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Buddha

Dharma

Sangha

Japanese Religion

Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Prophesized to be the most powerful of all kings or a teacher for the whole world. King Shuddhodhana preferred the world-conqueror. Built a paradise where Siddharth was isolated. Best of everything; food, teachers, entertainment Fell in love; married Yashodhara; son Rahul.

Buddha

Dharma

Sangha

Japanese Religion

Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Wanted to see the world. Shuddhodhana cleansed the city; Channa accompanied Siddharth. Saw something awful! An old man. Saw something awful! A sick man. Saw something awful! A dead man.

Buddha

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Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Siddharth couldnt stop thinking of the old, the sick, the dead. Saw men who looked harmonious. Sdhus, Channa informed him. Seeking the meaning of life; seeking to get past the suering.

Buddha

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Sdhu

Sadhu Varanasi by Pierre-Emmanuel Boiton (cc by-sa-3.0) http://j.mp/T2L8Oy

Buddha

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Sdhus

Three saddhus at Kathmandu Durbar Squareby Markus Koljonen (cc by-sa-3.0) http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/File:Three_saddhus_at_Kathmandu_Durbar_Square.jpg

Buddha

Dharma

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Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Realizes he must get out, become a sramana. Leaves the palace at night. Leaves hear and clothing; becomes a sanyasin. Goes to all large educational institutiones. Masters all classical schools of philosophy. Ends up a strict ascetic in the forest together with ve disciples.

Buddha

Dharma

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Japanese Religion

Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Ascetic Bodhisatta Gotama with the Group of Five, photo of wall painting by Sacca (public domain) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ascetic_Bodhisatta_Gotama_with_the_Group_of_Five.jpg

Buddha

Dharma

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Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Buddha, photo of painting by YashiWong (cc by-sa-3.0) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buddha_00014.JPG

Buddha

Dharma

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Japanese Religion

Life of the Buddha


Siddharth Gautam

Realizes asceticism isnt the answer. Leaves the ve disciples. Tries to wash up, is taken by the river. Crawls ashore at Gaya, lies down under a tree. The girl Sujata gives him food. Siddharth decides to sit by the tree until he understands the source of suering. Mara tries to lure him with family; with his own daughters Lust, Pleasure and Passion. Eventually Buddha realizes the four noble truths.

Buddha

Dharma

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Life of the Buddha


Gautama Buddha

Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Victory Over Mara, from Sanskrit Astasahasrika Prajpramit Stra, 700-1100CE (Nalanda, Bihar, India) via Asia Society (public domain) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Astasahasrika_Prajnaparamita_Victory_Over_Mara.jpeg

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Dharmachakra

Dharma

An early Buddhist symbol is the wheel. Commonly represented with eight spokes; then symbol for the Eight-fold Path. The Wheel of Dharm(a) or The Wheel of the Law..

Based on Buddha-Footprint, by PHG (public domain) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buddha-Footprint.jpeg

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Akusala-mla
Nibbna literally means to cool by blowing out. Whats cooled, are the hot kleshas (mental hindrances).
The three poisons; trivisa (Mahyan). The three unhealthy roots; akusala-mla (Theravda).

Not included due to copyright.

The cycle of Dependent Origination. Wall painting from the monastery of Likir, Ladakh. (Photo by Martin Brauen.) In The World of Buddhism by Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich (ed.) (Thames & Hudson, London: 2007), pp29. (all rights reserved)

Buddha

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Akusala-mla
The three poisons: passion hatred attachment aversion rag dvesa rooster snake Three positive roots: non-greed non-hate delusion ignorance moha pig wisdom

Not included due to copyright.

The cycle of Dependent Origination. Wall painting from the monastery of Likir, Ladakh. (Photo by Martin Brauen.) In The World of Buddhism by H. Bechert and R. Gombrich (ed.) (Thames & Hudson, London: 2007), pp29. (all rights reserved)

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The Four Noble Truths

Dharma

The Four Noble Truths


1 2 3 4

There is suering.

The cause of suering is the thirst for pleasure. To stop suering, the thirst for pleasure must be quenched. The thirst for pleasure can be quenched by following the Eight-fold Path.

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The Eight-fold Path

Dharma

Sun Dial Sun Temple, photo by Chaitanya.krishnan (cc by-sa-3.0) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sun_dial_-_Sun_Temple.jpg

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The Eight-fold Path

Dharma

Buddha

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The Eight-fold Path

Dharma

1 2

Right View Right Intention

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The Eight-fold Path

Dharma

3 4 5

Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood

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The Eight-fold Path

Dharma

6 7 8

Right Eort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration

Buddha

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The Eight-fold Path

Dharma

Buddha

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Japanese Religion

Buddha

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Sangha

Bhavacakra - Wheel of Life (Tibetan), photo by erik.w.davis http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-4015156204 (cc by-nc-nd-2.0)

Japanese Religion

Prattyasamutpda

Not included due to copyright.

