Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Background
Ultrasonic waves have demonstrated great potential in assessing the state of a
variety of engineering structures and have been widely used in the last few decades for
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). These are
areasofgreattechnicalandscientificinterestthathavebeenatthecenterofacontinuous
growthandinnovationforoversixtyyears.Todayultrasonicsignalsareappliedinavery
broad spectrum of applications spanning from the predicting material behavior in
structures, to the detection of internal anomalies and delaminations in aircraft
components, as well as inspecting human body parts like tumors, bones, and unborn
fetus.Besidesthepracticaldemand,theincessantprogressanddevelopmentinNDEand
SHM has a lot to do with their interdisciplinary nature. In fact, these areas closely link
aerospace engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, material science,
mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering and physics among others. For this reason
they benefitdramatically fromthis massivechannelingofscientificeffortscoming from
different branches of physics and engineering. The attractiveness of NDE/SHM
techniques based on ultrasonic waves relies on the factthat, although wave propagation
2
phenomena can be quite challenging, the basic concepts behind them are relatively
simple.
Ultrasonic waves involve high frequencies and, consequently, short wavelength
that lead to a very high sensitivity and efficiency in detecting small structural features
such as internal defects, delaminations, cracks, dislocations, etc. However conventional
ultrasonicNDEtechniques(Birksetal.,1991;KrautkrmerandKrautkrmer,1990;Ness
et al., 1996) are mainly based on pointtopoint inspection systems, where the
interrogating energy is conveyed in form of shear and longitudinal bulk waves into an
areadirectlybelowthetransducer.Inlightofthisfactitisobvioushowtheycanbecome
extremely timeconsuming and inefficient when dealing with large structural systems
where the probe must mechanically scan the entire area. Furthermore, their practical
applicability is limited by attenuation phenomena that inevitably come into play with
stresswavespropagatinginunboundedmedia.
Whenstresswavespropagatealonganelongatedstructure(pipes,railroadtracks,
beams, plates, etc.) they are constrained between its geometric boundaries and they
undergo multiple reflections. A complex mixture of constructive and destructive
interferencesarisesfromsuccessivereflections,refractionsandmodeconversionsdueto
the interaction between waves and boundaries of the waveguide. As a result, socalled
guided waves are generated. Compared to bulk waves, these waves are able to travel
very long distances (in some cases, hundreds of meters) with little loss in energy and a
complete coverage of the crosssection of the structure that act as a waveguide with
obvious benefits (Figure 1.1). In practical terms this translates tothe potential for rapid
3
screening from a single transducer position and remote inspection of physically
inaccessibleareasofthestructure.
Figure 1.1 Comparison between traditional bulk waves and guided waves inspection (FBS, Inc.).
These attracting possibilities justify the considerable research efforts that took
place in the 1990s. Since then guided wave NDE/SHM techniques have grown to be a
reality outside the confines of academic research (Cawley and Alleyne, 1996; Ditri and
Rose, 1992). Several applications have been explored in the last few years highlighting
thebigpotentialofthesepromisingtechniques. Forexample, detectionofcorrosionand
defects in insulated pipes, both critical aspects for the oil and chemical industries, has
been addressed using an inspection system based on the reflection properties of guided
wavesinpipes(Loweetal.,1998).Railroadtracksarenaturalwaveguidesandrepresent
4
perfect candidates for ultrasonic guided wave testing, as documented by the very fertile
literatureproductiononthistopic(Cawleyetal.,2003;Cocciaetal.,2011;Hayashietal.,
2003; Rose et al., 2002; Wilcox et al., 2003). Ultrasonic guided waves have been
successfully used also to interrogate aircraft components such as lapslice joints, tear
straps,landinggears,transmissionbeamsinhelicoptersandsoon(RoseandSoley,2000;
Rose et al., 1998). The ability to concentrate wave energy at the interface between
differentmaterialsmadeguidedwavesaperfectcandidatealsoforadhesivebondingand
joininginspections(HsuandPatton,1993;Songetal.,2005).Thepotentialofultrasonic
guided waves propagation is exploited also for the inspection of containment structures
and concrete (Na et al., 2003). Even imaging applications have been proposed using
guidedwaves(Yanetal.,2010).
However, the theoretical framework governing the propagation of ultrasonic
waves in waveguides can be quite challenging even in the linear regime (further
complicationsariseinthenonlinearregime,asdiscussedinnextsections).Infact,atany
givenfrequencyaninfinitenumberofdifferentmodes(propagating,nonpropagatingand
evanescent,dependinguponthenatureofthematerial)coexistandtheyarecharacterized
byfrequencydependentvelocities(dispersion)andattenuation.Inapracticalapplication,
a transducer conveys mechanical energy into the structural component in form of
ultrasonic waves and generally the frequency content of the interrogating signal is not
monochromatic,butinvolvesapacketoffrequencybecauseofthepracticalimpossibility
of generating a singlefrequency signal. Hence the interrogating signal supports many
modes traveling at frequency dependent velocities. This leads to the progressive
transformations of the shape of the original packet as it travels in the component. This
5
manifestsitselfasaspreadingofthepacketinspaceandtimeasitpropagatesthrougha
structure.Itappearsasanincreaseinthedurationofthepacketintimeandadecreasein
its amplitude, which is undesirable in long range guided wave testing and consequently
reduces the resolution and the sensitivity of the testing system. In order to develop a
correct interpretation of the guided wave signals and to fully exploit their potential,
various signalprocessing techniques have been proposed such as Short Time Fourier
Transform(Gabor,1952),ContinuousWaveletTransform(Daubechies,1992),andTwo
DimensionalFourierTransform(AlleyneandCawley,1991).Despitethiswork,analysis
ofsuchasignalwiththeaimofpredictingstructuralinhomogeneitybasedonitsfeatures
requires a thorough understanding of what to expect from the generated signal in an
undamaged component in the first place and accurate prediction of guided wave modal
and forced solutions is still indispensable. Dispersion properties as phase velocities and
group/energy velocities are important for mode identification. Similarly, the knowledge
of the mode attenuation helps maximizing the inspection range by exploiting modes
associatedtominimumenergyattenuation.
Inthefieldofultrasonicstructuralmonitoring,traditionalguidedwavetechniques
relyonmeasuringlinearparameteroftheinterrogatingwaves(amplitude,speed,phase
shift) toinfersalientfeaturesofthe inspectedstructure.However, itiswelldocumented
thatnonlinearparametersareusually moresensitivetostructural conditionsthantheir
linear counterparts (Dace et al., 1991). The use of nonlinear guided waves is extremely
attractivebecausetheyconvenientlycombinetheaforementionedhighsensitivitytypical
of nonlinear parameters with large inspection ranges (Bermes et al., 2008; Cawley and
Alleyne, 1996; Rose, 2002). The study of nonlinear acoustics started in the 18
th
century
6
(Hamilton and Blackstock, 1988) but very few studies have focused specifically on
nonlinearguidedwavepropagationmostlybecauseofthecomplexityoftheproblem.In
fact, the governing Navier elastodynamic equations are complicated by nonlinear terms
that further sophisticate the already challenging search for a solution, especially for
complex waveguides with arbitrary crosssections. While investigations pertaining to
nonlineareffect insolidswerereportedinthepast(deLimaandHamilton, 2003;Deng,
2003), most of them were limited in their applicability to structures with simple
geometries (plates, rods, shells). As discussed in the following sections of the present
thesis,theveryremarkablepotentialof nonlinearguidedwaves isdramatically hindered
