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CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

0.4

gu
0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 6

v
Eect of diusion on PDF shape: solution to Eq. (12.29) for Dt = 0, 0.02, 0.2, 1. The dashed line is the Gaussian with the same mean (0) and variance (3) as the PDF at Dt = 1.
Figure 12.1:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

1.0

gu

0.5

0.0 3
Figure 12.2:

Solutions (Eq. 12.34) to Eq.(12.32) for t/TL = 0, 1 2 , 1.

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

0.8

gu
0.6 t 0.4

0.2

0.0 4
Figure 12.3:

PDF gu(v ; t) evolving according to the simplied Langevin model, Eq. (12.36). The PDF is shown at times at which the standard deviations are 1, 0.99, 0.9, 0.75 and 0.5. (The constant C0 is taken to be 2.1.)

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

U*(t)

1 0 -1 1 0 -1 1 0 -1 1 0 -1 1 0 -1

2 t/TL

Sample paths of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process generated by the Langevin equation, Eq. (12.89)
Figure 12.6:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

1.0

(s)
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5

s/TL
Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation function. Line, Langevin model (s) = exp(s/TL); solid symbols, experimental data of Sato and Yamamoto (1987) R = 46, R = 66; open symbols, DNS data of Yeung and Pope (1989), R = 90.
Figure 12.7:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

(a) Y X +( t , Y )

(b) Y +( t , x) x

t0
Figure 12.9:

Sketches of forward (a) and backward (b) uid particle trajectories (on dierent realizations of the turbulent ow). (a) Forward trajectoriesuid particle paths originating at Y at time t0. (b) Backward trajectoriesuid particle paths that reach x at time t.

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

101

slope 1/2

X uTL
100

10

-1

slope 1

10-1

100

101

102

t/TL
Standard deviation X of dispersion from a point source given by the Langevin model (Eq. 12.159).
Figure 12.10:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

(a)
X*(t) uT L

2.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0 0.0

t/TL
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

(b)
X (t) uT L
*

40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0


0 20 40 60 80

t/TL
100

Samples of uid particle paths given by the Langevin model, shown for (a) moderate times (b) long times. The dashed lines show X (t).
Figure 12.11:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

Grid

x0

xw

U Source wire y x y=0

(x,y) M x

Sketch of a thermal line source experiment, showing a heated wire downstream of a turbulence generating grid.
Figure 12.12:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

y L0
100

x0.34 w

10-1

xw

x0.5 w 10-2 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101

xw/x0
Figure 12.13:

Thermal wake thickness Y (normalized by the turbulence lengthscale L0) as a function of the distance xw downstream of the wire (normalized by the distance from the grid to the wire x 0). Line, Langevin model Eq. (12.168); symbols, experimental data of Warhaft (1984), x0/M = 20 (), 52 ( ), 60 ( ).

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

*(t)

0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

t/

Figure 12.14:

Sample paths of the lognormal stochastic model for turbulent frequency, Eq. (12.181).

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

4.0
< v >/< v >
3 2 3/2

20.0
< v >/< v >
4 2 2

2.0 0.0 -2.0 -4.0 -1.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 -2.0 -4.0 -1.0

15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 -1.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 -1.0

-0.5
3

0.0
2 3/2

0.5

-0.5
4

0.0
2 2

0.5

1.0

< u >/< u >

< u >/< u >

-0.5

0.0

0.5

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

Proles of skewness and atness of the axial (u) and lateral (v ) velocities in the self-similar plane mixing layer. Lines, calculations by Minier and Pozorski (1995) based on the lognormal/rened Langevin model of Pope (1991a); symbols, experimental data of Wygnanski and Fiedler (1970) () and of Champagne et al. (1976) ( ). The abscissa is a normalized cross-stream coordinate. (From Minier and Pozorski (1995).)
Figure 12.15:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

*(t)

2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

t/

Sample paths of the gamma-distribution model for turbulent frequency, Eq. (12.191).
Figure 12.16:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

1.2

f()
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2

Figure 12.17:

Stationary PDFs of turbulent frequency given by the lognormal model (dashed line) and the gamma-distribution model (solid line).

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

* 0

101

100

10-1

10-2

10

-3

10-4 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

Scatter plot of turbulence frequency (normalized by at = 0) against normalized lateral distance in the self-similar temporal shear layer. The dashed line is the unconditional mean, . The solid line is the conditional mean, , Eq. (12.193). (From Van Slooten Jayesh, and Pope (1998).)
Figure 12.18:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

y UR V R UR

yp

VI

UI

yp

UI
Incident
Figure 12.19:

x
Reflected

Incident and reected particle velocities for wall functions imposed at y = yp.

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

k u2
4

0 0 100 200 + 300 400

Turbulent kinetic energy prole (in wall units) for fully developed channel ow at Re = 13,750. Symbols, DNS data of Kim et al. (1987); line, velocity-frequency joint PDF calculation using wall functions (from Dreeben and Pope 1997b).
Figure 12.20:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

0.008

cf
0.006

0.004

0.002 3 10

104

105

Re
2 ) against Reynolds U Skin friction coecient cf w /( 1 0 2 number (Re = 2U / ) for channel ow: symbols, experimental data compiled by Dean (1978); solid line, velocity-frequency joint PDF calculations using wall functions (Dreeben and Pope 1997a); dashed line, near-wall joint PDF calculations using elliptic relaxation (Section 12.7.2, Dreeben and Pope 1998).
Figure 12.21:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

0.4

+ 0.3

+ yp 0.2

0.1

0.0 0.00 0.02 0.04 + 0.06 0.08

td
Figure 12.22:

t+ u

Distance Y +(t+) of a particle from the wall (in wall units) as a function of time: sample path of reected Brownian motion, + , there is a down-crossing at Eq. (12.293). For the given level yp + t+ d and the subsequent up-crossing is at tu .

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

uiuj u2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 + 300 400

Reynolds stresses in fully-developed turbulent channel ow at Re = 13,750. Symbols, DNS data of Kim et al. (1987), u2 , v 2 , w2 , k ; lines, near-wall velocity-frequency joint PDF calculations (from Dreeben and Pope 1998).
Figure 12.23:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

0.3

0.2

0.1

bij
0.0

0.1

0.2
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0

Evolution of Reynolds-stress anisotropies in homogeneous shear ow with (S k/)0 = 2.36. Velocity-wavevector PDF model calculations of Van Slooten and Pope (1997) (lines) compared to the DNS data of Rogers and Moin (1987) (symbols): (,), b11 ; (---,), b12; (--, ), b22 ; ( , ), b33.
Figure 12.24:

CHAPTER 12: PDF METHODS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000 c Stephen B. Pope 2000

2.0

2.0

f(;t)
1.5

f(;t)
1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0 -2

-1

0.0 -2

-1

Figure 12.25:

Evolution of the PDF f( ; t) of a conserved passive scalar in isotropic turbulence from a double-delta-function initial condition: (a) DNS of Eswaran and Pope (1988a); (b) calculated from the mapping closure (Pope 1991b).

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