping)
Mbytes/Month 0.586 0.146
Min/Month - -
Kbytes/Min - 1024
Audio (MP3)
e.g. (Access audio files on the net)
Mbytes/Month - -

TOTAL Mbytes/Month 8.124 2.380

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 220
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 220
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.10 User mapping
Following definitions of user mapping and multi-service mapping
shall help to categorize the quality of the three calculation methods
described in clause: Three different calculations for GPRS Traffic.
User mapping
User mapping defines that one certain resource can be shared
simultaneously by different users. Behavior in GPRS -> Packet switched
service for different users on one timeslot.

User 1
User 2
User 3
User
Timeslot
1
TS 2
TRX
TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TS 6 TS 7 TS 8
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 221
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 221
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.11 Multi-Service
Multi-Service with GPRS
Multi-service mapping means that one user can use different
services. So one user is not directly mapped to only one service in
the traffic model examination

User
Serv ice1
e.g. HTTP
Service2
e.g. FTP
Serv ice3
e .g. WAP
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 222
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 222
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.12 QoS per User Application
QoS per User Application Volume@BH
Page size
Queue Delay
Acceptable delay if no resource is available at service attempt
Quantile
Quantile: Specific elements in the range of a variety X are called
quantiles
Bit rate
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 223
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 223
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation
3 different calculations can be used for GPRS traffic calculation
Straight forward
Erlang C
Traffic tool

User mapping QoS per service
Multi-service
mapping
Straight Forward
result for PS
+
_

_

Erlang C
for PS
+ +
_
Traffic tool
from ND
+ + +

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 224
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 224
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
The straightforward calculation
gives the smallest number of needed PS TS among the traffic calculation
methods
It calculates for the whole data volume, sum of all users data, the
number of PDCH TS needed to transfer this data volume, regardless of
data transfer peaks
This method is not taking into account parallel data transfer, which is
the benefit of packet transfer (GPRS).
So no service attempt queuing and no service multiplexing is taken into
account by this method.
A calculation method to get in the first step of GPRS planning an idea of
minimum needed PDCH TS.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 225
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 225
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Erlang C calculation
gives for a required service attempt probability (Quantile) and the queue
delay time of it (e.g. 2 s delay can be set if no resource is available at
service attempt), the number of needed resources (TS).
The result of Erlang C will give the biggest number of needed PDCH TS
among the presented packet traffic calculations.
The reason is that a constant data flow is considered which is not the
case for different applications like WAP
For all different services the PDCH TS with Erlang C has to be calculated
and summarized. Afterwards the sum of PDCH TS for the different
services leads to an over dimensioning.
This method can be used to give very fast a planning result on how many
PDCH as maximum can be expected.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 226
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 226
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Traffic Tool from Alcatel (ND)
The traffic tool is the more exact method to calculate the needed PDCH
compared to the above calculation methods
O Traffic tool is an automated tool (attention only ND internal use)
O Result of this calculation will be most probably between the above calculation
methods
Additionally operator agreed/suggested handling of GPRS channels must
be fixed. This is for example the usage of:
O Activation of MPDCH or not
O BCCH combined mode or not
O Usage of Delayed DL TBF Release or not
O QUALITY OF SERVICES [Volume @BH, Page size (KBytes), Queue delay
(seconds), Quantile (%), Bit rate (kbit/s)]
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 227
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 227
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Traffic Tool from Alcatel (ND)
The traffic tool can calculate the result:
O TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL
O TS needed PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL
TRX calculation for CS and PS with application of reuse of CS TS for PDCH
(PS) when dynamic/smooth PDCH adaptation and /or fast preemption
feature is activated
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 228
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 228
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods
General Input data for all 3 calculation methods
Number of GPRS Users per cell
GPRS users (Packet Switched Service)=600
O WAP users: 60
O WEB users: 180
O MMS users: 360
Service data size per user in busy hour (per 3600s)
O WAP data size per user 12KB
O WEB data size per user 40KB
O MMS data size per user 40KB
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 229
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 229
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
Straight Forward calculation for GPRS Traffic
Needed transfer rate per service for all users
WAP: 12KB*8bit/3600s*60 user= 1.6 kbit/s
WEB: 40KB*8bit/3600s*180 user= 16 kbit/s
MMS: 40KB*8bit/3600s*360 user= 32 kbit/s
Total number of needed PDCH
Sum of data rate for all services: 49.6 kbit/s
Expected transfer rate per Timeslot (PDCH)= 10 kbit/s in good radio
conditions
So total needed PDCH is 5 PDCH TS per
cell(= 49.6 kbit/s / 10 kbit/s)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 230
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 230
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation
QoS per service
WAP service: bit rate = 5 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay
WEB service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay
MMS service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay
Number of needed PDCH per service
The following results calculation can be done with an Erlang C tool. The
results are listed for each service
O in this example here for WAP, WEB and SMS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 231
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 231
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
E R L A N G C
V
o
l
u
m
e
@
B
H
P
a
g
e