bythe lackofasolidunderstandingofthe involvedphenomena. In fact, it isparamount
to master the involved phenomena for a successful and profitable transfer of this
theoreticalknowledgetothefieldforapracticalapplication.
Figure 1.3 Largescale rail testbed constructed at UCSDs Powell Structural Laboratories for the
development of the Neutral Temperature/Buckling Detection System for CWR.
12
The knowledge acquired thanks to the proposed numerical algorithm and
theoretical model played a crucial role in the development of the Neutral
Temperature/IncipientBucklingDetectionSystemforCWRbasedonspecificfeaturesof
nonlinearguidedwaves.Thistechniquehas been validatedandoptimized by largescale
testingofa70ftlongrailtrackhostedatUCSDsPowellStructuralLaboratories(Figure
1.3).Thefinalresultisadevicesuitableforawaysideinstallationontherailweb.
Chapter 2
Ultrasonic guided wave propagation Theoretical
fundamentals
2.1 Introduction
Abodyelongatedinonedirectionandhavingacrosssectionoffinitedimension
represents a waveguide. Typical examples in structural mechanics include plates, rods,
shells, strands, rails, etc. These structures trap the energy of the propagating wave
between their boundaries leading to a particular type of complex waves which are
standing in the finite crosssectional area and traveling in the extended direction. These
wavesarecalledguidedwaves,andtheyexhibitmultimodaldispersivebehavior.Infinite
modescoexistatanygivenfrequencyandtheyarecharacterizedbyfrequencydependent
velocity and attenuation. The description of the three dimensional motion of an elastic
waveguide is already challenging in the linear elastic regime, especially when dealing
with complex geometrical and/or material properties. However, a detailed derivation
would show that the general system of equations in the material description is strongly
nonlinearandlineartheoryisnothingmorethananapproximatetooltoobtainrelatively
adequate results for wave propagation problems but this is not always the case. The
original linear problem is further complicated by the need to introduce higherorder
descriptionsinordertocorrectlyexplorenonlinearphenomena.
17
Inthischapterthebasicequationsforguidedwavepropagationinbothlinearand
nonlinearelasticregimesaresummarizedforthepurposeofreference.
Ultrasonicguidedwavesrepresentaveryefficienttooltoassessnondestructively
the integrity of solids with waveguide geometry. Principal advantages in using Guided
18
Ultrasonic Waves (GUW) in nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring
are:
1. Longinspectionrange;
2. Completecoverageofthewaveguidecrosssection;
3. Increasedsensitivitytosmallfeatures.
Themaindrawbackisthedispersivebehaviorwithcoexistenceofmultiplemodes
and frequencydependent velocities and attenuation. This scenario is significantly
complicatedwhennonlinearregimeisintroduced.
The theoretical description of guided wave propagation in linear elastic regime
has itsorigins inBerlinattheendofthe19
th
centurywiththework ofPochhammeron
the vibration phenomena occurring in semiinfinite elastic cylindrical waveguides
(Pochhammer, 1876). A few years later, Chree treated the same problem independently
(Chree, 1889).For bothcases,duetothecomplexityofthegoverningproblem,detailed
calculationoftherootsdidnotappearuntilthemiddleofthe20
th
century.Bancroftwas
the first to study the lowest branch of the roots of the PochhammerChree frequency
equationandtoevaluatetherelationbetweenphasevelocityandwavenumbers(Bancroft,
1941). Other milestones in the development of theoretical analysis of guided waves in
cylindrical waveguides are represented by the works of Gazis on the propagation
phenomena for hollow, single layer, elastic circular cylinder in vacuum (Gazis, 1959 )
and Zemanek who was one of the first authors to present a complete analytical and
experimentalstudy(Zemanek,1972).
Flatlayeredwaveguideswere firstly studiedbyLordRayleigh inresponsetothe
lack of understanding of elastic wave phenomena during the first recorded earthquake
19
seismograms in the early 1880s. He derived the equation for waves traveling along the
free surface of a semiinfinite elastic half space (Figure 2.2) and showed also that the
effect of this particular type of waves decrease rapidly with depth and their velocity of
propagation is smallerthanthatof bulkwaves (Rayleigh, 1887). Lovedemonstratedin
his work thattransverse modes were also possible in a halfspace covered by a layer of
finite thickness and different elastic properties. The modes he discovered involve
transverse (shear) motion in the plane of the layer (Figure 2.3). Stoneley carried out a
generalizationofthesingleinterfaceproblemstudiedbyRayleighperformingastudyof
interface waves propagating without leakage at the boundary between two solid half
spaces(Stoneley,1924).
Horace Lamb was another pioneer in the development of the wave propagation
theory in flat waveguides. In particular he was the first to study in detail (Lamb, 1917)
thepropagationofwavesininfinitedomainsboundedbytwosurfaces(freeplates)which
were named after him. His derivation consists of two distinct expressions (Rayleigh
20
Lamb equations) whose roots represent symmetric and antisymmetric plate modes
(Figure2.4).Aplotoftheserootsinthe frequencydomaingives thewellknownLamb
wave dispersion curves. However, it was only after the experimental work of Worlton
that the possibility of using Lamb waves for nondestructive testing was demonstrated
(Worlton, 1961). Classical treatises on guided wave propagation in isotropic media can
befoundinliterature(Achenbach,1973;Auld,1990;Graff,1991;Rose,1999;Viktorov,
1967).
(a) (b)
Figure 2.4 Displacement field for Lamb Wave. (a) Symmetric Mode. (b) Antisymmetric Mode.
21
2.2.1 Linear elastodynamics of unbounded media: bulk waves
We consider a body B occupying a regular region V in space, which may be
bounded or unbounded, with interior V, closure V and boundary S. The system of
equations governing the motion of a homogeneous, isotropic, linearly elastic body
consists of the stress equations of motion, Hooke's law and the straindisplacement
relations.Usingindicialnotationtheseequationsread:
, ij j i i
f u o + = (2.1)
ij ijkl kl
C o c = (2.2)
( )
, ,
1
2
ij i j j i
u u c = + (2.3)
where
ij
isthesymmetricstresstensoratapoint,
ij
isthestraintensoratapoint,C
ijkl
is
thefourthorderstiffnesstensor,u
i
isthedisplacementvectorofamaterialpoint,f
i
isthe
bodyforceperunitvolumeandisthedensity.TheEinsteinsummationconventionfor
repeatedsubscriptsisassumedhereandinwhatfollows.
The stiffness tensor possesses a number of symmetries and allows to write the
constitutivelawsinthesimplifiednotationnamedafterWoldermarVoigt:
11 12 13 14 15 16
22 23 24 25 26
33 34 35 36
44 45 46
55 56
66
x x
y y
z z
yz yz
xz xz
xy xy
sym
c c c c c c
c c c c c
c c c c
c c c
c c
c
o c
o c
o c
o c
o c
o c
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
(2.4)
Anelastically isotropic material has nopreferreddirectionsandthe elasticconstantsare
independent of the orientation of the Cartesian coordinates. As a result, for isotropic
22
elastic bodies, the 21 independent stiffness constants c
ij
of Eq. (2.4) reduce to just two
materialconstants, for examplethe Youngs modulus(E) andthePoissonsratio() or,
equivalently, the two Lam elastic constants and . Eqs. (2.2) through (2.4) then
simplifyto:
2
ij kk ij ij
o c o c = + (2.5)
2
2
2
2
2
2
x x
y y
z z
yz yz
xz xz
xy xy
o c
o c
o c
o c
o c
o c
+ ( ( (
( ( (
+
( ( (
( ( ( +
=
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( (
(2.6)
where
ij
istheKroenckerDeltadefinedas:
1
0
ij
if i j
if i j
o
=
=
=
(2.7)
Substitutingthestraindisplacementrelations(2.3) intotheconstitutive law(2.5)
andtheexpressions for thestressessubsequently inthestressequationsof motion(2.1),
thedisplacementequationsofmotion(Navierselastodynamicequations)areobtainedas:
( )
, , j ji i jj i i
u u f u + + + = (2.8)
Thevectorequivalentofthisexpressionis:
( )
2
+ VV + V + = u u f u (2.9)
where
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
x y z isthevectoroperatornabla.
In terms of rectangular scalar notation, Eqs. (2.8)(2.9) represent the system of
threeequations:
23
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
x
y
u v w u u u u
f
x x y x z x y z t
u v w v v v v
f
y x y y z x y z t
u v w w w w
z x z y z x y z
    c c c c c c c
+ + + + + + + =
 