The cycle of Dependent Origination. Wall painting from the monastery of Likir, Ladakh. Photo by Martin Brauen. (all rights reserved) In The World of Buddhism by H. Bechert and R. Gombrich (ed.) (Thames & Hudson, London: 2007), pp29.

Buddha

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Prattyasamutpda

Not included due to copyright.

The cycle of Dependent Origination. Wall painting from the monastery of Likir, Ladakh. Photo by Martin Brauen. (all rights reserved) In The World of Buddhism by H. Bechert and R. Gombrich (ed.) (Thames & Hudson, London: 2007), pp29.

Buddha

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Prattyasamutpda

Buddha

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Japanese Religion

6 domains of Kmaloka

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Cosmology
Three realms: Kmaloka World of the senses. Rpaloka World of forms. Arupaloka World of formlessness. All realms consists of separate parts. Kmaloka consists of six domains:

Less pleasant: ghosts, animals, hells. More pleasant: humans, gods, asuras. These can in turn consist of dierent layers. In 400CE a view had developed, containing 31 possible births in Kmaloka.

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Cosmology

All six domains of Kmaloka are temporary. All including the gods are ruled by karma and samsara. The world of forms and formlessness (i) are inhabited by devas ; (ii) can be reached through meditation.

Siddhartha Gautamas early shramana -teachers could reach to the second-highest and highest spheres of Arupaloka.

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Prattyasamutpda
12 Nidnas

Buddha

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Prattyasamutpda
12 Nidnas

Co-dependent origination.

12 links that together form sasra


Each step leads to the next. Break any chain, and youre free!

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Prattyasamutpda
12 Nidnas

12 links that together form sasra


Each step leads to the next. AB
If 1 then always 2. If 7 then always 8.

Break any chain, and be free! A B

Remove 1 and 2 wont occur. Remove 7 and 8 wont occur.

Buddha

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Prattyasamutpda
12 Nidnas
1 2

Avidya ignorance. Samskara formations (mental). Thought patterns. Vijnana consciousness. Nma-rpa name och form. Sad-yatana six senses (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, thoughts). Sparsa contact.
7

(consciousness + sense-form + object.) Vedan feeling (good/bad/neutral). Trishna desire. Updan to attach, cling to. Bhava to become. Jti birth. Jar-marana old age and death.

3 4

8 9

10 11 12

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Prattyasamutpda
1. Ignorance 2. Formations 3. Consciousness 4. Name and form 5. Six senses The current composed of 6. Contact 7. Feeling 8. Desire 9. Attachment Results of the now 10. Becoming past future 11. Birth 12. Old age and Death

now

Buddha

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Paths of Karma and Dharma


Two dierent levels of practicing Buddhism.

Path of Karma (laity)


Earning merit (punya) through good deeds.

Path of Dharma (sangha)


Follow the vinaya (monastic code). Higher philosophies and spiritual practices. Both groups take refuge in the three jewels.

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Rules of the Laymen (5) and Monks (10) Dasasila


Panchasila Ahimsa, non-violence. Not to lie. Not to steal. Not to use substances which cause headlessness. No sensual misconduct. Not to eat at improper hours. Not to dance, sing not to seduce. Not to decorate oneself not to seduce. Not to have a large, soft bed. Not to handle gold or silver.

To the right: additional rules, followed by monks, always, and by laymen on special occasions. There are 227253 rules in total for bhikus, 290354 for bhikus.

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Merits and virtues

Laity

Five Merits
1 2

Faith in the three jewels. Sila, following the ve precepts (panchasila). Listening to the preaching of Dharma. Dana, giving; helping others. Wisdom, practicing the Dharma. Four Virtues
1 2 3 4

Dana (giving) Loving speech Benecial acts Working together

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Goals and deeds

Laity

Four desired things


1 2 3 4

Four good deeds for dana


1 2 3

Wealth through legal means Good reputation Long life Birth in heaven

Family; friends. Safety from worldly dangers. Oerings on behalf of family, friends, gods and ghosts. Supporting worthy religious persons.

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Sangha
Theravada

Most of Theravada is found at Sri Lanka, east India, Thailand, parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. The individuals own eort is greatly emphasized.

The individual does everything. Has to do everything. But theres the refuge of the three jewels. Sometimes, you can even hear of divine powers within the sangha.

Aniconic, early on but there are images. Sometimes its said that only a monk can attain enlightenment, but it should rather be seen that its relatively easier to follow the eight-fold path for a bhiku/bhiku. Its more dicult but possible! living in the world.

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Sangha
Mahayana

The concept of boddhisatva is of great importance. Emphasizes everyones ability to achieve Nirvana.