s
i
z
e

(
K
b
y
t
e
s
)
S
u
b
s
c
r
i
b
e
r
s
Q
u
e
u
e

d
e
l
a
y

(
s
)
Q
u
a
n
t
i
l
e
B
i
t

r
a
t
e
4 0 2 1 8 0 2 s 9 0 . 0 % 3 0
+
1 0 . 5 3 3 3 1 . 8 7 5 0
P
D
C
H

=

R
O

=
M
U

=
E R L A N G C
V
o
l
u
m
e
@
B
H
P
a
g
e

s
i
z
e

(
K
b
y
t
e
s
)
S
u
b
s
c
r
i
b
e
r
s
Q
u
e
u
e

d
e
l
a
y

(
s
)
Q
u
a
n
t
i
l
e
B
i
t

r
a
t
e
4 0 2 3 6 0 2 s 9 0 . 0 % 3 0
+
2 1 . 0 6 6 7 1 . 8 7 5 0
P
D
C
H

=

R
O

=
M
U

=
Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation
WAP:
WEB:
MMS:
Total number of needed PDCH=10 PDCH TS
O Assumption: Expected rate per TS of 10 kbit/s
O For the WAP service 1 resource of 5 kbit/s is needed = 1 PDCH TS
O For the WEB service 1 resource of 30 kbit/s is needed = 3 PDCH TS
O For the MMS service 2 resources of 30 kbit/s is needed = 6 PDCH TS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 232
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 232
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
TRAFFIC TOOL version 1.0
Results of the traffic tool is:
Used settings in the traffic tool:
No activation of: Combined mode, DL Delayed TBF Release and MPDCH
Call Mix Reference used is: Alcatel B7 reference
6 PDCH TS per cell is
needed in total to cope
with GPRS traffic per cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 233
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 233
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result
General GPRS traffic calculation result:
Needed amount of timeslots for PS traffic
O makes it possible to go to the next step of GPRS network design process
The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence
(user capacity)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 234
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 234
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 235
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 235
6 (E)GPRS Network design
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 236
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 236
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.1 General
With the input from GPRS traffic calculation the GPRS Design
process can start:
Basis: The knowledge of the amount of timeslots makes it possible to go
to the next step of GPRS network design process
The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence
(user capacity) and in combination with the CS traffic demand, the
needed equipment amount is calculated:
O Number of timeslots which may be reserved for GPRS in normal and high load
state of the BSC
O Number of timeslots which have to be reserved exclusively for GPRS
O Number of remaining timeslots for CS traffic
=> Standard BTS configuration
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 237
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 237
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.1 General [cont.]
Standard BTS configuration
The result of traffic analysis gives the standard BTS configuration for the
different traffic areas. The traffic areas are most commonly linked to a
specific morpho class
Step after:
Field strength prediction, Mutual Interference calculation, GSM/GPRS
frequency planning
O For the GPRS network design the field strength prediction is done as for the
GSM network planning e.g. with the radio network planning tool A9155. After
field strength calculation the mutual interference calculation is done in A9155.
These results will be used as input for a GSM/GPRS frequency planning, in
A9155 this is done in the AFP module (automatic frequency planning)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 238
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 238
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.1 General [cont.]
Cell specific interference calculation
The cell specific interference calculation is done with the results of the
GSM/GPRS frequency planning. The cell specific interference calculation
will be used to identify less interfered frequencies for TRX assignment.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 239
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 239
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.2 Frequency planning
Mostly all GPRS networks will be INTERFERENCE limited
Therefore:
Proper Frequency Re-use
Introduction of Frequency hopping
What is the best Carrier for GPRS - BCCH or TCH?
Make use of improvement strategies
Osite design changes
O e.g. antenna changes, electrical down tilt
Osite lowering
Osite densification
Onetwork expansion/enhancement strategies (like Dual Band)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 240
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 240
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.2 Frequency planning [cont.]
BCCH
no DTX, PC (Power Control) or FH (Frequency Hopping)
C/I of minimum 11.5 dB is recommended (Alcatel values)
Disadvantage: only 7 TS available for GPRS
TCH
Hopping, (PC)
all 8 TS available for GPRS
Disadvantage: by hopping -> Interference is RF_load dependent
O the increase of RF_load implies a decrease of C/I and therefore of the
throughput
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 241
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 241
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.3 Throughput
Throughput -> directly related to link quality and level
Due to this dependency, the shape of a cell is related to the
throughput
GPRS cells are designed in respect to the
desired data transmission (throughput)
behavior of the customers in the planned area
Attention: GPRS service more sensitive against interference and
level than CS service
Therefore GPRS designed cells are smaller than CS designed ones
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 242
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 242
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.4 Link budget
In general, the link budget calculation is the same like for CS design
Attention has to be paid to the hardware related values:
O BTS/MS performance -> Supplier dependent
BTS output power
BTS receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme
MS output power
MS receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 243
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 243
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.4 Link budget [cont.]
Some differences compared to the well-known power budget is the
handling of some losses and margins:
body loss, for PS: 2 dB, due to the fact, that for the most PS applications
the MS is not close to the body , but on an other, from the propagation
point of view unfavorable position (e.g. on the table)
interference margin: minimum 3 dB (urban and dense urban area up to 5
dB, depending of the frequency re-use), due to the high dependency of
the PS service on C/I
(lognormal) fading margin can be added to increase the coverage
probability from 50% up to 95%; e.g. assuming standard deviation sigma =
7 dB =>fading margin:1.65 sigma ~11 dB
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 244
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 244
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.4 Link budget [cont.]
GPRS link budget
example,
dimensioned for the
Evolium BTS
(without TRE):
Evolium/900, 3x4
configuration, 1 X-
Pol Antenna/sector,
in comparison to a
CS link budget
Ci r cui t swi tched mode CS1 (TU 50) CS2 (TU 50)
TX Upl i nk Downl i nk Upl i nk Downl i nk Upl i nk Downl i nk
Inter nal Power : 33.00 dBm 45.44 dBm 33.00 dBm 45.44 dBm 33.00 dBm 45.44 dBm
Isol .,Comb.,Fi l ter Loss: 0.00 dB 5.01 dB 0.00 dB 5.05dB 0.00 dB 5.05dB
Output Power 33.00 dBm 40.39 dBm 33.00 dBm 40.39 dBm 33.00 dBm 40.39 dBm
Cabl e,Connector s
Loss:
0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB
Body Loss: 3.00 dB 0.0 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dB
Antenna Gai n: 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi
Eff. Isotr . Rad. Power : 30.00 dBm 55.43 dBm 31.00 dBm 55.43 dBm 31.00 dBm 55.43 dBm
RX Upl i nk Downl i nk Upl i nk Downl i nk Upl i nk Downl i nk
Rec. Sensi ti vi ty: - 111.00
dBm
- 102.00
dBm
- 109.00
dBm
- 102.00
dBm
- 105.00
dBm
- 98.00 dBm
Body Loss: 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dB 2.00 dB
Cabl es, Connector s
Loss:
3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB
Antenna Gai n: 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi
Di ver si ty Gai n: 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB
Inter fer ence Mar gi n 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB
Fadi ng Mar gi n 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB
Isotr . Rec. Power : -126.00
dBm
-96.00
dBm
-124.00
dBm
-97.00
dBm
-120.00 dBm -93.00 dBm
Bal ance Upl i nk Downl i nk Upl i nk Downl i nk Upl i nk Downl i nk
Max. Path loss 156 dB 151.43 dB 155 dB 152.43 dB 151 dB 148.43 dB
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 245
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 245
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies
Legend (dB)
> 25 dB
> 16 dB
> 13 dB
> 9 dB
< 9 dB
Network wide C/I (BCCH)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 246
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 246
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies
Network wide C/I (worst TCH)
Legend (dB)
> 25 dB
> 16 dB
> 13 dB
> 9 dB
< 9 dB
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 247
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 247
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service
Some general considerations apply independently from the BSS
software release:
GPRS/EDGE shall be mapped on the TRX(s) with the best radio quality
(lowest interference probability); this can be any TRX in the cell.
O Identification of less interfered frequencies and their ranking
O Assigning the preference for PS traffic handling to the best ranked frequencies
(e.g High Power TRX, Full rate capable TRX) with the help of the parameters:
TRX_PREF_MARK; PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX, TRX Classes,
O Since B7 up to 16 TRX per cell are available for GPRS service. So a
differentiation of GSM and GPRS TS allocation priority on the TRX must be
fixed during planning. The allocation priority for GPRS shall be set according to
GPRS QoS needs.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 248
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 248
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis
GPRS coverage analysis
What area is covered with what coding scheme?
Area and average throughput distribution
Environment definition (Example)
TU 50
GSM 900 Band
BCCH as GPRS carrier
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 249
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 249
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]
GPRS analysis Steps:
C/I based analysis
OCoding scheme
OThroughput
Analysis in respect to:
Average throughput or/and
throughout hot spots
N
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 250
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 250
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]
GPRS service is C/I limited
Improvements for a larger
CS-4 coverage
-> reduction of the overall
interference situation in the
network (higher achievable
throughput)
Legend (CSvalue)
CS4
CS3
CS2
CS1
Network wide Coding Scheme
Distribution (C/I based)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 251
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 251
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]
The system keeps always the
highest coding scheme (and
due to this, the highest
achievable throughput), until
the C/I proportions lead to
change to a lower coding
scheme
By driving through the CS4
area from the center
to the border, a
stepwise degradation
of the throughput depending
from the
C/I ratio is visible
Legend (kbit/s)
19..20 kbit/s
16..18 kbit/s
14..15 kbit/s
7..13 kbit/s
< 7 kbit/s
Network wide GPRS Throughput
(C/I based)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 252
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 252
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning
Routing Area (RA) Definition
CS case with a mobile terminating call:
Othe MS in idle mode will be paged in all cells belonging to the LA
where the MS is assigned. The signalling effort for paging is thus
focused to a certain area, the LA.
GPRS: the SGSN pages the MS in STANDBY state, in case of a downlink
TBF (comparable to a CS MT call).
Paging GSM+ paging GPRS additional signalling effort will be produced in
the network
ETSI introduced Routing Areas (RA), which are smaller than LA.
OThe signalling effort for paging is now more focused to a smaller area.
Since not all cells of a LA are involved in the paging process, the
signalling load for the cells is reduced
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 253
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 253
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Routing Area (RA)
A Routing Area is a sub-set of one LA and identifies one or several cells in
a location area.
The location of a MS in STANDBY state is known in the SGSN on a RA
level.
Each cell in a network is now (additionally to CI and LAC)
characterized by:
Routing Area Code (RA_code) range 0255
RA_Colour range 07
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 254
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 254
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Routing Area (RA)
RA information is sent to MS by RA_Colour (SI 3 and 4) and RA_Code
(S13, less often ) on the BCCH
RA_Colour indicates the MS:
if GPRS is supported in the cell
the identification of the RA membership of the serving cell and
neighbour cells (what cell belongs to what RA)
OAs a consequence, the assignment of the cells belonging to RA has to
be done carefully, to avoid additional signaling load on the cell
(additional to the signaling for the CS traffic too)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 255
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 255
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
LA planning
in accordance to the common rules for CS planning, no extra adaptation
(e.g. on the neighbour list) has to be made for PS services
RA planning
follows in general the rules of the common LA assignment, e.g. avoid
roads with fast moving traffic through RA
The RA planning consists of:
assignment of each cell to a RA
assignment of the RA_Code to each RA
assignment of a RA_Colour to each RA
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 256
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 256
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
The following rules are mandatory:
256 possible RA_Code (0..255)
8 possible RA_Colour Code (0..7)
one RA must belong to only one LA, it is not possible to define a RA
across a LA border (e.g. 1 cell from LA1 and 2 cells from LA2)
a RA can contain one or several cells
one cell can not belong to two RA
cells from one BTS can be allocated to different RA
the maximum number of RA in a LA is 256
it is possible to reuse the RA_Colour in a LA
two adjacent RA in a LA must have different RA_Colour
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 257
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 257
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
For the dimensioning of the number of RA in a LA, of the number of
cells belonging to a RA and the number of RA_Codes per LA, the
following steps are proposed, function of different network growths
Step 1: Network with low GPRS/E-GPRS traffic
RA as big as LA =>1 RA_Code (same for each cell) per LA, 1 RA_colour
(same for each cell) per LA
The first introduction step is based on the assumption, that in the
beginning not much PS services is expected. The expense of this
implementation is low
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 258
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 258
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic
The LA is split into maximum 8 RA
For each RA in a LA one unique RA_Code is assigned
A balanced number of cells per RA needs to be acquired, however for
identified hot spots an unbalanced assignment is possible (smaller RA for
hot spots)
This step represents a reasonable split of the LA into RA if packet data
traffic rises
It can also be carried out right from the start to be prepared for the
traffic growth
The planning effort is medium
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 259
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 259
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic
The LA is split into maximum 8 RA
RA 1 RA 2
RA 6 RA 5 RA 4
RA 3
RA 7 RA 8
RA_C: 0 RA_C: 1 RA_C: 2
RA_C: 3 RA_C: 4 RA_C: 5
RA_C: 6 RA_C: 7
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 260
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 260
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network
LA = up to n RA (max 256)
If the number of RA in a LA is larger than 9, the RA_Colour reuse is
necessary, and a large-scale careful planning is recommended
As described before, frequent RA change by cell-reselection is not
desired =>thus the RA should be not to small
by reusing the RA_Colour, adjacencies of RA's with the same RA_Colour
have to be avoided
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 261
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 261
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network
LA = up to n RA (max 256)
RA 1 RA 2
RA 6 RA 5 RA 4
RA 3
RA 7 RA 8
RA_C: 0 RA_C: 1 RA_C: 2
RA_C: 3 RA_C: 4 RA_C: 5
RA_C: 6 RA_C: 7
RA 9
RA 10 RA 11 RA 12
RA_C: 0
RA_C: 1 RA_C: 2 RA_C: 3
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 262
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 262
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.10 Quality of Service
GPRS QoS is not an isolated
topic
It is necessary to use GSM
counters in order to
complete the analysis of :
GPRS QoS
the impact of GPRS on GSM
QoS
O Note: for more information
refer to the GPRS QoS follow
up expert training
GSM QoS
Impact of GSM on GPRS
GPRS QoS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 263
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 263
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]
Use GSM indicators in order to complete the analysis of GPRS QoS
Example :
high number of TBF establishment failures due to radio problems =>
check with GSM counters if there are interferences (quality HO,
interference HO)
Use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of the impact of
GPRS traffic on GSM QoS
Example :
CCCH load due to GSM and GPRS
TCH Erlang
TCH congestion (call establishment and incoming HO)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 264
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 264
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]
OMC-R indicator comparison
According to GSM, QoS indicators for the Air interface available for GPRS
Indicators based on counters, computed by the MFS, transferred to the
OMC-R
O Note: To obtain the QoS for GPRS, it is not sufficient to study only the GPRS
indicators. There is always an influence of GSM service on GPRS service, e.g.
TCH congestion in GSM could be influenced by high CS traffic or the additional
high packed data traffic.
GSM GPRS
Radio interface indi-
cator
Call setup success
rate
TBF establishment success
rate
Call success rate TBF normal release rate
Call drop rate Abnormal TBF release