c c c c c c c c c
\ . \ .
    c c c c c c c
+ + + + + + + =
 
c c c c c c c c c
\ . \ .
    c c c c c c
+ + + + + +

c c c c c c c c
\ . \ .
2
2 z
w
f
t
c
+ =

c
(2.10)
whereu,v,waretheparticledisplacementsinthex,y,zdirections.
Theaboveequations mustbe satisfied atevery interior pointoftheundeformed
body B, i.e., in the domain V. On the surface S of the undeformed body, boundary
conditionsmustbeprescribed.Thecommonboundaryconditionsare
1. Displacement boundary conditions (Dirichlet BC): the three displacement
componentsu
i
areprescribedontheboundary.
2. Traction boundary conditions (Neumann BC): the three traction components, t
i
areprescribedontheboundarywithunitnormaln.ThroughCauchy'sformula:
i ij j
t n o = (2.11)
thiscasecorrespondstoconditionsonthethreecomponentsofthestresstensor.
3. Displacement boundary conditions on part S
1
of the boundary and traction
boundaryconditionsontheremainingpartS  S
1
.
Tocompletetheproblemstatement,initialconditionsaredefined;inVattimet =0,we
have:
( ) ( )
0
, 0
i i
u u = x x (2.12)
( ) ( )
0
, 0
i i
u u = x x (2.13)
Intheabsenceofbodyforces,Eqs.(2.8)(2.9)become:
( )
, , j ji i jj i
u u u + + = (2.14)
24
( )
2
+ VV + V = u u u (2.15)
Themaindisadvantageofthesystemofequationsaboveconsistsinthefactthatit
couplesthethreedisplacementcomponents.Aconvenientapproachtoaddressthisissue
is to use Helmotz decomposition (Morse and Feshbach, 1999) to split the displacement
fielduintoarotationalcomponent V
andanirrotationalcomponent  V :
 V +V u = (2.16)
whereisacompressionalscalarpotentialandisanequivoluminalvectorpotential.
UsingEq.(2.16)inEq.(2.15)leadsto:
  ( )    
2
2
t
  
c
V V + V + + VV V +V = V +V
c
(2.17)
Since
2
  V V = V and 0 V V = ,Eq.(2.17)resultsin:
( )
2 2
2 0   ( ( V + V +V V =
(2.18)
Theidentityderivedissatisfiedifeitherofthetwotermsonthel.h.s.inEq.(2.18)
vanishesprovidingthefollowinguncoupledwaveequations:
2
2
1
L
c
  V =
(2.19)
2
2
1
T
c
V = (2.20)
where
2
2
L
c
+
= (2.21)
2
T
c
= (2.22)
Itcanbeshownthatharmonicpotentialfunctionsoftheform:
25
( )
( )
T
i
i
e
e
e
e

