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MINI PROJECT REPORT

JITHIN P GEORGE B.TECH 1STBATCH

INDEX
1. Introduction 1.1 Ship design 1.1.1 Concept design 1.1.2 Preliminary design 2. Aim of the project 3. Glossary of terms 4. Owners requirement 5. Parent ship data and analysis 6. Algorithm 7. Estimation of main dimensions & coefficients 7.1 Main dimensions 7.2 Form coefficients 7.2.1 Block coefficient 7.2.2 Midship coefficient 7.2.3 Prismatic coefficient 7.2.4 Coefficient of water plane area 7.3Calculations 8. Sectional area curve 9. Lines plan 9.1 Body plan 9.2 Half-breadth plan 9.3 Profile plan 10. Bonjean curves 10.1 Bonjean calculation 11. Hydrostatic curves 11.1 Hydrostatic calculations 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 9 10 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 23
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11.1.1 Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy 11.1.2 Vertical Center of Buoyancy 11.1.3 Longitudinal Center of Floatation 11.1.4 Tonnes Per Centimeter immersion 11.1.5 Moment to Change Trim by 1 cm 11.1.6 Metacentric height in transeverse and longitudinal section 12. General Arrangement 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Frame spacing & bulkhead disposition 12.3 Sketches 12.4Superstructure 12.5 Accommodation 12.6 Painting and Cathodic protection 12.7 Pipe work colouring 12.8 Life savings and fire fighting equipment 12.9 Navigation lights 13 Detailed Capacity Calculations and Drawings 13.1Introduction 13.2 loading Calculation 14 Conclusion

24 29 32 38 38 38 50 50 50 51 52 53 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 62

1.Intoduction
A tugboat (tug) is a boat that maneuvers vessels by pushing or towing them. Tugs move vessels that either should not move themselves, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, log rafts, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, and some are ocean-going. Some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines, but today most have diesel engines. Many tugboats have firefighting monitors, allowing them to assist in firefighting, especially in harbors

1.1 Ship Design


Ship design is a complex process. The principle fact in this process is the creativity involved in designing a good functional unit, the ship which meets the various regulatory body requirements and the design practices and meet the owners requirement. Basic design involves the determination of major characteristics affecting cost & performance. (1) Main dimensions: L,B,T,D (2) Hull form: Lines design (3) Power: Resistance & propulsion (4) Preliminary General Arrangement (5) Major structure. The proper selection of the above should satisfy the following mission requirements (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Good sea keeping performance. Maneuverability The desired speed. Endurance Cargo capacity Dead weight.
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The project involves the basic design of double skin PSV vessel with specifications and encompasses: (a) Concept design (b) Preliminary design

1.1.1 Concept design This translates the mission requirements into Naval Architecture & Engg. characteristics. It includes the technological feasibility studies to determine the fundamental elements of the proposed vessel such as Length (L), Breadth (B), Draught (T), Coefficients (CB, Cw, CM, Cp), Power or alternative sets of characteristics which meet the required speed, dead weight. It includes preliminary light ship weight estimates. The selected concept design forms the basis of obtaining approximate cost.

1.1.2 Preliminary design It defines the major ship characteristics affecting cost & performance. Certain controlling factors like Length, Beam, Horsepower & DWT are not expected to change upon completion of this phase. Its completion provides a precise definition of the vessel that would meet the mission requirements.

2.Aim of the project


The main aim of this project is to design a Harbor, Ocean Towing Tug & also is to make a hydrostatic curve for a harbor tug with a bollard pull of 20tons.,

3.Glossary of terms
LOA B D T LWL LBP DWT LWT CB CM CP AM AWL (CW) (LCB) (VCB) (LCF) (TPCi) (MCTi) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Length Overall Breadth Depth Draft Load Water Line Length between Perpendicular Dead weight of ship Light Weight of ship Block coefficient Midship Coefficient Prismatic Coefficient Area of Midship Area of water line Coefficient of fineness of the water- plane area Longitudinal centre of buoyancy Vertical centre of buoyancy Longitudinal centre of floatation Tones per centimeter immersion Moment to change trim by one centimeter Metacentric height in transverse & longitudinal sections

(BMT & BML):

4.Owners requirement
The main aim of this project is to design a: Harbor, Ocean Towing Tug with 20 tons bollard pull . It has the following specifications. TYPE Service speed Classification LOA LBP Moulded Breadth Moulded Depth Summer Load Draft Gross Tonnage : Harbor, Ocean Towing Tug : 11knots : R.I.NA. Registro Italiano Navale : 21 metres : 19metres : 8 metres : 3.8metres : 2.8 metres : <300 Tons

Capacities
Ballast Fuel Oil Fresh Water Lube Oil Hydraulic Oil Dirty Oil :27.59 tons :43.264tons :10.26tons : 0.9 tons : 0.37tons :0.9tons

Machinery
Main Engines Caterpillar Powers Propulsion Aux Generators :D379 Ta 466x2Kw :932Kw (1267Hp) :Fixed Pitch Propellers x2 : 2 Caterpillar 50 Kw

Accomodation
Single cabin Double Cabin Crew messroom Total accommodation :0 :4 :1 :8

Navigation & Communication


Depth recorder GPS Navigator Radars x 2 N 1 Radar X Band GEM SC 1210 N Radio systems Sailor system 4000 HT 4520 Autopilot Steering Telephone System Mobile VHF DSC SAILOR RT 4822 DSC AIS - Navtex FURUNO NX 500

5. Parent ship data and analysis


The relevant data of 15-40 bollard pull were analysed & ratios are calculated. They are expressed in the tabular form below.
NAME LOA Ft In LBP Meter Ft Meter Ft DIMENSIONS Depth Meter Deep Draft Ft Meter Gross Registered Tonnage Tonnes Internal Volume Knots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SIGNET RANGER JIM COLLE SIGNET COURAGEOUS SIGNET CHALLENGER SIGNET VOLUNTEER NATALIE COLLE DANIEL COLLE 82 78 90 104 70 81 81 6 6 19.995 19.02 21.946 25.359 17.069 19.873 19.873 25.0 23.8 27.4 31.7 21.3 24.8 24.8 26 27 28 36 26 32 32 7.925 8.23 8.534 10.97 7.925 9.754 9.754 11 11 15 16 11 16 16 3.3528 3.3528 4.572 4.8768 3.3528 4.8768 4.8768 9 8 12 13 9 13 13 2.7432 2.5654 3.6576 4.1148 2.7432 3.9624 3.9624 98 145 152 379 146 215 215 277.4 410.5 430.3 1073 413.3 608.7 608.7 15 9 12 15 13 11.5 11.5 m/s 7.7166 4.63 6.1733 7.7166 6.6877 5.9161 5.9161 36 29.1 44 46.5 13.5 42.5 42.5 Assumed Velocity Bollard Pull (Metric Tonnes)

L/B

B/D

L/D

B/T

2.523077 2.311111 2.571429 2.311111 2.153846 2.0375 2.0375

2.363636 2.454545 1.866667 2.25 2.363636 2 2

5.963636 5.672727 4.8 5.2 5.090909 4.075 4.075

2.888889 3.207921 2.333333 2.666667 2.888889 2.461538 2.461538

Analysis of ratios

L/B B/T L/D B/D

Range 2.03 2.57 2.33-3.2 4.075-5.96 1.8-2.45

Average 2.27 2.70 4.98 2.18

6.Alogorithm
As mentioned in the aim we started research about the different types of ship. It may lead us to find out most of the ship details and we aware about the different types of bulk carrier. We started researching on different apparent ships from those ship details we find out a desirable detail for our ship. From those values we get the following details.