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 265
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 265
7 Considerable features to react (E)GPRS target
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 266
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 266
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.1 General
GSM QoS and Interference problems if existing shall be fixed, e.g. by
Introduction of Frequency Hopping
GSM Power Control (UL)
If the GPRS QoS is still not reached, then
New GPRS features as mentioned in next slides shall be introduced
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 267
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 267
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.1 Optimization campaign on parameters
If still the GPRS QoS requirement is not fulfilled, then an
optimization campaign on parameters has to be started
Use of unique values of (GPRS) parameter settings has to be checked
Use of latest Alcatel default parameters
Optimize parameters for the different GPRS features, if implemented in
the network
TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) from hardware point of view can be
considered to increase UL throughput, see also GPRS power control
topic
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 268
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 268
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.2 MPDCH
MPDCH and SPDCH Planning
The enabling of MPDCH and the decision to allocate them dynamic or
static is depending on
O Traffic capacity the operator has for GSM and GPRS
O Traffic capacity the operator can reserve directly to GPRS
O Amount of traffic for GSM (Voice, SMS signaling, Location Area Update signaling)
and GPRS (data, signaling, Routing Area Update signaling)
O Subscriber distribution per service and area
O Mobility (cell reselection) of users during GPRS transfer
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 269
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 269
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.2 MPDCH [cont.]
Planning Recommendation on MPDCH
Till the penetration rate of GPRS MS, which support master channel feature,
is unclear the MPDCH should be not enabled
O So it is guaranteed that all GPRS mobiles in the network can access for GPRS
service. MS, which do not support MPDCH, cannot access the GPRS service if
MPDCH is enabled. Note: MPDCH can be enabled in network mode of operation:
NMO I and NMO III.