= u
= +
L
k x t
k x t
(2.23)
satisfy the decoupled Eqs. (2.19)(2.20). The exponential terms, which are wholly
imaginary, describe the harmonic propagation of the waves in space and time. The
wavenumber vector k describes the spatial distribution of the wave. The homogeneous
waves propagate in the direction of the wavevector k with a spatial frequency of
wavelength 2 / t = k and a temporal circular frequency 2 f e t = . The substitution of
Eqs.(2.21)(2.22)intoEqs.(2.19)(2.20)leadsto:
2 2
2 2
2 2
L T
L T
c c
e e
= = k k (2.24)
It can be noted that two types of homogeneous plane waves may travel through the
mediuminanydirection(Figure2.5):
 dilatational(pressure)wavespropagatingwithlongitudinalspeedc
L
 transverse(shear)wavespropagatingwithspeedc
T
.
Figure 2.5  Deformations caused by bulk plane waves. (a) Longitudinal waves. (b) Transverse waves.
26
These bulk waves represent the eigensolutions for the equation of motion in an
infiniteelasticisotropicmedium.
Figure 2.6 Schematic representation of reflections and refractions taking place at the boundaries of
a platelike structure.
y
z
x
x z
y
y
x
z
u
x y z
u
y x z
u
z x y



c
c c
= +
c c c
c c c
= +
c c c
c
c c
= +
c c c
(2.25)
The existence of plain strain conditions is assumed such that the displacement
component 0
z
u = and ( ) 0
z
c
=
c
.ThereforeEqs.(2.25)canberewrittenas:
z
x
z
y
u u
x y
u v
y x


c c
= = +
c c
c c
= =
c c
(2.26)
The substitution of the expressions for
x
u and
y
u into Naviers elastodynamic
equationsproducesthefollowingsystemoftwopartialdifferentialwaveequations:
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1
1
L
z z z
T
x y c t
x y c t
  
c c c
+ =
c c c
c c c
+ =
c c c
(2.27)
In order to investigate the harmonic wave motion in the elastic plate, the
followingsolutionscanbeconsidered:
28
[ (  )]
[ (  )]
( )
( )
i kx t
i kx t
z
y e
y e
e
e

= u
= +
(2.28)
where (y) and (y) are functions of the position along the thickness direction and
representstandingwaveswhiletheexponentialtermexp[i(kxt)]describesanharmonic
wavepropagatinginthexdirectionwithwavespeedequaltoc=/k.Theterms and k
arewellknowninacousticsasangulartemporalfrequencyandwavenumberofthewave,
respectively.Thereexistadirectproportionalitybetweentheangulartemporalfrequency
andthelineartemporalfrequencyf(=2f) andaninverseproportionalitybetweenthe
wavenumberkandthewavelength (k=2/). InputtingEqs. (2.28) intothetwopartial
differential equations (2.27) allows the reduction to two ordinary differential equations
whosesolutionscanbeobtainedas:
1 2
1 2
( ) sin( ) cos( )
( ) sin( ) cos( )
y A py A py
y B qy B qy
u = +
+ = +
(2.29)
where A
1
, A
2
, B
1
and B
2
are the wave amplitudes determined from the boundary
conditions.Thetermspandqaredefinedas:
2
2
2
2
2
2


L
T
p k
c
q k
c
e
e
=
=
(2.30)
Next step is consists in introducing the harmonic solutions expressed in Eqs.
(2.28) in the displacement component functions in Eqs. (2.26) and in the stress
components in Eqs. (2.5). Doing so the resultant expressions for displacement
componentsandstressesare:
29
[ (  )]
[ (  )]
2
2 [ (  )]
2
2 2
2 [ (  )]
2 2
[ ]
[  ]
[ (2 )]
[ ( ) 2 (  )]
i kx t
x
i kx t
y
i kx t
xy
i kx t
yy
d
u ik e
dy
d
u ik e
dy
d d
ik k e
dy dy
d d d
k ik e
dy dy dy
e
e
e
e
o
o
+
= u+
u
= +
u +
= + + +
u u +
= u+ +
(2.31)
Using the potential functions of Eqs. (2.29) in Eqs. (2.31), the modes of wave
propagation in the elastic layer may be split up into two systems of symmetric and
antisymmetricmodes,schematicallyrepresentedin2DviewsinFigure2.7:
 SYMMETRICMODES
( )
( )
 
 
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
2
1
[ (  )]
2 1
[ (  )]
2 1
2 2 [ (  )]
2 1
2 2 2 [ (  )]
2 2 1
cos( )
sin( )
cos( ) cos( )
 sin( ) sin( )
[2 sin sin ]
 cos  2 cos cos
i kx t
x
i kx t
y
i kx t
xy
i kx t
yy
y A py
y B qy
u ikA py qB qy e
u pA py ikB qy e
ikpA py k q B qy e
k p A py p A py ikqB qy e
e
e
e
e
o
o
u =
+ =
= +
=
= +
( = + +
(2.32)
 ANTISYMMETRICMODES
( )
( )
 