Fig: Basic concept of ship


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Length overall (LOA) Length of a ship measured horizontally from foremost part of stem to foremost part of bow. Length between perpendiculars (LBP) It is often abbreviated as LPP, LBP or Length BPP is a term describing the length of a ship. LBP refers to the length of a vessel along the waterline from the forward perpendicular to the aft perpendicular.

Beam or Breadth (B) It is the maximum width along the midship. Depth (D) It is the maximum depth of a ship. Draft (T) It is the depth of a ship measured from keel to waterline. Loads water line (LWL) It is an imaginary line drawn along the surface of water measured from intersection of contour to forward perpendicular and the aft perpendicular. Dimension ratios Dimensions of the underwater body are sometimes referred to in ratio form. These are noted below, with approximate ranges for each: Ratio of length to breadth = L/B Approx. range 2 to 8. Ratio of length to draft = L/T Approx. range 6 to 30. Ratio of breadth to draft = B/T Approx. range 1.8 to 5.

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Under water volume or displacement An object that sinks displaces an amount of fluid equal to the object's volume. Thus buoyancy is expressed through Archimedes' principle, which states that the weight of the object is reduced by its volume multiplied by the density of the fluid. If the weight of the object is less than this displaced quantity, the object floats; if more, it sinks. It is the same for a ship To find the underwater volume we have to analyze the formula Density = mass /volume Volume = mass/density Mass = considering the ships total weight Density of sea water (approx. = 1.025 T/m3)

7. Estimation of main dimensions & coefficients


7.1 Main dimensions The main dimensions have a decisive effect on many of the ship characteristics. It affects Stability Hold capacity Hydro dynamic qualities such as resistance, maneuvering, sea keeping Economic efficiency Determining the main dimensions, proportions and form coefficient is one of the most important phases of overall design. Platform supply vessel are essentially moderate speed ship carrying dry cargo. Demand for the dry bulks in offshore field has increased tremendously. Hence the need for economic optimality in design, capacity etc is necessitated. Symbols list
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DWT LBP V g B D T CB Fn

Dead weight Displacement Length between perpendiculars Velocity Acceleration due to gravity Moulded breadth of the ship Moulded depth of the ship Draft of the ship Block coefficient of the ship Froude number

7.2 Form coefficients 7.2.1Block coefficient (CB) Block coefficient (CB) is the volume (V) divided by the LWL x B x T. If you draw a box around the submerged part of the ship, it is the ratio of the box volume occupied by the ship. It gives a sense of how much of the block defined by the LWL, beam (B) & draft (T) is filled by the hull. Full forms such as oil tankers will have a high CB where fine shapes such as sailboats will have a low CB.

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Fig: Block coefficient

7.2.2Midship Coefficient (CM) Midship coefficient (CM or CX) is the cross-sectional area (Ax) of the slice at Midship (or at the largest section for CX) divided by beam x draft. It displays the ratio of the largest underwater section of the hull to a rectangle of the same overall width and depth as the underwater section of the hull. This defines the fullness of the underbody. A low CM indicates a cut-away mid-section and a high CM indicates a boxy section shape. Sailboats have a cut-away mid-section with low CX whereas cargo vessels have a boxy section with high CX to help increase the CB.

7.2.3Prismatic Coefficient (CP) Prismatic coefficient (Cp) is the volume (V) divided by LBP x Ax. It displays the ratio of the immersed volume of the hull to a volume of a prism with equal length to the ship and cross-sectional area equal to the largest underwater section of the hull (midship section). This is used to evaluate the distribution of the volume of the underbody. A low or fine Cp indicates a full mid-section and fine ends, a high or full Cp indicates a boat with fuller ends. Planing hulls and other high-speed hulls tend towards a higher Cp. Efficient displacement hulls travelling at a low Froude number will tend to have a low Cp.

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Fig: Prismatic coefficient

7.2.4Coefficient of fineness of the water- plane area (CW) Water plane coefficient (CW) is the waterplane area divided by LPP x B. The waterplane coefficient expresses the fullness of the waterplane, or the ratio of the waterplane area to a rectangle of the same length and width. A low C W figure indicates fine ends and a high CW figure indicates fuller ends. High CW improves stability as well as handling behavior in rough conditions.

Fig: Water plane coefficient

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7.3 Calculations LOA = 21mtr LBP = 19mtr Breadth = 8 mtr Depth upto deck = 3.8 mtr Draft (Design) = 2.8mtr LWT = 145 T CB is in th range of 0.5 - 0.8 in case of harbor tug. After correction CB value = 0.60 CB = Under water volume = CB x L x B x T = 0.60 x 19 x 8 x 2.8 = 255.36 m3

FN=
16

(1 KNOT = 0.5144 m/s)

Assuming CW value = 0.84

CW =
Water Plane Area = 0.84 x 19 x 8

= 127.68m2
Assuming Cm=0.91

Cm =
Midship Area = 0.91 x 2.8 x 8 = 20.3844m3

CP =

= = Dead weight + Light weight ship = Under Water Volume x Density =255.36 * 1.025 = 261.744T

Displacement Displacement

Dead weight

= Displacement - Light weight of the ship = 261.744 145 = 116.744T

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8. Sectional area curve


A fundamental drawing in the design of a ship particularly relative to resistance is the sectional area curve, for a ship with some parallel middle body. The sectional area curve represents the longitudinal distribution of cross sectional area below the DWL. The ordinates of a sectional area curve are plotted in distance-squared units. Inasmuch as the horizontal scale, or abscissa, represents longitudinal distances along the ship, it is clear that the area under the curve represents the volume of water displaced by the vessel up to the DWL, or volume of displacement. Alternatively, the ordinate and abscissa of the curve may be made non-dimensional by dividing by the midship area and length of ship, respectively. In either case, the shape of the sectional area curve determines the relative "fullness" of the ship. The sectional area curve and the half breadth are drawn keeping the underwater volume and the form coefficients kept in mind.

Fig: Sectional area curve

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9. Lines plan
The lines plan are drafted for each ship according to the unique feature of the ship involved. Makin the lines plan is the first stage of the design spiral and is one of the most important part of the entire design process since these line plans are provided to the operator and are constantly referred as part of the operation of the ship. The body plan is generate from the sectional area curve and the half breadth. The lines are fared to avoid any kinks in the lines and also to make sure that the lines are in perfect curves. The final underwater area and volume are calculate and corrected to the previously corrected values.

