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4. RESULTS Table 4.1.

Purchased Equipment Cost of each equipment Equipment Name Tanks T101-104 T105 T106 Drums D101 D102 D103 D104 Pumps P101A/B P102A/B P103A/B P104A/B P105A/B Heat Exchangers E101 E102 E103 E104 Distillation Columns C102 C103 C104 Reactor R101 PEC(TL) Workers pay (%50 PEC) Total PEC with Workers Pay PEC(TL) 4,858,857 28,791 28,791 28,395 10,670 4,263 2,645 4,500 720 560 600 2,060 16,912 16,912 7,904 6,282 289,735 183,587 254,702 17,283 5,764,168 2,882,084 8,646,252

Table 4.2.Amount of Utilities for DME Plant Utilities Amount Cooling Water (m3/s) First column Condenser 0,027 Second Column Condenser 0,022 Third Column Condenser 0,05 E104 0,0014 R101 0,012 Steam (kg/s) E101 1,4 E102 1,4 First Column Reboiler 0,807 Second Column Reboiler 1,080 Third Column Reboiler 1,215

Electricity (kW) Pumps Heat Exchangers Catalyst (kg)

15,299 1,15 2197

Table 4.3.Total Cost Estimation Values for DME Plant TCI ESTIMATION FOR DME PLANT Direct Cost Purchased Equipment Purchased Equipment Installation, painting Instrumentation & Controls (installed) Piping Electrical (installed) Yard Improvements and Service Facilities Buildings and Process Auxiliary Land Improvements Total Direct Cost Indirect Cost Engineering & Supervision Legal Expenses Construction Expenses Contractor's Fee & Construction Expenses Contingency Total Indirect Cost Fixed Capital Investment Working Capital Total Capital Investment Range 100% 47% PEC 36% PEC 68% PEC 11% PEC 70% PEC 18% PEC 4% PEC TL 8,646,252 4,063,738 31,12,650 5,879,451 951,087 6,052,376 1,556,325 345,850 30,607,733

33% PEC 3% PEC 40% PEC 22% PEC 44% PEC

2,853,263 259,387 3,458,500 1,902,175 3,804,351 12,277,678 42,885,412 4,765,045 47,650,457

0.1*TCI

Table 4.4.Total Annual Cost Estimation

1. Manufacturing Cost A. Direct Production Cost Raw Materials Operating Labor Operating Supervision Utilities Components Cooling Water Catalyst Steam Electricity Maintenance and Repairs Operating Supplies Laboratory Charges Operating Cost B. Fixed Charges Depreciation Local Taxes Insurance Financing Fixed Cost C. Plant Overhead Cost 2. General Expenses Administrative 3. Total Annual Cost

Range

Cost, TL/yr. 56,349,526 2,766,000

%10 Op. Labor

276,600 65,129 123,936 1,446,768 22,370

%2 FCI %15 Maintenance

857,708 128,656 290,520 63,985,419

FCI/20 % 1 FCI %0,05 FCI % 5 FCI %50 A-expenses %50 A-expenses

2,144,271 428,854 214,427 2,382,523 5,170,075 1,950,154 780,061 69,936,985

Note: A-expenses means that sum of the Operating labor, operating supervision and maintenance and repair expenses.

Table 4.5.Determination of Selling Price and Payout period

% Capacity Annual Fixed Expenses (TL/yr) BREAK EVEN POINT Price (TL/lt) Price (with returning) (TL/lt) Return Payout Period Average Profit (TL/yr) % Taxes Taxes (TL/yr) Gross Earning (TL/yr) SHUTDOWN POINT Capacity (lt/yr)

70 2,144,270

0,874 0,993 22,2 2 19,298,435 0,2 3,859,687 15,438,748

77,576,750

% Capacity Annual Fixed Expenses (TL/yr) BREAK EVEN POINT Price (TL/lt) Price (with returning) (TL/lt) Return Payout Period Average Profit (TL/yr) % Taxes Taxes (TL/yr) Gross Earning (TL/yr) SHUTDOWN POINT Capacity (lt/yr) 5. DISCUSSION

