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International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85 – 106 www.elsevier.

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Classification of huminite—ICCP System 1994
´ korova I. Sy ´ a, W. Pickelb,*, K. Christanisc, M. Wolf d, G.H. Taylore, D. Floresf
a

Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, V Holes ˇ ovicka ´ ch 41, 182 09 Prague 8, Czech Republic b Coal and Organic Petrology Services Pty Ltd, 23/80 Box Road, Taren Point, NSW 2229, Australia c Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece d Mergelskull 29, 47802 Krefeld, Germany e 15 Hawkesbury Cres, Farrer Act 2607, Australia f Departamento de Geologia, Faculdade de Cie ˆ ncias do Porto, Prac ¸a de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal Accepted 28 June 2004 Available online 2 November 2004

Abstract In the new classification (ICCP System 1994), the maceral group huminite has been revised from the previous classification (ICCP, 1971. Int. Handbook Coal Petr., suppl. to 2nd ed.) to accommodate the nomenclature to changes in the other maceral groups, especially the changes in the vitrinite classification (ICCP, 1998. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994). Fuel 77, 349–358.). The vitrinite and huminite systems have been correlated so that down to the level of sub-maceral groups, the two systems can be used in parallel. At the level of macerals and for finer classifications, the analyst now has, according to the nature of the coal and the purpose of the analysis, a choice of using either of the two classification systems for huminite and vitrinite. This is in accordance with the new ISO Coal Classification that covers low rank coals as well and allows for the simultaneous use of the huminite and vitrinite nomenclature for low rank coals. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Huminite; Telohuminite; Detrohuminite; Gelohuminite; ICCP System 1994

1. Introduction The International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) is continuously revising ICCP’s classification systems for macerals. A new vitrinite classification system was published in 1998 (Fuel 77,

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: walter.pickel@organicpetrology.com (W. Pickel). 0166-5162/$ - see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.06.006

349–358, ICCP, 1998), and in 2001, the new inertinite classification system was published (Fuel 80, 459– 471, ICCP, 2001). These systems are collectively referred to as the bICCP System 1994Q. They are the result of the work of two editorial groups combined with extensive discussions and revisions of prepared drafts during several annual ICCP meetings attended by numerous international experts. This document presents the ICCP huminite classification and is also a part of the bICCP System 1994Q. The definitions of the huminite macerals have been

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´ korova I. Sy ´ et al. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106

presented, discussed and approved at annual ICCP meetings.

2. Huminite 2.1. Origin of term Term introduced by Sza ´ decky-Kardoss (1949) for a structural constituent of brown coals (now commonly termed lignites). The ICCP has used this term for a maceral group of lignites (brown coals) since 1970. Derivation: humus (L)–soil. 2.2. Related terms Vitrinite (low, medium and high rank coals; ICCP, 1998). Gelinite (Babinkova and Moussial, 1965; Belau et al., 1967). 2.3. Definition Huminite designates a group of medium grey macerals having reflectances generally between those of the associated darker liptinites and the lighter inertinites. 2.3.1. Comment The huminite group is subdivided into three maceral subgroups and six macerals; partly, the latter are subdivided in maceral types, submacerals and maceral varieties (see Table 1). The maceral subgroups are divided by structure (degree of preservation of the plant residues) and the macerals by gelification (gelohuminite excluded). Maceral varieties show differences in reflectance. The A varieties are generally lower in reflectance than the corresponding B varieties.

2.3.2. Note Huminite and its macerals are defined only for lignites/soft brown coals. For subbituminous coal, the coal of the highest rank within the low rank coal, the vitrinite nomenclature, is used. 2.4. Physical properties 2.4.1. Colour and reflectance Both depend on rank, gelification degree, botanical origin and chemical composition of the huminite macerals (Cameron, 1991; Taylor et al., 1998). The colour is dark to medium grey. Random reflectance measured in oil ranges between ~0.2 and 0.4% R r. The upper reflectance limit has been taken as the reflectance value separating low rank coal and medium rank coal in the ECE classification (1988). In general, huminite is isotropic. Anisotropy (bireflectance) occurs if remnants of cellulose are present. This phenomenon, more easily visible in transmitted light, is used for the identification of cellulose. 2.4.2. Note Huminite reflectance in peat may vary between 0.1% and 0.26% R r depending on the type of the submacerals (Cohen et al., 1987) (Table 2). 2.4.3. Fluorescence Fluorescence colour and intensity are dependent on the rank, the degree of degradation, humification and bituminization of the huminite. The colour ranges from yellow-brown to red-brown and is most marked in textinite A and ulminite A (Taylor et al., 1998). 2.4.4. Polishing hardness Huminite is soft and shows no relief in relation to the accompanying liptinite and inertinite macerals (except corpohuminite). 2.5. Chemical properties

Table 1 The new Huminite system, huminite terminology bold, the corresponding vitrinite in normal font Maceral group Huminite/vitrinite Maceral subgroup Telohuminite/Telovitrinite Detrohuminite/Detrovitrinite Gelohuminite/Gelovitrinite

Huminite is characterized by relatively high oxygen and low carbon contents compared with the macerals of the other two groups (Cronauer et al., 1992; Stankiewicz et al., 1996). The elemental composition is rank dependent, carbon increases and oxygen decreases during the coalification process

