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A B C D ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

148102053.xlsx.ms_office

I J K SPICE_Parameter_Calculator.xls 3/20/2010

CALCULATION OF MOSFET SPICE PARAMETERS

DR. LYNN FULLER

To use this spreadsheet change the values in the white boxes. The rest of the sheet is protected and should not be changed unless you are sure of the consequences. The calculated results are shown in the purple boxes. CONSTANTS T= 300 K Boron D0 0.76 cm2/s KT/q = 0.026 volts Boron Ea 3.46 eV ni = 1.45E+10 cm-3 Phosphorous D0 3.85 cm2/s Eo = 8.85E-14 F/cm Phosphorous Ea 3.66 eV Er si = 11.7 Er SiO2 = 3.9 Carrier Velocity Saturation occurs at ~ 5E6 to 2E7 cm/s, extracted values can be artificially 2 times higher E affinity = 4.15 volts Critical value of electric field ec of ~8E3 to 3E4 V/cm for electrons, ~2E4 to 1E5 V/cm for holes q = 1.60E-19 coul Eg = 1.124 volts INTRODUCTION This spreadsheet calculates nmos or pmos level one, three and BSIM3 SPICE parameters from details known about the process parameters, device layout and fabrication history. Level one spice parameters assume mobility is a function of total impurity concentration and temperature only. Level one uses the parameter LAMBDA for channel length modulation. Different equations are used to calculate Ids in the saturation and non-saturation regions of operation. The level three SPICE model is derived from the level one model with some additional parameters to better account for the decrease in carrier mobility for high vertical and lateral electric fields. The level three model also allows the user to account for narrow channel effects, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), and gives better sub threshold characteristics. For example the parameter LAMBDA is replaced by a more complex model using the parameter VMAX and KAPPA. The low field mobility value UO is modified for high gate electric fields with parameter THETA and modified for high lateral electric fields through the VMAX parameter. Different equations are used to calculate Ids in the saturation, non-saturation and subthreshold regions of operation. The BSM3 SPICE parameters are derived from the level one and three parameters. BSIM models have hundreds of parameters used to fully describe DC and AC deivce operation, temperature effects, noise, stress effects and more. Most of the parameters can only be determined from measured device performance. In this spreadsheet the BSIM3 parameters are derived from level one and level three parameters. All other parameters are not specified and the default values are invoked. The single equation for Ids is used that is valid in saturation, non-saturation and subthreshold regions of operation, making convergence during circuit simulation more reliable.

References:

MOSFET Modeling with SPICE, Daniel Foty, 1997, Prentice Hall, ISBN-0-13-227935-5 Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, 2nd Edition, Yannis Tsividis, 1999, McGraw-Hill, ISBN-0-07-065523-5 UTMOST III Modeling Manual-Vol.1. Ch. 5. From Silvaco International. VALUES CALCULATED FROM PROCESS PARAMETERS
Page 1

LAYOUT PARAMETERS (assume source and drain are symmetrical) L 2 um

Diffusion Constant at Temp of Well Drive

1.43E-13

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

A B C W Area of Drain/Source Perimeter of Drain/Source # squares between Contact and Channel # squares between LDD/N+ and Channel