9.1 Body Plan

Fig: Body plan Planes parallel to the front and back of the imaginary box are called stations. There are three important stations. The intersection of the stem of the ship at the design water line is called Forward Perpendicular (FP). The intersection of the stern at design water line(immersed transom) or the rudder stock is called the Aft Perpendicular (AP). The station midway between the perpendiculars is called the midship stations.
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Each station plane will intersect the ship's hull and form a curved line at the points of intersection. These lines are called sectional lines and are all projected onto a single plane called the Body Plan. The body plan takes advantage of the ship's symmetry. Hence only half the section is show; the sections forward of amidships are drawn on the right side, and the sections aft of the amidships are drawn on the left side. The amidships section is generally shown on both sides of the body plan. The vertical line in the center separating the left and right half of the ship is called the centerline.

9.2 Half-Breadth Plan

Fig: Half Breadth plan The bottom of the box is a reference plane called the base plane. The base plane is usually level with the keel. A series of planes parallel and above the base plan are imagined at regular intervals, usually at every meter. Each plane will intersect the ship's hull and form a line at the points of intersection. These lines are called waterlines and are all projected onto a single plane called the Half-Breadth Plan.

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Each waterline shows the true shape of the hull from the top view for some elevation above the base plane. The water lines referred to here has nothing to do with where the ship actually floats. There waterlines are the intersection of the ship's hull with some imaginary plane above the base plane. Since ships are symmetric about their centerline they only need be drawn for the starboard or port side, thus the name Half-Breadth Plan.

9.3 Profile Plan

Fig: Profile plan A plane that runs from bow to stern directly through the center of the ship and parallel to the sides of the imaginary box is called the centerline plane. A series of planes parallel to one side of the centerline plane are imagined at regular intervals from the centerline. Each plane will intersect the ship's hull and form a curved line at the points of intersection. These lines are called buttock or butt lines and are projected onto a single plane called the Sheer Plan.

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Each buttock line shows the true shape of the hull from the side view for some distance from the centerline of the ship. The centerline plane shows a special butt line called the profile of the ship.

10.Bonjean Curves
The curves of cross sectional area for all body plan stations are collectively called Bonjean Curves. One of the principal uses of Bonjean Curves is determining volume of displacement of the ship at any level or trimmed waterline. 10.1 Bonjean calculations

Fig: Bonjean curve In the Bonjean calculation the sectional area and moment of each station up to each waterline is calculated. This enables the calculation of Displacement, LCB and VCB for any waterline for even keel and also trimmed condition. The uses of Bonjeans are: 1) 2) 3) 4) Hydrostatic calculations. For flooding calculations. Launching calculations. Longitudinal strength calculations.

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11.Hydrostatic Curves
It is customary in the design of a ship to calculate and plot as curves a number of hydrostatic properties of the vessel's form at a series of drafts. Such curves are useful in loading and stability studies during the design phase. Large scale plots of these curves for a newly built ship are then made for the assistance of the vessel's operating personnel. Such curves are known as the vessel's curves of form, or synonymously, hydrostatic curves.

11.1 Hydrostatic calculations It is mandatory in the design of a ship to calculate and plot as curves a number of hydrostatic properties of the vessels form at a series of drafts. Th rough out its life a ship changes its weight, trim & freeboard. Its condition at any state of circumstances can be found from hydrostatic curves. Hydrostatic particulars corresponding to different waterlines are calculated. List of formulae used. 1) Awp 2) Mx 3) LCF, x 4) IL 5) IT 6) TPC = = = = = = 2/3 x h x f(A) 2 x h2/3 x f(M) h x f(M)
f(A)

(2h3/3) x f(IL) (2 x h/9) x f(IT) (Awp x 1.025) 100

7) BMT 8) BML 9) MCT

= = =

IT/ IL/ x GML


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100 x LWL 10) KM = BM + KB

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CB CM CW CP

= LBP x B x T

12) 13) 14)

= = =

A/(B x T) AWP / (L x B) CB/CM

11.1.1 Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB) Longitudinal centre of buoyancy (LCB) is the longitudinal distance from a point of reference (often midships) to the centre of the displaced volume of water when the hull is not moving. Note that the longitudinal centre of gravity or centre of the weight of the vessel must align with the LCB when the hull is in equilibrium.
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Calculation table

WATERLINE 0.5 STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 AREA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.92 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.76 1.87 0.96 0.68 0.44 0.18 0 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(V) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 3 6 3 6 3 4 1 1 0 0 0 34 LCB VOLUME 10.08 11.09 LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M) 0 0 0 0 0 0 11.5 38.6 22.1 49.7 27.6 60.7 33.1 48.6 13.4 20.4 7.02 6.05 0 339 LCB VOLUME STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 0 0 0 0 0 0.829 2.575 3.144 3.144 3.144 3.144 3.144 3.144 2.435 1.649 1.253 0.888 0.638 0.013

WATERLINE 1 AREA 0 0 0 0 0 1.66 5.15 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 6.29 4.87 3.3 2.51 1.78 1.28 0.03 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(V) 0 0 0 0 0 3.3 5.2 13 6.3 13 6.3 13 6.3 9.7 3.3 5 1.8 2.6 0 87 10.2 28.9 LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M) 0 0 0 0 0 16.57 30.9 88.02 50.3 113.2 62.87 138.3 75.45 126.6 46.18 75.18 28.42 43.4 0.234 895.7

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WATERLINE 1.5 STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 0 f(V ) 0 0 0 0 0. 9 9. 5 8. 8 20 10 20 10 20 10 16 6. 3 10 3. 9 6. 1 0. 4 15 3 LEVE R 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M ) 0 0 0 0 3.7 7 47. 7 52. 5 141 80. 6 181 101 222 121 214 87. 6 152 62. 1 104 7.0 6 157 7 STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF ARE A 0 0 0.38 0.99 2 1.94 4.14 6.27 7.01 7.01 7.01 7.01 7.01 7.01 5.89 4.77 4.03 3.26 2.65 1.01

WATERLINE 2 f(V ) 0 0 0.7 6 3.9 7 3.8 8 16. 6 12. 5 28 14 28 14 28 14 23. 6 9.5 4 16. 1 6.5 2 10. 6 1.0 1 23 1 LEVE R 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

AREA 0 0 0 0 0.94 4.77 8.76 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 8.22 6.26 5.06 3.88 3.06 0.78

SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

AREA 0 0 0.759 1.984 3.88 8.28 12.54 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 14.02 11.78 9.54 8.06 6.52 5.3 2.02

SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

f(M) 0 0 1.51 88 11.9 04 15.5 2 82.8 75.2 4 196. 28 112. 16 252. 36 140. 2 308. 44 168. 24 306. 28 133. 56 241. 8 104. 32 180. 2 18.1 8 2349

LCB VOLU ME

10.3 50.5 5

LCB VOLU ME

10. 2 76. 3

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WATERLINE 2.5 STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 0.704 1.142 1.75 2.538 3.667 6.01 8.22 9 9 9 9 9 9 7.75 6.533 5.68 4.75 3.885 1.728 AREA 1.4082 2.2836 3.5 5.076 7.334 12.02 16.44 18 18 18 18 18 18 15.5 13.066 11.36 9.5 7.7706 3.456 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(V ) 0. 7 4. 6 3. 5 10 7. 3 24 16 36 18 36 18 36 18 31 13 23 9. 5 16 1. 7 32 2 LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M ) 0 4.5 7 7 30. 5 29. 3 120 98. 6 252 144 324 180 396 216 403 183 341 152 264 31. 1 317 6 STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 1.449 2 2.7 3.56 4.771 7.16 9.42 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 8.89 7.64 6.74 5.7 4.65 2.17