2. Chafee et al. 1992. Russel and Barron.. 1998) and ranges as follows: 2. The source of the dark A varieties of the huminite macerals is conifer wood or may be related to hydrogen-rich conditions in the peat (Sykes et al.. The atomic ratios H/C and O/C and the amount of methoxyl groups decrease as a result of biochemical processes. Derivation Huminite is derived from parenchymatous and woody tissues and the cellular contents of roots. b. the catechol-like rings are dominant whereas the major components in vitrinite may be phenol-like structures (Hatcher and Clifford. Also.7.8. cell structures are preserved and visible to varying extents. Diessel. 1984). For further information. it is preserved if the organic and mineral matter is deposited rapidly. 1997). Mastalerz and Bustin. 1981. Huminite is the precursor of vitrinite..´ korova I. 2. Practical importance The degree of humification and especially gelification of huminite in coal affects most industrial processes such as briquetting. 1982. losing their acid character and forming alkali-insoluble bhuminsQ (Given and Dyrkacz. 1984.6. Teichmu ¨ller.. 1988. huminite is the main component.. . Stankiewicz et al. Sy ´ et al. 1993a. Taylor et al. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Table 2 Subdivision of the maceral group huminite Maceral group HUMINTE Maceral subgroup TELOHUMINITE Maceral Textinite Ulminite DETROHUMINITE GELOHUMINITE Attrinite Densinite Corpohuminite Gelinite Maceral type 87 Maceral variety A (dark) B (light) A (dark) B (light) Phlobaphinite Pseudophlobaphinite Levigelinite Porigelinite (van Krevelen.5. Taylor et al. Taylor et al. it is evident that amongst the chemical structures in lignitic wood and huminite. The newly formed humic acids condense step by step to larger molecules. gasification and combustion (for further information. In most Tertiary coals. 1993. The macerals of the huminite group are defined by the different structures resulting from different sources and pathways of transformation within the mires. It also occurs in peat. 1996).. carbonization. Depending on the process of decomposition.. 1989.. barks and leaves composed of cellulose. Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen 60–77% 4–6% 18–28% The primary organic components of the humic matter cellulose. 1998). highly phenolic signatures of the lignin-derived material within the huminite with only minor content of aliphatic groups are typical for huminite (Chafee et al.. see corresponding macerals).1. It may exceed 90%. In humic clays. lignin and tannin. 1998). 2. the degree of humification and gelification and the rank. 1984. 1994. liquefaction. while aromaticity and the content of carboxyl groups increase (Hatcher et al. Note From NMR and Py-GC-MS data. Occurrence Huminite occurs in coal seams formed as a result of anaerobic preservation of lignocelluloses material in mires. Liu et al. lignin and tannin. see corresponding macerals. alter during humification and peatification and disappear in the course of the ortholignite stage. stems. soils (horizon A) and sediments.

3. 1998). Related terms Humoses Pflanzengewebe (Teichmu ¨ller. This structure is visible to variable extent in reflected white light.6. 1965) Telovitrinit (Jacob. 1956) Xylinit (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. 4. 4. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 The reflectance of the B-varieties of the telohuminite macerals is a reliable rank parameter. originating from herbaceous and arborescent plants. Chemical properties See Huminite. possibly low pH conditions within forested peatlands or forested wet raised bogs (Diessel. 3.1. If these maceral varieties are not present (which may be possible in sediments other than coal). (1965). nicht vergelt (Sontag et al. whereas angiospermous wood and the non-lignified tissues of herbaceous plants are structurally more or less decomposed (Diessel. Most of the telohuminite in Tertiary lignites originate from coniferous wood. Derivation: humus (L)–soil. Textinite and Ulminite. Xylinite and Phyllinite (Svoboda and Benes 1955) . Note Huminite that shows cellular structures only after etching is called telogelinite. 1992). Related terms Textinit. 3. Definition Telohuminite is a subgroup of the maceral group huminite comprising macerals with preserved intact botanical cell structures visible to various extents and isolated cells showing reflectance between the darker liptinite and the lighter inertinite macerals.8. Telohuminite 3. Practical importance See Textinite and Ulminite. 3.. Physical properties See Textinite and Ulminite. Occurrence See Textinite and Ulminite.3.1.4. 3. 3. Sy ´ et al.2. Telohuminite is the precursor of telovitrinite in medium rank and high rank coals. 1956) Xylinit-Gruppe (Jacob. In the same sense used by Sontag et al...88 ´ korova I.3. Textinite 4. In 1970 the ICCP restricted the term to a maceral consisting of ungelified cell wall material. stems. 1965) Pflanzengewebe (Teichmu ¨ller. 1970) Humotelinite (ICCP. 1971) 3. 1950) Humophyt (Svoboda. barks and leaves chemically composed of cellulose and lignin. Waltz. Derivation: textum (L)–tissue. Comment The subgroup comprises the macerals textinite and ulminite distinguishable by their different degree of gelification. 3. Textinite shows separate cell walls. ulminite consists of clearly recognizable but compressed and gelified cell walls.2. Origin of term Term proposed to the ICCP in 1963 to describe huminitic cell wall material in lignites (brown coals). Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP 1970 to denote huminite with cell structure. 3. densinite and corpohuminite may be used with restriction (Taylor et al.2. Large amounts of telohuminite indicate a high degree of cell tissue preservation under wet. tela (L)–tissue.7.1. 1949.3. 1992). Derivation The macerals of this subgroup derive from the parenchymatous and woody tissues of roots. 3.5. 1950) ˇ. 1961) Textinit (Sontag et al.

whose width does not exceed the thickness of the cell wall. intracellular spaces).g. Textinite (T) with corpohuminite (C) in Miocene lignite coal. Definition Textinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite.. the cell walls may be deformed or torn. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 89 Xylinite (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. field width: 0. 1. 4. porigelinite. consisting of ungelified cell walls either of isolated but intact individual cells or within tissues (see (Figs. 1962. are included. its ungelified cell walls are called textinite. In tissues. Valendis). 1961. Germany. Czech Republic. Single fissures. subgroup telohuminite. Most common fillings are resinite. Basic seam. As long as the tissue is recognizable. 2. micrinite. field width: 0. Fig. 1965) 4.3. they greatly resemble the original cell structures. ˇ ev. corpohuminite. Sy ´ et al. lamination. Textinite (T) and corpohuminite (C) in lignite. Primary internal cell wall structures may be preserved (e.´ korova I. Isolated cells have to be more or less intact. Jacob.24 mm.17 mm. Reflected white light. 1962) Minc Gelinito-Telinit (Timofeev et al. Kuhfeldschichten (Lower Cretaceous. or filled with other macerals or with minerals. clay minerals and carbonates. 1949. 4 and 10). . Timofeev and Bogoliubova. The cell lumens are mainly open. together with fusinite. 1. Fig. Comment Size and form of the cells may vary.1. 2.3. Central part of the North Bohemian Basin.. Reflected white light mode.