 
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
1
2
[ (  )]
1 2
[ (  )]
1 2
2 2 [ (  )]
1 2
2 2 2 [ (  )]
1 1 2
sin( )
cos( )
sin( ) sin( )
cos( ) cos( )
[2 cos cos ]
 sin  2 sin sin
i kx t
x
i kx t
y
i kx t
xy
i kx t
yy
y A py
y B qy
u ikA py qB qy e
u pA py ikB qy e
ikpA py k q B qy e
k p A py p A py ikqB qy e
e
e
e
e
o
o
u =
+ =
=
=
= +
( = +
(2.33)
The integration constants A
1
, A
2
, B
1
and B
2
can be calculated imposing the stress free
boundaryconditionsattheupperandlowersurfacesoftheplate(y = h):
30
0
xy yy
o o = = (2.34)
(a) (b)
Figure 2.7 Displacement field for Lamb wave modes. (a) Symmetric. (b) Antisymmetric.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
sin
2 cos
2 sin 2 cos
k p qh
ikq qh
ikp ph k p p ph
=
+ +
(2.35)
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
cos
2 sin
2 sin 2 sin
k q qh
ikq qh
ikp ph k p p ph
=
+ +
(2.36)
Eqs.(2.35)(2.36)inamorecompactformknownasRayleighLambequation:
1
2
2 2 2
tan( ) 4
tan( ) ( )
ph k pq
qh k q
(
=
(
(2.37)
where the exponent +1 applies for symmetric modes (S) while exponent 1 applies to
antisymmetric modes (A). An infinite number of eigensolutions exist for Eq. (2.37),
therebyaninfinitenumberofguidedwavemodesexist.Eacheigenvaluecorrespondsto
a particular angular frequency and mode of propagation, namely symmetric or
31
antisymmetric. At low frequencies,onlytwopropagating modes existcorrespondingto
thefundamentalsymmetricmode,S
0
andantisymmetricmode, A
0
.Foreacheigenvalue,
acorrespondingsetofeigencoefficientsalsoexist:(A
2
,B
1
)and(A
1
,B
2
)forthesymmetric
and antisymmetric case respectively. These coefficients can be used in Eqs. (2.31) to
evaluatetheLambmodeshapesacrosstheplatedepth.
Thespeedofpropagationofeach individualwavecrests iscalledphase velocity
(c
p
= /k) and isa functionofthe frequency.Thisspeed isgenerally different fromthe
speed of the wave packet as a whole. The speed at which the wave packet (or wave
envelope)propagatesistheonemeasuredthroughexperimentsandisreferredtoasgroup
velocity (c
g
= d/dk). It also depends on the frequency and provides information about
the celerity at which a given mode transports energy. The latter speed is the one of
interestwhenitisnecessarytoisolateparticularmodes,observingdifferentarrivaltimes
inthesignalsobtainedthroughexperimentalmeasures.
Guided wave dispersion solutions for a particular system are generally
represented via wavenumber and/or phase velocity and/or group velocity vs. frequency
plots, commonly referred as dispersion curves. Examples of such plots are shown in
Figure2.8andFigure2.9whereLambmodewavenumbersandphasevelocitydispersion
curves are depicted for a typical engineering structure consisting in an aluminum plate
mechanically characterized by = 2770 kg/m
3
, = 6.049E10 Pa and = 2.593E10 Pa.
Using the halfthickness frequency products as abscissa values normalizes these curves
sothattheycanbeusedforotheraluminumplateswithdifferentthicknessvaluessimply
scalingthefrequency.Thedispersivebehavioriswellevidentinboththecurves.
32
Highlighted in the phase velocity dispersion curve are the first two symmetric
modes, commonly referred as S
0
and S
1
, and the first two antisymmetric modes,
commonlyreferredasA
0
andA
1
at1.5MHzmm.
Figure 2.8 Wavenumber dispersion curves for an aluminum plate (h = halfthickness, = 2770
kg/m
3
, = 6.049E10 Pa and = 2.593E10 Pa).
Figure 2.9 Phase velocity dispersion curves for an aluminum plate (h = halfthickness, = 2770
kg/m
3
, = 6.049E10 Pa, = 2.593E10 Pa and c
T
= 3059.58 m/sec).
33
ModesS
0
andA
0
arethefundamentalmodesand,withtheS
H0
mode,aretheonly
onespropagatingintheentirefrequencyrange.Modeswithindexlargerorequalto1are
characterized by the socalled cutoff frequency which represents the specific
frequencylimitbeyondwhichthesemodesstarttopropagateandcanbeestimatedonthe
horizontal axis of the wavenumber dispersion curve. The cutoff frequency, in fact,
correspondstoazerovalueofthewavenumberk
i
=2/
i
. Asaconsequence, every mode
at its cutoff frequency has infinite wavelength. For the same reason, the fundamental
modes have infinite wavelength at zero frequency that can be considered their cutoff
frequency.
Figure 2.10 and Figure 2.11 illustrate the displacement field for the first two
antisymmetricmodesA
0
andA
1
,whileFigure2.12andFigure2.13depictthesamefield
forthefirsttwosymmetricmodesS
0
andS
1
.
34
Figure 2.10 Displacement field associated with the first antisymmetric mode A
0
at 1.5 MHz mm (the
displacement is antisymmetric with respect to the xaxis).
Figure 2.11  Displacement field associated with the second antisymmetric mode A
1
at 1.5 MHz mm
(the displacement is antisymmetric with respect to the xaxis).
35
Figure 2.12  Displacement field associated with the first symmetric mode S
0
at 1.5 MHz mm (the
displacement is symmetric with respect to the xaxis).
Figure 2.13  Displacement field associated with the second symmetric mode S
1
at 1.5 MHz mm (the
displacement is symmetric with respect to the xaxis).
36
2.3 Guided waves in nonlinear elastic regime
Elastic wave propagation in solids has been classically studied within the linear
elastic regime where a simple linear theoretical framework can be applied and
superpositionprinciple holds.Thisapproachreliesonassumingsmallsignalregimeand
consequent infinitesimal deformations (coincidence between deformed and initial
configurations) with wave amplitudes sufficiently weak that linear equations may be
adequatetomathematicallydescribetheproblem.However,theactualexistenceofideal
linear elastic waves is extremely doubtful despite the wide use of such terminology in
literature.
Nonlinear effects in elastic wave propagation may arise from several different
causes. First, the amplitude of the elastic wave may be sufficiently large so that finite
deformationsarise.Second, a materialwhich behaves ina linearwaywhenundeformed
may respond nonlinearly when infinitesimal ultrasonic waves are propagated, provided
that a sufficient amount of external static stress is superimposed. Furthermore, the
material itself may exhibit various energy absorbing mechanisms or particular forms of
energy potentials that, under specific boundary conditions and external excitations, lead
to a nonlinear response. The latter is analyzed in detail in a following chapter via the
introduction of a new thermoelastic material model for nonlinear guided wave
propagationinconstrainedwaveguides.
The aforementioned mechanisms produce increasingly noticeable nonlinear
effectsthatmustbeintroducedintheanalyticalframeworktoobtainacorrectdescription
oftheresponse(lineartheorycannotexplainsucheffects).Amongthemanifestationsof
37
thenonlinear behavior,higher harmonicgeneration isconsidered indetail inthepresent
dissertation. In this scenario, an initially sinusoidal stress wave of a given frequency
distorts as it propagates, and energy is transferred from the fundamental to the higher
harmonicsthatappear.Inpracticalterms,supposingtoexciteanultrasonicwaveintothe
waveguide structure at a fixed frequency, (fundamental frequency), the nonlinearity
manifestsitselfinthegenerationofmultipleharmonicsof,e.g.2(SecondHarmonic),
3(Third Harmonic)andsoon.Whencertainresonancerequirements(discussed inthe
following)aremet,thenonlinearresponseiscumulativeandgrowswithdistance.
Traditional NDE techniques are based on linear theory and rely on measuring
some particular parameter (wave speed, attenuation, transmission and reflection
coefficients, phase shifts) of the interrogating signal to infer salient features of the
inspectedstructure.Inthiscasethefrequencyoftheinputandoutputsignalsarethesame
andnowavedistortioneffectstakeplace.Theseconventionaltechniquesaresensitiveto
gross defects, open cracks, delaminations in advanced state and other similar
macroscopic features where the specific condition we want to avoid nondestructively is
already well developed. Thus they are effective just where there is an effective barrier
that actively influences the linear wave propagation. Nonlinear techniques efficiently
overcometheselimitations.Theyaremuchmoresensitivetostructuralconditionthanthe
aforementioned conventional methods (Dace et al., 1991; Jhang, 2009) and able to
pinpointthepresenceofadefectorotherparticularstructuralstates(earlystagedamages,
microstructural changes) that are very difficult or even impossible to be detected by
linear NDE/SHM techniques (Herrmann et al., 2006; Kim et al., 2001; Nagy, 1998;
Zheng et al., 2000). The key difference between linear and nonlinear SHM/NDE
38
techniques is that in the latter the existence and characteristics of defects and/or other
structural features are related to an acoustic signal whose frequency differs from thatof
the input signal because of nonlinear distortion effects (Donskoy and Sutin, 1998;
Ekimov et al., 1999; Van den Abeele et al., 2000a; Van den Abeele et al., 2000b). The
attractivepotential inusing nonlinearguidedwavesrelies intheoptimal combinationof
highsensitivityofnonlinearparametersandlargeinspectionrangescharacterizingguided
wavesthattheyoffer(Ahmadetal.,2009;Bermesetal.,2008;BrayandStanley,1996;
Chimenti, 1997; Kwun and Bartels, 1996; Lowe et al., 1998; Rose, 1999, 2002).
Thereforetheir applicationtonondestructiveevaluationandstructuralhealth monitoring
hasdrawnconsiderableresearchinterest(Ekimovetal.,1999;Rudenko,1993;Zaitsevet
al.,1995).
( )
, , , ,
1
2
ij i j j i k i k j
E u u u u = + + (2.38)
where u
i
(x
k
,t) is the displacement vector in the Lagrange variables and the comma
between index denotes derivation with respect to the corresponding coordinate (i.e.
u
i,j
=u
i
/x
j
).ThroughEq.(2.38)potentiallargebutfinitegeometricalvariationsofinitial
configuration are introduced. By definition, the GreenLagrange strain tensor is a
symmetric secondorder tensor which reduces to the linear Cauchy strain tensor when
infinitesimaldeformationsare assumed(sothatthequadraticterms inEq.(2.38)can be
disregarded).Asaresultofthis nonlineardeformationprocessthereappear stressesthat
should beconnectedwiththestrains.Thisrepresentsthesourceofphysical nonlinearity
discussedinthefollowingsections.
Theconceptofanelastic material asasimple materialwhosebehavior doesnot
dependonstrainhistory, inthenonlinearframeworknowaugmentedbytherequirement
ofthe existenceofa stresspotentialofeitherthe deformationgradientor otherpossible
andalternativestrain measures.The notionofpotentialwas introducedforthefirsttime
almost two centuries ago (Green, 1839). Its existence is associated with the property of
theelasticmediumtostoretheworkdonebyexternalforcesonloadingandtoreturnthe
stored energy on unloading. In ideally elastic materials the deformation components at
an arbitrary point of the material are uniquely determined by the corresponding stress
components at the same point and no electrical, chemical or thermal phenomena occur
43
duetotheapplicationofexternal load. The body possessesadistinguishedstatedefined
thenaturalstate(undeformedandunstressed)towhichitreturnswhenallexternalloads
areremoved.
In the present treatment the physical nonlinearity is introduced considering the
bodyhyperelastic.Anelasticsolidissaidtobehyperelasticifitpossessesastrainenergy
density U that is an analytic function of the strain tensor E
ij
such thatthe second Piola
KirchoffstresstensorS
ij
canbeexpressedas:
ij
ij
i
j
U U
S
E
u
x
c c
= =
c  
c
c