NO MPDCH
Low priority for GPRS or
low GPRS traffic?
Static MPDCH
(Dynamic MPDCH)
YES
GPRS signaling
congestion
Enable secondary MPDCHs depending on
GPRS signaling need
NO
NO YES
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 270
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 270
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.2 MPDCH [cont.]
Traffic dependent recommendation (with respect to condition for
MPDCH):
Low GPRS traffic
O If GPRS traffic is low no Primary Master Channel needs to be activated
High GPRS traffic
O Static Primary Master channel
O If the available TS are not scarce
O Operator wants the GPRS MS to perform autonomous cell re-selection based on C31 and
C32 criterion
O Dynamic Primary Master Channel
O If the CS signaling channels CCCH getting overloaded due to high GPRS traffic and
signaling in addition to CS signaling
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 271
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 271
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption
Feature Smooth/Enhanced PDCH Adaptation is recommended to
be enabled, leads to higher GPRS QoS
Fast pre-emption
If T_PDCH_Pre-emption = 0, then the operator wants the BSC to get
PDCHs back immediately. Therefore no resource reallocation at all shall
be triggered
T_PDCH_PREEMPTION > 0 will increase GPRS QoS
Advantage of Fast pre-emption
O Priority can be given to CS traffic vs. PS traffic with small values of the timer
O Drawbacks of Fast pre-emption
O The pre-emption is achieved by a PS call drop
Long T_PDCH_PREEMPTION times will occupy TS needed for CS
traffic
Soft pre-emption:
the MFS waits for all the TBFs to end on the PDCH before de-allocating the TS.
To shorten the soft pre-emption duration, the operator shall minimize the TBF multiplexing per PDCH,
i.e configuring properly the MAX_XX_TBF_SPDCH. The higher the value is, the longer the soft pre-
emption might take.
T_PDCH_PREEMPTION = 2 s (Alcatel recommended value) can be set at OMC-R level.
The PACCH blocks are the most important blocks to monitor. Many GPRS features ensure that PACCH
blocks are always monitored by the MS:
The PTCCH is carried by the same PDCH than the PACCH.
The RXLEV measurements for the power control and CS adaptation are made on the PDCH that carries
the PACCH blocks.
Some RLS mechanisms are based on whether or not the MS is able to send or listen to PACCH blocks.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 272
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 272
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.4 User multiplexing
The strategy of the TBF resource sharing is to use the PDCH resources
in a most effective way, that means not to waste a PDCH just with
one user and therefore to limit the available PS capacity. On the
other hand, the more users (different TBFs) share a PDCH, the less
effective the data flow and the longer the download or upload time is
Trade-off between radio resource capacity sharing and optimum data
throughput
Since GSM speech service users are still to be preferred, it is
recommended to set N_TBF_PER_SPDCH= 1 (e.g.=2)
O E.g. if N_TBF_PER_SPDCH=2 and CS-2 is used, the bit rate per MS will be 6.0
kbit/s (=12/2) per used timeslot for this MS
If operators goal is to maximize the PS throughput then
N_TBF_PER_SPDCH=1 (default value) is recommended
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 273
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 273
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing
Multislot access is the allocation of more than one PDCH to one MS
(multislot access). However to prevent one multislot MS to use too
many PDCHs each time it wants to transmit data (detriment of other
users), following parameter is used:
MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF
O Maximum number of PDCHs, which can be allocated to a single TBF (or MS)
O Range: [1..5], default value: 5 (todays MS capabilities)
Radio Network Planning Impacts
O A few multi slot mobiles can occupy all resources with the default value of
MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF. Thus the parameter has to be set, depending from the
expected load and in combination with N_TBF_PER_S/MPDCH to reflect
operators strategy on GPRS QoS.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 274
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 274
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation
With the feature TBF reallocation, the radio resources allocated to a
TBF can be changed during TBF lifetime, which increases successful
and efficient TS allocation (according to multislot capability) during
ongoing data transfer for PS case.
Radio Network Planning Impacts
O EN_RES_REALLOCATION is enabling / disabling the Radio Resource reallocation
feature per trigger and per BSS
O All event triggers for TBF resource reallocation shall be considered:
O Trigger T1
O Trigger T2
O Trigger T3
O Trigger T4 (new in B8 for EGPRS purposes)
Trigger T1 (target maintain a TBF alive when its PACCH is fast preempted):
Reallocate all impacted TBFs using the pre-empted PDCHs instead of releasing them using the Packet
TBF Release procedure
Trigger T2 (target attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS upon concurrent TBF establishment):
get rid of the concurrence constraints imposed by the multislot class of the MS and an existing TBF to
offer the best throughput, the initial TBF can be moved to other PDCHs
Trigger T3 (target periodically attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS which has a TBF in the direction of
the bias with less PDCHs than it can support according to its multislot class):
take benefit of PDCH resource usage variations in a cell to reallocate the resources granted to a
Mobile Station, in case those resources were not using the full multislot class capabilities of the MS
to offer the best throughput in the direction of the bias and even adapt to bias changes in the course
of a packet transfer
Parameters for trigger T3 :
- T_CANDIDATE_TBF_REALLOC: Timer value controlling the time duration between successive
resource reallocation attempts for candidate MSs with the trigger T3
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 275
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 275
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation [cont.]
Advantages
The advantage of the feature TBF resource reallocation is to serve a
better PDCH allocation to a TBF (throughput can be optimized),
according to the available radio, transmission, DSP and CPU resources,
during establishment and lifetime of TBF
Drawback
The allocation process is based on the number of PDCHs that the TBF can
be mapped on a new resource and not on the throughput the TBF will get
on these PDCHs
Consequence: in certain cases, available PDCHs will not be used for TBF
reallocation, whilst using them would have improved the TBF throughput
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 276
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 276
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation
Different quality threshold are introduced since B7 to optimize
coding scheme adaptation algorithm
Radio Network Planning Impacts
Recommendation: Enable Coding scheme adaptation mechanism in GPRS
RLC acknowledged, un-acknowledged mode with parameters
EN_CS_ADAPTATION_ACK/EN_CS_ADAPTATION_NACK
Default parameter setting=enabled.
If the network interference situation is fine it allows to start CS2
usage at the beginning of a TBF:
TBF_UL/DL_INIT_CS = CS2 (default setting = CS1)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 277
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 277
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 Cell Reselection
Network control order (NC) parameter defines cell reselection
mode, GMM state and the presence of PBCCH in the serving cell.
Independent from the presence of the MPDCH:
GPRS cell adjacencies are same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer
mode
GPRS cell adjacencies are set equal to the GSM cell adjacencies (i.e. the
BA(GPRS) list = BA(BCCH) list )
Network
Control Order
parameter
MS GMM
State
Mode of cell
reselection
Presence of
the PBCCH
Absence of
the PBCCH
Standby MS autonomous
cell reselection
(NC0 mode)
C1, C31, C32 C1, C2
NC0
Ready MS autonomous
cell reselection
(NC0 mode)
C1, C31, C32 C1, C2
NC1 Not supported in B8
NC2 Supported in B8