textinite A may contain remarkable portions of cellulose. 4. Practical importance Textinite consists of humic substances as well as of the remains of cellulose and lignin. Cell wall material of fungal tissues does not belong to textinite. ash-free) 25–45% (dry. the inner low reflecting waxy layer of root tissues and cork is not part of textinite (see Suberinite). Marcoduria inopinata ). 4. 4. resins. Significant differences exist between the chemical composition of textinite A and textinite B. The reflectance of textinite A is very low and close to the reflectance of the accompanying liptinite macerals. textinite A shows strong anisotropy.1.4. tannin. Sy ´ et al. 4. Following Jacob (1956.90 ´ korova I.2.2. It originates from both herbaceous and arborescent plants. textinite is isotropic. Large amounts of textinite indicate a high degree of cell– tissue preservation under relatively dry. Occurrence The amount of textinite in lignite depends largely on the degree of gelification and rank.b). produced by remnants of cellulose.8. Fluorescence In general. Colour and reflectance Textinite A is dark grey. 1992). Textinite B shows rank dependent reflectances of ~ 0. Su ¨ ss (1959) published chemical data for xylites of different humification stages of Textinite influences the technical properties of lignites markedly only where present in large amounts.5% 4. Physical properties 4. Textinite A. Polishing hardness Textinite is soft. commonly with a brownish tinge and abundantly with orange to redbrown internal reflections. waxes and tannin. irrespective of its reflectance. The chemical composition of a tissue affects its preservation. In textinite A. In polished blocks.4.2–0. 4.4.6. the fluorescence varies from dirty yellow to brown. is chemically more resistant than textinite B. Su ¨ ss (1959).7. Derivation Textinite derives from the cell walls of parenchymatous and woody tissues of roots. 4. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Two varieties of textinite exist: textinite A has a lower reflectance than textinite B. Textinite B results from angiosperm wood and herbaceous plants. it does not show any relief. rarely also from leaves. stems and barks. 4. Textinite B is grey and does not show internal reflections. the main properties are: Preparation With regard to its elasticity. impregnated with resins. In reflected light. Textinite is the precursor of telinite in medium rank coals.3. Textinite A in most cases is formed from gymnosperm wood (Taxodiaceae. the fluorescence intensity is higher than in textinite B. etc. composed of cellulose and lignin. Textinite occurs more or less in all lignites to various extents. Therefore.g.4. in Tertiary lignites textinite A is generally more common than textinite B. but is lower than that of the accompanying liptinite macerals.5. In transmitted light.4% R r. ash-free) 22–26% (moisture-free) 0. Cupressaceae) or from special roots (e. Sontag and Su ¨ ss (1969a. Unge- . textinite rich coal is difficult to grind. Note Ungelified huminitic cell wall relics that do not match the textinite definition belong to attrinite.2 to ~ 0. 1959). possibly low pH conditions within forested peatlands or forested raised bogs (Diessel. Also. Whereas textinite B in general is composed only of humins and remains of lignin.3. Chemical properties which the so-called bmummified woodQ and the cellulose containing xylite corresponds microscopically to textinite: Humic substances Cellulose Tar Ash 4–20% (dry.

1..1. Weathering Textinite is relatively resistant against weathering.Textinit.3. By oxidation. briquettes produced from low rank lignites containing textinite are of high strength. Related terms Textinit. bark. In general. structures within the cell walls are not visible. Definition Ulminite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite. 5. 1961) 5. textinite produces high yields of tar (1520%) and gas. Stratigraphy The texture of textinite can be used for the identification of certain plants and therefore for stratigraphic correlations. Two varieties of ulminite can be distinguished on the basis of reflectance.2. subgroup telohuminite that denotes the cell walls of more or less gelified tissues (see Figs. 3 and 7).. . in Central Europe. humic compounds are formed. ulminite B is light (further details see below). Comment Size and shape of the cell walls can vary. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 91 lified wood composed of textinite. wood. Gelinito-Posttelinit (Timofeev et al. 5. Extraction Textinite produces low yields of bitumen. the typical bast tissues of palms do not occur earlier than Late Miocene. The abovementioned shrinkage fissures should not be confused with fissures that result from weathering. The combustion of such big grains is incomplete (Allardice and Newell. Derivation: ulmus (L)—elm.3. As a result of the gelification process. Origin of term Term used at first by Stopes (1935) for bcompletely gelified plant materialQ in coals. The char yield is rank-dependent (Su ¨ ss et al. breaks to fibrous pieces making sieving difficult. Ulminite 5. 1962) ˇ emc ˇ uz ˇ nikov and Xylovitrain. Note The optical appearance of ulminite B is similar to that of telinite in medium rank coals. In tissues. Sy ´ et al. vergelt (Sontag et al. Therefore.2.3. Shrinkage fissures may occur. ulmin is a decomposition product of diseased elms (Vauquellin. Combustion Textinite-rich low-rank lignites with poor milling properties can create problems. 1982). 5. Kuan et al. textinite is concentrated in the coarse size fractions. Carbonization Due to its high content of cellulose and/or resin. 5. The cell lumens are closed. 1965) ˇ ev. Liquefaction Texinite’s reactivity is lower than that of gelified huminite macerals (Shibaoka. 1991). Schneider (1984) gave an excellent survey of various textinites in Tertiary lignites (brown coals) of Lusatia (Germany) according to their origin from roots. In 1970 introduced by the ICCP to denote more or less gelified plant tissues in which cell structures still can be seen. Ulminite A is dark. (1996) show textinite textures from Chinese Tertiary coals. that result in gelinite with low contents or without cellulose. For example.´ korova I. and leaves. halb vergelt. 1968). the cell walls are packed together. Strukturvitrain (Z Ginsburg. 1960) Xylo-Dopplerinit (Jacob. 1797). the cell walls are markedly swollen and therefore thicker than those of textinite of the same plant origin. Vitrinit (Minc Gelinito-Telinit. Due to homogenisation.. Dependent on the amount of elongated fibrous grains (see Preparation) nozzles may be blocked. Briquetting Textinite increases the briquetting properties of low rank lignites with moisture contents of 7055%. 1964) Xylovitrinit.