100 2,144,270

0,612 0,695 22,2 2 19,298,435 0,2 3,859,687 15,438,748

110823928

First revision was to determine heat entegration in the heat exchangers. The heated streams must be used for heat another streams while restrictions suitable and requirements were sufficient. The stream at the reactor outlet has been sent to third exchanger which was Shell and tube heat exchanger. This stream will be heat the feed, also this idea was improved by generating steam at 9 bar spontaneously. This steam at 9 bar also will be generated in calandria which were last exchanger. Furthermore, this steam was expected to use in distillation columns. Unfortunately, the amounts of steam that must be used to heat columns have been determined but it was insufficient. So specific steam generator has been used to provide steam at 9 bar to heat the distillation columns. Second Revision was to determine storage tanks and its properties. Storage tanks have been placed with high strong material as stainless steel 304 type. Stainless steel 304 type has a corrosion resistance to high corrosive organic compounds. It has been searched in literature that all construction materials in an order to stock the raw materials. Since the methanol was high corrosive organic compounds the sufficient construction material has been selected as stainless steel 304 type. This type has five stars to stock this organic compound. Also storage tank design has been made so it has 23,43 m diameter and 7,73 m height been found. Optimum aspect ratio has been found as 0.3. It has been selected as four storage tanks as slight change from five tanks according to our graph. Also increase in tank quantity causes much land conquered. So four tanks selected has been selected due to this issues. Size of the profiles has been selected as 1,5x6 type for storage, intermediate tanks and the feed drum. This type of profile leads to less welding also it cannot cause the leakage in the tanks. Also the cost of nitrogen gas to provide no ignition has been found 441 TL. Heat exchanger purchased cost has been determined according to price of stainless steel per kilogram. The tubes and Shell of the exchanger cost has been calculated according to total weight of this system. Also specifications in heat exchangers have been determined. The pressure drop at the Shell side and tube side has been discovered as low due to the less length of the tubes. So the electricity of these equipments has been calculated as low cost. As a comparison with the electricity in pumps to heat exchanger, power of pump calculated bigger than the exchanger requirement so its neglected to add the electricity cost.

The electricity requirement of the reflux pumps has been calculated according to common height of the platform and height of top of the column. Also pressure drop in this section has been assumed. So another revision was to reassemble the reactor specifications. Required profile cost of the reactor has been calculated to determine to purchased equipment cost. Construction material was also selected as stainless steel due to corrosive compounds and reaction occurring in this system. The amount of construction material volume has been calculated and passed to its mass by using density of it. Then profile cost has been calculated with respect to profile cost per kilogram. Head of the reactor was assumed as one profile thickness height and top and bottom head has been calculated. This head and profile cost has been calculated as 16816 TL. The serpentine system has 32 tubes. Also cost of the tubes has been calculated. Construction material of the tubes was stainless steel also. Cost of the tubes has been calculated in the same manner. It has been found 466 TL. All this data has been sum and it has been found as purchased equipment cost as 17,283 TL. After this manner, operating cost calculation has been done for this equipment. Firstly, catalyst and cooling water cost has been determined in this section. The price of the catalyst Gama-alumina has been searched from the literature per kilogram. Service life has been taken as 2 years. The void fraction has been used for calculating the volume of catalyst. The mass of catalyst has been determined with respect to its density. The cost of catalyst has been found as 123,936 TL/year. Catalyst cost cannot be add into purchased equipment cost. It can be said that the provider has no responsibility to add the catalyst in it. Catalyst must be add in after purchased. To protect the temperature constant cooling water has been used. Reactor cooling water cost has been found 6923 TL/year. The fixed capital investment and total capital investment of the DME plant that has been constructed was estimated according to some specific properties of cost estimation pen. The all percentages have been taken from global determinations except for raw materials, engineering supervision and maintenance and repairs. These values estimated according to our country. For cost estimation, updated data has been used. Moreover, utility estimation has been done due kilowatts per hour price, cubic meter of the water price and the steam generator prices. This datas has been determined by doing market survey in our country. Other revision was to determine the distillation column properties. First and third column Rd/Rdmin ratio was estimated again from the graph. This reason can be said that; there must

