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BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC 6 Alton Avenue Voorhees, New Jersey 08043 USA Tel. +1-856-299-1274 www.biogenfs.

com

Biodiesel Production Technology Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor BioGen Fuel Solutions has developed a proprietary production technique that provides a lower cost method of producing biodiesel, adds flexible feedstock capabilities and reduces the overall footprint of a commercial facility. The proprietary process is based on the phenomena of hydrodynamic cavitation. Specifically, the technology centers on the design of an engineered orifice nozzle, or Vena contracta, based on incompressible fluid dynamics, that will reliably produce hydrodynamic cavitation in large-scale production systems. Each hydrodynamic cavitation chamber is a stainless steel assembly, with a 10 length and 3 diameter and will process up to 20 gallons per minute (10 million gallons per year) of liquid. The standard hydrodynamic cavitation chamber is designed to safely operate at pressures in excess of 3,000 psi (lb per square inch), although our standard operating pressures are in the 1,000 psi range. The metal that is used to manufacture the assembly is specially treated to reduce cavitation erosion of the chamber surfaces, which could occur at these elevated operating pressures. Hydrodynamic cavitation is the process of micro-bubble generation and implosion which occurs in a flowing liquid as a result of an increase and subsequent decrease in liquid pressure. Hydrodynamic cavitation can be produced by passing a liquid through a constricted channel or orifice at a specific velocity. In our case, we have designed a constricted channel with a unique geometry. When a liquid passes through the orifice, a combination of pressure and kinetic energy is produced that creates hydrodynamic cavitation downstream of the orifice, thus generating high energy cavitation bubbles. The process of cavitation bubble formation and collapse results in very high energy densities, creating high temperatures, intense shearing/mixing action and high pressures at the surface of the bubbles for a very short time (microseconds). The overall liquid medium environment remains at ambient conditions, while at the micro level, the high energy phenomena occurs. This controlled cavitation can be used to enhance chemical reactions, such as transesterification, which is the the chemical reaction responsible for the production of biodiesel. Our hydrodynamic cavitation technology has the following advantages over conventional biodiesel processes: Multi-Feedstock Capability We can process a wide range of crude, refined and recycled feedstocks. This feedstock flexibility reduces the overall feedstock cost, as we can utilize lower quality/lower cost materials. Robust Cavtiation Chamber Design There are no moving parts in the cavitation chamber, significantly reducing maintenance costs and increasing process reliability. Lower Capital Cost The biodiesel reaction is completed in a continuous process, resulting is faster conversion time and a smaller plant footprint, reducing the overall biodiesel plant size and operating cost.

BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC 6 Alton Avenue Voorhees, New Jersey 08043 USA Tel. +1-856-299-1274 www.biogenfs.com

Less Energy = Lower Processing Cost Our process operates at a lower temperature than standard biodiesel processes, lowering overall energy requirements. Less raw material (methanol) is lost due to evaporation during the lower process temperature, lowering overall raw material cost. Reduced Air Emissions Lower process temperatures results in lower hazardous air pollutant emissions. Actual pollutant emissions will be below de minimus regulatory levels.

Because of the compact design of the process, a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel plant can easily be shipped in a single 40 foot long overseas container for final deployment in the field. The biodiesel process can be coupled with a stand-alone generator, utilizing biodiesel as its fuel source, to provide the process electric power. Possible feedstock oils for the biodiesel process include:

Used Cooking Oil / Yellow Grease Beef Tallow Chicken Fat Trap Grease Soybean Oil Algae Corn Oil Sunflower Oil Canola Oil Palm Oil Jatropha Oil Cotton Oil Mustard Oil Choice White Grease

BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC 6 Alton Avenue Voorhees, New Jersey 08043 USA Tel. +1-856-299-1274 www.biogenfs.com

Process Description Biodiesel is produced with three principal feedstocks;

1. Feedstock Oil: Glycerides are commonly known as oils or fats, chemically speaking these are
long chain fatty acids joined by a glycerin backbone. They appear most often with three fatty acid chains connected to the glycerin, making them trigylcerides. In the US, the primary triglycerides used for biodiesel production are soybean oil, waste vegetable oil (yellow grease) and animal fats.

2. Alcohol: Although a variety of alcohols can be used to produce biodiesel, such as, ethanol or
butanol, methanol is most frequently used. Therefore the biodiesel produced is referred to as methyl esters. Methanol is one of the most common industrial alcohols. Because of its abundant supply its most often the least expensive alcohol as well.