Woods in which the cell walls are impregnated with resin. The reflectance of ulminite B is rank dependent.4. brown to dark brown. Ulminite A shows higher fluorescence intensity than ulminite B. wax. Fluorescence Dirty-yellow. Colour and reflectance Ulminite A is dark gray. tannin. Also decomposition products of cellulose may be present. Derivation Ulminite derives from the parenchymatous and woody tissues of roots. 5.g. 5. Polishing hardness Ulminite is soft.3. humates and traces of lignin and cellulose (Su ¨ ss. composed of cellulose and lignin. of herbaceous and arborescent plants. (1998).1. 3.4.5. According to Taylor et al. Valendis). 5. possibly low pH conditions within forested peatlands or forested wet raised bogs (Diessel. barks and leaves. Physical properties 5. field width: 0. ulminite A derived from gymnosperms is more abundant in Tertiary lignites than ulminite B derived from various angiosperms. Ulminite is the precursor of collotelinite in medium and high rank coals.4. Ulminite (U). the relatively low reflectance of ulminite A must be related to resin or wax impregnations in the cell walls. the biochemical gelification process is accelerated in waterlogged environments by the supply of specific ions (e. etc. 1992).6.2. Therefore. According to Taylor et al. Na. It shows no relief against other macerals. ulminite B gray.7. Reflected white light mode. gelified cell walls arefree of cellulose.22 mm. Chemical properties Ulminite consists of humic acids.92 ´ korova I. rarely with a brownish cast. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Fig. The elemental composition is rank dependent (see Huminite). 5. Ulminite A may show weak orange internal reflections.2 and ~0. Fluorescence intensity decreases within increasing gelification and the rank. it varies between ~0. Sy ´ et al.4. 5. Occurrence Ulminite is formed primarily in peat and soil under wet conditions and in limnic sediments (see Deriva- . Large amounts of ulminite indicate a high degree of cell–tissue preservation under wet. Therefore. are very resistant against chemical and structural decomposition. The relation between ulminite A and B does not mirror the primary vegetation of a mire. ulminite A of the same coal shows a significant lower reflectance. Germany. stems. Kuhfeldschichten (Lower Cretaceous. Ca).4% R r. 5. (1998). 1959).

5. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP in 1970 to denote a subgroup of huminite.4.1.3. 1965. Differences in the texture of both macerals may be determined in more detail by transmission electron microscopy (Taylor et al. Detrohuminite 6.8. in part Desminite (Minc Humodetrinite (ICCP. 6. Lignites derived from wet forested peatlands show higher amounts of ulminite than those derived under dry conditions with a high rate of decay.8. Rascher et al.´ korova I.8. It correlates well with other rank-sensitive parameters such as the calorific value or the carbon content. ulminite has a better grindability than textinite.2. Carbonization Ulminite produces lower yields of tar and gas and higher amounts of char than textinite. 1964) Attrinite (Minc ˇ ev.. all humic fragments that cannot be grouped with certainty to other huminite macerals are called detrohuminite even when their size isN10 Am. detritus (L)–a product of disintegration. Practical importance The technological properties of ulminite depend on its degree of gelification (Jacob.1. 6.8. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 93 tion) but also by rank. 6. Detrohuminite at early stage of coalification is derived from demethylated dehydrated lignin monomers intermixed with lipids such as polymethylene . 6. Chemical properties 6.8. The briquettes have a low strength. Sontag and Su ¨ ss. 5. 5. 1959. Rank determination The reflectance of ulminite B is a reliable rank parameter.4. 1981). 1983. Sy ´ et al. 1956) Attrite and desmite (Waltz. 1969a..2.5. enrichment in ulminite reflects both. 5. Therefore. Derivation: humus (L)–soil.. 1984). The chemical composition of detrohuminite is more or less independent on its degree of gelification (Gaines et al. detrohuminite is subdivided into the macerals attrinite (not gelified) and densinite (gelified). Sontag et al. 1930) Reflected light microscopy Detrinit-Gruppe (Jacob. Depending on its gelification. It is enriched in the finer size fractions. 5. Related terms Transmitted light microscopy: Translucent humic degradation matter (Thiessen..1. 1971) Detrohuminite (Kalkreuth et al. Definition Detrohuminite is a subgroup of the maceral group huminite consisting of fine humic fragments (b10 Am) of a reflectance between those of liptinite and inertinite macerals...5. 1960) ˇ ev. that may be cemented by amorphous humic matter. Hydrogenation Ulminite reacts at lower temperatures compared with textinite (Kurtz. 1983).3. 1965. Cameron et al. Comment Detrohuminite consists in coals of loosely packed cell fragments or other humic plant debris. 1982. 5. The amount of ulminite increases also at the cost of textinite with increasing rank. Svoboda.8.3. palaeoenvironmental conditions and advanced coalification. Physical properties See Attrinite and Densinite. In sediments. 1964). 1981).b. 1961) Detrinit (Mala ´ n. 1991). Preparation Since gelification increases the hardness of huminite macerals and drying promotes the formation of fissures. Briquetting High contents of ulminite prevent the development of links between coal grains during binderless briquetting. in part 6.

Derivation: attritus (L)–matter pulverized by attrition. Herbaceous plants and angiosperm woods disintegrate more readily than lignified cell walls (Teichmu ¨ller.8 65.7 49. Diessel. In pale coals it may exceed 90%. Derivation 6. esters and triterpenoids of both higher plant and microbial origin (Taylor et al. 1982). 1981).8. 7. Detrohuminite is the precursor of detrovitrinite in medium and high rank coals. 1892) Unvergelter Detrinit (Sontag et al. e. hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.9 1.9 Lusatia (Attrinite) ca.5 1.3 28.6 5.1 1. 1981. Related terms Nachterstedt (Densinite) 47.6 0. %) Ash (% mf) H (% maf) O (% maf) N (% maf) S (% maf) Tar (% maf) Bitumen (% maf) Cellulose (% maf) Humic acids (% maf) 59. subgroup detrohuminite. ungelified amorphous huminitic substances (Figs. krautige oder humose Grundmasse (Hock. Definition Attrinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite..0 57.7 28.94 ´ korova I.3. its content isN50% (von der Brelie and Wolf.9 28.1 0. N95% Detrohuminite Detritus (Wiesner. Durie. Originally..6.1. Practical importance Dependent on the gelification degree. detrohuminite-rich coal is suitable for a range of industrial processes. consisting of a mixture of fine huminitic particles (b10 Am) of different shape and spongy to porous. 7. 1950) Detrinitische. In general.6 64.2. Occurrence Detrohuminite is the main constituent of Tertiary lignites. Taylor et al. Infrared spectra are characterized by absorption due to aliphatic and aromatic structures. 1981). The ICCP has used the term since 1970 for a maceral of the huminite group that consists of fine humic particles that form the non-gelified bgroundmassbof (brown) coals..8 4. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 long chain acids..9 28.g. 6. (for details see Attrinite and Densinite). Origin of term Term suggested by Babinkova and Moussial (1965) following a proposal of the Association of Coal Petrographers of the USSR in 1963.g. production of organic fluids and gases by low temperature carbonization (Kurtz.9 4.7.. attrinitische. Gelinito-Praecollinit (Timofeev and Bogoliubova.7 1. 4 and 5). 1989. 1982). 1998) but also conifers contribute to detrohuminite (von der Brelie and Wolf. 1991).1 6. 1964) 7. 1981). briquetting. .8 4.4 Table 3 Chemical composition of detrohuminite in lignites Rhine valley N90% Detrohuminite (Attrinite) Moisture (as mined. 60 63. Sy ´ et al. 7. 1992. Attrinite The macerals of this group derive from herbaceous and arborescent plants through the strong decay of parenchymatous and woody tissues of stems and leaves.1 43.5 12. Some chemical features of three low rank lignites composed mainly of detrohuminite are shown in Table 3. Densinite may contain a larger proportion of chemical structures that are more or less identical with those in the original plant material (e.6 24.9 58. the term denoted gelified particles in lignites. 1932) Gelinito-Posttelinit. phenyl propane) (Gaines et al.8 n. 1965) Humoser Detritus (Teichmu ¨ller. coke production.7 0.8 4.d. The degraded lignin structure is closer to that derived from present day gymnosperms than that from angiosperms as confirmed by the presence of guaiacyl structural units (Taylor et al. 6.