c
\ .
(2.39)
where
0
istheinitialdensityofthebody.Itisapparentthatphysicalnonlinearitydepends
on the constitutive law governing the mechanical behavior of a specific nonlinear
material and, in particular, it is related to the structure of the internal strain energy
density. Eq. (2.39) was used first by Green for infinitesimal strain (Green, 1839), and
laterCosseratextendedthemethodtofinitestrain(Cosserat,1896).Forthegeneralcase
of anisotropic and heterogeneous materials, the strain energy density depends on the
material coordinates X
i
, material descriptors G
i
and the invariants of any one of the
materialorspatialstrainmeasures,asI
1
,
,
I
2
andI
3
(Eringen,1962):
( )
1 2 3
, , , ,
i i
U U X G I I I = (2.40)
wheretheinvariantsofthestraintensoraredefinedas:
1
2
3
ii
ij ji
ij jk ki
I E
I E E
I E E E
=
=
=
(2.41)
44
If the material is homogeneous, the strain energy density benefits of invariance
with respect to a group of transformation determined by material symmetry and,
consequently,thedependenceonmaterialcoordinatesX
i
dropsout:
( )
1 2 3
, , ,
i
U U G I I I = (2.42)
If the material is isotropic, then the directional independence in the natural state
requirestheindependenceofUfromthematerialdescriptorsG
i
:
( )
1 2 3
, , ,
i
U U X I I I = (2.43)
Asfinalresult,anisotropichomogeneoushyperelasticsolidmaybemechanically
describedbyastrainenergydensityfunctionUwhichrepresentsasinglevaluedfunction
ofinvariantsofanyoneofthematerialorspatialstrainmeasures:
( )
1 2 3
, , U U I I I = (2.44)
Francis Murnaghan was the first to propose a development of the strain energy
density for homogeneous isotropic hyperelastic solids as a power series in the three
invariants of the strain tensor using constant coefficients that were determined
experimentally:
( )
2 3 4
1 2 1 1 2 3
2 2
2 2
2 3
ij
l m
U I I I mI I nI O E
+ +
= + + + (2.45)
Thisapproximationhasprovedtobethemostusefulforcompressiblenonlinearly
elastic materialsundersmalldeformations.The firsttwotermsofEq.(2.45)accountfor
linear elasticity assuming infinitesimal deformations, hence the second order elastic
moduli and (Lams Coefficients) characterize linear elastic properties of the
material. The remaining terms account for first order material nonlinearity (up to
45
displacementsstraininvariantsofthethirdorder)throughtheuseofthethirdorderelastic
constants(l,m,n).
Itisimportanttoemphasizeatthispointthatthequadraticdisplacementgradients
termsinEq.(2.38)accountforthegeometricalnonlinearity,whereastermsinEq.(2.45)
proportional to the higherorder moduli A, B, C account for the physical or material
nonlinearity.Thisdistinction,however,ismainlyacolloquialonebecauseoftheintrinsic
overlapofthetwotermsduetothevaluesoftheinvariantsI
k
.Itisthereforenecessaryto
takeintoconsideration bothgeometricalandphysical nonlinearitysimultaneously inthe
developmentofthetheoreticalframeworkfornonlinearwavepropagation.
Theenergyexpression(2.45)maybewritteninanalternativeformusinganother
setofinvariants(Lurie,1990):
1 1
2
2 1 2
3
3 1 1 2 3
2
3 3
J I
J I I
J I I I I
=
=
= +
(2.46)
resultingin:
( )
2 3 4 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3
2 6
ij
U J J J J J J O E
v
v v = + + + + + (2.47)
where
1
=2l2m+n,
2
=mn/2and
3
=n/4arethethirdorderLamconstants.
An alternative series expansion of the strain energy for cartesian geometry was
proposedfewyearslaterbyLandauandLifshitz(LandauandLifshitz,1959),
( )
2 3 4
1 2 1 1 2 3
1 1 1
2 3 3
ij
U I I CI BI I AI O E = + + + + + (2.48)
whereA, BandCarethenewthirdordermoduli. Thisformisprobablythemostwidely
used to study nonlinear wave propagation phenomena in isotropic hyperelastic systems
46
anditisconsideredindetailinthepresentwork.Table2.1presentstherelationsbetween
differentthirdorderelasticconstantsproposedbyvariousauthorsforisotropicsolids.
Table 2.1 Thirdorder elastic constants for isotropic solids.
MURNAGHAN LANDAU AND LIFSHITZ LAM
l, m, n A, B, C
1
,
2
,
3
l B+C
1
/2+
2
m A/2+B
2
+2
3
n A 4
3
A n 4
3
B mn/2
2
C lm+n/2
1
/2
1
2l2m+n 2C
2
mn/2 B
3
n/4 A/4
Using the definitions in Eqs. (2.38) and (2.41), Eq. (2.48) can be expressed in
termsofdisplacementdifferentialsas:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2 2
, , , , , , , ,
3 4 2
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
1 1 1 1
2 4 4 2
1 1 1 1 1
+
12 12 3 4 4
1
[
8
m m i k k i i k m k m i m m i k
i k k m m i i k k i m m m m n m n i n k
i k k i i m m i s k s m i k k i k m m k s i s m
U u u u u u u B u u
Au u u Bu u u C u u u u
A u u u u u u u u u u u u
 
