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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 494-511 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

FEASIBILITY OF DIRECT PUMPING FOR IRRIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS


Ibrahim R. Teaima1, Alaa A. A. Gharieb2 and M. A. Younes1 Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, Egypt 2 Water Management Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, Egypt
1

ABSTRACT This research was initiated with the objective of studying the feasibility of replacing the head tank as a safety system feeder at the irrigation pipeline with air valve in order to reduce the cost of meska improvement per feddan. Field measurements were conducted on three mesqa pumping stations at Meet Yazid command area. A numerical simulation to the pressure variation for unsteady state flow was performed using KY Pipe 2010 code. Pressure history during power failure was presented. A comparison between the computation and field measurements was held. The comparison indicated that the numerical simulations were in good agreement with actual field measurements values. The research indicated that the head tank, at the pumping station, could be replaced with an air valve without any dangerous effect and might save about 606 LE/feddan. Keywords: Irrigation improvement, direct pumping, pipeline safety, head tank. 1. INTRODUCTION Improvement of tertiary canals (meska) constitutes the major part of improving irrigation performance. It includes replacement of the existing system with improved ones. The old system is usually earthen and low level ditch with non-organized water withdrawal through multiple pumping/lifting points along its length. Two types were recommended for improving the old system, open elevated mesqa and buried low-pressure pipe. Elevated one is an open ditch, but lined and elevated. Normal water level in the elevated mesqa was set to
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

permit gravity flow to fields at 15 cm above the level. Alternatives for elevated mesqa include a rectangular concrete cast-in place selection and pre-cast concrete J section. Low pressure PVC pipeline mesqa is another option for replacing the old mesqa. It is set at approximately one meter below grad and is provided with risers at spacing of 100 meters. Such types of mesqas, elevated or pipeline are intended to reduce the seepage of water to minimum value. This research was initiated with the objective of studying the feasibility of replacing the head tank as a safety system feeder at the irrigation pipeline with air valve in order to reduce the cost of meska improvement per feddan. The investigation phases during the course of this research are presented in this paper under the following headlines: Outlining Irrigation Improvement Project (IIP) Describing the study area Outlining the pumping system within the study area Describing the hydraulic transient Executing simulations Executing field measurements Analyzing and presenting the results Comparing the field and numerical results Undergoing a financial and an economic analyses: 2. OUTLINING THE IRRIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (IIP) The Irrigation Improvement Project (IIP) is a project which is implemented in order to increase water use efficiency and agricultural productivity in Egypts old lands. Increasing water use efficiency is used in a broad sense with a connotation of improving irrigation water management rather than in the sense of the traditional definitions of water use efficiency, this is to be accomplished by implementing a series of interventions at the irrigation delivery system and on-farm levels, designed to remove irrigation related constraints to increased agricultural production and to consider a full range of technical, economic, environmental and social factors impacting irrigation water management. The IIP package includes both hard and soft interventions at the delivery and tertiary (meska) system levels. Hardware interventions at the meska level comprise the construction of collective pumping stations (single-point lifting) at the head of each meska and replacing the old earth meskas with either lined sections (prefabricated J sections) or low pressure buried pipelines with alfalfa valves. More than 2200 new meskas have been constructed so far, all meskas are equipped with diesel pumping stations. The general layout of the systems is similar. It comprise from a small pumping station, a head tank (a stand), and a pipeline (Mesqa) up to a bout 2000 m long at the end of which is a vent/surge stand pipe, figure (1). This pipeline is composed of PVC pipe with diameters of 315-450 mm. The pipeline has outlets at intervals along it which serve quaternary units (Marwas). Each outlet has a screw down valve allowing water to be discharged into open channels.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure (1) General layout of the meska pumping station Irrigation Improvement Project (IIP) was one of two schemes to achieve irrigation improvement. IIP is made up of improved control structures using modern methods in land leveling/tillage, on-farm development, rehabilitation of main and branch canals and most of all mesqas (using pipeline mesqa instead of earth mesqa), promoting equity of water distribution, and attaining a form of cooperation between the irrigation directorate and farmers by forming water users associations [1]. The Egyptian government is planning to continue the improvement works to reach a target of more than 3 million feddan by the year 2017 [2], [3] and [4]. IIP project has interesting impacts on the improved irrigation system through increasing crop yield, land area and other variable impacts [5], [6] and [7]. Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project, (IIIMP) was the second scheme to achieve optimal water resources use. The impacts of IIIMP is expected to achieve additional positive effects on water distribution, quantity, quality, equity, timeliness, water saving by using pipeline marwa instead of existing earth cross section and other technical assistance required for establishing water boards and water user associations [8]. The existing pumping stations with head tank as shown in figure (2) in addition, future IIP projects are currently under preparation to bring more areas under improvement. The contribution of pipeline cost, pumping station, civil work cost, pump sets cost and backfilling cost on the total cost are 47%, 29%, 14% and 10% respectively [9]. It means that the main affective items on the total cost are the pipeline, pumping station and civil works. The cost of the head tank is the major element which affects civil works.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure (2) Existing pumping station with head tank El-Askari et.al [10] studied the technical, economic and social feasibilities of electrifying the pumping stations of the improved meskas in future IIP projects instead of using diesel pumping sets. 3. DESCRIBING THE STUDY AREA A study area was chosen to be investigated. This area is about 105,325 feddans within Meet Yazid Canal command area. The area belongs to Gharbia and Kafr El-Sheikh Directorates in the Nile Delta and is located adjacent to existing IIP areas. Slightly more than 500 existing old meskas feed the irrigated lands in the study area with water from the delivery canals. It was decided to implement electric pumping stations as they are advantageous over the diesel ones from many perspectives. Technically electric motors provide a wider range of power selection (from 1 to 5 HP). They are readily available on-the-shelf, have higher efficiency than diesel motors, require less maintenance and provide greater ease so as flexibility of operation. Economically the annual total cost per feddan of the electric pumping stations is 20% lower due to their lower running costs, although the estimated total capital cost of the electric pumping stations is 11% higher than the estimated cost of the diesel pumps for the study area. The intake of Meet Yazid canal is located at Km 21 on the left-hand side of Bahr Shebein carrier. Canal flows with a gentle slope in north-western direction until it ends close to Borolls coastal lake with 63 Km length. It serves a total command area of about 197000 feddan through 19 branch canals. Several cross regulators are located on the canal in order to control water.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