Note also textinite fragment (T) and funginite (F). ˇ ka seam. 7.1. Attrinite (A) and densinite (D). Fig. Sokolov Basin. 4. Czech Republic.´ korova I. Attrinite (A) with suberinite (S) and phlobaphinite (P). field width: 0. 7. Sy ´ et al. Reflected white light mode. The spongy texture of attrinite is the reason that attrinite appears darker in reflected light microscopy than other huminite macerals.24 mm. The formless flocculated humic colloids act as a kind of cement. Note Elongated cell wall fragments that may exceed 10 Am in length belong also to attrinite if they are less thanb10 Am wide.25 mm. 5. Comment The various detrital constituents of attrinite are intimately mixed but only loosely packed and therefore well differentiated from each other. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 95 Fig. field width: 0.3. Miocene lignite from the Anez Reflected white light mode. By the very small size of the attrinitic components it is difficult to differentiate between the detrital and the amorphous matter. .3.2.

7. dependent on the composition of attrinite. 7. to a lesser extent. Colour and reflectance Colour dark grey. Derivation The detrital part of attrinite is the result of strong structural decomposition of parenchymatous and woody tissues of stems and leaves of herbaceous and arborescent plants. 1981).2.5.8. The shapeless. 8. In the course of coalification. 7. In hard brown coals (MetaLignite) it is much less abundant.1. Practical importance Attrinite-rich lignites are a suitable for a whole range of industrial processes.4. dependent on pore density.8. The intensity may increase where the attrinite is derived from the litter of gymnosperm tissues. Origin of term Attrinite is a major component of soft brown coals (Ortho-Lignite) and may be present at levels exceeding 90%. 7.3 mm. 7. 7.1. . dense and fissurefree coke of high quality. it is weak brown.7. Teichmu ¨ ller and Thomson (1958). High-temperature carbonization results in firm.0–6. Sy ´ et al. originally composed mainly of cellulose and. Weathering Attrinite oxidizes relatively easily. The coke occurs in coarse lumps. Preparation Attrinite is very well grindable and appears predominantly in particle sizes of 2. 7. although densinite also occurs along with attrinite in the same seam depending on the depositional conditions (see Occurrence). 7.8.8. The following statements result from papers of Jacob (1956). porous part of attrinite consists of flocculated humic colloids. Polishing Hardness Attrinite is soft.3. Briquetting Attrinite has very good briquetting properties if it is not mixed with too much liptinite. It forms under aerobic conditions. Combustion Attrinite ignites at relatively low temperatures during combustion. The chemical properties vary depending upon the plant sources (for further information.2.8. attrinite passes into densinite by gelification and collodetrinite by vitrinitization. Attrinite occurs also in subaquatically deposited plant litter (Schneider. Fluorescence In general.1. compact. 7. Chemical properties Attrinite consists of humic substances and remains of cellulose and lignin. it does not show any relief. 7. Rammler et al. 1986). Bitumen extraction Relatively poor in extractable bitumen.4. True reflectance may not be measurable if the single particles are too small in order to cover the whole measuring field.6.b) and Durie (1991). Sontag and Su ¨ ss (1969a.4.96 ´ korova I. High amounts of attrinite indicate relatively dry conditions at the mire surface followed by aerobic decomposition Term introduced by the ICCP in 1970 to denote a maceral of the huminite group that consists of gelified small particles cemented by amorphous humic matter. Occurrence of the humic parts of plants (von der Brelie and Wolf. Physical properties 7.3. (1967). Densinite 8.4.6. lignin. see Detrohuminite).8. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 7. Derivation: densus (L)–dense.8. 7.5. Carbonization Low-temperature carbonization results in relatively low contents of tar and coke. 7.4.

24 mm. 8. 8. Miocene lignite. Jacob. 1950) Gelinito-Posttelinit.2. 1930) Vergelter Detrinit (Sontag et al.´ korova I. 8. more rarely. Physical properties 8. 1964) the discrete huminitic particles and the binding amorphous huminitic matter. Gelinito-Praecollinit (Timofeev and Bogoliubova.4% R r.3.3. 6–8). Chemical properties Densinite consists of humic substances and possibly also lignin remains (see also Detrohuminite). 8. Reflected white light mode. Fluorescence None or only very weak dark brown fluorescence.4. field width: 0. phlobaphinite (P) and suberinite (S).3.5. Definition Densinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite (subgroup detrohuminite) that consists of fine huminitic particles (b10 Am) of various shape cemented by amorphous dense huminitic substances so that in polished blocks this maceral shows a more or less homogenous and.4. Derivation Densinite is formed by two different processes: (1) extensive decay of parenchymatous and woody tissues of stems and leaves composed of cellulose and lignin followed by biochemical gelification under wet con- 8.2.1. more or less homogenous huminitic groundmass binding other coal components.6.1. Polishing hardness Densinite is soft and does not show strong relief in polished blocks.4. The reflectance is rank dependent and varies between ~0. If ulminite B is not present. Detritus (Wiesner. Sy ´ et al. Colour and reflectance The colour is grey.).4. Related terms Transmitted light: Reflected light: Translucent humic degradation matter (Thiessen. Detrinit (Svoboda and Benes 1961.3. 8. 1892) Humoser Detritus (Teichm ¨ ller. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 97 8. in part.2. Comment Densinite is a gelified. Basic seam. a mottled surface. . 6. 1965) ˇ .2 and ~0.. The area that shows the dense surface should be N15 Am2. central part of the Bohemian Basin. Densinite (D). 8. densinite can be used for rank determination (Figs. Note The surface of densinite may be irregular as a result of slight differences in the polishing hardness between Fig. 8. 1955.