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 278
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 278
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 Cell Reselection [cont.]
Radio Network Planning Impacts
So it is still possible to reselect a cell without GPRS service (if in the
target cell GPRS is disabled)
For this reason it is recommended to enable the GPRS service on all
cells in order to prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support
Cell reselection criterion for PBCCH established or not
The GPRS MS triggers cell reselection according to GSM cell reselection
criteria:
Radio Network Planning Impacts
O Generally optimized GSM/CS parameters for cell reselection shall be kept also
for PS cell reselection
O Default values for the parameters are kept
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 279
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 279
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 GPRS Power Control
Compatibility of GSM and GPRS UL Power control
For GPRS rollouts it is recommended to disable the GPRS UL PC by
setting: o=0 and I
TNX
=0
The reasons why GPRS UL PC shall be disabled:
O MS controlled open loop PC is not working reliably (MS software
implementation)
O Field tests show a better throughput performance since the acknowledge
message is sent in UL with full power
O Remark: It is possible to deactivate GPRS UL power control (GCH=0 and a=0)
and to let GSM UL power control activated (EN_MS_PC=enabled, default),
different power control parameters for GSM and GPRS
Increase UL GPRS throughput
If TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) is used and UL GPRS PC is disabled on
a site than better throughput in UL is expected
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 280
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 280
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release
3 different features are presented which preemptively delay the TBF
release to speed up the setup of subsequent TBF
Delayed DL TBF release
Fast DL TBF re-establishment
Non DRX Mode
Their success depends on the users download behavior e.g. how
often pages are changed and the content of the downloaded http
looks like. For Web browsing and WAP applications where the PS
traffic is bursty, the gain of the features to delay TBF release will be
very high
The 3 features are complementary and can be activated
independently from each other. Delays to start download of new LLC
PDU depending on feature
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 281
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 281
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release
This feature should be enabled if there is no lack of resources to
achieve higher user application throughput
Main beneficiaries will be the applications consecutive pings, WAP and
HTTP (clustered web page). The round trip time (RTT) can be shortened
by the availability of an already opened TBF. This, in turn, is affected by
the TBF hold time and the time between pings
So in fact less signaling is needed for e.g. download of successive WAP
pages or HTTP links because there is no need to establish a new TBF
during T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL time
T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL should be in between of 1.5s up to 2s depending
on available resources in the cell. The higher the TS capacity in a cell is
the higher the value of T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL can be tuned
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 282
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 282
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release [cont.]
Delayed Downlink TBF release -> Total TBF release time is:
T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL_RADIO +
T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME.
= 800 ms + 700 ms (defaults) = 1500 ms if delayed DL TBF Release is enabled by
parameter EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL
Advantage
no delay to start DL data transfer for new DL LLC PDUs
less signaling
throughput improved for reason: long RTT. RTT can be shortened by the
availability of an already opened TBF. This, in turn, is affect by the TBF
hold time, and the time between pings.
Drawback
waste of resources, TBF is kept open during delayed downlink time,
available USF values are limited
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 283
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 283
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process
Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process
After reception of the final block by the MS and after the sending of the
last PACKET DL ACK/NACK message, the MS still listens on the PACCH
during T3192 sec
This allows the BSS to re-establish a DL TBF on the PACCH of the previous
DL TBF (i.e. to send a PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT message on the PACCH);
this allows a fast DL TBF re-establishment without impacting the
(P)CCCH resources; i.e. a new TBF is established but with the parameters
of the old TBF (TFI, TAI)
Radio Network Planning Impacts
T3192 > MS-BSS roundtrip delay + RRBP maximum duration (120ms)
T3192 = 1000ms when non-DRX mode is not activated
T3192 = 500ms when non-DRX mode is active
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 284
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 284
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.3 Non-DRX feature
Non-DRX feature benefits
Higher downlink throughput and shorter transfer delay for cell
reselection and bursty download application (HTTP, WAP).
Radio Network Planning Impacts
The Non-DRX feature should be enabled as default with
DRX_TIMER_MAX=2 sec (Maximum value allowed for the MS to request for
non-DRX mode after packet transfer mode).
If Non-DRX feature is enabled it has an influence on following parameters
settings:
O BS_AG_BLKS_RES, BS_PA_MFRMS, T_PDA, T_PUA, T_GPRS_assign_AGCH
O T_GPRS_assign_AGCH parameter can be found in the memo
MND/TD/SYT/EBR/0342.2001.
In B7, the default value was set to 0.7 s
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 285
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 285
8 GPRS introduction into operational GSM network
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 286
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 286
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General
Following aspects are considered if GPRS is introduced into a mature
GSM network without network design changes
Different to the approach of GPRS Greenfield planning
If the operator foresees design changes due to GPRS QoS requirements
than traffic analysis and GPRS network design tasks has to be done
before the GPRS introduction step
Actual status of the GSM network
GSM QoS and Interference
O All GSM network enhancement features and GSM network problems, mainly
GSM QoS and interference, shall be fixed before GPRS is implemented
New network design/frequency planning
O If a new network design and frequency planning is developed to improve GSM
QoS and interference, then the implementation of this design should be done
before GPRS is implemented
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 287
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 287
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]

GSM QoS and Interference
problems?
Actual GSM capacity enough to
cope with GSM and GPRS traffic?
New Frequency plan foreseen?
RA planning
CAE data generation
yes
yes
no
no
yes
GSM problem fixing
no
Introduction of GPRS and
related features/settings.
Check GPRS throughput map
G
P
R
S

I
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

H
o
w

t
o

r
e
a
c
h

G
P
R
S

Q
o
S
?