= + + + + + + +

\ .
+ + + + +
+ + + + + + +
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )( )( ) ( )( )( )
, , , , , , , , , , ,
2 2
, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
1
] [
2
1 3 1
] [
2 2 24
1
+ ] [
4
i m m i k m m k s i s k i k k i n i n k m m
i k k i i k i k n m n m m m n m i k k i s i s m l k l m
i m m i n i n k l k l m k m m k n i n k s i s k n
u u u u u u B u u u u u
u u u u u u C u u A u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u B u
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
, ,
2 4
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
2 2 6
, , , ,
1 1
]
12 24
1 1
8 24
i n k m m
i k k i n i n k s m m m n m n i n k s i s m l k l m
n i n k s m n m
u u
u u u u u Cu u A u u u u u u
B u u u C u
+
+ + + + +
+
(2.49)
47
Eq. (2.49) represents the full representation of the first order (quadratic)
nonlinearity. It contains displacement gradients whose order spans from quadratic to
sextic.Howeverthecontributionofquartic,quanticandsextictermsinthegeneralwave
propagation mechanism is significantly smaller than that of quadratic and cubic terms.
For this reason in the past the majority of studies on nonlinear wave propagation have
assumedafirstordernonlinearityapproximateduptocubicdisplacementgradients.With
thisassumptionEq.(2.49)simplifiesto:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , , , , , , ,
3
, , , , , , ,
1 1 1 1
2 4 4 2
1 1 1
+ ...
12 12 3
l l i k k i i k l i l k l l i k
i k k l l i i k k i l l l l
U u u u u u u B u u
A u u u B u u u C u
 