4. OUTLINING THE PUMPING SYSTEM WITHIN THE STUDY AREA Direct pumping system is applied at three pumping stations. The first one is pumping station number (4) located at Km 52.67 on the left-hand side of Meet Yazid Canal. It serves a total command area of about 35.83 feddan. The pipeline material is composed of PVC with diameter of 200 mm and 329 m length. The pipeline has four outlets at intervals along its length which serves quaternary units (Marwas). Each outlet has a butterfly valve allowing water to be discharged into open channel. The pumping station consists of two small single stage end suction centrifugal pump, flow rate 40 L/s and 20 L/s, head (4.5-6 m), rated horse power (7.54 hp) at 1450 revaluation per min (rpm). The second one is pumping station number (7) located at Km 55.25 on the left-hand side of Meet Yazid canal. It serves a total command area of about 45.9 feddan. The pipeline material is composed of PVC pipe with diameter of 200 mm and 253 m length, the pipeline has five outlets at intervals along its length. The pumping station consists of two small single stage end suction centrifugal pump, flow rate 40 L/s and 20 L/s, head (4.5-6 m), rated horse power (7.5-4 hp) at 1450 rpm. The third one is pumping station number (12) located at Km 56.93 on the left-hand side of Meet Yazid canal. It serves a total command area of about 30.00 feddan. The pipeline material is composed of PVC pipe with diameter of 200 mm and 409 m length, the pipeline has five outlets. The pumping station consists of two small single stage end suction centrifugal pump. The flow rate is 30 L/s and 20 L/s. The head is (67.1 m) with a rated horse power of (5.5 hp) at 1450 rpm. Electric pumping station system can be modified by replacing the head tank by air valve and using the direct pumping method. This change in the design of the improved meska is an attempt to reduce the cost, which will be recovered from the farmers. Figure (3) shows the modified pumping station with air valve installation.