WATERLINE 2.8 AREA 2.898 4 5.4 7.12 9.542 14.32 18.84 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 17.78 15.28 13.48 11.4 9.3 4.34 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(V ) 1. 4 8 5. 4 14 9. 5 29 19 41 20 41 20 41 20 36 15 27 11 19 2. 2 38 0 LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M) 0 8 10.8 42.7 2 38.1 7 143. 2 113 285. 6 163. 2 367. 2 204 448. 8 244. 8 462. 3 213. 9 404. 4 182. 4 316. 2 39.0 6 368 8

LCB VOLU ME

9.85 5 106. 4

LCB VOLU ME

9.7 1 12 5

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WATERLINE 3 STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 1.984 2.6 3.36 4.27 5.52 7.94 10.22 11 11 11 11 11 11 9.66 8.39 7.47 6.37 5.18 2.47 AREA 3.968 5.2 6.72 8.54 11.04 15.88 20.44 22 22 22 22 22 22 19.32 16.78 14.94 12.74 10.36 4.94 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(V ) 2 10 6. 7 17 11 32 20 44 22 44 22 44 22 39 17 30 13 21 2. 5 41 9 LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M ) 0 10. 4 13. 4 51. 2 44. 2 159 123 308 176 396 220 484 264 502 235 448 204 352 44. 5 403 5 STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HALF AREA 3.39 4.23 5.12 6.1 7.46 9.9 12.22 13 13 13 13 13 13 11.64 10.34 9.36 8.09 6.51 3.23

WATERLINE 3.5 AREA 6.78 8.46 10.24 12.2 14.92 19.8 24.44 26 26 26 26 26 26 23.28 20.68 18.72 16.18 13.02 6.46 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(V ) 3. 4 17 10 24 15 40 24 52 26 52 26 52 26 47 21 37 16 26 3. 2 51 8 LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 f(M) 0 16.9 2 20.4 8 73.2 59.6 8 198 146. 6 364 208 468 260 572 312 605. 3 289. 5 561. 6 258. 9 442. 7 58.1 4 491 5

LCB VOLU ME

9.63 7 138. 2

LCB VOLU ME

9.4 9 17 1

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WATERLINE 3.8 HALF STATION AREA AREA SM 0 1 4.26 8.52 1 4 5.27 10.54 2 2 6.22 12.44 3 4 7.23 14.46 4 2 8.63 17.26 5 4 11.09 22.18 6 2 13.42 26.84 7 4 14.2 28.4 8 2 14.2 28.4 9 4 14.2 28.4 10 2 14.2 28.4 11 4 14.2 28.4 12 2 14.2 28.4 13 4 12.83 25.66 14 2 11.53 23.06 15 4 10.53 21.06 16 2 9.17 18.34 17 4 7.31 14.62 18 1 3.69 7.38 LCB 9.419 VOLUME 190.9 f(V) LEVER f(M) 0 4.3 0 1 21 21.1 2 12 24.9 3 29 86.8 4 17 69 5 44 222 6 27 161 7 57 398 8 28 227 9 57 511 10 28 284 11 57 625 12 28 341 13 51 667 14 23 323 15 42 632 16 18 293 17 29 497 18 3.7 66.4 579 5449

11.1.2.Vertical centre of buoyancy (VCB) Is the geometric centre of the ships under water area at a particular draught from the vertical section from keel and its position will change with draught. The position of the VCB determines where is the buoyancy of that particular draft remains in the hull.

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Calculation table

WATER LINE WL.5 WL1

WL1.5

WATERLINE 1 AR f(v LEV EA SM ) ER 58. 29 8 5 4 0.5 79. 63 86 8 9 1 91. 91 15 -1 .2 1.5 84 2 VC 0.7 B 71

F( M) 147 638 .9 137 649 .2

WATER LINE wl0 WL.5

WATERLINE .5 AR S LEV F(M EA M f(v) ER ) 0 58. 8 0 470 8 .4 79. 79. 86 -1 9 390 .5 VC 0.3 B 98 5 0 235. 0.5 2 79.8 1 6 155. 34 0

WL1

WATER LINE WL.5 WL1 WL1.5 WL2

WATERLINE 2 AR S f(v EA M ) 58. 58 8 1 .8 79. 24 86 3 0 91. 27 15 3 3 107 10 .2 1 7 67 9 VC 1. B 32

LEV ER 0.5 1 1.5 2

F( M) 29. 4 239 .6 410 .2 214 .4 893 .5

WATER LINE WL.5 WL1 WL1.5

WATERLINE 1.5 AR S LEV EA M f(v) ER F(M) 58. 58. 8 1 8 0.5 29.4 79. 319 319. 86 4 .4 1 44 91. 91. 136. 15 1 15 1.5 725 469 485. .4 565

VC B

1.0 34
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WATERLINE 2.8 WATERLI ARE S LEV F(M NE A M f(v) ER ) 58. 58. 29. WL.5 8 1 8 0.5 4 79. 319 WL1 86 4 319 1 .4 91. 273 WL1.5 15 2 182 1.5 .5 107 643 WL2 .2 3 322 2 .1 122 916 WL2.5 .2 3 367 2.5 .3 125 352 WL2.8 .9 1 126 2.8 .6 137 253 5 4 VC 1.8 B 4

WATERLINE 2.5 WATERLI ARE S LEV NE A M f(v) ER F(M) 58. WL.5 58.8 1 8 0.5 29.4 79.8 319 319.4 WL1 6 4 .4 1 4 91.1 182 273.4 WL1.5 5 2 .3 1.5 5 107. 428 857.5 WL2 19 4 .8 2 2 122. 122 305.4 WL2.5 17 1 .2 2.5 25 111 1785. 1 24

VC B

1.6 06

WATERLI NE WL.5 WL1 WL1.5 WL2 WL2.5 WL2.8 WL3. WL3.5

WATERLINE 3.5 ARE LEVE F(M A SM f(v) R ) 58. 58.8 1 8 0.5 29.4 79.8 319. 6 4 319 1 4 91.1 273. 5 2 182 1.5 5 107. 857. 2 4 429 2 5 122. 610. 2 2 244 2.5 9 125. 105 9 3 378 2.8 8 128. 115 1 3 384 3 3 132. 463. 4 1 132 3.5 5 212 476 8 5 VC 2.2 B 4

WATERLINE 3 WATERLI NE WL.5 WL1 WL1.5 WL2 WL2.5 WL2.8 WL3. AREA 58.8 79.86 91.15 107.1 9 122.1 7 125.9 4 128.1 1 SM 1 4 2 4 2 4 1 f(v) 58.8 319. 4 182. 3 428. 8 244. 3 503. 8 128. 1 186 6 LEVE R 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2.8 3 F(M) 29.4 319.4 4 273.4 5 857.5 2 610.8 5 1410. 53 384.3 3 3885. 52

VC B

2.08 3 31

WATERLINE 3.8 WATERLINE AREA SM f(v) LEVER F(M) WL.5 58.8 1 58.8 0.5 29.4 WL1 79.86 4 319 1 319.4 WL1.5 91.15 2 182 1.5 273.5 WL2 107.2 4 429 2 857.5 WL2.5 122.2 2 244 2.5 610.9 WL2.8 125.9 4 504 2.8 1411 WL3. 128.1 2 256 3 768.7 WL3.5 132.4 4 530 3.5 1854 WL3.8 133.6 1 134 3.8 507.6 2657 6631 VCB 2.5

11.1.3Longitudinal centre of floatation (LCF) Longitudinal centre of flotation (LCF) is the geometric centre of the ships water-plane area at a particular draught and its position will change with draught. The position of the LCF determines how the change of trim will be apportioned between the forward and aft draughts.