H I J K Starting wafer doping = 1/(q umax Rho) 4.42E+14 148102053.xlsx.ms_office Well Surface Concentration= Ns = Dose / (pi D t)^0.5 1.45E+17 Well Depth = ((4DdTd/Dose) ln(Nsub(piDdTd)^0.5))^0.5 3.75 Well average doping, Nave = Dose/xj 5.33E+16 Bulk Well Majority Carrier Mobility at N=Nave 394.32 Bulk Well Minority Carrier Mobility at N=Nave 1004.52 PROCESS PARAMETERS 1=yes, 0=No Well Sheet Resistance = 1/(q((Nave))Dose) 792.50 Aluminum gate 0 Well surface mobility at Surface Doping Concentration 725.76 n+ Poly gate 1 select one Wdmax = (4 eoesi fs / q / Nave )^0.5 0.143 p+ Poly gate 0 Metal Work Function, fm 4.12 N well (pMOSFET) 0 select one Magnitude of Semiconductor Potential (Fermi - Intrinsic), fs 0.419 P well (nMOSFET) 1 Oxide Capacitance/cm2 = Cox' 2.30E-07 Vt adjust Dose (+ for Boron, - for Phos) 0.00E+00 cm-2 Metal Semi Work Function Diff, fms -0.170 Gate Oxide Thickness 150 Flat Band Voltage, VFB = -0.379 NSS 3.00E+11 cm-2 Threshold Voltage, VTO 1.33 Starting Wafer Resistivity 10 ohm-cm Threshold Adjust, DV=q Dose/2/Cox' 0.00 Well Dose 2.00E+13 cm-2 Ion Implanted Adjusted Threshold Voltage, VT 1.33 Well Drive Time 710 min Diffusion Constant at Temp of D/S Anneal 1.17E-14 Well Drive Temperature 1100 C LDD D/S Junction Depth, XJ = 0.18 LDD D/S Dose 2.50E+13 cm-2 LDD D/S average doping, Nave = Dose/xj 1.36E+18 LDD D/S Drive Time 30 min Bulk Mobility in LDD D/S at N=Nave 230.94 LDD D/S Drive Temperature 1000 C LDD D/S Sheet Resistance = 1/(q((Nave))Dose) 1082.55 Field Oxide Thickness 6000 D/S Junction Depth, XJ = 0.27 Minority Carrier Lifetime in the well 1 s D/S average doping, Nave = Dose/xj 7.52E+19 D/S Dose (N+ or P+) 2.00E+15 cm-2 Bulk Mobility in D/S at N=Nave 92.51 D/S SILISIDE (1=YES, 0=NO) 0 D/S Sheet Resistance = 1/(q((Nave))Dose) 33.78 Lateral Diffusion = LD = 0.8*Xj 0.15 Capacitance/cm2 for Field Oxide 5.75E-09 D/S Width of Space Charge Layer at Zero Bias, Xdso = 0.152 D/S Width of Space Charge Layer at Vdd, Bias Xds = 0.380 Leff = Lmask - 2*LD - 2*Xdso 1.400 MEASURED TRANSISTOR VALUES Built in Voltage for D/S pn junction 0.95 Vdd 5 volts Junction reverse bias current density, JS 3.23E-08 Magnitude of IDS at Vgs=Vds=Vdd 5.41 mAmps =I'ds Junction Capacitance for D/S at zero bias 6.80E-08 Magnitude of IDS at Vgs=Vdd, Vds=Vdsat 5.12 mAmps =Idsat Lambda, Calculated, ((Lmax/Lmin)-1)/Vdd 0.031 VTO (+ for nmos and - for pmos)) 1.1 volts Isub-min 0.001 nAmps CALCULATED SPICE PARAMETERS FROM MEASURED VALUES D/S Sheet Resistance 39.2 ohms Ueff mobility to match IDS at Vgs=Vds=Vdd 286.44 Lambda 0.03 1/volts LAMBDA measured 0.03 VT0 measured 1.1 JS = Isub-min/Area of Drain measured 1.04E-02 RSH measured 39.2 SPICE PARAMETERS FOR LEVEL ONE MODEL 1 The parameters in the yellow boxes are calculated from the other parmaters and thus should not be entered in the SPICE model Page 2

D 16 96 44 0.143 0.025

um um2 um

A 89 90 91 92 93 SPICE 94 Parameter 1 95 2 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131

B C D E F G H I J K 2 If the SPICE parameters from measured values are different than the calculated SPICE parameters you might want to use them instead. 148102053.xlsx.ms_office 3 We assume the model definition has L, W, AD, AS, PD, PS, NRS, NRD specified for calculation of some of the parameters in the yellow boxes 4 Lambda is different for every different length transistor in the level one model, so a different model is needed for each different length mosfet

Name Level VTO KP

SPICE Parameters Using Process Parameters 1 1.33 volts 2.50E-04 F/s-volt


1/2

note: most parameters use O not 0 at end of parameter name ("oh" not "zero") Schichman and Hodges Model Zero Bias Threshold Voltage, enter value if threshold adjust implant is used Transconductance Parameter, KP = U0 esi eo /Tox