Figure (3) Modified pumping station with air valve installation

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME 5. DESCRIBING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT Transient flow is the most important item in the field of pipeline design and operation. Transient flow exists in any pipeline system when the rate of flow changes abruptly for various reasons. Some of the most common reasons are quick closing of valves accidental or planned, starting or stopping of pumps and power failure. Power failure is considered the worst-case scenario to produce hydraulic transient [11]. When transient flow occurs at the pipeline system, high intensity pressure waves travel through the piping system until it reaches a point of some relief such as a large diameter reservoir or piping main. The shock waves will then surge back and forth between the point of relief and the point of impact until the destructive energy is dissipated in the piping system. If severe negative pressures are allowed to occur along the pipeline, problems may arise due to pipe seal joint failure. The maximum allowable negative pressure in the pipes is specified to be 3 m of water. This is considered as the limiting value for the present transient analysis. The allowable maximum pressure along the pipeline is considered to be 4 bars. The transient flow direct impacts can be presented as follow, [12]: The pressure fluctuation leads to high stresses. The effective value depends upon the pressure value and the rate of the pressure change. It might lead to rapture for pipes, fittings, leaking and weakened connections, damage for water meters and gauges, pipe support damage, valves, connections, column separation and high pressure after the two columns rejoining which might lead to serious damage. Vibration and its effect on the pipe structure. High levels of vibration might cause a resonance or failure or a form of fatigue failure or fatigue accumulation. Noise and impulsive noise might induce impacts on labors. 6. EXECUTING SIMULATIONS Numerical computations are carried out by using KY Pipe 2010, Ver.5 [13] code. KY Pipe is a water dynamic simulation tool used to calculate pressure transients in piping systems caused by water hammer and that leads to design and operate systems with great reliability and safety by avoiding the potentially catastrophic effects of water hammer and other undesirable system transients. 6.a. PIPE 2010 Pipe 2010 is a powerful graphical user interface for laying out comprehensive pipe system models, accessing and running associated engineering analysis engines and presenting results in various ways. The models are entirely made up of pipe links end nodes and internal nodes. Using this approach only a few simple steps are required to develop and modify pipe systems and define the associated data. Friction losses through force mains shall be calculated using the Hazen-Williams equation:
hf = 10.675 L C
1.852

Q 1.852 D 4.87

(1)

Where: hf is the head loss due to friction in m of water L is the pipe length in m Q is the flow rate in m3/s D is the pipe diameter in m C is the friction coefficient which depends on roughness. For PVC material, it is common to use C=120~130.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

6.b. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS To get an accurate simulation, the mass flow rate, manometric head, pipeline profile of each meska are obtained. The simulation time of 120 second is presented. The pumping station is running in steady state condition and after 3 second the pumping station are stopped and the unsteady state analysis are taken. Table (1) shows the boundary conditions for three cases. Table (1): Boundary conditions for three cases

Meska

Number of pumps

Q (L/s)

Head (m)

Pipeline diameter (mm)

Pipeline length (m)

No. of valves

Pipeline material

Wave speed (m/s)

No.4

60

6.75

200

329

PVC

550

No.7

60

6.75

200

253

PVC

550

No.12

50

6.75

200

405

PVC

550

6.c. NUMERICAL RESULTS A hydraulic transient analysis was carried out on the three pumping stations to ensure the system sufficient protection from hydraulic transient. The maximum and minimum pressures, at any point along the pipeline profile, are taken. Also the pressure history at the beginning of meska pumping station is given. 6.c.1. MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM PRESSURE ON PIPELINE The maximum and minimum pressures inside pipeline for all tested meska are extracted at different sections in pipeline length. These distributions of pressure with time are obtained at operating conditions of meska pumping stations using numerical modeling. Figures (4), (5) and 6) show the maximum and minimum pressure during power failure when using air valve at the beginning of for all tested meskas. It is clear from these figures that the values of maximum and minimum pressure variation at any point along the pipeline profile are in the save mode. It means that the pressure variation decreases and the pipeline doesnt expose to high stresses due to pressure change.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Maximum pressure

Elevation (meters)