32

Calculation table
WATERPLANE 0.5 half full f(A BREA brea SM ) DTH dth 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2.91 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.69 1.8 1.3 0.9 0.63 0 0 5.82 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 5.38 3.6 2.6 1.8 1.26 0 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 0 11. 64 26. 4 13. 2 26. 4 13. 2 26. 4 13. 2 21. 52 7.2 10. 4 3.6 5.0 4 0 17 8.2 WATERPLANE 1 half full f(A BREA brea SM ) DTH dth 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 22. 4 2.8 5.6 4 13. 2 3.46 6.92 84 29. 4 3.65 7.3 2 14. 2 3.65 7.3 6 29. 4 3.65 7.3 2 14. 2 3.65 7.3 6 29. 4 3.65 7.3 2 14. 2 3.65 7.3 6 25. 4 3.22 6.44 76 10. 2 2.73 5.46 92 18. 4 2.27 4.54 16 1.75 1.5 0.27 3.5 3 0.54 2 4 1 7 12 0.5 4 24 2

STAT ION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f( M) 0 0 0 0 0 0 69. 8 18 5 10 6 23 8 13 2 29 0 15 8 28 0 10 1 15 6 57. 6 85. 7 0 18 58

STAT ION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f( M) 0 0 0 0 0 11 2 83 20 4 11 7 26 3 14 6 32 1 17 5 33 5 15 3 27 2 11 2 20 4 9.7 2 25 07

LCF AR EA

10. 43 58. 81

LCF AR EA

10. 36 79. 9

33

STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 1.5 half full BREADT bread SM H th 1 0 0 0 0 0 2.49 3.35 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.47 3.14 2.81 2.42 2.05 1.09 0 0 0 4.98 6.7 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 6.94 6.28 5.62 4.84 4.1 2.18 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

f(A ) 0 0 0 0 9.9 6 26. 8 14. 8 29. 7 14. 8 29. 7 14. 8 29. 7 14. 8 27. 8 12. 6 22. 5 9.6 8 16. 4 2.1 8 27 6

LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M ) 0 0 0 0 39. 84 134 89. 04 207 .8 118 .7 267 .1 148 .4 326 .5 178 .1 360 .9 175 .8 337 .2 154 .9 278 .8 39. 24 285 6

STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADT H

WATERPLANE 2 full f(A bread SM ) th 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 9.4 2 2.37 4.74 8 22. 4 2.79 5.58 3 3.25 3.64 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.64 3.41 3.15 2.82 2.37 1.36 6.5 7.28 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.28 6.82 6.3 5.64 4.74 2.72 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 13 29. 1 15 30 15 30 15 30 15 29. 1 13. 6 25. 2 11. 3 19 2.7 2 32 5

LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 0 18.9 6 66.9 6 52 145. 6 90 210 120 270 150 330 180 378. 56 190. 96 378 180. 48 322. 32 48.9 6 3132 .8

LCF

10. 3 ARE A

LCF 91. 2 AREA

9.6 44 107 .2

34

STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 2.5 half full S f( BREA bread M A) DTH th 4. 1 2.33 4.66 66 21 4 2.72 5.44 .8 12 2 3.03 6.06 .1 26 4 3.32 6.64 .6 14 2 3.6 7.2 .4 30 4 3.81 7.62 .5 15 2 3.81 7.62 .2 30 4 3.81 7.62 .5 15 2 3.81 7.62 .2 30 4 3.81 7.62 .5 15 2 3.81 7.62 .2 30 4 3.81 7.62 .5 15 2 3.81 7.62 .2 30 4 3.77 7.54 .2 14 2 3.63 7.26 .5 27 4 3.44 6.88 .5 12 2 3.1 6.2 .4 20 4 2.54 5.08 .3 2. 1 1.46 2.92 92 37 0 8. 95 12 2

LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M ) 0 21. 76 24. 24 79. 68 57. 6 152 .4 91. 44 213 .4 121 .9 274 .3 152 .4 335 .3 182 .9 392 .1 203 .3 412 .8 198 .4 345 .4 52. 56 331 2

STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 2.8 half full f( BREA bread SM A) DTH th 4. 1 2.33 4.66 66 23 4 2.98 5.96 .8 3.26 3.5 3.74 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.85 3.75 3.6 3.25 2.6 1.5 6.52 7 7.48 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.7 7.5 7.2 6.5 5.2 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 13 28 15 31 15 .5 31 15 .5 31 15 .5 31 15 .5 30 .8 15 28 .8 13 20 .8 3 38 2

LEV ER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M)

0 23.8 4 26.0 8 84 59.8 4 154. 8 92.8 8 216. 72 123. 84 278. 64 154. 8 340. 56 185. 76 400. 4 210 432 208 353. 6 54 339 9.8

LCF ARE A

LCF ARE A

8.9 08 125 .9

35

STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 3 full half breadt SM BREADTH h 2.72 3.1 3.39 3.58 3.81 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.89 3.82 3.69 3.34 2.63 1.51 5.44 6.2 6.78 7.16 7.62 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.78 7.64 7.38 6.68 5.26 3.02 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

f(A ) 5.4 4 24. 8 13. 6 28. 6 15. 2 31. 2 15. 6 31. 2 15. 6 31. 2 15. 6 31. 2 15. 6 31. 1 15. 3 29. 5 13. 4 21 3.0 2 38 8

LEVE R 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M)

STATI ON 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

0 24.8 27.1 2 85.9 2 60.9 6 156 93.6 218. 4 124. 8 280. 8 156 343. 2 187. 2 404. 6 213. 9 442. 8 213. 8 357. 7 54.3 6 344 6

WATERPLANE 3.5 full half f(A breadt SM BREADTH ) h 5.7 1 2.88 5.76 6 3.38 3.62 3.72 3.89 3.94 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.97 3.94 3.87 3.55 2.68 1.53 6.76 7.24 7.44 7.78 7.88 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7.94 7.88 7.74 7.1 5.36 3.06 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 27 14. 5 29. 8 15. 6 31. 5 16 32 16 32 16 32 16 31. 8 15. 8 31 14. 2 21. 4 3.0 6 40 1

LEVE R 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M)

0 27.0 4 28.9 6 89.2 8 62.2 4 157. 6 96 224 128 288 160 352 192 412. 88 220. 64 464. 4 227. 2 364. 48 55.0 8 3549 .8