T
a
s
k
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

G
P
R
S

I
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

Increase capacity
GPRS QoS reached?
Considerable features to reach
GPRS QoS target
Optimize GPRS parameters if
needed
Add new GPRS features if needed
GSM QoS and Interference
problems
Implement Frequency
yes
no
no
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 288
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 288
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Occurred traffic and handled traffic balance
GPRS QoS requirements
The GPRS QoS requirements from the operator define the needed GPRS
capacity. Before the GPRS planning tasks begin the operator should fix
GPRS QoS per user in relation to specific definitions for user and used
service:
Volume @BH (Kbytes), Page size (Kbytes), Queue delay (seconds),
Quantile (%), Bit rate (kbit/s)
Expected GPRS traffic
The calculation of expected GPRS traffic has to be done before
Following results will be then available:
O TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL and
O TS needed for PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 289
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 289
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
The knowledge of the amount of TS and so TRX/frequency makes it
possible to go to the next step of comparing actual capacity in the
GSM network to needed capacity for GSM and GPRS
Resources are enough for GSM and GPRS
O If the resources are enough to cope with the additional GPRS traffic the TRX
assignment to GPRS service and the MPDCH planning can be done.
Resources are not enough for GSM and GPRS
O If the resources are not enough to cope with the GPRS traffic additional
TRX/frequencies must be allocated to the sites with less traffic capacity.
O A new frequency planning should be done when a not negligible amount of new
frequencies have to be added to a planning area to fulfill (GSM+GPRS) capacity
requirements.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 290
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 290
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Introduction of GPRS and related features/settings
The prerequisites for a GPRS analysis are following tasks
Field strength prediction
Interference analysis
If new sites after GPRS analysis are required to fulfill operators GPRS
requirements, a new frequency planning with a certain frequency band
range planning has to be done.
Routing area, CAE data
The routing area (RA) planning is a must for GPRS introduction into GSM
network, see chapter 7 for details on RA planning and CAE data
generation.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 291
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 291
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
GPRS QoS increasing tasks to be done are depending on dimensions
of QoS requirements. What kind of tasks and references can be done
to increase GPRS QoS
For GPRS feature activation was given before, e.g:
O GPRS frequency separation in a cell can be done if TRX number in the cell is
2
O Introduction of GPRS Master channels (MPDCH to separate GPRS and GSM
signaling
O Open question: Penetration rate of GPRS MS which can decode MPDCH
O The parameters for the PDCH dynamic allocation (and TBF resource
management) can be set according to the GPRS QoS requirements e.g. the
weaker the GPRS requirements are the more buffer TS for GSM can be reserved
with a low value of MAX_PDCH
For GSM tasks see next slides
>
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 292
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 292
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 293
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 293
9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 294
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 294
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.1 Frequency Hopping
The dependency between FH usage and Coding scheme distribution
and the consequences on CS1-CS3 and CS 4
Generally Frequency Hopping (FH) leads to Interference averaging. Thus
calls having good quality will get worse, bad calls will get better. This is
valid for GSM, similar it is valid for GPRS.
CS1 is used in bad conditions, thus it will be improved if FH is
introduced.
CS4 is used in very good conditions, which are more seldom in a hopping
network. Thus CS4 will perform less good and will be used more seldom.
The overall gain of CS1 - CS3 will depend on the C/I situation before and
after FH.
CS adaptation parameters can be tuned more optimistic in respect to
throughput and Coding Scheme if FH is used:
O CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_FH_Z > CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_NFH_Z
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 295
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 295
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.1 Frequency Hopping [cont.]
GPRS load and GPRS performance
An assumption could be that the overall interference in the cell is
increased. As GPRS performance is mainly Quality (C/I) dependent the
increased interference level in the cell would reduce the performance.
The higher the GSM+ GPRS load is the higher is the probability for
interference and so for decreased GPRS performance.
Radio Network Planning Impacts
To reduce the load in the network/cell following GSM activities can be
started:
O Adding more resources, frequencies
O Make smaller cell sizes (e.g. achieved by stronger tilt)
O Do proper cell planning
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 296
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 296
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.2 -cell
The main advantage of a -cell environment may be a better
frequency re-use possibility, thus better C/I value and higher
throughput can be expected (especially for E-GPRS with higher C/I
requirements than GPRS s). Following two steps is proposed for GPRS
implementation
1. Step: GPRS traffic is low => introduction of GPRS for macro
and -cell together
Disadvantages:
O emergency capacity on macro cell layer reduced
O higher blocking probability on -cell layer for CS traffic
Solution:
O reduction of the maximum GPRS capacity of the -cell to 30-50% by parameter
setting
O tuning of the GPRS user access handling (TBF and PDCH share)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 297
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 297
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.2 -cell [cont.]
Step 2: Increasing GPRS traffic => network densification
Measures:
Hardware : TRX upgrade, -cell and macro cell densification, site
design
Parameter: GPRS capacity and user access handling tuning
OBasis: OMC-R Load measurements and GPRS customer behavior
(location)
OAssumption: 80% of packet data traffic is static, 20% is dynamic
(driving)
OThe strategy is also valid for a different assumption, but this
assumption is more probable.
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 298
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 298
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.3 Dual Band
The consequence for the PDCH configuration will be explained
related to Alcatels dual band approaches.
Reminder:
O there are no HO in GPRS for PS services
Osupported MS classes to be checked
Two Approaches
Multiband BSS approach
Multiband cell approach
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 299
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 299
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.3 Dual Band [cont.]
Multiband BSS approach
A dedicated BCCH for each cell/frequency band
Class B and C MSs can make interband cell reselection during data
transmission
O if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for
circuit mode
O the same priority is obtained for packet mode
O thus GPRS can not be kept in 900 MHz layer, if GSM MS is sent to 1800 MHz
layer
therefore PS functionality should be configured in both bands
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 300
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 300
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.3 Dual Band [cont.]
Multiband cell approach
TRXs of one band are allocated to the outer zone and the TRXs of the
other band to the inner zone.
The BCCH is configured to the outer zone. The principle is similar to the
concentric cell ones.
During PS traffic, class B and C MSs will always be served by the outer
zone GPRS TRX.
O if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for
circuit mode the same priority is obtained for packet mode
O if GSM MS is sent to inner zone in dedicated mode, the GPRS service cannot be
ensured in the inner zone
therefore PS functionality must be configured in the outer zone and no
use of C2 to give a higher priority to non GPRS layer
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 301
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 301
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.4 Concentric cell
For the two possible cases:
concentric cells which are disturbing other cells:
Othe inner zone is smaller than the outer zone and keeps the disturbing
carriers
concentric cells which are disturbed by other cells:
Othe inner zone and outer zone carriers have the same output powers;
nevertheless, the size of the inner zone is dimensioned by proper
parameter setting
the same recommendation holds: the TRX for PS traffic must be
configured in the outer zone of the concentric cell
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 302
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 302
Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 303
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 303
10 E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 304
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 304
10 E-GPRS
10.1 E-GPRS main differences
E-GPRS main differences
TRX output power
RX sensitivity
EDGE timeslot GSM900 GSM1800
8PSK TX power 15 W or 41.76 dBm
(tolerance 0.5 + 0.5 dB)
12 W or 40.8 dBm
(tolerance -0.5 + 0.5 dB)
Reference sensitivity -112 dBm (static MCS-1)
- 108 dBm (TU50 ideal FH, MCS1)
- -104 dBm (static MCS-5)
- 100 dBm (TU50 ideal FH, MCS5)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 305
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 305
10 E-GPRS
10.1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.]
-110 -105 -100 -95 -90 -85
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
MCS-9
MCS-8
MCS-7
MCS-6
MCS-5
MCS-4
MCS-3
MCS-2
MCS-1
Level [dBm]
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t


[
k
b
p
s
]


All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 306
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 306
10 E-GPRS
10.1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
MCS-9
MCS-8
MCS-7
MCS-6
MCS-5
MCS-4
MCS-3
MCS-2
MCS-1
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t


[
k
b
p
s
]


C/Ico(dB)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 307
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 307
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 308
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 308
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.]
1. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers)
1Mio
2. Blocking at air interface (speech)
2%
3. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub)
20 mErl/Sub rural,
25 mErl/Suburban
4. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes
80% urban
20% rural)
5. Percentage of GPRS subscribers
7% of total GSM subscribers
6. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic:
Speech traffic busy hour: 8-11, 13-17 and 18-22 oclock
Packet data service hours: Business: 8-11 and 14-17, private 14-20 oclock
7. and 8. see table
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 309
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 309
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.]
9. PS user behaviour/distribution:
daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month):
Obusiness 22 days,
Oprivate 30 days
GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS
subscriber number = 7%: 2% private and 5 % business
Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to
morphostructure:
Ourban = 70% business, 50% private
Orural = 30% business, 50% private
10. Number of BTS in the existing network
2000 BTSs
11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses:
1200 BTSs in urban,
800 in rural
12. Number of TRX/BTS, in accordance to morphoclass:
3*2 configuration in urban, 3*1 configuration in rural
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 310
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 310
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.2 User and area distribution determination
According the questionnaire, the GPRS user distribution will be
calculated
Due to the different network capacity in urban and rural area and
the different ratio of business and private users in the area, the
GPRS and speech subscriber are split to urban and rural area
Total GSM subscriber: 1 Mio
Business Private
GPRS share 7%total 5%(50000 subs.) 2%(20000 subs.)
Urban area 70%(35000) 50%(10000)
Rural area 30%(15000) 50%(10000)
Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio
Urban area 80% (800000 subs.)
Rural area 20% (200000 subs)

