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Industrial Relations

Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society. Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labors and harmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labor) and employers (management). Concept of Industrial Relations: The term Industrial Relations comprises of two terms: Industry and Relations. Industry refers to any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged. By relations we mean the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.. The term industrial relations explains the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship. Definitions: The term industrial relations has been variously defined. J.T. Dunlop defines industrial relations as the complex interrelations among managers, workers and agencies of the governments. According to Dale Yoder industrial relations is the process of management dealing with one or more unions with a view to negotiate and subsequently administer collective bargaining agreement or labour contract. Concept of Industrial Relations is evolved from various disciplines like social sciences, humanities, behavioral sciences and law etc. features of Industrial Relations involve: 1. Industrial Relations cannot emerge in vacuum. Industrial relations is an outcome of employment relationships in industrial establishments, it requires existence of labour and management as well as government for relationships to exist. 2. Industrial Relations is characterized by both conflict and co-operation. Study of IR targets on attitudes, relationships, practices and procedures developed in order to resolve or minimize conflict. 3. Industrial Relations create various rules and regulations to maintain peace and harmony in the industry. 4. There are four main aspects of Industrial Relations. a. Labour relations b. Employer and employee relations c. Union and management relations d. Organization and community relations 5. Industrial Relations include the field of studies like technological, Economical, Social and Political aspects of Industries. 6. Labour and management cannot operate in isolation as they are part of larger system.

Main objectives of Industrial Relations 1. Main objective of Industrial relation is to improve economic conditions of workers in the present scenario of industrial management and political government. 2. Give states control over industries in order to regulate production and Industrial relation. 3. To avoid Industrial Conflicts and develop harmonious relations. 4. To raise productivity to a higher level. 5. To reduce strikes, lockouts and gheros by providing better wages and improved living conditions and fringe benefits to the workers. 6. Encouraging the sense of ownership among workers for Industries. 7. To enhance government control over units and plants that are running under losses or where production has to be regulated in public interest. 8. Improved Industrial Relation will protect the interest of labour and well as management.
n industrial relations system consists of the whole gamut of relationships between employees and employees and employers which are managed by the means of conflict and cooperation. A sound industrial relations system is one in which relationships between management and employees (and their representatives) on the one hand, and between them and the State on the other, are more harmonious and cooperative than conflictual and creates an environment conducive to economic efficiency and the motivation, productivity and development of the employee and generates employee loyalty and mutual trust.

Actors in the IR system: Three main parties are directly involved in industrial relations: Employers: Employers possess certain rights vis--vis labors. They have the right to hire and fire them. Management can also affect workers interests by exercising their right to relocate, close or merge the factory or to introduce technological changes. Employees: Workers seek to improve the terms and conditions of their employment. They exchange views with management and voice their grievances. They also want to share decision making powers of management. Workers generally unite to form unions against the management and get support from these unions. Government: The central and state government influences and regulates industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements, awards of court ad the like. It also includes third parties and labor and tribunal courts.

SCOPE: The concept of industrial relations has a very wide meaning and connotation. In the narrow sense, it means that the employer, employee relationship confines itself to the relationship that emerges out of the day to day association of the management and the labor. In its wider sense, industrial relations include the relationship between an employee and an employer in the course of the running of an industry and may project it to spheres, which may transgress to the areas of quality control, marketing, price fixation and disposition of profits among others. The scope or industrial relations is quite vast. The main issues involved here include the following:

1. Collective bargaining

2. Machinery for settlement of industrial disputes

3. Standing orders

4. Workers participation in management

5. Unfair labor practices