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Adverbs Spelling -LY

A- SPELLING RULES FOR ADDING -LY


Adverbs are normally formed by adding -LY to the end of an adjective. For example: Adjective bad complete normal surprising special nice polite beautiful rare Adverb badly completely normally surprisingly specially nicely politely beautifully rarely

1) Adjectives ending in ic When the adjective ends in IC, the syllable AL is usually added before the LY ending. For example: Adjective dramatic scientific specific enthusiastic Adverb dramatically scientifically specifically enthusiastically

Exception: public publicly 2) Adjectives ending in LE * When the adjective ends in LE preceded by a consonant, the final E is usually changed to Y, to form the ly ending. For example: Adjective favorable humble simple idle subtle noticeable Adverb favorably humbly simply idly subtly noticeably

* When the adjective ends in le preceded by a vowel, in most cases, LY is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example: Adjective agile sole Exception: whole wholly Adverb agilely solely

3) Adjectives ending in LL When the adjective ends in LL, only Y is added. For example: Adjective dull full shrill Adverb dully fully shrilly

4) Adjectives ending in UE When the adjective ends in UE, the final E is usually omitted before the ending LY is added. For example: Adjective due true Adverb duly truly

5) Adjectives ending in Y * When the adjective ends in Y preceded by a consonant, the Y is usually changed to I before the ending LY is added. For example: Adjective busy easy happy angry crazy Adverb busily easily happily angrily crazily

Exceptions: shy and sly, LY is simply added to the adjective: Adjective shy sly Adverb shyly slyly

* When the adjective ends in Y preceded by a vowel, in most cases, LY is simply added to the adjective. For example: Adjective coy grey Adverb coyly greyly

Exception: gay, Y is changed to I before the ending LY is added: gay - gaily

B- IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES: The following table gives examples of adverbs of manner, location, time and frequency which have the same forms as the corresponding adjectives.
Adjective fast hard little loud fast hard little loud/loudly Adverb of Manner

much straight

much straight

Adjective far high low near wide

Adverb of location far high low near wide

Adjective early first late long

Adverb of time early first late long

Adjective daily monthly weekly yearly

Adverb of frequency daily monthly weekly yearly

N.B: It should also be noted that there are several adjectives ending in ly which have no corresponding adverbs: friendly * likely * lively * lonely * silly * ugly When it is desired to use one of these words to modify a verb, an adverb phrase of manner may be used. In the following examples, the adverb phrases are underlined. e.g. He behaved in a friendly manner. They acted in a silly way. Adverbs With and Without ly Endings The following table gives examples of pairs of adverbs which are closely related, but which have different meanings. Adverb hard high late near wide Meaning with effort opposite of opposite of opposite of opposite of Adverb hardly highly lately nearly widely Meaning scarcely very; very well recently almost commonly

low early far narrow

The meanings of these adverbs are illustrated in the following examples. e.g. I worked hard. I have hardly enough time to finish. He threw the ball high into the air. He is highly successful in what he does. The class began late. The weather has been cold lately. I held my breath as the squirrel crept near to get the nuts. I have nearly finished reading the book. I opened the door wide.

That theory is widely believed.