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Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Junior Cert Geography Exam Layout Total Time = 2 hours Section 1 Folder = 20 short Questions = 20 - 25 minutes (60 marks) Aim for 60/60 marks in the Short Questions Section 2 Long Questions = 5 Questions Answer 3 Questions at least 1 long question = 25-30 minutes

3 x 30 = 90 marks

Typical Short Question.

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Limestone Sedimentary Rock found in the Burren Igneous Rock Example? Metamorphic Rock Example? Karst underground feature Cave (with stalagtites and stalagmites) found in the Burren. (See page 10 for a diagram)

Epicentre strongest point of the earthquake on the surface Focus where the earthquake begins deep in the earths crust Fault the crack in the earths crust where plates collide Two Countries where earthquakes happen? Japan & China A method of reducing earthquake damage in an urban area (town) stronger buildings, e.g. buildings with reinforced wall and foundations. Early warning system for residents.
The greenhouse effect is a natural process. The atmosphere keeps the earth warm by trapping reflected heat. However, human activities mean the atmosphere is retaining more heat than ever. This has led to temperature rises.

CO2 carbon dioxide, CH4 - methane

Global warming

Describe what happens in the diagrams to explain global warming.

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Hot Climate Hot Desert Climate Temperate Climate Cool temperate oceanic Cold Climate Boreal (North Scandanavia)

Mediterranean Climate Malaga in Spain. High Pressure in the summers brings warm, dry settled weather. Cloudless skies focus on temperature, rainfall and hours of sunshine in summer. Winter some low pressure so more rainfall but mild temperatures in winter so not that cold. Use the chart below in your answer. If a chart like this is on the exam paper, always use the stats from it. Latitude distance from the equator. The farther a place is from the equator the colder the climate. The equator is 0 degrees, so Brazil, which is on the equator has a very warm climate all year round. Spain is 35 - 40 degrees north so it is warmer than Ireland 50 degrees north. Distance from the Seas & Oceans places near the sea have cooler summers and warmer winters than inland areas, e.g. Bantry normally has warmer winters that inland towns in Ireland (snow and ice are rare). Bantry gets cooler summers than inland towns. The sea keeps heat longer and this warms up places close to the sea in winter. In summer, the breeze from the sea keeps coastal places cool. Prevailing Winds the prevailing wind (normal wind) in Ireland is the southwesterly. This comes from the Gulf of Mexico and brings warms air. This warm air picks up a lot of moisture (water vapour) and mixes with cold air from the north - this results in rainfall in Irealnd. 3
100 90

Temperature & Rainfall in Malaga

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sept July April May March June Nov Aug Dec Feb Jan Oct Average Temperature (degrees celsius) Rainfall (mm)

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Feature of River Deposition Floodplain Flood plains form in the old stage. River is wide and slow moving. Lots of meanders. River deposits (leaves behind) mud on the banks. After heavy rain, river can flood and deposits alluvium (mud) on the fields around the river. The alluvium is good fertilizer for this land. Flood plains also have levees and ox bow lakes.

Feature of River Erosion Waterfall. Draw a diagram and explain what happens in the diagram.

One way people use rivers Hydro-electricity building dams on large rivers to make electricity, e.g. Inniscarra Dam in Cork One way people pollute rivers allowing farm and animal waste to leak into rivers, e.g. slurry run off from fields, leaking slurry tanks.

Use the following key words to help you write the paragraph . Young rive, erosion, hard rock & soft rock, hydraulic action (force of the water), abrasion (stones), solution (chemicals), plunge pool

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Labour Supply (workers)

Raw Materials

Factors that influence industrial location. Take Pharmaceutical Industry in Cork as example: Labour Cork city, educated workers from UCC and CIT etc Transport Port of cork, airport, motorway links to Dublin etc Electricity & Water power from power station in cork. Kinsale Gas field for gas. Water from local reservoirs


Electricity & Water


Conflict Corrib Gas project in mayo. Many locals did not want the gas terminal built on shore too near houses and pipeline too dangerous. They wanted the gas terminal built out at sea. Shell said there was no problem with the land based gas terminal. Lots of protests. Gas terminal was built on shore.

Developing Region India Three reasons why India is not rich 1. 2. Colonisation by Britain India could not develop any industry very few factories built. India is catching up. Poor Education levels many Indian children cannot got the school as there are not enough trained teachers and school buildings. In big cities, many children live in slums where there are no schools. Poor healthcare the healthcare system is not good. Many slums have no health centre. There are not enough doctors. Child mortality is very high and live expectancy is lower than in Europe.

2 Types of tourist regions 1. Natural beauty (Scenery), 2. Sun Holiday areas (Malaga) Positive effect of tourism jobs, money, better roads, airports, construction etc, e.g. Costa Del Sol in Spain Negative effect pollution from litter, sewage into the sea, pollution from traffic and planes, higher house prices, e.g. Costa Del Sol in Spain


Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Pyramid A Developed Country, e.g. Germany. Narrow bars at the bottom means falling birth rate (small families) Pyramid B Developing country, e.g. India. Wide bars at the bottom means large families high birth rate. Two contrasts birth rates & death rates (Refer to the pyramids), e.g.
We can see that the death rate in B is much higher because the bars get narrow from 5 9 years this means many children before 5 years of age.

City in the Developing World Caclutta in India. Two major problems in Calcutta 1. Slums (Bustees) many poor people (millions) live in slums because of a lack of accommodation. Many people live in slums for years. Slums have very few facilities, e.g. schools, hospitals, electricity. Lack of clean water leads to diseases such as cholera. Badly effects young children. Water supply is polluted from poor sewage system.


Bilateral Aid Aid from one country to another, e.g. Ireland gives aid to Uganda in Africa. (Multilateral aid is from lots of countries to one country). Advantages of Aid helps to train doctors, nurses, teacher in developing countries. Helps people to improve farms, start businesses, build roads, power lines etc. Disadvantages of Aid can be wasted in poor countries. Corrupt government officials might steal this money and keep it for their own use, e.g. buying cars, houses.

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Tourist Attractions on the Map: Golf Courses, Boating activities, beaches, lakes, tourist information, train station (access), crannog, megalithic tomb, castle. (Symbols on the map are explained on the back of the map) Always give a 6 figure grid reference and write a sentence to explain the ones you mention. Information on how to draw sketch map of maps and photos is on the next page. Rural Settlement Patterns: 1. 2. Linear houses in a line along the road on the outskirts of a town. Often on third class (yellow) roads Dispersed houses on their own in the countryside. Land use on photos Industry (factories), Residential (housing) Farming (fields), Transport (train stations, roads) Give a location on the photo (left background, right middleground, centre foreground etc)

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Why did the town of Dingle develop at this location? 1. Port (grid reference) 2. Trasport meeting point of roads (name the roads) 3. Flat land widely spaced contour lines Other reasons for non-coastal towns rivers, bridging point over river, defence (castle). Always try to give evidence from the map. 8

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Junior Cert Geography Higher Level

Karst Region in Ireland The Burren, Co. Clare. What is the Burren? An area of exposed limestone rock that is being eroded by chemical weathering (carbonation) and mechanical weathering (frost action). Surface features are: clints (blocks of limestone) and grikes (cracks in the limestone surface) Undergound features: caves, stalagtites, stalagmites Use the diagrams and key words to write a paragraph on the Burren.