Air valve

HGL

Pumping station

Pipeline

Minimum pressure

Lower limit

Time (sec)

Figure (4) Envelops of maximum and minimum pressure for meska pumping station no.4

Maximum pressure

Elevation (meters)

Air valve

HGL

Pumping station Pipeline

Minimum pressure

Lower limit

Time (sec)

Figure (5) Envelops of maximum and minimum pressure for meska pumping station no.7

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Maximum pressure

Elevation (meters)

HGL Air valve

Pumping station Minimum pressure

Pipeline

Lower limit

Time (sec)

Figure (6) Envelops of maximum and minimum pressure for meska pumping station no.12 Figures (7) and (8) show the pressure variation inside the pipeline of meska pumping station no.7 and 12, respectively. From these figures it can be illustrated that, when shutdown pumping stations the pressure at the beginning of meska pipeline decreases from the steady state operating pressure about 8 meter of water, reach to the negative values then the pressure recovery reach the positive values and fluctuate about 1 meter and 0.5 meter of water for two measks, respectively. This means that the pipeline operate without any risks and more safety.

Head (meters)

Time (sec)

Figure (7) Pressure history at the beginning of meska pumping station no.7
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Head (meters)

Time (sec)

Figure (8) Pressure history at the beginning of meska pumping station no.12 7. EXECUTING FIELD MEASUREMENTS After complete studies of modified system numerically by using KY pipe code, field work was conducted on the three pumping stations at Meet Yazid canal Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate. A transit-time ultrasonic flow-meter type (1010) was used to measure the volume flow rate through the pipeline. A calibrated pressure transducer was used to measure pressure at the delivery side of the pumping units. Record card and signal conditioner, (Type ATMIO - 16E - 2) was used to collect the measured pressure value. The time history for pressure measurements were converted to a data file by using an application of LABVIEW software as a data acquisition system. Through another application of the MATLAB software program for signal, the electrical output signals data file was transformed and converted to a pressure head then pressure graph was prepared to give a complete view about the pressure history at the measuring point. Energy analyzer, (MICRO VIP MK12) was used to measure voltage, ampere, active power, energy, apparent power, frequency and power factor. The pressure head developed by the pumps are recorded with time at different operating conditions. 8. ANALYZING AND PRESENTING THE RESULTS Results were obtained, analyzed and presented, as follows. 8.a. HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE Actual measurement of flow rate is a simple way to find out how a pumping unit is performing. Measuring flow rate and operating pressures is required to determine if a pumping station is operating efficiently to convey desired flow rate. This is a cheap and easy task which should be performed regularly as part of the routine maintenance. Also, the power absorbed to drive the pump is a direct function of the discharge rate, the total pumping head
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

and the efficiency of the pump at that operating point. The efficiency of the pumping unit during normal operation becomes a significant factor in the capital and operating costs of the pumping unit. To evaluate the performance of Mesqa pumping station, delivery pressure, (Pd), suction pressure, (Ps), discharge, (Q), static head, (Zd-Zs) and electric power consumed, (kW) were measured for three pumping stations. The total head and efficiency can be calculated as follows:
Ht = Pd Ps Vd2 Vs2 + + (Z d Z s ) g 2g

(2)

W .P =

.g.Q.H t
C
W .P * 100 E.P

(3)

Overall (%) =

(4)

Where, Ht : is the total head (m) Zd-Zs : is the potential energy Pd Ps : is the pressure energy
g

Vd2 Vs2 : is the kinetic energy 2g

: W.P : E.P ; overall :

is the water density (kg/m3) is the water power (kW) is the electric power consumed (kW) is the overall efficiency

Table (2) shows the test results for three pumping station. The desired total flow rate of pumping station can be achieved from two units in operation and at least two valves are opened at the same time. Pump performance can be affected by a combination of many factors like sump condition and suction side. Table (2) shows that the pump delivers the design flow rate at manometric head about 10 m of water. The average overall efficiency of pumping unit (motor, coupling and pump) is about 66.5%. The overall efficiency of pumping unit is about the design values according to ISO 9906. Which recommended the tolerance of efficiency is (-5%). Also the pumps are operated satisfactory to give flow requirements MERI [14]. Table (2) Hydraulic test results for three pumping station Pump Station no. 4 7 12 Q (l/s) 40 40 30 Total Head (m) 10.05 9.97 9.95 Electric Power (kW) 5.83 5.7 4.66 Overall Water Power Efficiency (kW) (%) 3.94 67.60 3.91 68.59 2.93 62.80