be real estimation for columns not for total annual cost. The optimum Rd/Rdmin value has been selected from number of stage graph. First column ratio was determined as 1.46, third column selection was 1.41. Another important issue was determination of the operating labor. For the laboratory experiments, one chemistry technique personnel and three labor ants have been hired for this duty. For field agents, three chemical engineer, six technical personnel and thirty employers have been hired. The cost of the employees to the employer has been calculated according to social insurance datas in our country. We found the cost factor of an engineer as 2.0 and technical personnel and workers factor as 1.8 from the social insurance community. 107,330 tons methanol has been processed to produce 75000 tons DME per year. Plant was processed firstly seventy percent capacity. This statement can be mentioned as; the demand of the product could not be predicted and control of the machines must be checked whether its stable or not. The production of the DME has been investigated in Turkey that was less amount percentage with respect to the global production. The abetment of the production of DME must be provided by the government. The money that we have been invested for plant assumed to be return in two years. Then average profit has been calculated per year. This value was 19.298.435 TL/year. This value has been calculated after taxes as 15.438.748 TL/yr with the tax ratio has been searched for markets as twenty percent of profit. The price of the DME has been calculated as 0,993 TL/lt. for seventy percent capacity plant. If capacity of the plant processed with hundred percentages so the price of the DME has been calculated as 0,695 TL/lt. Furthermore, there will be more production with less worth. Full capacity work must be selected when the mechanical equipments on the stable as maximum. Finally, fixed capital investment has been found as 42.885.411TL. So total capital investment has been calculated with this data as 47.650.457 TL. At last, total annual cost has been calculated the biggest due to the raw material prices so the total annual cost was 69.936.985 TL/year.

6. CONCLUSION Past to present, there must be some issues to understand. Firstly, in equipment design we learned the fundamentals of these equipments. First the heat entegration in the system has been done. The stream at reactor outlet has been sent to third heat exchanger (E103) to heat the feed stream. After all these revision to the equipments there must be some considerations for the cost of the system. Fixed and Total capital investments of the DME plant has been calculated according to some specific datas in literature. Also there must be some corrections to the percentages due to plant location in which country. Operating labor pen has been calculated according to social insurance community datas to provide the legal working conditions. Gross earnings also has been calculated according to total income and total production cost. Gross earnings have to be assembled according to some taxes in the country for your legal considerations. Payout period has been calculated for to discuss whether its a reasonable study or not. It was the most important value as fixed capital investment. This value means that you must put these values to the table at first to start the production. These values can be arranged with some specific options which have been discussed. After all, total capital investment, fixed capital investment and total annual cost of the system has been determined and checked whether its reasonable or not according to payout period.

7. RECOMMENDATION The purchased equipment cost of the heat exchangers have been calculated from the price per kilograms. Also the purchased equipment cost can be calculated from the volume price of the stainless steel. The electricity requirement for the heat exchangers has been neglected. But it can be taken into account when doing the cost estimation. The protection wall can be constructed to the storage tanks due to a leakage in the tanks. Ignition and flammable digital indicators can be put into tanks system due to engage the fire in the plant. Another cooling medium can be used instead of cooling water in the reactor. Different tube standard can be changed for cooling system in serpentine. There can be another inert gas can be placed into storage tanks instead of nitrogen gas.

8. SYMBOLS A b C
Cb C bR CK C PM

CT FM FNR FRM FRT NR n X


x y

z AT B C Di Do Ds dc L SC Z P
:

: Material factor for the plates constant : Material factor for the plates constant : Base cost constant : Base cost of column, $ : Base cost for plate, $ : Cost of shell of the column, $ : Cost of platform and ladder, $ : Total cost of the column, $ : Material factor for cost of shell of the column : Correction factor : Material factor for the plates : Plate of factor : Number of plates : Base cost constant : Base cost variable : Platform and ladder cost constant : Platform and ladder cost constant : Platform and ladder cost constant : Total heat transfer area (m2) : Baffle (m) : Clearance (m) : Inside Diameter (m) : Outside Diameter (m) : Shell Diameter (m) : Diameter of column (m) : Length (m) Area (m2) : Reactor height (m) : Pressure Drop (atm) : Void fraction : Column height (m) : Wall thickness of the column (m)

