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International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85 – 106 www.elsevier.


Classification of huminite—ICCP System 1994
´ korova I. Sy ´ a, W. Pickelb,*, K. Christanisc, M. Wolf d, G.H. Taylore, D. Floresf

Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, V Holes ˇ ovicka ´ ch 41, 182 09 Prague 8, Czech Republic b Coal and Organic Petrology Services Pty Ltd, 23/80 Box Road, Taren Point, NSW 2229, Australia c Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece d Mergelskull 29, 47802 Krefeld, Germany e 15 Hawkesbury Cres, Farrer Act 2607, Australia f Departamento de Geologia, Faculdade de Cie ˆ ncias do Porto, Prac ¸a de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal Accepted 28 June 2004 Available online 2 November 2004

Abstract In the new classification (ICCP System 1994), the maceral group huminite has been revised from the previous classification (ICCP, 1971. Int. Handbook Coal Petr., suppl. to 2nd ed.) to accommodate the nomenclature to changes in the other maceral groups, especially the changes in the vitrinite classification (ICCP, 1998. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994). Fuel 77, 349–358.). The vitrinite and huminite systems have been correlated so that down to the level of sub-maceral groups, the two systems can be used in parallel. At the level of macerals and for finer classifications, the analyst now has, according to the nature of the coal and the purpose of the analysis, a choice of using either of the two classification systems for huminite and vitrinite. This is in accordance with the new ISO Coal Classification that covers low rank coals as well and allows for the simultaneous use of the huminite and vitrinite nomenclature for low rank coals. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Huminite; Telohuminite; Detrohuminite; Gelohuminite; ICCP System 1994

1. Introduction The International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) is continuously revising ICCP’s classification systems for macerals. A new vitrinite classification system was published in 1998 (Fuel 77,

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: (W. Pickel). 0166-5162/$ - see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.06.006

349–358, ICCP, 1998), and in 2001, the new inertinite classification system was published (Fuel 80, 459– 471, ICCP, 2001). These systems are collectively referred to as the bICCP System 1994Q. They are the result of the work of two editorial groups combined with extensive discussions and revisions of prepared drafts during several annual ICCP meetings attended by numerous international experts. This document presents the ICCP huminite classification and is also a part of the bICCP System 1994Q. The definitions of the huminite macerals have been


´ korova I. Sy ´ et al. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106

presented, discussed and approved at annual ICCP meetings.

2. Huminite 2.1. Origin of term Term introduced by Sza ´ decky-Kardoss (1949) for a structural constituent of brown coals (now commonly termed lignites). The ICCP has used this term for a maceral group of lignites (brown coals) since 1970. Derivation: humus (L)–soil. 2.2. Related terms Vitrinite (low, medium and high rank coals; ICCP, 1998). Gelinite (Babinkova and Moussial, 1965; Belau et al., 1967). 2.3. Definition Huminite designates a group of medium grey macerals having reflectances generally between those of the associated darker liptinites and the lighter inertinites. 2.3.1. Comment The huminite group is subdivided into three maceral subgroups and six macerals; partly, the latter are subdivided in maceral types, submacerals and maceral varieties (see Table 1). The maceral subgroups are divided by structure (degree of preservation of the plant residues) and the macerals by gelification (gelohuminite excluded). Maceral varieties show differences in reflectance. The A varieties are generally lower in reflectance than the corresponding B varieties.

2.3.2. Note Huminite and its macerals are defined only for lignites/soft brown coals. For subbituminous coal, the coal of the highest rank within the low rank coal, the vitrinite nomenclature, is used. 2.4. Physical properties 2.4.1. Colour and reflectance Both depend on rank, gelification degree, botanical origin and chemical composition of the huminite macerals (Cameron, 1991; Taylor et al., 1998). The colour is dark to medium grey. Random reflectance measured in oil ranges between ~0.2 and 0.4% R r. The upper reflectance limit has been taken as the reflectance value separating low rank coal and medium rank coal in the ECE classification (1988). In general, huminite is isotropic. Anisotropy (bireflectance) occurs if remnants of cellulose are present. This phenomenon, more easily visible in transmitted light, is used for the identification of cellulose. 2.4.2. Note Huminite reflectance in peat may vary between 0.1% and 0.26% R r depending on the type of the submacerals (Cohen et al., 1987) (Table 2). 2.4.3. Fluorescence Fluorescence colour and intensity are dependent on the rank, the degree of degradation, humification and bituminization of the huminite. The colour ranges from yellow-brown to red-brown and is most marked in textinite A and ulminite A (Taylor et al., 1998). 2.4.4. Polishing hardness Huminite is soft and shows no relief in relation to the accompanying liptinite and inertinite macerals (except corpohuminite). 2.5. Chemical properties

Table 1 The new Huminite system, huminite terminology bold, the corresponding vitrinite in normal font Maceral group Huminite/vitrinite Maceral subgroup Telohuminite/Telovitrinite Detrohuminite/Detrovitrinite Gelohuminite/Gelovitrinite

Huminite is characterized by relatively high oxygen and low carbon contents compared with the macerals of the other two groups (Cronauer et al., 1992; Stankiewicz et al., 1996). The elemental composition is rank dependent, carbon increases and oxygen decreases during the coalification process