Packet data
Speech
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 311
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 311
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic
The traffic demand for CS subscribers
2% blocking during the busy hour
Urban area 25 mErlang/Subs.
Rural area 20 mErlang/Subs.
O Assumption: Homogeneous traffic distribution in each morpho class
Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio
Urban area Rural area
Traffic [Erlang] 20000 4000

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 312
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 312
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic
The traffic demand for PS is calculated in two steps:
First step: throughput demand per user profile calculation (due to the
different user behaviours)
Second step: Relation of throughput demand to the total subscriber
amount in urban and rural area
Assumptions:
O packet data traffic per month is user profile depending (e.g. not during the
whole month, like speech traffic)
O PS traffic is not to be spread over the whole day, there are now service
hours/day, depending on the user profile
O Packet data traffic occurs only during the service hours.
O Packet data traffic is homogeneously distributed over the service hours,
O During service hours, the user is continuously active (worst case calculation)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 313
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 313
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]
What is the busy hour?
1. CS traffic is maximum
2. PS traffic is also maximum in that period
Exception:
OCS and PS busy hour not overlapping -> separate dimensioning
E Reserve still sufficient capacity for CS during PS busy hour!
OPS user profile service hours not overlapping
EUse user profile with highest throughput demand
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 314
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 314
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]
In our example, the service hours for PS traffic are in total 6 hours,
but from 14 to17 oclock business and private subscriber will make
data traffic at the same time
Thus the busy hours for data traffic are these 3 hours
It is also visible, that during that time, also for speech traffic a busy
time occurs
Busy hour: GPRS traffic dimensioning will be 14 to17
Speech
Packet
O Business
O Private
8 11 1314 17 20 22
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 315
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 315
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]
Packet data throughput demand (user profile):
Packet data throughput demand (total network):
Business Private
Traffic/month [Mbyte] 8.124 2.380
Traffic/month [kbit] 68149.05=
8.124*1024*1024*8/1000
=19964.88
traffic volume demand /day
[kbit]
3097.68
=68149.05/22 days
665.49
for 30 days
throughput demand /service
hours [kbit/s]
0.14
=3097.68/(6 hrs*3600)
0.03
6 serv. hours
throughput demand /busy hours
[kbit/s]
0.14
during 3 busy hours
0.03
during 3 busy hrs

Urban area Rural area
Business Private Business Private
throughput demand
/busy hours [kbit/s]
4900 300 2100 300
Total: 5200 2400

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 316
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 316
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation
For CS traffic:
The actual network capacity is sufficient to handle the CS traffic during
the busy hour by assuming a maximal blocking probability of 2%
Total BTS 2000
Urban area Rural area
BTS 1200 800
Configuration 3x2 3x1
Capacity/Erlang 2%
Blocking
29520
=1200*3*8.2
6960
=800*3*2.9
CS traffic demand 20000 4000

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 317
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 317
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]
Network throughput capacity for PS traffic:
The network throughput capacity for PS traffic is based on the cell
throughput capacity
For this dimensioning example it is appropriate to consider the result of
the cell ranges dimensioning example
According to it, 59% of the cell area is operated in CS-2 and 41% in CS-1
mode
The cell throughput capacity can be estimated with a data rate of
(0.41*8+0.59*12) kbit/s = 10.36 kbit/s per timeslot
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 318
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 318
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]
The network capacity is depending from the allocated TS for PDCH
use:
parameter MAX_PDCH_GROUP in BSC normal load situation
parameter MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD in BSC high load
parameter MIN_PDCH_GROUP (optional)
Example:
MAX_PDCH_GROUP is set to 8 TS for the 3x2 BTS configuration (2
nd
TRX
allocated for GPRS),
MAX_PDCH_GROUP for the 3x1 BTS, only 7 TS can be allocated for packet
data (TS 0 is reserved for BCCH)
MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD =1 (Under high load conditions, only one TS will
be present for packet data usage)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 319
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 319
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]
Total BTS 2000
Urban area Rural area
BTS 1200 800
Configuration 3x2 3x1
Total Available TS, BCCH not incl. 54000
=(7+8)*3*1200
16800
=7*3*300
Available TS, BCCH not incl.
MAX_PDCH_GROUP = 8 TS
28800
=8*3*1200
16800
=7*3*800
Available TS if BSC in HIGH_LOAD
MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 TS
3600
=28800/8
2400
=16800/7
Capacity [kbit/s]
(10.36 kbit/s /TS)
298368
=28800*10.36
174048
Capacity [kbit/s]
if BSC in HIGH_LOAD (10.36 kbit/s /TS)
37296
=3600*10.36
24864

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 320
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 320
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning
Allocating TS to GPRS traffic reduces the capacity within the circuit
switched design
For the busy hour, the BSC is in high load situation, i.e the maximum
of PDCHs is equal to MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD (resource control)
The following table gives the CS capacities based on a blocking
probability of 2% (in Erlang), according to the amount of allocated
timeslots for GPRS in BSC high load situation
Amount PDCH A-
mount
of TRX
A-
mount
SDCCH
Amount
TCH
+ PDCH
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 TRX 1 7 2.93 2.27 1.65 1.09 0.6 0.2 0.02 0
2 TRX 2 14 8.2 7.4 6.61 5.84 5.08 4.34 3.62 2.93
3 TRX 3 21 14.03 13.18 12.33 11.49 10.65 9.82 9.01 8.2
4 TRX 4 28 20.15 19.26 18.38 17.50 16.63 15.76 14.89 14.03
5 TRX 4 36 27.34 26.43 25.52 24.62 23.72 22.82 21.93 21.03
6 TRX 5 43 33.75 32.83 31.91 30.99 30.08 29.16 28.25 27.34
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 321
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 321
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
MAX_PDCH_Group=8 or 7
MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD=1
Network capacity for CS and PS traffic (1 TS for PS):
Total BTS =2000
Urban area Rural area
number of BTS 1200 800

Configuration 3x2 3x1
Capacity/Erlang @2 % Blocking 29520 6960
Capacity/Erlang @2% Blocking and 1 PDCH 26640
=1200*3*7.4
5448
=800*3*2.27
Speech
CS traffic demand [Erl] 20000 4000
Capacity [kbit/s] (10.36 kbit/s /TS) 298368 174048
Capacity [kbit/s] if BSC in HIGH_LOAD
(10.36 kbit/s /TS)
37296 24864
Packet
data
PD busy hour throughput demand [kbit/s] 5200 2400