H t

9. REFERENCES

1. Uysal, B., KTLE TRANSFER, Alp Yaynevi, 2003. 2. Perry J.H., Chemical Engineers Handbook, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Co., 1963. 3. Coulson J.M., Richardson J.F., Sinnott R.K., Chemical Engineering Volume & Design, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1983 4. Peters M.S., Timmerhaus K.D., Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, International Student Ed., Singapore, 1981. 5. Ulrich G.D., A Guide Chemical Engineering Process Design and Economics, John Wiley & Sons, 1984. 6. Safety Data Sheet, www.rawchem.co.uk/

APPENDIXES APPENDIX A.AREA VERSUS COST GRAPHS FOR CONDENSER AND REBOILER

Figure .... Graph of condenser area versus condenser cost

Figure ..... Graph of reboiler area versus reboiler cost

APPENDIX B. PUMP COSTS Table ..... Power and cost of centrifugal pumps

APPENDIX C. h/D RATIOS VERSUS COST GRAPHS FOR EQUIPMENTS

Figure ..... h/D ratios versus storage tanks costs graph

Figure .... h/D ratios versus Intermediate tanks costs graph

Figure ..... L/D ratios versus feed drum profile cost APPENDIX D. MATERIAL STRESSES

Figure ..... Typical design stresses for materials

APPENDIX E. DATA SHEETS OF EQUIPMENTS Table ..... First Distillation Column Results Data Sheet Equipment No:C102 Descrip. TOP 0,982 BOTTOM 0,638

Column Data Sheet Operating Data Tower inside diameter (m)

Tray space

0.45

0.45

Total trays in section

10

24

Flow Rate (kmol/h)

205,37

314,62

Height of Column(m)

15,87

Rdmin

0,51

Nmin

Internal Conditions at Tray Number Top VAPOUR TO TRAY Rate (kmol/h) 360 155,51 Bottom

Density (kg/m3)

18,3

6,93

Pressure(atm)

10.43

10.63

Temperature(K)

320,1

434,4

LIQUID FROM TRAY

Rate (kmol/h)

155

470

Temperature (K)

320,1

434,4

Density(kg/m3)

617,58

835

Viscosity (Pa.sec)

3.93*10-4

1.49*10-4

mwater/msteam (kg/s)

27,05

0,8

Area Condenser/Reboiler (m2)

of 114,15 109,34

Heat Duty (kW)

1698,9

1640,2

Number of hole on tray 4279

4279

Technical/Mechanical Data

Column Material

304 Stainless Steel

304 Stainless Steel

Tray Material

304 Stainless Steel

304 Stainless Steel

Corrosion (mm)

allowance

Pressure of Steam for Reboiler (bar)

Table ..... Second Distillation Column Data Sheet Equipment No:C103 Descrip.

Column Data Sheet

Operating Data Tower inside diameter (m)

TOP 0,89

BOTTOM 0,76

Tray space

0.45

0.45

Total trays in section Flow Rate (kmol/h) Height of Column(m) Rdmin Nmin

14 4,25 8,66 15,37 8

3 310,36

Internal Conditions at Tray Number Top VAPOUR TO TRAY Rate (kmol/h) 200 Bottom

204,24 9.73

Density (kg/m3)

4.035

Pressure(atm)

5.76

5.96

Temperature(K)

336,6

413

LIQUID FROM TRAY Rate (kmol/h) 200

510

Density (kg/m3)

668

860

Temperature(K)

336.6

413

Viscosity (Pa.sec)

3.23*10-4

1.7*10-4

mwater/msteam (kg/s)

2,66

0,146

Area Condenser/Reboiler (m2)

of 8,25 8,49

Heat Duty (kW)

167,5

297,27

Number of hole on tray 3574

3574

Technical/Mechanical Data

Column Material

304 Stainless Steel

304 Stainless Steel

Tray material

304 Stainless Steel

304 Stainless Steel

Corrosion (mm)

allowance

3 9

Pressure of Steam for Reboiler (bar)