Fig. Corpohuminite (C.. Preparation Densinite has a good grindability.8. Basic seam. (2) Geochemical gelification of former attrinite during increasing coalification. .g. Miocene. densinite (D) and funginite. Czech Republic. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Fig. 1969a. Densinite (D) and ulminite (U) in Miocene lignite. Reflected white light mode. reflected white light. Main seam (Hauptfloez). Practical importance 8. 8. central part of the North Bohemian Basin. 8. Sy ´ et al. Rheinische Braunkohle. field width: 0. 8. In lignites of higher rank.20 mm. 7.1. ditions during the peat stage.16 mm.b). field width: 0.8. densinite is a major constituent and forms the bgroundmassb in which other macerals (e.98 ´ korova I. Occurrence Densinite occurs in high amounts in Tertiary low rank lignites originated from peats that accumulated under wet conditions. It is enriched in the fine and intermediate size fraction (b4 mm) (Sontag and Su ¨ ss. Reflected white light mode.7. liptinite) are embedded. phlobaphinite).

Gelohuminite 9. 10. Derivation Humocollinite has more than one origin. 1971) 9. Podgajni. 1950) 10. 1965) Dopplerinit-Gruppe (Jacob. subgroup gelohuminite. 8. Sontag et al. 1952) Gelinit (Mala ´ n. 1943.. It may derive from intensely gelified plant tissues and humic detritus. A third derivation is from primary phlobaphenic cell fillings formed by the plants themselves (mainly in gymnosperm wood). Definition Corpohuminite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite.3.4.2. Chemical properties See Corpohuminite and Gelinite. 1949) Corpogelinit (Teichmu ¨ ller. 8. homogenous substances of huminite reflectance. See Corpohuminite and Gelinite.1. Comment Gelohuminte consists of the macerals corpohuminite and gelinite. 9. Briquetting Densinite has poor briquetting properties because it is inelastic and does not interact with other coal grains during binderless briquetting.3. Extraction and liquefaction Densinite is relatively poor in bitumen extracts but it reacts relatively easily with oxygen (Shibaoka. It may also derive from precipitated humic colloids.3. Practical importance See Corpohuminite and Gelinite. humus (L)–soil. the latter describes secondary homogenous infillings of formerly empty spaces.2. Sy ´ et al. Corpohuminite 10. 9.4. 9. consisting of homogenous.2. Carbonization Densinite has no coking properties (Sontag and Su ¨ ss. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP to denote a maceral subgroup comprising macerals originating from amorphous humic matter.8. Related terms Melanoresinit (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. 1946) Phlobaphinit (Sza ´ decky-Kardoss. 10. The former describes discrete bodies representing mainly the primary phlobaphenitic infillings of cell lumens occurring in situ or isolated.7. Origin of term Term introduced by the ICCP in 1970 for a maceral of the huminite group that consists of structureless bodies of humic cell fillings. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 99 8. discrete bodies of former humic cell . 9. Physical properties See Corpohuminite and Gelinite.8. 1982). Occurrence 9.8. stiffening humus (L)–soil. It improves the conversion of coal and can even become plastic. the structure of which is not recognizable in reflected light.6.8.3. Definition Gelohuminte denotes a maceral subgroup within the maceral group huminite that comprises grey coloured structureless. 1957. 9.´ korova I. Derivation: gelu. 1964) Humocollinite (ICCP.1. 1969a.5. Teichmu ¨ller. 9.b).1. Derivation: corpus (L)– body. us (L)–frost. 9. 1965. Related terms Gel (Schochardt.

see Ulminite and Densinite). This is an important factor to note where the reflectance of corpohuminite is used for rank determination. Sy ´ et al. Hungary (Soo ´ s.. The reflectance of corpohuminite embedded in textinite A or ulminite A (originated from Taxodiaceae or Cupressaceae) may be lower than that of the ulminite B or in densinite from the same coal. 1998).. 1. deposited in cortical cells. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 fillings occurring in situ together with textinite or ulminite or isolated within attrinite. In . Vickers hardness 60–80 kp/mm2 (Taylor et al. Isolated humic bodies that do not show their former position within a tissue should be called corpohuminite in general because their definite derivation is not now recognizable. Chemical composition Corpohuminite originating from primary cell excretions. Soo ´ s. i. Apart from this exception. Fluorescence Corpohuminite does not fluoresce.3. If the grain does not have contact with the enclosing cell walls (the grain lies isolated within the cell) the submaceral phlobaphinite is present.6% Corpohuminite (pseudo-phlobaphinite) formed by the precipitation of humic colloids consists of humins. Corpohuminite is chemically and structurally very resistant.8% 5.1.1% 64. 10. Sza ´ decky-Kardoss.3. 10. 1963.2.100 ´ korova I. 2 and 8). Colour and reflectance Grey to light grey. Corpohuminite is found within an attrinitic or densinitic groundmass or is embedded in sediments shows positive relief.e. Comment Depending on the shape of the cells that were filled with the excretions and on the orientation of the grains at the polished surface of a block the shape of corpohuminite bodies may be spherical. ellagic acid) and possesses phenolic properties (Taylor et al.g. Corpohuminite is insoluble in polar. consists of mixtures of aromatic compounds that vary in composition (e. The tannins convert to phlobaphenes.2. oxidation or condensation products insoluble in water (catechol. 1998). Note Secondary humic cell fillings may also be grouped to gelinite. In cases where the cell lumen is completely filled with amorphous humic substances and the boundary between the cell wall and the infilling is vague pseudo-phlobaphinite is present. In Tertiary coals. 10. gallic acid.5. oval or elongated. Polishing hardness Variable depending on the origin of the corpohuminite. Phlobaphinite occurs in Taxodiaceae. 10. Physical properties 10. Corpohuminite is illustrated in (Figs.3. Also the size of the bodies depends on the original cell size (Mader. tannin acid.4.6. 10. 1952). 1963): Ash (moisture-free) Carbon (daf) Hydrogen (daf) Oxygen (daf) 3. Both are only distinguishable within tissues of textinite or ulminite..4. soft without relief in polished blocks. the reflectance of corpohuminite is slightly higher than that of the corresponding ulminite B or densinite (for reflectance data. The differences in reflectance between corpohuminite of different origins on the one hand and corpohuminite and other huminite macerals on the other hand decrease with increasing rank.1. Most of the corpohuminite bodies are compact but they may be also cavernous. 10.4. In general. 1958. that have high molecular weights.. Two submacerals can be distinguished: Phlobaphenite describes the coalification product of primary cell excretions and Pseudo-Phlobaphenite the secondary cell fillings that originate from humic colloids.4. and non-polar solvents and in hot hydroxide.6% 29. 10. 10. Derivation Phlobaphinite originates from tannin-rich cell excretions. Analysis of corpohuminite from the lignite of Perecesba ´ nya. the size of spherical bodies ranges from about 10 to 40 Am and this of elongated bodies from 20 to 170 Am.4. in parenchymatous or medullary-ray cells and especially in cork tissues. densinite or clay. phlobatannin). tannins.4.