Taylor et al. Teichmu ¨ller. it is evident that amongst the chemical structures in lignitic wood and huminite.. Diessel. the catechol-like rings are dominant whereas the major components in vitrinite may be phenol-like structures (Hatcher and Clifford. Chafee et al. 1998). 1984. soils (horizon A) and sediments. The macerals of the huminite group are defined by the different structures resulting from different sources and pathways of transformation within the mires.8.. it is preserved if the organic and mineral matter is deposited rapidly. the degree of humification and gelification and the rank. Practical importance The degree of humification and especially gelification of huminite in coal affects most industrial processes such as briquetting. cell structures are preserved and visible to varying extents. Depending on the process of decomposition.. while aromaticity and the content of carboxyl groups increase (Hatcher et al. 2. 1998). 1997).6. gasification and combustion (for further information. see corresponding macerals. 1988. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Table 2 Subdivision of the maceral group huminite Maceral group HUMINTE Maceral subgroup TELOHUMINITE Maceral Textinite Ulminite DETROHUMINITE GELOHUMINITE Attrinite Densinite Corpohuminite Gelinite Maceral type 87 Maceral variety A (dark) B (light) A (dark) B (light) Phlobaphinite Pseudophlobaphinite Levigelinite Porigelinite (van Krevelen. Liu et al.´ korova I. For further information.. . highly phenolic signatures of the lignin-derived material within the huminite with only minor content of aliphatic groups are typical for huminite (Chafee et al.. lignin and tannin. alter during humification and peatification and disappear in the course of the ortholignite stage. 1998) and ranges as follows: 2. carbonization.. 1993. Also.1. Taylor et al. Mastalerz and Bustin. Derivation Huminite is derived from parenchymatous and woody tissues and the cellular contents of roots. stems. huminite is the main component. Note From NMR and Py-GC-MS data. losing their acid character and forming alkali-insoluble bhuminsQ (Given and Dyrkacz. The newly formed humic acids condense step by step to larger molecules. In most Tertiary coals.. 1981. Sy ´ et al.7. Russel and Barron.. Huminite is the precursor of vitrinite. 1993a. barks and leaves composed of cellulose. Stankiewicz et al. It also occurs in peat. The atomic ratios H/C and O/C and the amount of methoxyl groups decrease as a result of biochemical processes. 1994. liquefaction. Occurrence Huminite occurs in coal seams formed as a result of anaerobic preservation of lignocelluloses material in mires. The source of the dark A varieties of the huminite macerals is conifer wood or may be related to hydrogen-rich conditions in the peat (Sykes et al. 1984. 2.. b. 2. lignin and tannin. 1982. 1992.5. Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen 60–77% 4–6% 18–28% The primary organic components of the humic matter cellulose. It may exceed 90%. 1989. Taylor et al. see corresponding macerals). 1984). In humic clays. 1996).

1. densinite and corpohuminite may be used with restriction (Taylor et al. Occurrence See Textinite and Ulminite. 3. barks and leaves chemically composed of cellulose and lignin. 1992).3. Derivation The macerals of this subgroup derive from the parenchymatous and woody tissues of roots. Derivation: humus (L)–soil. Large amounts of telohuminite indicate a high degree of cell tissue preservation under wet. whereas angiospermous wood and the non-lignified tissues of herbaceous plants are structurally more or less decomposed (Diessel. 3. 1950) Humophyt (Svoboda. Textinite shows separate cell walls. Telohuminite is the precursor of telovitrinite in medium rank and high rank coals.1.6. 1998). 1956) Xylinit-Gruppe (Jacob.88 ´ korova I. Origin of term Term proposed to the ICCP in 1963 to describe huminitic cell wall material in lignites (brown coals).3. Note Huminite that shows cellular structures only after etching is called telogelinite. 1992). / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 The reflectance of the B-varieties of the telohuminite macerals is a reliable rank parameter. Waltz. Definition Telohuminite is a subgroup of the maceral group huminite comprising macerals with preserved intact botanical cell structures visible to various extents and isolated cells showing reflectance between the darker liptinite and the lighter inertinite macerals. If these maceral varieties are not present (which may be possible in sediments other than coal). (1965). 3. 1970) Humotelinite (ICCP.2.8. 1971) 3. 1965) Pflanzengewebe (Teichmu ¨ller. originating from herbaceous and arborescent plants. possibly low pH conditions within forested peatlands or forested wet raised bogs (Diessel. Textinite and Ulminite. Related terms Textinit.. tela (L)–tissue. stems. 3. Practical importance See Textinite and Ulminite. In the same sense used by Sontag et al. 3. Most of the telohuminite in Tertiary lignites originate from coniferous wood. Textinite 4. 1956) Xylinit (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. 3. 4. Comment The subgroup comprises the macerals textinite and ulminite distinguishable by their different degree of gelification. 1950) ˇ. Related terms Humoses Pflanzengewebe (Teichmu ¨ller. nicht vergelt (Sontag et al. Telohuminite 3. 1949. In 1970 the ICCP restricted the term to a maceral consisting of ungelified cell wall material. ulminite consists of clearly recognizable but compressed and gelified cell walls. 1961) Textinit (Sontag et al.5. 3. 4. 1965) Telovitrinit (Jacob.3.4. This structure is visible to variable extent in reflected white light. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP 1970 to denote huminite with cell structure.2. 3. Xylinite and Phyllinite (Svoboda and Benes 1955) . Derivation: textum (L)–tissue.1. Sy ´ et al. Chemical properties See Huminite... 3.7. Physical properties See Textinite and Ulminite.2.

its ungelified cell walls are called textinite. 2. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 89 Xylinite (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. Fig. the cell walls may be deformed or torn. whose width does not exceed the thickness of the cell wall. Primary internal cell wall structures may be preserved (e. Reflected white light mode. Valendis). Fig. Comment Size and form of the cells may vary. Central part of the North Bohemian Basin. micrinite. 1961. field width: 0. 1949. or filled with other macerals or with minerals. Textinite (T) with corpohuminite (C) in Miocene lignite coal. consisting of ungelified cell walls either of isolated but intact individual cells or within tissues (see (Figs. Textinite (T) and corpohuminite (C) in lignite. clay minerals and carbonates. Single fissures. 4 and 10).´ korova I. porigelinite. lamination.17 mm. subgroup telohuminite. 1. The cell lumens are mainly open. 4.g. 2. Jacob. In tissues..1. Czech Republic. Isolated cells have to be more or less intact. Germany. Sy ´ et al. they greatly resemble the original cell structures. . Reflected white light. 1962. Most common fillings are resinite. ˇ ev. Basic seam.3.. As long as the tissue is recognizable. 1962) Minc Gelinito-Telinit (Timofeev et al. Kuhfeldschichten (Lower Cretaceous.3. corpohuminite. intracellular spaces). are included. together with fusinite. field width: 0. Definition Textinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite. 1965) 4.24 mm. 1. Timofeev and Bogoliubova.