3. Catalyst: The third reactant needed is a catalyst that initiates the reaction and allows the
esters to detach. The strong base solutions typically used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The chemical reaction for the production of biodiesel is referred to as transesterification, and can be described with the following equation: CH2OOR1
catalyst

CH2OH + 3CH3OH ==> 3CH3OORx + CHOH CH 2OH + Methanol ==> Biodiesel + Glycerin

CHOOR2 CH2OOR3 Vegetable oil

Our biodiesel system utilizes an advanced hydrodynamic cavitation design. Through this design, the transesterification of feedstock oil occurs almost instantaneously, dramatically reducing the overall processing time. High Free Fatty Acid (FFA) feedstocks, up to 10%, can be utilized with no pretreatment. We also have an alternative chemical process that makes it possible for us to convert trap grease (100% Free Fatty Acid) feedstock into biodiesel. Each of the three chemical reactants are continuously metered into the hydrodynamic cavitation reaction chamber, which operates in the range of 1,000 PSI (pounds per square inch). The resultant product is a mixture of biodiesel (methyl ester), glycerin, excess methanol and catalyst. The glycerin, methanol and catalyst are separated from the biodiesel via various methods, resulting in a purified biodiesel product. This purified product is typically blended with petroleum based diesel in concentrations of 5% (referred to as B5) to 20% (referred to as B20) for market distribution. The glycerin produced in the process is sold, typically to the soap or consumer products industries. The recovered methanol is recycled back into the process as a raw material.

BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC 6 Alton Avenue Voorhees, New Jersey 08043 USA Tel. +1-856-299-1274 www.biogenfs.com

Contact:

Angelo Piro BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC Global Green Technology LLC 6 Alton Avenue Voorhees, NJ 08043 Tel. (856) 299-1274 apiro@ggtenergy.com www.biogenfs.com

Continuous Biodiesel Production System


Feedstock Pretreatment/ Filtration (if necessary) Recovered Methanol to Feedstock Stream Crude Glycerin Oil Feedstock Demethylation of Crude Glycerol

Recovered Methanol to Feedstock Stream

Methanol

Hydrodynamic Biodiesel Reactor Process

Continuous Coalescing Filter / Continous Centrifuge

Demethylation of Crude Biodiesel

Catalyst

Feedstocks Waste Vegetable Oil Yellow Grease White Grease Beef Tallow Poultry Fat Soybean Oil Corn Oil Sunflower Oil Canola Oil Palm Oil Jatropha Oil Cotton Oil Mustard Oil Algae Trap Grease

Refined Biodiesel

Filtration

Polishing / Resin Treatment

Neutralization (if necessary)

Contact:

BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC 6 Alton Ave. Voorhees, NJ 08043 Tel. (856) 299-1274 www.biogenfs.com

Continuous Biodiesel Production System


The BioGen Biodiesel System utilizes an advanced hydrodynamic cavitation design. Through this design, the transesterification of feedstock oil occurs almost instantaneously, dramatically reducing the overall processing time. High Free Fatty Acid (FFA) feedstocks, up to 5%, can be utilized with NO PRETREATMENT. Skid mounted systems are available in production sizes ranging from 5 gallons/minute (2.5 million gallons/year) to 20 gallons/minute (10 million gallons/year), with a maximum skid size of 6 ft. x 7 ft. (1.8 m x 2.1 m). What Makes the BioGen Biodiesel System Unique? Dual Stage Hydrodynamic Cavitation Design (Patent Pending) ensures a complete conversion of feedstocks to biodiesel in a fraction of the standard processing time Feedstock flexibility allows operator to use a Feedstock of Opportunity approach to their biodiesel requirements Ultra-Compact Design Delivered as a ready to produce system Eliminates Batch-to-Batch variation System has application to other biofuels technologies, such as biobutanol and bioethanol Complete 10 MM GPY biodiesel production system, including all refining steps, can be transported in a single 40 ft. Container

Benefits of the BioGen Biodiesel System Transesterification reaction time is reduced by over 90% Adds Multi-Feedstock Capabilities to Existing Biodiesel Plants High Free Fatty Acid (FFA) feedstocks can be used without pretreatment (up to 7% FFA) Reactant dosing is precise, reducing raw materials costs ASTM 6751 B100 fuel is produced in a single, continuous pass Labor requirements are reduced as the system can be operated by one person Dramatic reduction of process equipment footprint Maintenance and parts expenses are reduced Can be easily retrofit to existing production facilities.
Contact: BioGen Fuel Solutions LLC 6 Alton Ave. Voorhees, NJ 08043 Tel. (856) 299-1274 www.biogenfs.com