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Leonardo ENERGY Webinar: Photovoltaic Installations Ton van der Wekken 9 May 2007 Experience you can
Leonardo ENERGY Webinar:
Photovoltaic Installations
Ton van der Wekken
9 May 2007
Experience you can trust.
Contents • Photovoltaic (PV) principle • Market development • Building integrated PV (BIPV) • Examples
Contents
• Photovoltaic (PV) principle
• Market development
• Building integrated PV (BIPV)
• Examples BIPV
• PV technology
• Cost breakdown
• Example: 5 kWp system
• Future trends
Photovoltaic principle: Electrical energy from solar irradiation
Photovoltaic principle: Electrical
energy from solar irradiation
Photovoltaic principle: Grid connection
Photovoltaic principle: Grid
connection
Worldwide capacity of installed PV, off-grid and grid-connected 4000 Cumulative installed PV power by application
Worldwide capacity of installed PV,
off-grid and grid-connected
4000
Cumulative installed PV power by
application area
3500
3000
Grid-connected
2500
Off-grid
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Year
Cumulative installed capacity [MW]
Leading European countries in PV Cumulative installed PV European Country 2003 2004 2005 [MWp] [MWp]
Leading European countries
in PV
Cumulative installed PV
European Country
2003
2004
2005
[MWp]
[MWp]
[MWp]
Austria
16.8
21.1
24.0
France
21.1
26.0
33.0
Germany
431
794
1429
Italy
26.0
30.7
37.5
Netherlands
45.9
49.1
50.8
UK
5.9
8.2
10.9
Spain
27.0
37.0
57.4
Switzerland
21.0
23.1
27.1
Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Pros and Cons • Pros BIPV - No or limited permitting
Building Integrated Photovoltaics
(BIPV): Pros and Cons
• Pros BIPV
- No or limited permitting procedures
- Showing awareness of inhabitants/owners
- Generating and use coincide in time and place
- Multifunctional application often feasible
- High technical potential
• Cons BIPV
- Systems are relatively small
- Without incentives not cost effective
- Additional contract for reimbursement feed-in
- At budget cut: PV drops out first
Ground based PV system
Ground based PV system
Ground Based PV compared to traditional power plants • Pros ground based PV – Neither
Ground Based PV compared to
traditional power plants
• Pros ground based PV
– Neither air nor noise pollution;
– No greenhouse gases;
– No visual nuisance.
• Cons ground based PV
– A hectare per MWp installed;
– High costs per MWp;
– Permitting procedures comparable to other
power plants
Residental houses, PV installed on sloped roof
Residental houses,
PV installed on sloped roof
Multifunctional: Roof from semi-transparant PV
Multifunctional:
Roof from semi-transparant PV
Multifunctional: PV integrated in sound barrier
Multifunctional:
PV integrated in sound barrier
Multifunctional: PV integrated in sun blind
Multifunctional:
PV integrated in sun blind
PV-Technology: some facts • Installed PV power defined as Watt-peak (Wp, kWp and MWp) •
PV-Technology:
some facts
• Installed PV power defined as Watt-peak (Wp,
kWp and MWp)
• Central and Northern Europe: maximum irradiation
1000 W/m 2
• Southern Europe: max. irradiation 1700 W/m 2
• Optimal orientation: South
• Optimal tilt angle PV modules: 35 - 38°
PV-Technology: cell materials and efficiencies Cell material Cell efficiency [%] System efficiency [%] Yearly yield
PV-Technology:
cell materials and efficiencies
Cell material
Cell efficiency
[%]
System efficiency
[%]
Yearly yield
[kWh/m 2 ]
Mono-crystalline (m-Si)
17
13.5
85
- 90
Poly-crystalline (p-Si)
15
12
80
- 85
Thin film (a-Si)
8
6.5
50
- 60
PV-Technology: electrical scheme
PV-Technology:
electrical scheme
PV-Technology: Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
PV-Technology:
Maximum Power Point Tracking
(MPPT)
Cost breakdown PV system -From 15 to 5 €/Wp in a decade- PV component Costs
Cost breakdown PV system
-From 15 to 5 €/Wp in a decade-
PV component
Costs
[€/Wp]
Modules
4.0
– 4.5
Inverter
0.5
– 1.0
Balance of System (BOS)
1.0
TOTAL
5.5
– 6.5
5-kWp roof integrated PV system Orientation Sloped roof, oriented south to south-west Support structure In
5-kWp roof integrated PV system
Orientation
Sloped roof, oriented south to south-west
Support structure
In the roof tile plane upon the roof battens
Module support profiles (aluminium) mounted on the roof battens
Brackets to clamp the modules on the support profiles
Module data
Gross dimensions 0.8 x 1.6 meters, Al frame
Maximum power 150 Wp
72
multi-crystalline Si-cells measuring 12.5 x 12.5 cm
Module efficiency 13%
Junction box including bypass diodes at the back
System layout
32
modules (lay-out 4x8)
Gross area 6.4 x 6.4 m (41 m 2 )
Installed power 4800 Wp
4
parallel strings, 8 modules per string connected in series
2
inverters of 2500 W, 2 strings per inverter
Performance
3500 kWh per year
Electrical connection PV
system
Two separate electrical connections of 2500 W
Two different meterings, one for use by the house equipment and the
other for feed-in by the PV-system.
Lifetime
Modules and support structure 30 years
Watertightness of materials 20 to 25 years
Inverters 10 to 15 years
Financial data
Turnkey investment € 30,000
Simple Pay Out Time (SPOT)
43
years at € 0,20 /kWh, an average consumer tariff
17
years at € 0,50 /kWh high feed in tariff (based on incentives)
Future developments • Cost reduction by economics of scale • Thin film cells – Shortage
Future developments
• Cost reduction by economics of scale
• Thin film cells
– Shortage of crystalline Si boosts thin film
– Materials are amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper
indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride
(CdTe)
• Concentrator cells (CPV)
– Efficiency >20%
– Use of mirrors and sun tracking system
• Speral solar technology
- Minute silicon beads on Al foil
- Less Si material needed
Thank you for your attention! Any questions? Experience you can trust.
Thank you for your attention!
Any questions?
Experience you can trust.