ash-free) 22–26% (moisture-free) 0. Practical importance Textinite consists of humic substances as well as of the remains of cellulose and lignin. textinite is isotropic.5% 4. 1959). Textinite B results from angiosperm wood and herbaceous plants.2–0. Unge- . Derivation Textinite derives from the cell walls of parenchymatous and woody tissues of roots.6. Textinite is the precursor of telinite in medium rank coals. 4. 4. In polished blocks. Also. Sy ´ et al. In transmitted light.5.8. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Two varieties of textinite exist: textinite A has a lower reflectance than textinite B. Large amounts of textinite indicate a high degree of cell– tissue preservation under relatively dry. 1992). Colour and reflectance Textinite A is dark grey. Chemical properties which the so-called bmummified woodQ and the cellulose containing xylite corresponds microscopically to textinite: Humic substances Cellulose Tar Ash 4–20% (dry. 4. Physical properties 4.3. The reflectance of textinite A is very low and close to the reflectance of the accompanying liptinite macerals. Fluorescence In general.g. It originates from both herbaceous and arborescent plants. tannin. composed of cellulose and lignin. Cupressaceae) or from special roots (e. the fluorescence varies from dirty yellow to brown. Marcoduria inopinata ). Sontag and Su ¨ ss (1969a. Therefore. 4. Textinite B shows rank dependent reflectances of ~ 0. Textinite occurs more or less in all lignites to various extents. waxes and tannin. 4. Su ¨ ss (1959).4. Significant differences exist between the chemical composition of textinite A and textinite B. ash-free) 25–45% (dry. commonly with a brownish tinge and abundantly with orange to redbrown internal reflections.4. Polishing hardness Textinite is soft. impregnated with resins. Su ¨ ss (1959) published chemical data for xylites of different humification stages of Textinite influences the technical properties of lignites markedly only where present in large amounts. stems and barks. 4. In reflected light. it does not show any relief. Cell wall material of fungal tissues does not belong to textinite. 4. textinite A may contain remarkable portions of cellulose. Textinite A in most cases is formed from gymnosperm wood (Taxodiaceae. textinite rich coal is difficult to grind.7.1.4. textinite A shows strong anisotropy.b).4. rarely also from leaves. The chemical composition of a tissue affects its preservation. is chemically more resistant than textinite B. Textinite B is grey and does not show internal reflections. produced by remnants of cellulose.2.3. resins. In textinite A. Textinite A.4% R r. Occurrence The amount of textinite in lignite depends largely on the degree of gelification and rank. but is lower than that of the accompanying liptinite macerals.2. in Tertiary lignites textinite A is generally more common than textinite B. etc. possibly low pH conditions within forested peatlands or forested raised bogs (Diessel.90 ´ korova I. irrespective of its reflectance. Whereas textinite B in general is composed only of humins and remains of lignin. Note Ungelified huminitic cell wall relics that do not match the textinite definition belong to attrinite. the fluorescence intensity is higher than in textinite B. the main properties are: Preparation With regard to its elasticity.2 to ~ 0. Following Jacob (1956. the inner low reflecting waxy layer of root tissues and cork is not part of textinite (see Suberinite).

the cell walls are markedly swollen and therefore thicker than those of textinite of the same plant origin. textinite is concentrated in the coarse size fractions. 1962) ˇ emc ˇ uz ˇ nikov and Xylovitrain. Dependent on the amount of elongated fibrous grains (see Preparation) nozzles may be blocked. Ulminite 5. Comment Size and shape of the cell walls can vary.. Derivation: ulmus (L)—elm. Two varieties of ulminite can be distinguished on the basis of reflectance. structures within the cell walls are not visible. 1991). 5. (1996) show textinite textures from Chinese Tertiary coals.3. By oxidation. . briquettes produced from low rank lignites containing textinite are of high strength.´ korova I. 1968). subgroup telohuminite that denotes the cell walls of more or less gelified tissues (see Figs. The abovementioned shrinkage fissures should not be confused with fissures that result from weathering. For example. The char yield is rank-dependent (Su ¨ ss et al.2. Related terms Textinit. 1982).2. Carbonization Due to its high content of cellulose and/or resin. Due to homogenisation. bark. Extraction Textinite produces low yields of bitumen. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 91 lified wood composed of textinite. Vitrinit (Minc Gelinito-Telinit. halb vergelt. humic compounds are formed. The combustion of such big grains is incomplete (Allardice and Newell.3. that result in gelinite with low contents or without cellulose. breaks to fibrous pieces making sieving difficult. As a result of the gelification process. 5. and leaves. Shrinkage fissures may occur. Gelinito-Posttelinit (Timofeev et al. In general. In 1970 introduced by the ICCP to denote more or less gelified plant tissues in which cell structures still can be seen. 5. Note The optical appearance of ulminite B is similar to that of telinite in medium rank coals. Definition Ulminite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite. 1797). The cell lumens are closed.. vergelt (Sontag et al. Kuan et al. the typical bast tissues of palms do not occur earlier than Late Miocene. Sy ´ et al. wood. In tissues. ulminite B is light (further details see below). in Central Europe. Briquetting Textinite increases the briquetting properties of low rank lignites with moisture contents of 7055%. Therefore.Textinit.3. textinite produces high yields of tar (1520%) and gas. ulmin is a decomposition product of diseased elms (Vauquellin. 1965) ˇ ev. 1961) 5. the cell walls are packed together.1.1. Combustion Textinite-rich low-rank lignites with poor milling properties can create problems. 1960) Xylo-Dopplerinit (Jacob. Stratigraphy The texture of textinite can be used for the identification of certain plants and therefore for stratigraphic correlations. 3 and 7).. Schneider (1984) gave an excellent survey of various textinites in Tertiary lignites (brown coals) of Lusatia (Germany) according to their origin from roots. Liquefaction Texinite’s reactivity is lower than that of gelified huminite macerals (Shibaoka. Weathering Textinite is relatively resistant against weathering. 5. Strukturvitrain (Z Ginsburg. 1964) Xylovitrinit. Ulminite A is dark. Origin of term Term used at first by Stopes (1935) for bcompletely gelified plant materialQ in coals.

/ International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Fig. etc. 5. Sy ´ et al. Ulminite A shows higher fluorescence intensity than ulminite B. Fluorescence Dirty-yellow. Fluorescence intensity decreases within increasing gelification and the rank. wax. Large amounts of ulminite indicate a high degree of cell–tissue preservation under wet.5. possibly low pH conditions within forested peatlands or forested wet raised bogs (Diessel. (1998). humates and traces of lignin and cellulose (Su ¨ ss.7. Na. of herbaceous and arborescent plants. According to Taylor et al. Ca). field width: 0. tannin. Occurrence Ulminite is formed primarily in peat and soil under wet conditions and in limnic sediments (see Deriva- . Therefore. 5. Polishing hardness Ulminite is soft. Also decomposition products of cellulose may be present. ulminite A of the same coal shows a significant lower reflectance.2 and ~0. Ulminite is the precursor of collotelinite in medium and high rank coals.3.92 ´ korova I. brown to dark brown. it varies between ~0. Therefore. rarely with a brownish cast.4.4. The reflectance of ulminite B is rank dependent. Reflected white light mode. ulminite A derived from gymnosperms is more abundant in Tertiary lignites than ulminite B derived from various angiosperms. (1998). The elemental composition is rank dependent (see Huminite). 5.4.g. It shows no relief against other macerals. barks and leaves.6.4% R r. stems. Kuhfeldschichten (Lower Cretaceous. Chemical properties Ulminite consists of humic acids.2. Physical properties 5. the biochemical gelification process is accelerated in waterlogged environments by the supply of specific ions (e.22 mm. gelified cell walls arefree of cellulose. Ulminite A may show weak orange internal reflections. the relatively low reflectance of ulminite A must be related to resin or wax impregnations in the cell walls. 1959). Derivation Ulminite derives from the parenchymatous and woody tissues of roots. Valendis). 5. Germany. Ulminite (U). The relation between ulminite A and B does not mirror the primary vegetation of a mire. 1992). 5.1. 3. Woods in which the cell walls are impregnated with resin. ulminite B gray. 5. According to Taylor et al. are very resistant against chemical and structural decomposition. Colour and reflectance Ulminite A is dark gray. composed of cellulose and lignin.4.