There are boddhisattvas in Theravada as well. But they arent focused on in the same extent as in Mahayana.

Were all connected in dharmakaya, in Buddh(a)s eternal being. Sometimes you hear of extatic descriptions of Nirvana, as opposed to Theravad(a)s negative depictions. These are misunderstandings.

The same Nirvana in both, which cant be put in words. Some heavenlike descriptions are actually about, for instance, Amithabas Pure Land but that is just a pre-stage to Nirvana, another realm, not Nirvana itself.

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Japanese Religion
A diverse unity

Japanese religion is a concept. The entity Japanese religion consists of several, dierent religions:
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Folkreligion Shinto Buddhism Daoism Konfucianism

These form a unity in Japan. The various traditions have had an impact on each other both before and after entering Japan. In Kyoto, there are about 3 000 Buddhist temples, and 1 500 Shinto shrines. The religions live in symbiosis. In Japan, theyve come to complement each other.

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Japanese Religion
A diverse unity

Common Traits

Man, the divine, and nature on the same level Not a hierarchical order between the three. The importance of family If the family isnt well, then neither is the individual. (As below, so above.) Focus on purication, rites and amulets A direct import from India.

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Japanese Religion
A diverse unity

Common Traits

Local festivals Villages and neighbourhoods meet the divine in their own way. Religion is a part of everyday life Even though it might be dicult to discern for a Westerner. Its there. Pervading everything. The connection between religion and nation The nation being protected by the belief and belief supporting the nation.

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Daoism

Summarized in one word: harmony. Laozi, 600BCE. Old master. Dao the way.

To achieve harmony. When everything is in balance, anything is possible.

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Daoism
Many dierent schools and traditions. Easy to pick and choose. Ancestors; divination; excorcism; immortality; wealth. Action through non-action. (Eortless doing.) Simplicity. Spontaneity. Harmony between micro and macro; the individual and the cosmos. Compassion; moderation; humility (three treasures).

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Confucianism
Philosophy on the social order. Confucius (551478BCE).

Guidelines

Ren Obligation of altruism towards others in the community. Yi Obligation of righteousness; to do whats good. Li Obligation to act according to the norms of the community.

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Confucianism

Few would consider themselves confucian. But confucianism has been a great inuence. Humanism.

Man makes himself. By his own eort, man can be(come) other; better. One must be the ruler of oneself. Basic necessity for accomplishing anything. All should strive to be the perfect human. Saint + scholar + gentleman.

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Japanese Religion
History

Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism all came to Japan via China. Later, there was direct contact with Indian Buddhists. Commonly, the route went through Korea. Buddhism has been in Japan since ca. 500CE.
First followed by the court, later by the people. With Buddhism came writing.

Before Buddhisms entry, Shinto had not been organized. But as a result of Buddhisms arrival, Shinto had to develop a larger degree of order.

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History

The Ainu

The rst people of Japan? 800BCE. Farming of rice increases. The Bear Hunt. Burial customs. Fertility rites.

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Shinto

Predates Buddhism, but is formed as a result of Buddhisms entry into Japan. Kami is a central term. It is an hierophany, a manifestation of the divine.
The concept of Shinto wasnt there before there hadnt been any need.

A divine presence. Can be a place, an animal, a man anything which manifests the holy. In Shinto, one looks for, appreciates, and lives with kami. Kami is everywhere. Man, the divine and nature are one.

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Shinto

The earliest writings are Kojiki and Nihongi.

The Emperial family are at the top of a hierarchy.

Written after the entry of Buddhism. Chinese, Daoistic cosmology. Myth of Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess, coming to earth and the emperial familys descent from her.

The priesthood are middle-hands between the emperor and the people.
Makes sure rituals are performed. They are hierophants they bring the people into the presence of the holy. They help people nd nature, nd the sacred, nd kami.

The rites are their responsibility. Maintaining the presence of kami.

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Buddhism

Buddhism came to Japan somewhere around 400600CE, from Korea. Gautam Buddh was declared a kami early on. The Japanese quickly adopted Buddhist rites of burial and commemoration. (Which Buddhism in turn had inherited from Hinduism.) Mantras against illness and the like became popular. Buddhism became the state-religion in about 710CE.

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Japanese Religion
Buddhism

During the Kamakura-period (11851333) Buddhism became more widely popular. Three new, Buddhist movements: Jodo, Nichiren and Zen. Jodo Pure land. Amida, having compassion for everyone. Devotion is at the centre and nembutso, a repetitive chant of the name of Amida. Nichiren More academic Buddhism. Lotus Sutra. Criticized Jodo of being too simple. Enlightenment demands eort but Amida is the path. Zen Enlightenment through meditation. During a lecture, Buddha didnt talk. He held up a white lotus-ower. All disciples waited for words except Kashyap, who smiled.