LCF AREA

8.8 8 12 8

LCF AREA 132.4

8.84 6

36

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 2.91 3.52 3.72 3.8 3.91 3.96 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.98 3.96 3.93 3.64 2.68 1.54

WATERPLANE 3.8 full SM breadth 5.82 1 7.04 4 7.44 2 7.6 4 7.82 2 7.92 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 7.96 4 7.92 2 7.86 4 7.28 2 5.36 4 3.08 1 LCF AREA 8.8202 133.58

f(A) 5.82 28.16 14.88 30.4 15.64 31.68 16 32 16 32 16 32 16 31.84 15.84 31.44 14.56 21.44 3.08 404.78

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 28.16 29.76 91.2 62.56 158.4 96 224 128 288 160 352 192 413.9 221.8 471.6 233 364.5 55.44 3570

37

11.1.4.Tones per centimeter immersion (TPCi) It is the amount of load in tones required to change of draft in 1 cm. Since compared to ships size 1cm is approximately equal to the water plane at particular draft. TPCi = ( area of waterplane x 1cm) x density of sea water. 11.1.5.Moment to change trim by one centimeter (MCTi) The MCT 1 cm is the moment required to change the trim of the vessel by 1 cm and may be calculated by using the formula: MCT 1 cm = W x GML/100L Where, W = The vessels displacement in tonnes GML = The longitudinal metacentric height in meters L = Vessels length (LBP) in meters.

11.1.6.Metacentric height in transverse & longitudinal sections (BMT & BML) The metacentric height (GM) is a measurement of the initial static stability of a floating body. It is calculated as the distance between the centre of gravity of a ship and its metacentre. A larger metacentric height implies greater initial stability against overturning.

38

The metacentre is considered to be fixed for small angles of heel; however, at larger angles of heel the metacentre can no longer be considered fixed and other means must be found to calculate the ship's stability. The metacentre can be calculated using the formulae:

KM = KB + BM BM = I/V KB or VCB- The centre of buoyancy (height above the keel) I - The Second moment of area of the waterplane in m4 V - The volume of displacement in m3. KM - The distance from the keel to the metacentre. 23 All of these calculation helps to draw the hydrostatic curves

39

Fig: Hydrostatic curve

40

Hydrostatic parameters for different water level is shown in tabular form.

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 0.5 half full SM BREADTH breadth 1 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 2 2.91 5.82 4 3.3 6.6 2 3.3 6.6 4 3.3 6.6 2 3.3 6.6 4 3.3 6.6 2 3.3 6.6 4 2.69 5.38 2 1.8 3.6 4 1.3 2.6 2 0.9 1.8 4 0.63 1.26 1 0 0 LCF AREA 10.429 58.806

f(A) 0 0 0 0 0 0 11.64 26.4 13.2 26.4 13.2 26.4 13.2 21.52 7.2 10.4 3.6 5.04 0 178.2

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 0 0 0 0 0 69.84 184.8 105.6 237.6 132 290.4 158.4 279.76 100.8 156 57.6 85.68 0 1858.5

41

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 1 half full SM BREADTH breadth 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.8 3.46 3.65 3.65 3.65 3.65 3.65 3.65 3.22 2.73 2.27 1.75 1.5 0.27 LCF 0 0 0 0 5.6 6.92 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 6.44 5.46 4.54 3.5 3 0.54 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 10.36 AREA

f(A) 0 0 0 0 0 22.4 13.84 29.2 14.6 29.2 14.6 29.2 14.6 25.76 10.92 18.16 7 12 0.54 242 79.87

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 0 0 0 0 112 83.04 204.4 116.8 262.8 146 321.2 175.2 334.88 152.88 272.4 112 204 9.72 2507.3

42

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 0 0 0 0 2.49 3.35 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.47 3.14 2.81 2.42 2.05 1.09

WATERPLANE 1.5 full SM breadth 1 0 0 0 0 4.98 6.7 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 7.42 6.94 6.28 5.62 4.84 4.1 2.18 LCF 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

f(A) 0 0 0 0 9.96 26.8 14.84 29.68 14.84 29.68 14.84 29.68 14.84 27.76 12.56 22.48 9.68 16.4 2.18 276.22

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 0 0 0 39.84 134 89.04 207.76 118.72 267.12 148.4 326.48 178.08 360.88 175.84 337.2 154.88 278.8 39.24 2856.28

10.3406 AREA 91.1526

43

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 0 0 2.37 2.79 3.25 3.64 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.64 3.41 3.15 2.82 2.37 1.36

WATERPLANE 2 full SM breadth 1 0 0 4.74 5.58 6.5 7.28 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.28 6.82 6.3 5.64 4.74 2.72 LCF AREA 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

f(A) 0 0 9.48 22.32 13 29.12 15 30 15 30 15 30 15 29.12 13.64 25.2 11.28 18.96 2.72 324.8

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 0 18.96 66.96 52 145.6 90 210 120 270 150 330 180 378.56 190.96 378 180.48 322.32 48.96 3132.8

9.6441 107.2
44

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 2.33 2.72 3.03 3.32 3.6 3.81 3.81 3.81 3.81 3.81 3.81 3.81 3.81 3.77 3.63 3.44 3.1 2.54 1.46

WATERPLANE 2.5 full SM breadth 1 4.66 5.44 6.06 6.64 7.2 7.62 7.62 7.62 7.62 7.62 7.62 7.62 7.62 7.54 7.26 6.88 6.2 5.08 2.92 LCF AREA 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 8.9456 122.1726

f(A) 4.66 21.76 12.12 26.56 14.4 30.48 15.24 30.48 15.24 30.48 15.24 30.48 15.24 30.16 14.52 27.52 12.4 20.32 2.92 370.22

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 21.76 24.24 79.68 57.6 152.4 91.44 213.36 121.92 274.32 152.4 335.28 182.88 392.08 203.28 412.8 198.4 345.44 52.56 3311.84

45

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

WATERPLANE 2.8 half full SM BREADTH breadth 1 2.33 4.66 4 2.98 5.96 3.26 3.5 3.74 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.87 3.85 3.75 3.6 3.25 2.6 1.5 LCF AREA 6.52 7 7.48 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.74 7.7 7.5 7.2 6.5 5.2 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1

f(A) 4.66 23.84 13.04 28 14.96 30.96 15.48 30.96 15.48 30.96 15.48 30.96 15.48 30.8 15 28.8 13 20.8 3 381.66

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 23.84 26.08 84 59.84 154.8 92.88 216.72 123.84 278.64 154.8 340.56 185.76 400.4 210 432 208 353.6 54 3399.76

8.907824 125.9478

46

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 2.72 3.1 3.39 3.58 3.81 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.89 3.82 3.69 3.34 2.63 1.51

WATERPLANE 3 full SM breadth 5.44 1 6.2 4 6.78 2 7.16 4 7.62 2 7.8 4 7.8 2 7.8 4 7.8 2 7.8 4 7.8 2 7.8 4 7.8 2 7.78 4 7.64 2 7.38 4 6.68 2 5.26 4 3.02 1 LCF AREA 8.876101 128.1126

f(A) 5.44 24.8 13.56 28.64 15.24 31.2 15.6 31.2 15.6 31.2 15.6 31.2 15.6 31.12 15.28 29.52 13.36 21.04 3.02 388.22