in part 6. Derivation: humus (L)–soil.8. all humic fragments that cannot be grouped with certainty to other huminite macerals are called detrohuminite even when their size isN10 Am. palaeoenvironmental conditions and advanced coalification..8. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 93 tion) but also by rank. enrichment in ulminite reflects both. The briquettes have a low strength.3. In sediments.5.´ korova I..8. ulminite has a better grindability than textinite. Preparation Since gelification increases the hardness of huminite macerals and drying promotes the formation of fissures. Detrohuminite at early stage of coalification is derived from demethylated dehydrated lignin monomers intermixed with lipids such as polymethylene . 1969a. 1971) Detrohuminite (Kalkreuth et al. 6.8. Sy ´ et al. 1965. 1960) ˇ ev. Lignites derived from wet forested peatlands show higher amounts of ulminite than those derived under dry conditions with a high rate of decay. Svoboda.. 5.5.1. detritus (L)–a product of disintegration. 1984). Comment Detrohuminite consists in coals of loosely packed cell fragments or other humic plant debris. Briquetting High contents of ulminite prevent the development of links between coal grains during binderless briquetting. 1964). Carbonization Ulminite produces lower yields of tar and gas and higher amounts of char than textinite. 5. 1982. 6. Detrohuminite Hydrogenation Ulminite reacts at lower temperatures compared with textinite (Kurtz. 5. 6.. Sontag and Su ¨ ss. It correlates well with other rank-sensitive parameters such as the calorific value or the carbon content.b.1. 1964) Attrinite (Minc ˇ ev. Sontag et al. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP in 1970 to denote a subgroup of huminite. Differences in the texture of both macerals may be determined in more detail by transmission electron microscopy (Taylor et al. Physical properties See Attrinite and Densinite. Rank determination The reflectance of ulminite B is a reliable rank parameter. The chemical composition of detrohuminite is more or less independent on its degree of gelification (Gaines et al.. 6. in part Desminite (Minc Humodetrinite (ICCP. Therefore. 1983). 1965.1. 1959. 1983. 5. Chemical properties 6.3. 1991). 1981). detrohuminite is subdivided into the macerals attrinite (not gelified) and densinite (gelified). Related terms Transmitted light microscopy: Translucent humic degradation matter (Thiessen..4. Definition Detrohuminite is a subgroup of the maceral group huminite consisting of fine humic fragments (b10 Am) of a reflectance between those of liptinite and inertinite macerals.2. 1956) Attrite and desmite (Waltz. It is enriched in the finer size fractions. 1961) Detrinit (Mala ´ n.4. The amount of ulminite increases also at the cost of textinite with increasing rank. Depending on its gelification. 5. Practical importance The technological properties of ulminite depend on its degree of gelification (Jacob. Cameron et al. 5. that may be cemented by amorphous humic matter.8. 1930) Reflected light microscopy Detrinit-Gruppe (Jacob. Rascher et al. 1981).

2. Herbaceous plants and angiosperm woods disintegrate more readily than lignified cell walls (Teichmu ¨ller. 60 63. Densinite may contain a larger proportion of chemical structures that are more or less identical with those in the original plant material (e. %) Ash (% mf) H (% maf) O (% maf) N (% maf) S (% maf) Tar (% maf) Bitumen (% maf) Cellulose (% maf) Humic acids (% maf) 59. consisting of a mixture of fine huminitic particles (b10 Am) of different shape and spongy to porous.1 6. .6 24.5 12.g.8 4. 6.9 28.4 Table 3 Chemical composition of detrohuminite in lignites Rhine valley N90% Detrohuminite (Attrinite) Moisture (as mined.6 0. Gelinito-Praecollinit (Timofeev and Bogoliubova.. The ICCP has used the term since 1970 for a maceral of the huminite group that consists of fine humic particles that form the non-gelified bgroundmassbof (brown) coals. attrinitische. 6.1.7. N95% Detrohuminite Detritus (Wiesner. its content isN50% (von der Brelie and Wolf. krautige oder humose Grundmasse (Hock.3 28.8 65. 1989. 1992. 1965) Humoser Detritus (Teichmu ¨ller.7 0. the term denoted gelified particles in lignites. detrohuminite-rich coal is suitable for a range of industrial processes. 1964) 7. Durie. (for details see Attrinite and Densinite)..5 1.g. 1998) but also conifers contribute to detrohuminite (von der Brelie and Wolf. Definition Attrinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite. 1892) Unvergelter Detrinit (Sontag et al. briquetting. 1932) Gelinito-Posttelinit. Some chemical features of three low rank lignites composed mainly of detrohuminite are shown in Table 3. 7. subgroup detrohuminite. Originally.9 Lusatia (Attrinite) ca.7 49.7 28. e.9 28. phenyl propane) (Gaines et al. Related terms Nachterstedt (Densinite) 47. hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.8 n. 1981).d. ungelified amorphous huminitic substances (Figs. 1981). 1981). Attrinite The macerals of this group derive from herbaceous and arborescent plants through the strong decay of parenchymatous and woody tissues of stems and leaves.1 1. Detrohuminite is the precursor of detrovitrinite in medium and high rank coals. 1991). 1950) Detrinitische.6. Sy ´ et al.8 4.9 4.1 43. 1981.6 64. In general. The degraded lignin structure is closer to that derived from present day gymnosperms than that from angiosperms as confirmed by the presence of guaiacyl structural units (Taylor et al.8 4..6 5. Taylor et al. production of organic fluids and gases by low temperature carbonization (Kurtz.94 ´ korova I. Infrared spectra are characterized by absorption due to aliphatic and aromatic structures. Practical importance Dependent on the gelification degree.3. 4 and 5). / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 long chain acids. 7. esters and triterpenoids of both higher plant and microbial origin (Taylor et al. In pale coals it may exceed 90%. Occurrence Detrohuminite is the main constituent of Tertiary lignites.9 1. Diessel. 7. Derivation: attritus (L)–matter pulverized by attrition.. Derivation 6. 1982).1 0.9 58.7 1. coke production.8.0 57. Origin of term Term suggested by Babinkova and Moussial (1965) following a proposal of the Association of Coal Petrographers of the USSR in 1963.. 1982).