4 GAMMA 9.52E-01 (volt) Bulk Threshold Parameter, GAMMA = [2q esi eo NSUB/Cox2]1/2 5 PHI 0.419 volts PHI is the semiconductor potential, Intrinsic Level to Fermi Level difference 6 LAMBDA 0.031 1/volts Channel length modulation parameter 7 RD 27.06 ohms Series Drain Resistance 8 RS 27.06 ohms Series Source Resistance 9 CBD 7.08E-14 F CBD zero bias bulk to drain junction capacitance, CBD = CJ AD + CJSW PD 10 CBS 7.08E-14 F CBD zero bias bulk to source junction capacitance, CBD = CJ AD + CJSW PD 11 IS 3.10E-18 A D/S junction leakage current 12 PB 0.95 volts PB is the junction built in voltage, PB = (KT/q)ln (NSUB/ni) + 0.56 13 CGSO 3.40E-10 F/m G-to-S overlap C (per m channel width) CGSO=Cox(mask overlap in L direction + LD) 14 CGDO 3.40E-10 F/m G-to-D overlap C (per m channel width) CGDO=Cox(mask overlap in L direction + LD) 15 CGBO 5.75E-10 Fm G-to-well overlap C (per meter channel length) CGSO=Cox(mask overlap in W direction) 16 RSH 33.78 ohms Sheet resistance of D/S 17 CJ 6.80E-04 F/m2 D/S Bottom junction capacitance/m2, 18 MJ 0.5 Junction Grading Coeficient for bottom of D/S Junction 19 CJSW 1.26E-10 F/m D/S side wall junction capacitance per meter of D/S permeter 20 MJSW 0.5 Junction Grading Coeficient for side of D/S Junction 21 JS 3.23E-08 A/m2 D/S junction leakage current 22 TOX 1.50E-08 m Gate Oxide Thickness 23 NSUB 1.45E+17 cm-3 Well Doping, Nave 24 NSS 3.00E+11 cm-2 Surface State Density as known from process knowledge 25 NFS 0 Fast Surface States, Always set to zero 26 TPG 1 +1 if gate doped opposite of channel, -1 if gate doped same as channel, 0 if gate is aluminum 27 XJ 0.18 um D/S Junction Depth 28 LD 0.15 um Lateral Diffusion of D/S into the channel arbitrarly set to 80% of XJ 29 UO 363 cm2/v-s Well surface minority carrier mobility at well surface concentration divided by two .MODEL RITSUBN1 NMOS (LEVEL=1 .MODEL RITSUBP1 PMOS (LEVEL=1 +VTO=1.0 LAMBDA= 0.031 PB=0.95 CGSO=3.4E-10 CGDO=3.4E-10 +VTO=1.0 LAMBDA= 0.05 PB=0.94 CGSO=5.08E-10 CGDO=5.08E-10 +CGBO=5.75E-10 RSH=33.8 CJ=6.8e-4 MJ=0.5 CJSW=1.26e-10 +CGBO=5.75E-10 RSH=33.7 CJ=5.01e-4 MJ=0.5 CJSW=1.38e-10 +MJSW=0.5 JS=3.23e-8 TOX=150E-10 NSUB=1.45e17 NSS=3E11 +MJSW=0.5 JS=6.43e-8 TOX=150E-10 NSUB=7.23e16 NSS=1E11 +TPG=+1 XJ=0.18U LD=0.15U UO=363) +TPG=+1 XJ=0.28U LD=0.22U UO=363) SPICE PARAMETERS FOR LEVEL THREE MODEL 1 WD is estimated to be 1/2 the field oxide thickness for a LOCOS process 2 THETA is calculated from Ueff = UO/(1+THETA(Vgs-Vt)) and Ids=Ueff (Cox'/2) (W/L)(Vgs-Vt)^2(1+ lVds) using measured Ids and Vt values Page 3