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

8.b. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF PUMPING STATION NUMBER 4 The pipeline is connected to air valve at the beginning of manifold to protect the installations against water hammer and pressure surges, while check valves are provided for each pump to eliminate reverse flow, figure (3). A transient hydraulic analysis was carried out on the three chosen pumping station. The pressure history was recorded with high response pressure transducer located at beginning of the manifold of pipeline. Figure (9) shows the pressure history during shutdown of pumping station no.4 when opening valves no.2 and 3 also the measured flow rate of two pumps are 60 l/s. It can be seen that the pressure at the pipeline decrease gradually to reach (-2 m) water and increase to (1.2 m) water when using air valve.

Figure (9) pressure history during power failure using air valve when open valves no. 2 and 3

Figure (10) pressure history during power failure without air valve when open valves no. 2 and 3

Figure (10) shows the pressure history during shutdown of pumping station no.4 when opening valves no.2 and 3. Also the measured flow rates, of two pumps, are 61.2 l/s. It can be seen that the pressure at the pipeline decreases gradually to reach (-2.4 m) water and increase to about (-1.5 m) water without air valve. From figures (9) and (10), it can be concluded that the pressure decreases at shutdown the pumps in case of without air valve more than in case of using air valve. Also the negative pressure fluctuated inside the pipeline in case of not using air valve. Figure (11) shows the pressure history during shutdown the pumping station and the last two valves no.3 and no.4 are opened with air valve installation. The measured flow rate of two pumps are 62 l/s. Figure (12) illustrates the pressure history during shutdown the pumping station and the two last valves no.3 and 4 are open without air valve installation. The measured flow rate of two pumps is 60 l/s.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure (11) pressure history during power failure using air valve when open valves no. 3 and 4

Figure (12) pressure history during power failure without air valve when open valves no. 3 and 4

It is clear from figures (11) and (12) that when using air valve the pressure history fluctuated inside pipe line are about the positive values that means the installation of air valve at the beginning of the pipeline decrease the causing of negative pressures. 8.c. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF PUMPING STATION NUMBER 7 Pumping station number 7 consists of two pump sets connected in parallel with each other, the discharge of one pump is 40 l/s and the other one is 20 l/s the total capacity of the pumping station are 60 l/s at the static head (6-7.1) m of water the variation of static head according to the Meet Yazid canal water level. Figure (13) illustrates the pressure history during shutdown of pumping station number 7 when opening valve no.5 also the measured flow rate of two pumps are 52 l/s. It can be seen that the pressure at the pipeline decrease suddenly to reach (-0.85 m) water and increase to fluctuated about (0.85 m) water when using air valve. Figure (14) shows the pressure history during startup and shutdown the pumping station number 7 when opening the valve number 5 and flow rate measured 52 l/s without air valve installation. From this figure it can illustrate that the pressure inside the pipeline increases suddenly when startup the pumps to reach 8 m of water and decreases gradually to reach about 6 m of water. Also when shutdown the pumps, the pressure inside the pipeline deceases suddenly reach to (-2.1) m of water and increases to reach (2.2) m of water then fluctuate about 0.5 m of water.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure (13) pressure history during power failure using air valve when open valve no. 5

Figure (14) pressure history during start up and power failure without air valve when open valve no. 5

Figure (15) illustrates the pressure history during shutdown of pumping station no.7 when opening valves no.2 and 4 also the measured flow rate of two pumps are 54 l/s, and using air valve. From this figure it can illustrate that the pressure inside the pipeline increases suddenly when starting up the pumps to reach 8 m of water and deceases gradually to reach about 5.8 m of water. Also when shutdown the pumps, the pressure inside the pipeline deceases suddenly reach to -2 m of water and increases to reach 2.1 m of water then fluctuate about 0.2 m of water. Figure (16) shows the pressure history during starting up and shutdown the pumping station number 7 when opening the valves number 2 and 4. The total flow rate measured is 61.5 l/s. From this figure it can illustrate that, the pressure inside the pipeline increases suddenly when starting up the pumps to reach 7.8 m of water and deceases gradually to reach about 4.7 m of water, also when shutdown the pumps the pressure inside the pipeline deceases suddenly reach to (-2.9) m of water and increases to reach (1.35) m of water then fluctuate about this value.