field width: 0. 5. 7. Sokolov Basin.´ korova I.25 mm.3. . field width: 0. Fig. Note also textinite fragment (T) and funginite (F). Sy ´ et al. Reflected white light mode. 7. 4. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 95 Fig.2.24 mm. Miocene lignite from the Anez Reflected white light mode. The formless flocculated humic colloids act as a kind of cement. Note Elongated cell wall fragments that may exceed 10 Am in length belong also to attrinite if they are less thanb10 Am wide. ˇ ka seam.1. Czech Republic. Attrinite (A) and densinite (D). Comment The various detrital constituents of attrinite are intimately mixed but only loosely packed and therefore well differentiated from each other. The spongy texture of attrinite is the reason that attrinite appears darker in reflected light microscopy than other huminite macerals. Attrinite (A) with suberinite (S) and phlobaphinite (P).3. By the very small size of the attrinitic components it is difficult to differentiate between the detrital and the amorphous matter.

7. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 7.5. Occurrence of the humic parts of plants (von der Brelie and Wolf.1. originally composed mainly of cellulose and.4. Attrinite occurs also in subaquatically deposited plant litter (Schneider. Chemical properties Attrinite consists of humic substances and remains of cellulose and lignin. dependent on the composition of attrinite. 7. In hard brown coals (MetaLignite) it is much less abundant. dense and fissurefree coke of high quality. Derivation: densus (L)–dense.2.8. Bitumen extraction Relatively poor in extractable bitumen. (1967). 1981).6. 8.8. porous part of attrinite consists of flocculated humic colloids.2. 7. The intensity may increase where the attrinite is derived from the litter of gymnosperm tissues. it does not show any relief. In the course of coalification. Densinite 8.4. Sy ´ et al. Briquetting Attrinite has very good briquetting properties if it is not mixed with too much liptinite. Sontag and Su ¨ ss (1969a. 1986). Preparation Attrinite is very well grindable and appears predominantly in particle sizes of 2.3 mm.1.4. The shapeless.6. dependent on pore density.8.8. Colour and reflectance Colour dark grey.3. attrinite passes into densinite by gelification and collodetrinite by vitrinitization. 7.b) and Durie (1991). 7. 7. compact. The chemical properties vary depending upon the plant sources (for further information. Origin of term Attrinite is a major component of soft brown coals (Ortho-Lignite) and may be present at levels exceeding 90%. 7. 7. Polishing Hardness Attrinite is soft. Rammler et al. see Detrohuminite).96 ´ korova I. Weathering Attrinite oxidizes relatively easily. 7. 7. it is weak brown.5. High-temperature carbonization results in firm.4.8. Combustion Attrinite ignites at relatively low temperatures during combustion. Teichmu ¨ ller and Thomson (1958). Practical importance Attrinite-rich lignites are a suitable for a whole range of industrial processes.7. although densinite also occurs along with attrinite in the same seam depending on the depositional conditions (see Occurrence). The coke occurs in coarse lumps. 7. Derivation The detrital part of attrinite is the result of strong structural decomposition of parenchymatous and woody tissues of stems and leaves of herbaceous and arborescent plants. True reflectance may not be measurable if the single particles are too small in order to cover the whole measuring field. to a lesser extent. Carbonization Low-temperature carbonization results in relatively low contents of tar and coke. lignin. 7. Fluorescence In general. High amounts of attrinite indicate relatively dry conditions at the mire surface followed by aerobic decomposition Term introduced by the ICCP in 1970 to denote a maceral of the huminite group that consists of gelified small particles cemented by amorphous humic matter. The following statements result from papers of Jacob (1956).8.8.3. . Physical properties 7. It forms under aerobic conditions.0–6.4.1.

2.3. in part. central part of the Bohemian Basin.4. 8. Polishing hardness Densinite is soft and does not show strong relief in polished blocks. 6. 8.4. a mottled surface.4.2 and ~0. The reflectance is rank dependent and varies between ~0. Fluorescence None or only very weak dark brown fluorescence.. 1930) Vergelter Detrinit (Sontag et al. If ulminite B is not present. densinite can be used for rank determination (Figs.2.3. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 97 8. phlobaphinite (P) and suberinite (S). Derivation Densinite is formed by two different processes: (1) extensive decay of parenchymatous and woody tissues of stems and leaves composed of cellulose and lignin followed by biochemical gelification under wet con- 8. 6–8). 8.3. 1950) Gelinito-Posttelinit. . Miocene lignite. Reflected white light mode. Detritus (Wiesner.1. Definition Densinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite (subgroup detrohuminite) that consists of fine huminitic particles (b10 Am) of various shape cemented by amorphous dense huminitic substances so that in polished blocks this maceral shows a more or less homogenous and. Physical properties 8. Related terms Transmitted light: Reflected light: Translucent humic degradation matter (Thiessen. Detrinit (Svoboda and Benes 1961.4.6.1.´ korova I. Chemical properties Densinite consists of humic substances and possibly also lignin remains (see also Detrohuminite).4% R r.5. Densinite (D). field width: 0. The area that shows the dense surface should be N15 Am2. Colour and reflectance The colour is grey. more rarely. 8.). 8. Comment Densinite is a gelified. 1965) ˇ . 1892) Humoser Detritus (Teichm ¨ ller. Note The surface of densinite may be irregular as a result of slight differences in the polishing hardness between Fig. 8. Gelinito-Praecollinit (Timofeev and Bogoliubova. Jacob.3. 1955.24 mm. Basic seam.2. Sy ´ et al. more or less homogenous huminitic groundmass binding other coal components. 1964) the discrete huminitic particles and the binding amorphous huminitic matter. 8.

liptinite) are embedded. . reflected white light. ditions during the peat stage. Reflected white light mode. phlobaphinite). It is enriched in the fine and intermediate size fraction (b4 mm) (Sontag and Su ¨ ss. Basic seam. Fig. Practical importance 8. 8. Main seam (Hauptfloez). In lignites of higher rank. Miocene.98 ´ korova I. central part of the North Bohemian Basin. Occurrence Densinite occurs in high amounts in Tertiary low rank lignites originated from peats that accumulated under wet conditions. field width: 0.8. 8. 8.b). 7.20 mm.g. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Fig. Corpohuminite (C.. Densinite (D) and ulminite (U) in Miocene lignite. field width: 0.1. densinite (D) and funginite.8. Preparation Densinite has a good grindability. Reflected white light mode. 1969a. Rheinische Braunkohle. densinite is a major constituent and forms the bgroundmassb in which other macerals (e. (2) Geochemical gelification of former attrinite during increasing coalification.16 mm.7. Czech Republic. Sy ´ et al.