Table ...... Third Distillation Column Data Sheet Equipment No:C104 Descrip. TOP 1,3 BOTTOM 0,92

Column Data Sheet Operating Data Tower inside diameter (m)

Tray space

0.45

0.45

Total trays in section Flow Rate (kmol/h) Height of Column Rdmin Nmin

15 100,63 13,15 1,52 7

12 209,73

Internal Conditions at Tray Number Top VAPOUR TO TRAY Rate (kmol/h) 216 Bottom

317 1,17

Density (kg/m3)

0,713

Pressure(atm)

1,2

Temperature(K)

338

378

LIQUID FROM TRAY

Rate (kmol/h)

216

426

Density (kg/m3)

751

970

Temperature(K)

338

378

Viscosity (Pa.sec)

3.18*10-4

2,18*10-4

mwater/msteam (kg/s)

49,85

1,21

Area Condenser/Reboiler (m2)

of 105,78 35,29

Heat Duty (kW)

3130,86

2470,65

Number of hole on tray 7576

7576

Technical/Mechanical Data

Column Material

304 Stainless Steel

304 Stainless Steel

Tray Material

304 Stainless Steel

304 Stainless Steel

Corrosion (mm)

allowance

Pressure of Steam for Reboiler (bar)

Table .. Storage tanks optimum aspect ratio determination

Table .. Storage Tanks Specifications

Table ... Feed Drum Optimum Aspect Ratio Determination

Table .. Feed Drum Specifications

Table ..

Reflux Drum in first column Optimum Aspect Ratio Determination

Table .. Reflux Drum in Second column Optimum Aspect Ratio Determination

Table . Reflux Drum in Third column Optimum Aspect Ratio Determination

Table ....E101 Data Sheet TEMA Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet Operating Data Size 0.883.5 Type Calandria No. of Tubes 608 Surface per tube 0.00042 (m2) Flow Allocation Fluid Name Fluid quantity, total(kg/s) Vapor (in/out) (kg/s) Liquid (kg/s) Vaporized or condensed Temperature (in/out) (K) Density (vapor,liquid) (kg/m ) Viscosity (vapor,liquid) (Pa.s) Molecular Weight (kg/kmol) Specific heat (vapor,liquid) Thermal Conductivity (vapor,liquid) (W/m.K) Latent heat (kJ/kg) Inlet Pressure (atm) Fouling factor (W/m K) Velocity (m/s) No.of passes Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) Qrequired (kW) : 2887 Qsafety Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K)
2 3

Equipment No: E101 Descrip.: Heater

Heat transfer area 169,81 (m2) Performance of one tube Shell Side Steam 1.4 1.4 0 condensed 448 6.12 18 448 945,5 0.0001523 18 0.679 2029,50 9 10000 1 1463,64 Qactual (kW): 3352,45 1.16 317,19 9 12.5 3636.36 0.01 1 508,78 306 13.55 0.000018 32 1.76 0.0215 882 0 1.4 0 2.32 vaporized 428 722 0.0003 32 3.06 0.18 Tube Side Feed mixture 2.32 2.32 0

Construction of One Shell Tubes Shell (m) Baffles OD: 0.0254 ID: 0.88 spacing % cut : %50 ID: 0.02329 Length: 3.5

Corrosion allowance 3 (mm)