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 24.8 27.12 85.92 60.96 156 93.6 218.4 124.8 280.8 156 343.2 187.2 404.56 213.92 442.8 213.76 357.68 54.36 3445.88

47

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 2.88 3.38 3.62 3.72 3.89 3.94 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.97 3.94 3.87 3.55 2.68 1.53

WATERPLANE 3.5 full SM breadth 1 5.76 4 6.76 2 7.24 4 7.44 2 7.78 4 7.88 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 7.94 2 7.88 4 7.74 2 7.1 4 5.36 1 3.06 LCF 132.43 8.846

f(A) 5.76 27.04 14.48 29.76 15.56 31.52 16 32 16 32 16 32 16 31.76 15.76 30.96 14.2 21.44 3.06 401.3

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 27.04 28.96 89.28 62.24 157.6 96 224 128 288 160 352 192 412.88 220.64 464.4 227.2 364.48 55.08 3549.8

AREA

48

STATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

half BREADTH 2.91 3.52 3.72 3.8 3.91 3.96 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.98 3.96 3.93 3.64 2.68 1.54

WATERPLANE 3.8 full SM breadth 5.82 1 7.04 4 7.44 2 7.6 4 7.82 2 7.92 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 8 4 8 2 7.96 4 7.92 2 7.86 4 7.28 2 5.36 4 3.08 1 LCF AREA 8.820199 133.5774

f(A) 5.82 28.16 14.88 30.4 15.64 31.68 16 32 16 32 16 32 16 31.84 15.84 31.44 14.56 21.44 3.08 404.78

LEVER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

f(M) 0 28.16 29.76 91.2 62.56 158.4 96 224 128 288 160 352 192 413.92 221.76 471.6 232.96 364.48 55.44 3570.24

49

12.General Arrangement
12.1 Introduction The vessel has been designed as a double skin platform supply vessel with machinery space and all accommodation including navigation bridge located at the forward. The vessel has a double continuous deck with forecastle deck and six tiers of deckhouse and as raked stem and transom stern. For details of subdivision of the hull under the upper deck by means of water tight bulkheads, refer General Arrangement Plan. The capacities and centroids of the major spaces have been shown in the Capacity Plan.

12.2 Frame spacing and bulkhead disposition The bottom shell, inner bottom, deck, side shell, inner shell bulkheads and longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally framed. Transverse framing is adopted in fore peak region, aft peak region and machinery space region. The volume below deck is subdivided into: machinery space cargo spaces ballast spaces pump room The requirements that must be met are: Volume requirements Adequate trim and stability Structural integrity Watertight subdivision and integrity Adequate access to spaces

50

12.3 Sketches A typical general arrangement of the vessel is given below. The drawings are not the scale.

51

12.4 Superstructure External bulkheads and decks of superstructure and deck house are of steel construction. Navigation bridge have been extended to the full breadth of the vessel. Funnel has sufficient height to prevent smoke nuisance at bridge and Accommodation areas. A weather tight door with ladder has been provided at the side of the funnel on casing top for alternate escape route from engine room. Deck machinery Deck machinery has been arranged as shown in the general arrangement plan. Windlass, mooring winches and deck crane are of electro-hydraulic type. Windlass is designed so as to be capable of lifting one bower anchor ,Each windlass provided with two declutch cable wire drums and two warping heads mounted on the shaft. Mooring winches are provided as shown in the General Arrangement Plan. Mooring rope Anchor Anchor Chain Anchor Windlass Towing Hook Search Light Rubber Fenders = 3 Lengths x 40mm Dia. x 30M = 2 x 360kgs Stockless Anchor = Total 9 Length x 17.5mm Stud Link, grade 2 = Electro Hydraulic Anchor Windlass = 1 unit 25 Tons = 1 x 1000W x 10Dia. = 18pcs x used 1000 tyres & 1 pc x used 1400 tyre

Doors The door sizes fitted are of approx. 750 mm width and 1800 mm height. Heavy weather tight steel doors are provided at weather-exposed entrances. All doors are provided with nameplates.

52

Accommodation Ladder Two accommodation ladders, one on each side, are provided on the upper deck as ahown in the G.A plan. They are of the vertical self-stowing type. Material Al alloy Width Approx. 800 mm

Windows The sizes of windows fitted are: Square windows : Approx. 400 x 600 mm in accommodation rooms Approx. 600 x 700 mm in public rooms Material : Aluminium alloy.

12.5 Accommodation The requirements should includes 1. Crew accommodation fwd. 2. All bulkheads should be of steel. If in contact with weather they have to be gas tight and watertight. Means for closing the opening to be provided. 3. Bulkheads connecting crew space with store, cargo spaced tanks etc should be watertight, gas tight. 4. Bulkheads connecting two galleys, sanitary space, laundry etc should be gastight and watertight up to a certain height. 5. Floors to be properly covered. 6. Protection: a) Protection of crew against injury. b) Protection of crew against weather. c) Insulation from heat and cold.
53

d) Protection from moisture. e) Protection from effluent originating in various compartments. f) Protection from noise. 7. No direct opening between accommodation and stores. 8. Side scuttles can be opened in sleeping rooms, mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms. 9. Separate sleeping rooms for officers, chief engineers etc. 10. Mess room should be able to accommodate all officers at the same time. 11. Recreation room should accommodate 1/3rd of the officers. 12. Recreation are on the open deck.

officers crew

: 2member : 6member

Total : 8 member GALLEY 1. 1 single bowl stainless steel sink with 2. 1 stainless steel 2 doors refrigerator 3. 1 air ventilator diameter 8 4. 3 spare power point. 5. loose galley equipment such as pot, pan cutlery, for 8 crews. 12.6 PAINTING AND CATHODIC PROTECTION

PAINTING GENERAL All steel plate are to be shot blasted Sa 2.5 and primed with one coat epoxy primer before fabrication (about 20 microns dry film thickness) or Care must be taken to ensure the surfaces are free of all kinds of contamination.