9. It improves the conversion of coal and can even become plastic. 1957.1. Derivation Humocollinite has more than one origin. 1965.8. Physical properties See Corpohuminite and Gelinite. Related terms Gel (Schochardt. discrete bodies of former humic cell . Sy ´ et al. subgroup gelohuminite. 1969a. The former describes discrete bodies representing mainly the primary phlobaphenitic infillings of cell lumens occurring in situ or isolated. Podgajni. homogenous substances of huminite reflectance.5. Occurrence 9. A third derivation is from primary phlobaphenic cell fillings formed by the plants themselves (mainly in gymnosperm wood).6. It may also derive from precipitated humic colloids. 1949) Corpogelinit (Teichmu ¨ ller.2. the latter describes secondary homogenous infillings of formerly empty spaces. consisting of homogenous. 1965) Dopplerinit-Gruppe (Jacob. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP in 1970 for a maceral of the huminite group that consists of structureless bodies of humic cell fillings. 10. 9. 9. Sontag et al. Gelohuminite 9.8. Related terms Melanoresinit (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. Corpohuminite 10. Teichmu ¨ller.1.3. Extraction and liquefaction Densinite is relatively poor in bitumen extracts but it reacts relatively easily with oxygen (Shibaoka. 1964) Humocollinite (ICCP. Chemical properties See Corpohuminite and Gelinite. 9. 8.4.8. 9.. the structure of which is not recognizable in reflected light. Derivation: gelu.1. Definition Gelohuminte denotes a maceral subgroup within the maceral group huminite that comprises grey coloured structureless. us (L)–frost. Definition Corpohuminite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite. Derivation: corpus (L)– body.3. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP to denote a maceral subgroup comprising macerals originating from amorphous humic matter. 1971) 9. 9.4. Briquetting Densinite has poor briquetting properties because it is inelastic and does not interact with other coal grains during binderless briquetting. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 99 8. It may derive from intensely gelified plant tissues and humic detritus. 1950) 10. Carbonization Densinite has no coking properties (Sontag and Su ¨ ss. humus (L)–soil.2. 8.8. 1982). 1943. 1952) Gelinit (Mala ´ n.3. Comment Gelohuminte consists of the macerals corpohuminite and gelinite.´ korova I.7. stiffening humus (L)–soil. Practical importance See Corpohuminite and Gelinite.3. 1946) Phlobaphinit (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. See Corpohuminite and Gelinite. 9.2. 10.b).

. Chemical composition Corpohuminite originating from primary cell excretions.4.1% 64. Also the size of the bodies depends on the original cell size (Mader. ellagic acid) and possesses phenolic properties (Taylor et al.1. Apart from this exception. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 fillings occurring in situ together with textinite or ulminite or isolated within attrinite. tannin acid.4.6. gallic acid.100 ´ korova I.3.4. soft without relief in polished blocks. Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. densinite or clay.1. 10. Hungary (Soo ´ s. 1. 2 and 8). 1952).e. In Tertiary coals.6% 29. phlobatannin). Analysis of corpohuminite from the lignite of Perecesba ´ nya. tannins. In general. 1958. 10. Corpohuminite is chemically and structurally very resistant. deposited in cortical cells. If the grain does not have contact with the enclosing cell walls (the grain lies isolated within the cell) the submaceral phlobaphinite is present. Comment Depending on the shape of the cells that were filled with the excretions and on the orientation of the grains at the polished surface of a block the shape of corpohuminite bodies may be spherical. 10. Isolated humic bodies that do not show their former position within a tissue should be called corpohuminite in general because their definite derivation is not now recognizable. Most of the corpohuminite bodies are compact but they may be also cavernous. The reflectance of corpohuminite embedded in textinite A or ulminite A (originated from Taxodiaceae or Cupressaceae) may be lower than that of the ulminite B or in densinite from the same coal. Fluorescence Corpohuminite does not fluoresce.3. Derivation Phlobaphinite originates from tannin-rich cell excretions. The differences in reflectance between corpohuminite of different origins on the one hand and corpohuminite and other huminite macerals on the other hand decrease with increasing rank. i. 1998). 10. 10. Phlobaphinite occurs in Taxodiaceae. the reflectance of corpohuminite is slightly higher than that of the corresponding ulminite B or densinite (for reflectance data.8% 5. Both are only distinguishable within tissues of textinite or ulminite. Soo ´ s. 1998). Sy ´ et al..4. Two submacerals can be distinguished: Phlobaphenite describes the coalification product of primary cell excretions and Pseudo-Phlobaphenite the secondary cell fillings that originate from humic colloids. This is an important factor to note where the reflectance of corpohuminite is used for rank determination.. Colour and reflectance Grey to light grey. consists of mixtures of aromatic compounds that vary in composition (e.3. that have high molecular weights. 10. Corpohuminite is found within an attrinitic or densinitic groundmass or is embedded in sediments shows positive relief. 10. Polishing hardness Variable depending on the origin of the corpohuminite. oval or elongated. 10.2. in parenchymatous or medullary-ray cells and especially in cork tissues. 1963): Ash (moisture-free) Carbon (daf) Hydrogen (daf) Oxygen (daf) 3. Physical properties 10.4. the size of spherical bodies ranges from about 10 to 40 Am and this of elongated bodies from 20 to 170 Am.5. Vickers hardness 60–80 kp/mm2 (Taylor et al. The tannins convert to phlobaphenes. see Ulminite and Densinite). In cases where the cell lumen is completely filled with amorphous humic substances and the boundary between the cell wall and the infilling is vague pseudo-phlobaphinite is present.6% Corpohuminite (pseudo-phlobaphinite) formed by the precipitation of humic colloids consists of humins. 1963. and non-polar solvents and in hot hydroxide.2.g.. Corpohuminite is insoluble in polar. Note Secondary humic cell fillings may also be grouped to gelinite. oxidation or condensation products insoluble in water (catechol. In . Corpohuminite is illustrated in (Figs.4.