5.8.´ korova I. Systematic investigations are lacking. 1930) Dopplerinit (Jacob. cracks and other voids (Fig. It occurs also in larger quantities in textinite or ulminite of former conifers (abundantly N10% by vol.8.1. corpohuminite may allow the identification of the former tissues. Teichmu ¨ ller. us (L)– frost.3.8.). Colour and reflectance The colour is medium to light grey. 9).4. 1964) Desminit (Minc Gelinito-Collinit (Timofeev and Bogoliubova. 1940. Related terms Gel(e) (Schochardt. Practical importance 10. compact and homogenous.2. 10. corpohuminite is found isolated.4. Porigelinite may show discrete internal orange reflections .3. Telogelinite shows cellular structures.8. After etching three different cryptomacerals can be observed. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 101 conifers with resin ducts it is less common (Soo ´ s. Facies analysis In cases where plant tissues are destroyed but the corpohuminite remains. Together with detrohuminite.7.2. where it is mixed intimately with the detrital humic matter.1. and is enriched in some layers indicating its resistance to decay (Figs.1. 1958. 10.4. 11. stiffening. Bitumen extraction Corpohuminite yields no extract. The remains of totally destroyed Pinaceae tissues are recognizable by the accumulations of phlobaphinite mixed with resinite. It may show shrinkage cracks due to dessication. 1965) 11. Briquetting With increasing amounts of corpohuminite the briquette strength is reduced. denote a maceral of the huminite group consisting of formless huminitic gels.3. Derivation: gelu. Definition Gelinite is a maceral of the maceral group huminite (subgroup gelohuminite) that appears under reflected light as homogenous structureless or porous substance of huminitic reflectance. porous or microgranular occurrence (Fig.1. Phlobaphinite probably produces pyrocatechin and acid oils. detrogelinite has an attrinitic occurrence and eugelinite shows no structure. Comment Gelinite is subdivided in two submacerals. Occurrence Corpohuminite is a regular but not very abundant compound of lignites and peats. Gelinite 11. Pseudo-phlobaphinite derives from colloidal humic solutions. 1950) Humusgel (Berger. Completely destroyed tissues of Taxodiaceae yield pure accumulations of phlobaphinite. 1963. Porigelinite has a spongy.3. It is especially abundant as cell fillings in cork and bark tissues (Soo ´ s. 1961) Huminit (Svoboda. 1964). no changes are observed up to 5508C during low-temperature carbonization. Physical properties 11. Hummel. Eugelinite fills spaces such as cell lumens. 1956) ˇ ev. 11.2. Origin of term Term introduced by Sza ´ decky-Kardoss (1949) for precipitated humic gels and adopted by the ICCP to 11. 1943. 10.8. Levigelinite is completely structureless. Carbonization Apart from shrinkage. 11. Note Porigelinite may be present also in attrinite. There it is—by the reason of that intimate mixture— part of attrinite. 10. 11. Gelinite particles of a size b10 Am are grouped with attrinite. Similar to eugelinite it occurs in a range of locations within lignites (brown coals). 1964). 6 and 8). Sy ´ et al. 10. 10).

4. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 Fig. Kuhfeldschichten (Lower Cretaceous.102 ´ korova I. 1993). Czech Republic. 10. Reflected white light mode. central part of the North Bohemian Basin.5.4. Polishing hardness Gelinite is smooth and does not show polishing relief. Germany. 11. field width: 0. If used for rank determination.3 mm. . Fluorescence Gelinite does not fluoresce. 11. (Mukhopadhyay and Hatcher. field width: 0.2. 11. Reflected white light mode.7 kg/mm2. porigelinite appears abundantly slightly darker than levigelinite of the same coal. 9.4.25 to ~0. In general. 11.24 mm. Valendis).12–22. The Fig. its reflectance is slightly higher than that of ulminite B or densinite of the same coal.40% R r.3. Due to the pores. Sy ´ et al. Vickers hardness 20. Gelinite (G). the measurements should specify that gelinite was used. Chemical properties Gelinite consists of humic acids and their salts (especially Ca and Na salts) (see Table 4).4. Porigelinite (P) and textinite (T) in Miocene lignite. Basic seam. The reflectance of levigelinite is rank dependent and increases from ~0.