Table .... E102 Data Sheet TEMA Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet Operating Data Size 0.883.5 Type Calandria No. of Tubes 608 Surface per tube 0.00042 (m2) Flow Allocation Fluid Name Fluid quantity, total(kg/s) Vapor (in/out) (kg/s) Liquid (kg/s) Vaporized or condensed Temperature (in/out) (K) Density (vapor,liquid) (kg/m3) Viscosity (vapor,liquid) (Pa.s) Molecular Weight (kg/kmol) Specific heat (vapor,liquid) Thermal Conductivity (vapor,liquid) (W/m.K) Latent heat (kJ/kg) Inlet Pressure (atm) Fouling factor (W/m2 K) Velocity (m/s) No.of passes Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) Qrequired (kW) : 2887 Qsafety Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) 9 10000 1 1463,64 Qactual (kW): 3352,45 1.16 317,19 2029,50 9 12.5 3636.36 0.01 1 508,78 18 448 6.12 1.4 0 condensed 448 945,5 0.0001523 18 0.679 306 13.55 0.000018 32 1.76 0.0215 882 Steam 1.4 0 1.4 0 2.32 vaporized 428 722 0.0003 32 3.06 0.18 Heat transfer area 169,81 (m2) Performance of one tube Shell Side Tube Side Feed mixture 2.32 2.32 0 Equipment No: E102 Descrip.: Heater

Construction of One Shell Tubes Shell (m) Baffles OD: 0.0254 ID: 0.88 spacing % cut : %50 ID: 0.02329 Length: 3.5

Corrosion allowance 3 (mm)

Table .... E103 Data Sheet TEMA Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet Operating Data Size 0.542.44 Type Shell and No. of Tubes tube 316 Equipment No: E103 Descrip.: Heater

Surface per tube 0.00017 (m2) Flow Allocation Fluid Name Fluid quantity, total(kg/s) Vapor (in/out) (kg/s) Liquid (kg/s) Vaporized or condensed Temperature (in/out) (K) Density (vapor,liquid) (kg/m ) Viscosity (vapor,liquid) (Pa.s) Molecular Weight (kg/kmol) Specific heat (vapor,liquid)
3

Heat transfer area 39.67 (m2) Performance of one tube Shell Side Hot stream 4.64 4.64 0 628 8.75 0.000018 32 0.046 11.83 0.092 10000 18.22 1 1535 Qactual (kW): 1039 1.25 261.69 11.82 12.5 2.45 3636.36 8.25 1 424 494 32 428 10.31 0.0000156 32 1.88 0.035 12.47 4.64 0 4.64 0 523 32 Tube Side Feed mixture 4.64 4.64 0

Thermal Conductivity (vapor,liquid) (W/m.K) Latent heat (kJ/kg) Inlet Pressure (atm) Pressure Drop (kPa) Fouling factor (W/m2 K) Velocity (m/s) No.of passes Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) Qrequired (kW) : 832 Qsafety Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) Table .... E104 Data Sheet Tubes Shell (m) Baffles

Construction of One Shell -TEMA Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet OD: 0.01954 ID: 0.01483 ID: 0.54 spacing % cut : %50

Equipment No: E104 Length: 2.44 Cooler Descrip.:

Corrosion allowance 3 mm

Operating Data Size 0.682.5 Type Calandria No. of Tubes 349 Heat transfer area 67 (m2) Performance of one tube Flow Allocation Fluid Name Fluid quantity, total(kg/s) Vapor (in/out) (kg/s) Liquid (in/out) (kg/s) Vaporized or condensed Temperature (in/out) (K) Density (vapor,liquid) (kg/m ) Viscosity (vapor,liquid) (Pa.s) Molecular Weight (kg/kmol) Specific heat (vapor,liquid) (kJ/kg.K) Thermal Conductivity (vapor,liquid) (W/m.K) Latent heat (kJ/kmol) Inlet Pressure (atm) Fouling factor (W/m2 K) Velocity (m/s) No.of passes Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) Qrequired (kW) : 1059.98 Qsafety Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) 9 10000 0.07 1 1356 Qactual (kW): 1265.44 1.19 388.19
3

Shell Side Cooling water 1.41 0 1.41 evaporated 298 5.78 0.0000152 18 34.77 0.03 2029.5 9 452 972.8 0.000282 18 75.79 0.68 494 1.41 0

Tube Side Feed mixture 4.64 4.64 0 2.63 2.01 condensed 350 526.53 0.000131 14 0.271 0.3086 11.83 3636.36 1 752.02 11.83 10.56 0.0000148 32 0.547 0.324

Construction of One Shell Tubes Shell (m) Baffles OD: 0.0254 ID: 0.68 spacing % cut : %50 ID: 0.02329 Length: 2.5

Corrosion allowance 3 mm