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 322
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 322
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
Conclusions:
Network is able to serve CS traffic.
One TS is necessary to handle PS traffic.
One TS is sufficient for PS traffic during the busy hour.
No CS service degradation during busy hour.
O The reservation of 1 TS for PS traffic represents no service degradation for CS
traffic, since the remaining network capacity is still sufficient to handle the CS
traffic.
O To guarantee a permanent PS service independent form the load situation, the
parameter Min_PDCH_GROUP was set to 1 (I.e. 1 TS/ cell is permanently
reserved for PS service and not available for CS traffic),
however Min_PDCH_GROUP =0 is recommended (load reduction on Atermux
interface)
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 323
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 323
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
Further iterations would be necessary (increase of
MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD) if the PS traffic demand could not be
handled with MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD =1 timeslot
Further, if the CS traffic demand could not be handled with the
remaining timeslots some measures are necessary e.g.:
add a TRX to the considered serving cell
shrink the cell size of the serving cell (e.g. introduce downtilt) and
increase the cell size of a neighbouring cell which offers sufficient
capacity to handle the traffic demand surplus of the serving cell
reduce interference (network changes) to get higher average throughput
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 324
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 324
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
In the Alcatel GPRS implementation step 1, the number of TRX's
which can be allocated to GPRS is maximum N
TRXGPRS
=1.
In our worst case consideration, this TRX comes to its limit when the
packet throughput demand is higher than the throughput capacity
and cannot be satisfied even if the number of allocated TS for PS
reaches Max_PDCH_Group
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 325
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 325
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Switch to notes view!
4ALMAP: ALcatel MAnagement Platform
4APN: Access Point Name
4AS: Alpha Server (Compaq)
4BG: Border Gateway
4BSC: Base Station Controller
4BSS: Base Station Subsystem
4BSCGP: BSC-GPRS Protocol
4BSSGP: BSS-GPRS Protocol
4BVCI: BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier
4CCBS: Customer Care and Billing Center
4CCU: Channel Codec Unit
4CDR: Call Detail Record
4CG: Charging Gateway
4CS: Circuit Switching
4DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
4DL: Down Link
4DLCI= Data Link Connection Identifier
4DNS: Domain Name System
4EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
4FUMO : Frame Unit Module
4FR: Frame Relay
4GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
4GGSN: Gateway GSN
4GMM: GPRS Mobility Management
4GR: GPRS Register
4GSL: GPRS Signaling Link
4GSM: Global System for Mobile communication
4GSN: GPRS Support Node
4GSS: GPRS Sub-System
4GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol
4HLR: Home Location Register
4HSCSD: High Speed Circuit-Switching Data
4IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
4IP: Internet Protocol
4ISDN : Integrated Service Digital Network
4ISP: Internet Service Provider
4LAN: Local Area Network
4LLC: Logical Link Control
4MAC: Medium Access Control
4MFS: Multi-Bsc Fast packet Server
4MNRG: Mobile Not Reachable for Gprs
4MS: Mobile Station
4MSC: Mobile Switching Center
4MT: Mobile Terminal
4NE: Network Element
4NMC: Network Management Center
4NNM: Network Node Manager
4NRPA : Network Requested PDP Context
Activation
4NSAPI: Network Service Access Point Identifier
4NSC: Network Service Control layer
4NSEI: Network Service Entity Identifier
4NSS: Network Sub-System
4NS-VC: Network Service- Virtual Circuit
4NTP: Network Time Protocol
4DB : On Demand Bandwidth
4OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center
4OS: Operation System
4PAGCH: Packet- Access Grant Channel
4PCCCH: Packet- Common Control Channel
4PCO: Protocol
4PCU: Packet Control Unit
4PDCH: Packet Data CHannel
4PDN: Packet Data Network
4PDP: Packet Data Protocol (IP or X25)
4PDU: Protocol Data Unit
4PPCH: Packet- Paging CHannel
4PRACH: Packet- Random Access CHannel
4PS: Packet Switching
4P-TMSI: Packet- Temporary Mobile Subscriber
Identity
4PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit
4P-VLR: Packet- Visitors Location Register
4QoS: Quality of Service
4RA: Routing Area
4RIP : Routing Information Protocol
4RLC: Radio Link Control
4RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial In Use
Service
4RRDTUF : Roaming Restriction Data Towards
Unknown Foreign PLMN
4RRM: Radio Resource Management
4RSZ : Regional Subscription Zone
4SGSN: Serving GSN
4SM: Session Management | Short Message
4SMS: Short Message Service
4SMS-C: SMS-Center
4SNDCP: Sub Network-Dependent Convergence
Protocol
4SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
4SNS: Sub-Network Service layer
4TBF: Temporary Block Flow
4TC: Trans Coder
4TCH: Traffic CHannel
4TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
4TDMA: Time-Division Multiplexing Access
4TFI: Temporary block Flow Identifier
4TID: Tunnel IDentity
4TLLI: Temporary Logical Link Identity
4TMN: Telecommunication Management Protocol
4TS: Time Slot
4UDP: User Datagram protocol
4UL: Up Link
4UMTS: Universal Mobile Transmission System
4WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
4WAN: Wide Area Network

All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 326
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 326
End of Module
EVOLIUM BSS GPRS and EGPRS
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 327
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 327
Appendix
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 328
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 328
(E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes
(E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes (3GPP TS 45.002)
Multislot
class
Maximum number of slots Minimum number of slots Type
Rx Tx Sum T
ta
T
tb
T
ra
T
rb
1 1 1 2 3 2 4 2 1
2 2 1 3 3 2 3 1 1
3 2 2 3 3 2 3 1 1
4 3 1 4 3 1 3 1 1
5 2 2 4 3 1 3 1 1
6 3 2 4 3 1 3 1 1
7 3 3 4 3 1 3 1 1
8 4 1 5 3 1 2 1 1
9 3 2 5 3 1 2 1 1
10 4 2 5 3 1 2 1 1
11 4 3 5 3 1 2 1 1
12 4 4 5 2 1 2 1 1
13 3 3 NA NA a) 3 a) 2
14 4 4 NA NA a) 3 a) 2
15 5 5 NA NA a) 3 a) 2
16 6 6 NA NA a) 2 a) 2
17 7 7 NA NA a) 1 0 2
18 8 8 NA NA 0 0 0 2
19 6 2 NA 3 b) 2 c) 1
20 6 3 NA 3 b) 2 c) 1
21 6 4 NA 3 b) 2 c) 1
22 6 4 NA 2 b) 2 c) 1
23 6 6 NA 2 b) 2 c) 1
24 8 2 NA 3 b) 2 c) 1
25 8 3 NA 3 b) 2 c) 1
26 8 4 NA 3 b) 2 c) 1
27 8 4 NA 2 b) 2 c) 1
28 8 6 NA 2 b) 2 c) 1
29 8 8 NA 2 b) 2 c) 1
30 5 1 6 2 1 1 1 1
31 5 2 6 2 1 1 1 1
32 5 3 6 2 1 1 1 1
33 5 4 6 2 1 1 1 1
34 5 5 6 2 1 1 1 1
35 5 1 6 2 1 1+to 1 1
36 5 2 6 2 1 1+to 1 1
37 5 3 6 2 1 1+to 1 1
38 5 4 6 2 1 1+to 1 1
39 5 5 6 2 1 1+to 1 1
40 6 1 7 1 1 1 to 1
41 6 2 7 1 1 1 to 1
42 6 3 7 1 1 1 to 1
43 6 4 7 1 1 1 to 1
44 6 5 7 1 1 1 to 1
45 6 6 7 1 1 1 to 1
All Rights Reserved 2010, Alcatel-Lucent
TMO54048 Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 329
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and E-GPRS
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
E-GPRS RNP (Radio Network Planning) B10
Fundamentals
1 1 329
Exercise