Colour and reflectance The colour is medium to light grey. It occurs also in larger quantities in textinite or ulminite of former conifers (abundantly N10% by vol. Teichmu ¨ ller. 10.2.1. Facies analysis In cases where plant tissues are destroyed but the corpohuminite remains. Systematic investigations are lacking. After etching three different cryptomacerals can be observed. 1965) 11.2. Carbonization Apart from shrinkage. 1943. Telogelinite shows cellular structures. porous or microgranular occurrence (Fig.4. 1963. 10. Comment Gelinite is subdivided in two submacerals. 10. where it is mixed intimately with the detrital humic matter. denote a maceral of the huminite group consisting of formless huminitic gels. Briquetting With increasing amounts of corpohuminite the briquette strength is reduced. 1930) Dopplerinit (Jacob. Origin of term Term introduced by Sza ´ decky-Kardoss (1949) for precipitated humic gels and adopted by the ICCP to 11. 10). 9). Definition Gelinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite (subgroup gelohuminite) that appears under reflected light as homogenous structureless or porous substance of huminitic reflectance. corpohuminite is found isolated.3. 11. Derivation: gelu. 1950) Humusgel (Berger. 1961) Huminit (Svoboda. 6 and 8).8. 1940. stiffening.4. Completely destroyed tissues of Taxodiaceae yield pure accumulations of phlobaphinite. It is especially abundant as cell fillings in cork and bark tissues (Soo ´ s. cracks and other voids (Fig.4. 11. 10. Porigelinite has a spongy. It may show shrinkage cracks due to dessication.8.3.). Physical properties 11. 1956) ˇ ev.1. Phlobaphinite probably produces pyrocatechin and acid oils. Hummel. Occurrence Corpohuminite is a regular but not very abundant compound of lignites and peats. Eugelinite fills spaces such as cell lumens. Note Porigelinite may be present also in attrinite. Practical importance 10. corpohuminite may allow the identification of the former tissues. Pseudo-phlobaphinite derives from colloidal humic solutions.3. The remains of totally destroyed Pinaceae tissues are recognizable by the accumulations of phlobaphinite mixed with resinite. 1958.´ korova I.8.7. Together with detrohuminite. Sy ´ et al. Similar to eugelinite it occurs in a range of locations within lignites (brown coals). Gelinite particles of a size b10 Am are grouped with attrinite. Porigelinite may show discrete internal orange reflections .3.8.1. 11.8. Related terms Gel(e) (Schochardt. 1964) Desminit (Minc Gelinito-Collinit (Timofeev and Bogoliubova. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 101 conifers with resin ducts it is less common (Soo ´ s. detrogelinite has an attrinitic occurrence and eugelinite shows no structure. us (L)– frost.1. compact and homogenous. and is enriched in some layers indicating its resistance to decay (Figs. 10. 5. 11.2. 1964). Levigelinite is completely structureless. Gelinite 11. no changes are observed up to 5508C during low-temperature carbonization. 1964). Bitumen extraction Corpohuminite yields no extract. There it is—by the reason of that intimate mixture— part of attrinite.

Basic seam. . In general. Valendis).3. field width: 0.4. porigelinite appears abundantly slightly darker than levigelinite of the same coal. 11.2.102 ´ korova I. Chemical properties Gelinite consists of humic acids and their salts (especially Ca and Na salts) (see Table 4). central part of the North Bohemian Basin. Kuhfeldschichten (Lower Cretaceous. 10. 11.25 to ~0. 9.4. its reflectance is slightly higher than that of ulminite B or densinite of the same coal.5. Reflected white light mode.12–22.40% R r. Czech Republic. Fluorescence Gelinite does not fluoresce. 11.4. Germany.24 mm. Gelinite (G).3 mm.4. Reflected white light mode. Polishing hardness Gelinite is smooth and does not show polishing relief. If used for rank determination. the measurements should specify that gelinite was used. The Fig.7 kg/mm2. 11. (Mukhopadhyay and Hatcher. Due to the pores. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Fig. field width: 0. Porigelinite (P) and textinite (T) in Miocene lignite. The reflectance of levigelinite is rank dependent and increases from ~0. Vickers hardness 20. Sy ´ et al. 1993).

´ korova I.9 Lusatia (Miocene) to to a 49. 1958). . Occurrence Gelinite is a common but not very abundant compound of low rank lignites. 1969) and in peats originating from wet grasslands (Glumiflorae facies of Schneider.8 4.1 66. 11. Telogelinite and detrogelinite are rare in low rank lignites their amounts increase during the transition from ortho to meta lignite.7–1. Sontag.6 21. In peats and lignites eugelinite and porigelinite fill shrinkage cracks.6 3. 1986) or if the concentration of Ca ions in the water within the peat is high (e. Gelinite is enriched in limno-telmatic deposited peats (Roselt. Together with the tendency to internal and external fissuring.8–69. Briquetting Gelinite has very bad briquetting properties.4 – – Lower Rhine Valley (Miocene) 70 3 47.8.0 0. 1998).3 65. or may form by gelification during increasing coalification.7. Sy ´ et al. 11. the gelinite content depends on facies conditions. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 103 Table 4 Chemical composition of gelinite in lignites of Germany (Jacob. In lignite open pits. Derivation Gelinite occurs both syngenetically and epigenetically. Syngenetic eugelinite and porigelinite may form as a humic amorphous substance excreted from cell walls directly during wet periods at the peat stage and filling former cell cavities.0 3.3–94..g. facies and regional conditions.6 0.4 3.. There they precipitate forming a black and lustrous cover that consists of pure humic gels. Gelinite may be also enriched in lignites originated from palaeomires in the neighbourhood of salt deposits that caused increasing Na concentration in the peat water (Taylor et al..1. 1967. 1958..0 0.6 4.8.3 28.5 82.8 61. Belau et al.0 3. The fines (0–2mm) are enriched in gelinite.2–97. 1998) or they fill cell cavities. They may represent strongly gelified tissues or humic litter in peat that is deposited where they occur together with eugelinite (Taylor et al.8. Practical importance 11. Generally. these properties cause low briquette strength (Jacob. Eugelinite and porigelinite are the precursors of gelinite in medium and high rank coals.7–1.0–4. 11. 1967) and Czech Republic (Sykorova et al. Schro ¨ der and Teichmu ¨ ller. eugelinite under the microscope.1 0.3–28. Preparation Gelinite is easy to grind. Whether the dense eugelinite or the spongy porigelinite occurs seems to depend on the concentration of humic substances in the colloidal solution.6 1.7 5.2 71.3 3. 1998). when limestone surrounds the mire).2 4. where the working face dries out.2–5..6–1.6–65. 1964. eugelinite and porigelinite are the precipitation products from colloidal humic solutions and fill secondary spaces.5 1.2 27. humic solutions migrate from inner parts of the seam towards its surface. 1958..7 – – chemical composition is influenced by rank. Rammler et al.5 63. The smooth surface of the grains prevents grain adherence during binderless briquetting.8–51. 11. 1996) Parameters Bed moisture (%) Ash (%) Volatile matter (%) C (%daf) H (%daf) O (%daf) N (%daf) S (%daf) Bitumen (%) Humic acids (%) District of Leipzig (Eocene) 45 12 a 53. cleats and voids formerly occupied by now decomposed plant organs such as roots (Taylor et al.2 North Bohemian Basin (Miocene) 42.7–25. Telogelinite is a precursor of collotelinite and detrogelinite turns into collodetrinite. Telogelinite and detrogelinite are of syngenetic or epigenetic origin. Eugelinite occurs also in cracks of sediments associated to coal seams (Berger.0–6. In the most cases. 1959)..4 20.