54

PAINTING SCHEMES Following specifications based on Hempel Coating System are for guidance. Other specifications of equal standard would be acceptable. Keel to Waterline 1 coat Epoxy 15039 1 coats Epoxy 45889 2 coats Antifouling 80900 Waterline to Deck 1 coat Epoxy 15309 2 coats Epoxy 15139 Main Deck 1 coat Epoxy 15309 2 coats Epoxy 45889 F.W. Tanks 1 coat Epoxy 15039 2 coats Epoxy 15409 Bilge, Void Spaces, Chain Locker & SWB Tanks 1 coat Epoxy 15309 2 coats Epoxy 15139 F.O. Tank 1 coat Red Oxide 30mic 60mic 30mic 120mic 30mic 100mic Dry Film Thickness 30mic 50mic 125mic

30mic 150mic

25mic

Exterior/ Interior of Superstructure, crew Accommodation, Engine Room & Stores & Steering Gear. 1 coat 15309 1 coat Enamel White 52140 30mic 60mic
55

CATHODIC PROTECTION Zinc anodes are to be bolted the immersed loaded hull rudders and inside of the sea chest, total of 8kg x 20pcs zinc anode or equal 12.7 PIPEWORK COLOURING All exposed piping system are to be identified with color bands in accordance with the following schemes: 1) Bilge & ballast : black 2) Fire main : bright red 3) F.W. System Cold : blue 4) Fuel Oil : brown 5) Lub Oil : yellow 6) Hydraulic Oil : purple 7) Sea Suctions : green 8) Seawater cooling : light green

12.8 LIFE SAVING AND FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT LIFE SAVING EQUIPMENT To be accordance with Requirement of Singapore Marine Department for as per safety plan Tug Boat with a total complement of eight men. Life Raft = 2 x 8men inflatable life raft Life Buoys = Eight (8) life buoy Life Jacket = Fourteen (8) life jackets complete with light and whistle FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main = Three (3) x 1 fire hydrant with coupling and nozzles Fire Man Outfit = One (1) complete set . Fire Extinguisher = 8 x 9kgs dry chemical and 1 x 40 Ltr. Wheeled Form Or as per Safety plan Portable emergency Diesel Pump = One(1) unit 1 ELECTRICAL Electrical fittings use to be of good quality wiring system are comply with classification societys requirements.

56

AC Supply From 2 x 28 kw diesel driven generator set. 415/ 4/ 50 running in single.

DC Supply From batteries, 2x 150 N and 2X150 N as per classification requirement.

12.9 Navigation lights


Navigation lights provided as per SOLAS requirements 1) Masthead light one on forward mast and one on navigational mast. 2) Side lights Red light on port side and green light on starboard. Fitted on the sides of navigation bridge. 3) Anchor lights All round white light at forward mast. 4) Stern light White light at extreme aft. 5) Towing light Yellow light at forward mast.

The tug shall be fitted with the following equipment which must be maintained in good working order: 1. Compass 2. Facility to take compass bearings 3. RADAR with plotting facility 4. Echo sounder 5. Rudder Angle, RPM, variable pitch and bow thrust indicators (if fitted) 6. Marine VHF radiotelephone installation 7. Electronic Position Fixing Receiver 8. Mobile telephone

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13 Detailed Capacity Calculations and Drawings 13.1 Introduction


The cargo hold capacity is estimated for checking to carry out capacity of the vessel. Aside from their relationship to ship operating revenue, capacity calculations include locating center of gravity of all spaces containing significant dead weight items. The weights and center of gravities of these items are indispensable to stability and trim studies. Table shows tank capacity & centre of gravity.
TANK NAME BWT(PORT)1 BWT(STARBOARD)2 FOT(PORT)1 FOT(STARBD)2 DT(PORT)1 LUBE OIL TANK FOT(PORT)3 FOT(STARBD)4 FWT(PORT,WINGS)1 FWT(STARBD,WINGS)2 FPT(PORT)1 FPT(STARBD)2 SWT(PORT) BWT(PORT)3 BWT(STARBOARD)4 BWT(PORT)5 BWT(STARBOARD)6 BWT(PORT)7 BWT(STARBOARD)8 HYROLIC OIL TANK BWT(STARBOARD)9 LOCATION (between stations) 0-2 0-2 2--5 2--5 5--6 5--6 12--16 12--16 16--17 16--17 17--19 17--19 7--9 5--7 5--7 6--7 6--7 4--5 4--5 5--6 7--9 VOLUME 3.25 3.25 9.59 9.59 0.99 0.99 16.4 16.4 6.33 6.33 4.44 4.44 4.12 5.45 5.45 1.27 1.27 2.06 2.06 0.37 4.12 LCG 0.984 0.984 3.44 3.44 5.41 5.41 13.78 13.78 16.2 16.2 17.45 17.45 7.87 VCG 2.47 2.47 2.3 2.3 2.34 2.34 0.74 0.74 1.476 1.476 1.32 1.32 0.35 1.28 1.28 0.39 0.39 1.57 1.57 0.48 0.35

5.9 5.9
6.39 6.39 4.42 4.42 5.71 7.87

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The capacities of tanks/compartments are determined using computer softwares like Autocad/MS excel. Table indicates the moulded capacities of respective tanks/compartments along with their location and centre of gravity.

13.2 Loading conditions


Procedure The LCG of the lightship mass is known. The mass and center of gravity of cargo, stores and ballast water are to be determined. Therefore, displacement at any loading condition is the sum of the corresponding weight components. Since the displacement at each condition is known. The range of loading conditions which a ship might experience varies with its type and the service in which it is engaged.

1) Fully loaded departure condition with 90% component

Loaded departure
Sr No Light weight Total fresh water (90%) Total ballast water (90%) Total Fuel oil tank (90%) Total sewage Human weight Food(10days) LUBE OIL TANK (90%) Dirty oil tank TOTAL WEIGHT component weight(T) 145 9.234 34.218 38.9376 0 1.02 1.5 0.784971 0 230.6946 59

2) Arrival condition with 10% component

Loaded arrival
Sr No 1 Light weight 2 Total fresh water (10%) 3 Total ballast water (90%) 4 Total Fuel oil tank (10%) 5 Total sewage (90%) 6 Human weight 7 Food(10days) 8 LUBE OIL TANK (10%) 9 Dirty oil tank (50%) TOTAL WEIGHT component weight(T) 145 1.026 34.218 4.3264 3.888 1.02 0 0.087219 0.41184 189.9775

3) Ballast departure condition with 90% component

Ballast departure
sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 component Light weight Total fresh water (90%) Total ballast water (90%) Total Fuel oil tank (90%) Total sewage Human weight Food(10days) LUBE OIL TANK (90%) Dirty oil tank TOTAL WEIGHT weight(T) 145 9.234 34.218 38.9376 0 1.02 1.5 0.7849 0 230.6945 60

4) Ballast arrival condition with 10% component

Ballast arrival
sr No 1 Light weight 2 Total fresh water (10%) 3 Total ballast water (90%) 4 Total Fuel oil tank (10%) 5 Total sewage ( 90%) 6 Human weight 7 Food(10days) 8 LUBE OIL TANK (10%) 9 Dirty oil tank (50%) TOTAL WEIGHT component weight(T) 145 1.026 34.218 4.3264 3.888 1.02 0 0.087 0.41184 189.9775

5) Ballast arrival condition with 10% component


Light ship Sr No 1 Light weight 2 Total fresh water 3 Total ballast water 4 Total Fuel oil tank 5 Total sewage 6 human weight 7 food(10days) 8 Lube oil tank 9 Dirty oil tank TOTAL WEIGHT component weight(T) 145 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 145 61

14. Conclusion
One of the principal uses of Bonjean Curves is determining volume of displacement of the tug at any level or trimmed waterline. Hydrostatic curves are useful in loading and stability studies during the design phase. While we making the hydrostatic curve of Harbor, Ocean Towing Tug , we also study the tug structure, stability, shape, uses of bonjean curve, etc. Loading condition of Harbor tug provides a ship's stability, and hence may vary considerably during the course of a voyage, or from one voyage to the next.

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