Figure (15) pressure history during power failure using air valve when open valves no. 2 and 4

Figure (16) pressure history during start up and power failure without air valve when open valves no. 2 and 4

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

When shutdown the pumping station at the design flow rate without air valve installation, figure (16). The negative pressure values reach to (-3) m of water. Figure (15) shows that the negative pressure values reach -2 m of water with air valve installation. It can be concluded that using air valve at the beginning of meska pipeline allows the pipeline operating condition to be more safe. 8.d. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF PUMPING STATION NUMBER 12 Pumping station number 12 consists of two pump sets connected in parallel with each other. The discharge of one pump is 30 l/s and the other one is 20 l/s. The total capacity of the pumping station is 50 l/s at the static head 6 to 7.1 m of water, and five alfalfa valves distributed along the pipeline to irrigate all served area. Figure (17) illustrates the pressure history during starting up and shutdown the pumping station number 12 when valve number 5 is opening alone and measured flow rate is 40 l/s with air valve installation. From this figure it can illustrate that the pressure inside the pipeline increases suddenly when starting up the pumps to reach (6.8) m of water and deceases gradually to reach about (5) m of water. Also when the pumps were shut down the pressure inside the pipeline deceased suddenly to reach -2 m of water and increased to reach 2.7 m of water then fluctuate about (1) m of water. Figure (18) shows the pressure history during starting up and shutdown the pumping station number 12 when valve number 5 is opening alone and measured flow rate is flow rate 40 l/s without air valve installation. From this figure it can illustrate that the pressure inside the pipeline increases suddenly when the pumps were upstarted to reach (8) m of water and deceased gradually to reach about 6.8 m of water. Also when the pumps were shut down the pressure inside the pipeline deceased suddenly reach to -3.1 m of water and increased to reach (2.1) m of water then fluctuate about zero m of water.

Figure (17) pressure history during start up and power failure using air valve when open valve no. 5

Figure (18) pressure history during start up and power failure without air valve when open valve no. 5

From the two figures it can be seen that the negative pressure inside the pipeline without air valve installation while, in the case of using air valve pipeline exposes to positive value. The advantages of air valves are easy operation, low maintenance, low operation cost and high reliability. Direct pumping systems save the cost of head tank construction and
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

maintenance, furthermore the stand pipe intervals at the end of each valve are play the important role to prevent the system from water hammer phenomena. This intervals are damping the pressure waves when shutdown the system. 9. COMPARING FIELD AND NUMERICAL RESULTS Figure (19.a) and (19.b) show a sample of the executed comparison between the field and numerical results of pressure variation inside the pipeline meska no.4. From the figure, it is clear that the numerical curve complies well the field curve. Generally, the matching between them is fairly good and the pressure details inside the pump are obtained by using the software without carrying the filed measurements. The small deviation is attributed to the smoothness of the fittings and the use of friction coefficient "C" for PVC material. In the present study a value of C is equal to 120.