132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175

B C D E F G H I J K DELTA is calculated = q*Nave*(Xds)^2 / (eo esi (2 fs)) 148102053.xlsx.ms_office KAPPA is calculated = [(qNsub/(2eoer))((1-I/I')(L-2LD-Xdso-Xds))^2)/(Vds-Vdsat)]^0.5 VMAX is calculated from effective mobility times electric field at Vgs=Vds=Vdsat, where E=Vdsat/Leff ETA is calculated from the ratio of charge in the channel at Vds=Vdd to charge in the channel at Vds=zero note: Parameters in Red come directly from SPICE Level One Parameter Name Value Units note: most parameters use O not 0 at end of parameter name ("oh" not "zero") 1 Level 3 2 TPG 1 Type of Gate Material 3 TOX 1.50E-08 m Gate Oxide Thickness 4 LD 2.95E-07 m Channel Length Reduction from Drawn Value 5 WD 3.00E-07 m Channel Width Reduction From Drawn Value 6 UO 726 cm2/V-s Zero Bias Low Field Mobility 7 VTO 1.33 V Measured threshold voltage for long wide devices with zero substrate bias 8 THETA 0.393 1/V Gate Field Induced Mobility Reduction Parameter 9 RS 27.06 ohm In level 3 only lumped resistance is available, each different width FET has a different model 10 RD 27.06 ohm In level 3 only lumped resistance is available, each different width FET has a different model 11 DELTA 2.27 Narrow Channel Effect on the Threshold Voltage 12 NSUB 1.45E+17 cm-3 Effective Substrate Doping 13 XJ 1.84E-07 m Drain/Source junction depth 14 VMAX 1.02E+07 m/s Maximum Carrier Velocity (extraction can gvie 1.2 to 2 times expected saturation velocity) 15 ETA 0.837 DIBL Coefficient 16 KAPPA 0.509 1/V Channel Length Modulation Effect on the Drain Current 17 NFS 3.00E+11 cm-2 Surface State Density 18 CGSO 3.40E-10 F/m Zero Bias Gate-Source Capacitance 19 CGDO 3.40E-10 F/m Zero Bias Gate-Drain Capacitance 20 CGBO 5.75E-10 F/m Zero Bias Gate-Substrate Capacitance 21 PB 0.95 V PB is the junction built in voltage, PB = (KT/q)ln (NSUB/ni) + 0.56 22 XQC 0.40 Charge Partitioning Parameter (from Ward and Dutton) Adifferent model is needed for each transistor of different length or width. Example models shown below.

3 4 5 6

*.MODEL RITSUBN3 NMOS (LEVEL=3 TPG=1 TOX=1.5E-8 LD=2.95E-7 WD=3.00E-7 *+U0= 726 VTO=0.5 THETA=0.393 RS=27 RD=27 DELTA=2.27 NSUB=1.45E17 *+XJ=1.84E-7 VMAX=1.10E7 ETA=0.837 KAPPA=0.509 NFS=3E11 *+CGSO=3.4E-10 CGDO=3.48E-10 CGBO=5.75E-10 PB=0.95 XQC=0.4) *.MODEL RITSUBP3 PMOS (LEVEL=3 TPG=1 TOX=1.5E-8 LD=3.61E-7 WD=3E-7 +UO=377 VT0=-0.93 THETA=0.32 RS=33.7 RD=33.7 DELTA=2.35 NSUB=7.12E16 +XJ=2.26E-7 VMAX=3.84E6 ETA=0.897 KAPPA=4.481 NFS=3E11 +CGSO=4.15E-10 CGD0=4.15E-10 CGBO=5.75E-10 PB=0.94 XQC=0.40) SPICE PARAMETERS FOR BISIM3 VER 3.1, LEVEL 49 BSIM3V3 is the industry standard, physics-based, deep submicron MOSFET SPICE model for digital and analog circuit design from the Device Group at the University of California at Berkeley. Level 8 is the origional Berkeley version, Level 81 is a slightly modified Silvaco version, Level 49 and 53 are Hspice versions. Page 4

A 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219

F G H I J K note: most parameters use 0 not O at end of parameter name ("zero" not "oh") 148102053.xlsx.ms_office note: Parameters in Red come directly from SPICE Level One and/or Three

Parameter Control Control Control Control Process Process Process Process Process Process DC DC DC DC DC DC Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor Diode/Resistor AC AC AC

Name Level VERSION MOBMOD CAPMOD TOX XJ NCH NSUB XT NSS VTH0 U0 WINT LINT PCLM NGATE RSH JS JSW CJ MJ PB CJSW MJSW PBSW CGS0 CGD0 CGB0

Value 49 3.1 1 2 1.50E-08 1.84E-07 1.45E+17 5.33E+16 1.43E-07 3.00E+11 1.33 725.76 2.0E-07 1.84E-07 5.00 5.00E+20 1082.55 3.23E-08 3.23E-08 6.80E-04 0.5 0.95 1.26E-10 0.5 0.95 3.40E-10 3.40E-10 5.75E-10