Org. 1996. S..4.8. 1998. M.Y. The new inertinite classification (ICCP System 1994). Geneva. 107 – 125. Ein Humusgel-Gang in den Liegendsanden der Hauptflfzgruppe in der Grube Frimmersdorf (Tagebau-Sqd). Jacob. 4. 173 – 207. Ges. China University of Mining and Technology Press.T.J. Ren.. 1 – 100... Hatcher. Thanks also go to Gerd Bieg at Ruhranalytik (now DSK) lab in Herne for the use of the photographic equipment and support. Des Ge ´ ologie et Recherches des Combustibles. I. Geochem. Geochem. P.). to 2nd ed. 1.. H.J.. Cameron.8.A..3. W.. O humodetrinite from the Fortuna Garsdorf mine. Atlas for Coal Petrography of China. W. 652 – 691. Infrared spectra of Gaines.. Weathering During drying. H. Fischer. New Trends in Coal Science. Ge ´ ol. ICCP.L. 615 – 618. 1981. Given. 1009 – 1021.J. Z. 459 – 471. 1970.J.D. ECE. The geology and coal petrology of a Miocene lignite profile at Meliadi Mine. NATO Scientific Affairs Division. 11.K. 2001. Jacob. T. Jacob. A. Int. Rheinl. Neuere Ergebnisse der Braunkohlen-und Torfpetrographie. 1984. J.. Chemische Untersuchungen von Braunkohlen aus Vorkommen in der DDR XVI. pp. Jacob.. 3. L. 65 – 73. 82. Sy ´ et al. Moscow.. 1991. Braunkohle 31.. Xiaofa. Luckie. J. 1992.G. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994). 1992. Jacob... 1958.. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood—I. Westfal. Org. P.G. 1959)...C. Greece. In: Scott. Kalkreuth. In: Durie. J. Babinkova. The Science of Victorian Brown Coal. Fuel 60. 1961.. Rundsch. Fuel 80. Wolf. Nomenclature des microconstituents (Maceraux) des houilles brunes de L’URSS. 53 – 72. Neue Erkenntnisse auf dem Gebiet der Luminiszenzmikroskopie fossiler Brennstoffe... Kotis. Gedanken zur Mazeralklassifikation. Papanicolaou.. Durie. Oxford.). Carbonization Gelinite shrinks strongly during coking and causes a severe reduction of coke strength (Jacob. 530 – 546. 1930. S. 49 – 55.R. 1959. 1967.A. G.. Y. B. Katrini. vol. Fragen der Brikettierung. J. Coal Geol. suppl. Kalkreuth. physical and .5. Cohen..W.. ¨ zyildoz. Beijing. Y. (Ed. H. Kokkinakis.. In: Yqrqm.. D. Coal Geol. 51 – 67. 11. Newell. Cronauer. Kuan. The Science of Victorian Brown Coal. Clifford. Braunk. 1981. 223 – 242. N. Org. Cameron. ICCP. J. Chafee. Dyrkacz. One of the authors (WP) especially wishes to thank Heather Middleton at CSIRO Petroleum and Petra David at TNO for help with the last missing references..R. 85 – 93.). Westf. Methode und Anwendung der Bestimmung des Remissionsgrades von Kohlen. The petrology of Greek brown coals.S. Johns. Hatcher. P. Diessel. Geol. J. W. pp. Inst.F. Boon. C. A 45..8. 27. 17. Geochem. References Allardice.. Hummel. H. 1932. Handbook Coal Petr. Joseph. 409 – 416. Raymond. Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems. Soc. Freiberger Forschungsh. Geochem. N. Chemical effects in gelification process and lithotype formation in Victorian brown coal.104 ´ korova I. Belau. D. Glanzkohleng7nge in der Braunkohle des Habichtwaldes... Moussial. 349 – 358. Fortschr. Humins7urereiche Braunkohlen. I. The benefication of Martin Lake Texas Lignite. 489 – 497.. R.A. Dordrecht-Boston-London. A. C. Int. 559 – 564. ICCP. Geol. Rheinl.6e Congr. 251 – 274. W. D. H. 721 pp. G. Fuel 77. H. 1991. Regional patterns of reflectance in lignites of the Ravenscrag Formation. W7rme Energ. A. (Ed. F. de Leeuw. 1984. A. Industrial implications of the properties of brown coals.H. 750 pp... R. Neuere Untersuchungen zur Frage der biochemischen Inkohlungsprozesses. 32... Koukouzas.. 11 (3). Sasketchewan. 1988. Baerken. Hock. K. 1964. R.C. 55 – 86. Freiberger Forschungsh. A. (Ed. 1965.. Fuel 71. H. Strat. Butterworth-Heinemann. Oxford.L. 17... The organic geochemistry of coal: from plant materials to coal. it degrades rapidly into fine debris.T. Dtsch. 569 – 588. Publ. The nature and origins of coal macerals. P. Int. Untersuchungen qber die Beziehungen zwischen dem petrologischen Aufbau von Weichbraunkohlen und der Brikettierbarkeit. 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