Figure (19.a) Numerical results

Figure (19.b) Field results

Figure (19) Comparison between the numerical and field results for meska no.4

10. UNDERGOING A FINANCIAL AND AN ECONOMIC ANALYSES Financial and economic analyses were conducted in order to improve meskas in the study area and to compare the cost of air valve versus delivery tank based on 2009 prices. The comparison was based on the total cost per feddan. The main items affect the total cost of improving meska are backfilling, pipeline, pump house, pumps and others such as valves, head tank ( as in IIP1), air valves ( as in IIP2 or IIIMP) etc. The average cost for improving meska in IIP1 is about 8500 LE/fed. The average cost for improving meska in IIP2 is about 6000 LE/fed. The cost of pipe line was about 30% from the total cost. The contribution of direct pumping in the cost saving is decreasing pipe line diameter from (315: 500 mm) to (200: 400 mm) and replacing head tank by air valve which cost about 18000 LE for meska (served about 50 feddan), while, air valve cost is equal to 200 LE. The decreasing of pipe line diameter leads to increase pumping operation duration from 16 to 20 hr/day, according to new design criteria of IIP2 and IIIMP projects, increase flow velocity and decreasing of water duty from 1.45 to 1.05 l/s/fed. Cost saving from decreasing pipe line diameter is equal to 250 LE/fed. So, the total cost saving is about 606 LE/feddan.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

11. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Based on the results reached in the present research, the following was concluded: The direct pumping systems save about 606 LE/fadden due to replace the head tank by air valve. Pipeline system equipped with air valve, air vent and distribution valves is effective and is a safe solution for water hammer control. KY Pipe 2010 code is a hand tool for design. It can predict accurately the different pressure phenomena and assist the choice of suitable protection devices to protect the water hammer phenomena and to evaluate system. Comparison between the computation and field measurements indicated that the numerical simulation results were found to comply well with actual values obtained from the field measurements. At the design stage, it is recommended to: Check the transient state especially for long pipelines (more than 500 m). It may be required more than one air valve. Slow the time of opening and closing selected distribution valves not less than 4 second. 12. REFERENCES [1] Dalal Alnagar Director (RCTWS), Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, "Policies and strategic options for water management in the Islamic countries", International hydrological program Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 15-16 Dec. 2003. [2] R.J.Oosterbaan, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, "Impacts of the Irrigation Improvement Projects in Egypt", Consultancy Report to the Egyptian-Dutch Advisory Panel on Land Drainage and Drainage Related Water Management, 2010. [3] Walid E. Elshorbagy, "Impact Assessment of an Irrigation Improvement Project in Egypt", Water Resources Management, 2000. [4] New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD), "Support to NEPADCAADP Implementation , Bankable Investment Project Profile, 2005. [5] M. Allam, F. El-Gamal, and M. Hesham, "Irrigation Systems Performance in Egypt", Irrigation Systems Performance. Options mditerranennes, Series B, no 52, 2004. [6] M.N. Allam Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, "Participatory Irrigation Water Management in Egypt: Review and Analysis", Options mditerranennes Series B, no 48, 2009. [7] World Bank, "Implementation Completion and Results Report: Irrigation Improvement Project ", Report, 2007. [8] Sabour Consultant, "Terms of Reference for the Tendering of Consulting Services for the Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project (IIIMP) and Instruction to Tenders", Report, 2008. [9] Hany G. Radwan, Ashraf S. Zahloul and Kamal A. Ibrahim, "Analysis of Optimal Velocity for Improved Irrigation Design in Egypt", Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol.2 No. 5,2011, pp.94-102.

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[10] K. Al-Askari, G. Fawzy and M.A.Younes, "Electrification of Meska Pumping Stations as an Option for Future Irrigation Improvement Projects in Egypt", Third Arab water Regional Conference National Water Research Center, 9-11 Dec. 2005. [11] Kroon, R., "Water Hammer: Causes and Effects", AWWA Journal, 1984, pp. 39-45. [12] Lingireddy, "Pressure Surges in Pipeline Systems Resulting From Air Releases", AWWA Journal, 2004, pp. 88-94. [13] Don J. Wood and Lingireddy, "KY Pipe 2010 documentation Version 5" Advanced Scientific Computing, Ltd, Lexington, USA 2010. [14] Mechanical & Electrical Research Institute (MERI), "Direct Pumping hydraulic test for Irrigation Improvement project at Meet Yazid canal", Technical report, Delta Barrage, Egypt, 2008. [15] Omar K M Ouda, Abdullatif A. Al-Shuhail, Tawfiq Qubbaj and Rana Samara, Assessing the Applicability of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content and Irrigation Requirements in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: A Project Methodology, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 114 - 123, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [16] Anubhav Gupta and Harish Bansal, Design of Area Optimized AES Encryption Core using Pipelining Technology, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 308 - 314, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 6472.

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