Units Level 8, 81, 49 or 53 3.0, 3.1 or 3.2 versions, default is the newest version Mobility model selector (1,2,3,4 selects slightly different equations for calculation of Ueff) Capacitance model selector (1,2,3,4 selects slightly different equations for gate Ceff) Gate oxide thickness Junction Depth Well surface doping concentration Well doping concentration below the surface Distance into well where surface concentration is valid, Default = 1.5E-7m Surface State Density, Level 3 NFS or Level 1 NSS treated as equal Threshold voltage, Long, Wide Device, Zero Substrate Bias = VTO in level 3 Low Field Mobility Isolation Reduction of Channel Width (from process knowledge) Source/Drain Underdiffusion of Gate (set equal to XJ) Channel Length Modulation Parameter, default = 1.3 (select to fit Ids vs. Vds family) Gate Doping (5E20 if Diffusion Doped, Dose/Poly Thickness if Ion Implanted with D/S) Drain/Source sheet Resistance Bottom junction saturation current per unit area side wall junction saturation current per unit length Bottom Junction Capacitance per unit area at zero bias Bottom Junction Capacitance Grading Coeficient PB is the junction built in voltage, PB = (KT/q)ln (NSUB/ni) + 0.56 Side Wall Junction Capacitance per meter of length at zero bias Side Wall Junction Capacitance Grading Coeficient PBSW is the side wall junction built in voltage, PB = (KT/q)ln (NSUB/ni) + 0.56 Zero Bias Gate-Source Capacitance per meter of gate width Zero Bias Gate-Drain Capacitance per meter of gate width Zero Bias Gate-Substrate Capacitance per meter of gate length

m m cm-3 cm-3 m cm-2 V cm2/v-s m m m-3 ohm/sq A/m2 A/m F/m2 V F/m V F/m F/m F/m

.MODEL RITSUBN49 NMOS (LEVEL=49 VERSION=3.1 CAPMOD=2 MOBMOD=1 +TOX=1.5E-8 XJ=1.84E-7 NCH=1.45E17 NSUB=5.33E16 XT=8.66E-8 NSS=3E11 PCLM=5 +VTH0=0.5 U0= 926 WINT=2.0E-7 LINT=1.84E-7 +NGATE=5E20 +RSH=1082 JS=3.23E-8 JSW=3.23E-8 CJ=6.8E-4 MJ=0.5 PB=0.95 Page 5

A B C D 220 +CJSW=1.26E-10 MJSW=0.5 PBSW=0.95 221 +CGS0=3.4E-10 CGD0=3.4E-10 CGB0=5.75E-10) 222 223 224 225 226 227 LEVEL49 228 VT0=0.5 229 UO=1082 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 LEVEL 1 243 VTO=0.5 244 UO=363 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263

148102053.xlsx.ms_office

Measured

LEVEL3 VTO=0.5 UO=725

Measured

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264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299

A LEVEL 49

148102053.xlsx.ms_office

LEVEL 1 LEVEL 3

.MODEL RITSUBP49 PMOS (LEVEL=49 VERSION=3.1 CAPMOD=2 MOBMOD=1 +TOX=1.5E-8 XJ=2.26E-7 NCH=7.12E16 NSUB=3.16E16 XT=8.66E-8 NSS=3E11 PCLM=5 +XWREF= 2.0E-7 XLREF=3.61E-7 VTH0=-1.22 U0= 376.72 WINT=2.0E-7 LINT=2.26E-7 +NGATE=5E20 +RSH=1347 JS=3.51E-8 JSW=3.51E-8 CJ=5.28E-4 MJ=0.5 PB=0.94 +CJSW=1.19E-10 MJSW=0.5 PBSW=0.94 +CGS0=4.5E-10 CGD0=4.5E-10 CGB0=5.75E-10)

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L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 OCESS PARAMETERS 42 43 44 cm2/s

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L 45 cm-3 46 cm-3 47 um 48 cm-3 49 cm2/v-s 50 cm2/v-s 51 ohms 52 cm2/V-s 53 um 54 volts 55 volts 56 F/cm2 57 volts 58 volts 59 volts 60 volts 61 volts 62 cm2/s 63 um 64 cm-3 65 cm2/v-s 66 ohms 67 um 68 cm-3 69 cm2/v-s 70 ohms 71 m 72 F/cm2 73 m 74 m 75 m 76 volts 77 A/m2 78 F/cm2 79 1/volt 80 MEASURED 81 VALUES 82 cm2/v-s 83 1/volts 84 volts 85 A/m2 86 ohms 87 88

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L 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 148102053.xlsx.ms_office

98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 f gate is aluminum 120 121 122 123 124 0 CGDO=5.08E-10 125 126 e16 NSS=1E11 127 128 129 130 131

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L 148102053.xlsx.ms_office

132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 s a different model 146 s a different model 147 148 149 150 turation velocity) 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 spice versions. 174 175

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176 177 178 179 180 calculation of Ueff) 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 anted with 194 D/S) 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219

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L 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 148102053.xlsx.ms_office

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L 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 148102053.xlsx.ms_office

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