There they precipitate forming a black and lustrous cover that consists of pure humic gels. Belau et al.7–1. Gelinite is enriched in limno-telmatic deposited peats (Roselt. 1967. Telogelinite is a precursor of collotelinite and detrogelinite turns into collodetrinite. In lignite open pits.0–4.8..8 61. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 103 Table 4 Chemical composition of gelinite in lignites of Germany (Jacob.3–94. 1958. Telogelinite and detrogelinite are rare in low rank lignites their amounts increase during the transition from ortho to meta lignite. 11.2 4.4 – – Lower Rhine Valley (Miocene) 70 3 47.6 1. these properties cause low briquette strength (Jacob.8 4. . Derivation Gelinite occurs both syngenetically and epigenetically.8. facies and regional conditions. Briquetting Gelinite has very bad briquetting properties.8–51. cleats and voids formerly occupied by now decomposed plant organs such as roots (Taylor et al.3 28.0–6.1..4 3.2–97.g. Syngenetic eugelinite and porigelinite may form as a humic amorphous substance excreted from cell walls directly during wet periods at the peat stage and filling former cell cavities. or may form by gelification during increasing coalification. Together with the tendency to internal and external fissuring. eugelinite under the microscope. 1967) and Czech Republic (Sykorova et al.2 North Bohemian Basin (Miocene) 42.7–1.0 3. where the working face dries out.7.0 0.8.4 20. Schro ¨ der and Teichmu ¨ ller.7 45. 1998).8 – – chemical composition is influenced by rank.6.3 65. 1986) or if the concentration of Ca ions in the water within the peat is high (e.3–28. Generally.6–65.1 0.2–5. 11. humic solutions migrate from inner parts of the seam towards its surface.2 71. 1998). when limestone surrounds the mire).2 27.5 1.1 66.3 3.9 Lusatia (Miocene) to to a 49.5 63.6 3.8–69. In peats and lignites eugelinite and porigelinite fill shrinkage cracks. 11. Eugelinite and porigelinite are the precursors of gelinite in medium and high rank coals. Occurrence Gelinite is a common but not very abundant compound of low rank lignites.7–25. Eugelinite occurs also in cracks of sediments associated to coal seams (Berger. 1998) or they fill cell cavities. In the most cases... 1958. 11.. The smooth surface of the grains prevents grain adherence during binderless briquetting..6–1.5 82. Gelinite may be also enriched in lignites originated from palaeomires in the neighbourhood of salt deposits that caused increasing Na concentration in the peat water (Taylor et al. Practical importance 11. Whether the dense eugelinite or the spongy porigelinite occurs seems to depend on the concentration of humic substances in the colloidal solution.. the gelinite content depends on facies conditions.7 5.0 0.0 3.´ korova I. 1959). Rammler et al. 1969) and in peats originating from wet grasslands (Glumiflorae facies of Schneider.2.6 21. Telogelinite and detrogelinite are of syngenetic or epigenetic origin.6 4.6 0. The fines (0–2mm) are enriched in gelinite. 1996) Parameters Bed moisture (%) Ash (%) Volatile matter (%) C (%daf) H (%daf) O (%daf) N (%daf) S (%daf) Bitumen (%) Humic acids (%) District of Leipzig (Eocene) 45 12 a 53. Preparation Gelinite is easy to grind. eugelinite and porigelinite are the precipitation products from colloidal humic solutions and fill secondary spaces. Sontag. 1964. Sy ´ et al. 1958). They may represent strongly gelified tissues or humic litter in peat that is deposited where they occur together with eugelinite (Taylor et al.

.8. Berlin-Heidelberg. vol. 1981. C. R. Dtsch. W. 349 – 358. A. Geochem. The geology and coal petrology of a Miocene lignite profile at Meliadi Mine. Boon.3. Org.J. 1971. 1998. 1964. 559 – 564. Baerken. Combustion The calorific value of gelinite is generally below the average of the whole deposit. Chemical effects in gelification process and lithotype formation in Victorian brown coal.. Zheng Wu.J.. (Ed. Weathering During drying. The Science of Victorian Brown Coal. Cameron. Geol. (Ed. 251 – 274. / International Journal of Coal Geology 62 (2005) 85–106 petrographic studies of peat deposits. Thanks also go to Gerd Bieg at Ruhranalytik (now DSK) lab in Herne for the use of the photographic equipment and support. Industrial implications of the properties of brown coals.. Int. Handbook Coal Petr.D.6e Congr. (Ed. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994).5. 1009 – 1021. Johns.. Jacob. Westfal.. Fragen der Brikettierung. J. 1988. 1991. 1997. Strat. 107 – 125.. 11.. Untersuchungen qber die Beziehungen zwischen dem petrologischen Aufbau von Weichbraunkohlen und der Brikettierbarkeit. Luckie. C. Belau. Babinkova. Org.... 3.F. Kluwer Academic Publishing. Nomenclature des microconstituents (Maceraux) des houilles brunes de L’URSS. Clifford. Regional patterns of reflectance in lignites of the Ravenscrag Formation. 409 – 416. In: Durie. Fuel 71. Fuel 60. 1932. Rheinl. ¨ zyildoz. 223 – 242. O humodetrinite from the Fortuna Garsdorf mine. 1992. 1. Atlas for Coal Petrography of China. Jacob. 489 – 497. Gedanken zur Mazeralklassifikation. Carbonization Gelinite shrinks strongly during coking and causes a severe reduction of coke strength (Jacob.8. I. Canada. Earl. Beijing. Methode und Anwendung der Bestimmung des Remissionsgrades von Kohlen.. Braunk. J. S. Papanicolaou. 1984. D. 1965.C.L.. The petrology of Greek brown coals. 49 – 55. A 45.. Neuere Ergebnisse der Braunkohlen-und Torfpetrographie. who helped with critical discussions and reviews during the process of writing and the final ICCP approval of the text. ECE. Coal Geol. P. Davis. Ges. 6. ICCP.. 1970..4. Coal and Coal-Bearing Strata: Recent Advances. 1 – 100. Z... Wolf. (Ed. Butterworth-Heinemann. NATO Scientific Affairs Division. N. Intern. Sy ´ et al. Berger. Ein Humusgel-Gang in den Liegendsanden der Hauptflfzgruppe in der Grube Frimmersdorf (Tagebau-Sqd). pp. 1988. Carbonife ´ re. Springer-Verlag. Hock. 1996. Kuan.. Fuel 77... 1984.A. ICCP. Soc. Durie. 1991.. Org. pp. Org.. Hatcher. P. 173 – 207. Methoden zur Untersuchung von Weichbraunkohlen. Y. H. A. 1958. Ge ´ ol. The new inertinite classification (ICCP System 1994). Given. Schlungbaum. Jacob. Des Ge ´ ologie et Recherches des Combustibles. Kalkreuth. Joseph. Jacob. Observations on the origin of coal in the brown coal stage..W. Fortschr. Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems. Coal Geol. pp. Fuel 80. physical and . One of the authors (WP) especially wishes to thank Heather Middleton at CSIRO Petroleum and Petra David at TNO for help with the last missing references. Chemische Untersuchungen von Braunkohlen aus Vorkommen in der DDR XVI.. Quick. 1959). Oxford. 55 – 86. 1991. J.T. 750 pp. Publ. Koukouzas. Greece.Y. H.. Cronauer.. International Codification System for Medium and High Rank Coals... 65 – 73. 1967.). Freiberger Forschungsh.A. it degrades rapidly into fine debris. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood—I. Infrared spectra of Gaines. 721 pp. Freiberger Forschungsh.C.S. G. 1981. pp. Spec. Newell. 53 – 72. 127 – 133. 27. W. Fortschr. Moussial. Ren. J. Int. P. 82. Z. New Trends in Coal Science. 85 – 93. Int. A.G. R. Moscow. 1987. China University of Mining and Technology Press.I. 1961.B.. ICCP. Chafee. Schenk. N. J. 4.R.C. T. Jacob. W.A.). J. A 429 (Leipzig). G. Geochem. 1956. Katrini.. Kokkinakis. Geneva. W.. S. In: Yqrqm.8.G. D. M. 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