(
= + + + + + + +

\ .
+ + +
(2.50)
Eq.(2.50)isthe formoriginallyused inthepioneeringworksonnonlinearwave
propagation in solids (Goldberg, 1960; Jones and Kobett, 1963). Over the years several
alternative expressions of the strain energy density for hyperelastic solids have been
proposed,extendingthevalidityoftheapproachtomicromorphicsolids(Eringen,1972),
Cosserat continua and pseudocontinua (Cattani and Rushchitskii, 2003), twophase
elasticmixtures(Erofeyev,2003)andsoon.
ItisworthnoticingthatEq.(2.48)describesthefirstordernonlinearitywhich, in
addition, is considered to be weak because the components of the strain tensor are
sufficiently small that convergence of the proposed series expansions is guaranteed. If
higherorder nonlinearities need to be modeled, the series expansion discussed before
mustproceedbeyondstraininvariantsofcubicorder.Forth(andeventuallyhigher)order
moduli need to be introduced. According to the framework set by Landau and Lifshitz,
48
the strain energy density for a second order (cubic) nonlinear hyperelastic solid, also
definedasnineconstanttheoryofelasticity,is(KonyukhovandShalashov,1974):
( )
2 3 4 2 2 5
1 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 1
1 1 1
2 3 3
ij
U I I AI BI I CI DI GI I HI JI I O E = + + + + + + + + + (2.51)
whereD,G,HandJareforthorderLandauLifshitzmoduli.Furtherordernonlinearities
canbeintroducedfollowingthesamepath.
2.3.3 Nonlinear elastodynamic equations for waveguides
Thegeneralmomentumequationforhyperelasticbodiesis:
2
0 2
ij
i
j j
i
j
S
u U
t x x
u
x
(
(
c
c c c (
= =
(
c c c  
c
(
c


( c
\ .
(2.52)
Assuming first order weak nonlinearity approximated up to cubic displacement
gradients, the nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive equation can be obtained substituting
Eq.(2.48)intoEq.(2.39)andkeepinguptosecondorderterms:
( ) 2 2
ij kk ij ij ij kk ll kl lk kk ij jk ki
S E E CE E BE E BE E AE E o o = + + + + + (2.53)
UsingEq.(2.53)inthegeneral momentumequation, Eq.(2.52),theequationsof
motion governing the nonlinear wave propagation phenomena in homogeneous,
hyperelastic,isotropicsolidscanbeformulatedas(Goldberg,1960):
49
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
2
4
4
2
4
i i kk l li l kk l i l kk i l i lk l k
l ik l k k lk i l i kk l l
k lk l i l ik k l k ik l l
A
u u u u u u u u u
A
B u u u u B u u
A
B u u u u B C u u
 
+ = + + + +

\ .
 
+ + + + + + + +

\ .
 
+ + + + +

\ .
(2.54)
Before characterizing the treatment to the nonlinear wave propagation in
waveguidesitisconvenienttorearrangethestresstensorS
ij
.SubstitutingEq.(2.38)into
Eq.(2.53),thetensorS
ij
canbewrittenas:
L NL
ij ij ij
S S S = + (2.55)
where
L
ij
S and
NL
ij
S arethelinearandnonlinearpartsofthestresstensor,respectively.The
linearpart,
L
ij
S ,isgivenby:
( )
, , ,
L
ij k k ij i j j i
S u u u o = + + (2.56)
The substitution of Eq. (2.55) and Eq. (2.56) into the momentum equation, Eq.
(2.52),leadstothenonlinearNavierequationofmotion
( )
, , 0 j ji i jj i i
u u f u + + + = (2.57)
wherethevectorf
i
includesallthenonlineartermsandactsasavectorofbodyforce.A
stressfreeboundaryconditionisnecessaryforthecreationandthesustenanceofguided
waves.Thelatterconditionreads:
on
L
ij j ij j
S n S n = I (2.58)
wheren
j
istheunitvectornormaltothesurfaceofthewaveguide. Theexpressionsfor
f
i
and
ij
S are:
50
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
, , , , , , , , , ,
3
, , , , , , , ,
2
4 4
2
4
i l kk l i l kk i l i lk l k l ik l k k lk i l
i kk l l k lk l i k ik k l k ik l l ij
A A
f u u u u u u B u u u u
A
B u u B u u u u B C u u O E
   
= + + + + + + + + +
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + + + + + + +

\ .
(2.59)
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
3
, , , , , , , ,
2 4 2
4
ij k l k l k k l l ij k k j i j k k i k l k l k l l k ij
k k i j i k j k k i k j i k k j ij
A B
S u u Cu u Bu u u u u u u u
A
B u u u u u u u u O E
o o
 
= + + + + + +

\ .
 
+ + + + + + +

\ .
(2.60)
TheresultantnonlinearboundaryvalueproblemrepresentedbyEqs.(2.57)(2.58)
issolvedbyperturbationwritingthedisplacementvectoru
i
asthesumofaprimaryanda
secondarysolution:
(1) (2)
i i i
u u u = + (2.61)
where
(2) (1)
i i
u u isassumed(perturbationcondition).Theoriginalnonlinearboundary
value problem is split into two linear boundary value problems, namely the firstorder
and secondorder approximations of the nonlinear boundary value problem. In the first
approximationtheboundaryvalueproblemis:
( )
(1) (1) (1)
, , 0
(1)
0on
j ji i jj i
ij j
u u u
S n
+ + =
= I
(2.62)
where
( )
(1) (1) L
ij ij i
S S u = isthe firstorderapproximationofthesecondPiolaKirchoffstress
tensor. The problem stated in Eq. (2.62) represents a relatively simple system of linear
Navier equations for a waveguide that can be solved analytically for simple geometries
and numerically (using methods such as traditional linear SAFE algorithm) in case of
complexwaveguides.
51
Aslongasthesecondorderapproximationisconcerned,thegoverningequations
becomeasystemofforcedlinearpartialdifferentialequations:
( )
(2) (2) (1) (2)
, , 0
(2) (1)
n on
j ji i jj i i
ij j ij j
u u f u
S n S
+ + + =
= I
(2.63)
where
(2)
i
u
represents the secondary solution,
( )
(2) (2) L
ij ij i
S S u = is the second order
approximation of the second PiolaKirchoff stress tensor, and
(1) (1)
and
i ij
f S are obtained
byreplacing
(1)
i i
u u = inEqs.(2.59)and(2.60),respectively.
The original system of unforced partial differential equations governing the
harmonic generation phenomena due to nonlinear distortion of a guided wave
propagating in a quadratically nonlinear waveguide has been presented. By successive
approximations, it has been reduced to two sets of linear inhomogeneous partial
differentialequations.ThefirstisahomogeneoussystemoflinearPDEswhosesolutions
are the dispersion solutions of the considered waveguide. This represents the primary
solution
(1)
i
u .ThesecondisaninhomogeneoussystemoflinearPDEswheretheforcing
terms emanate from the primary solution. Its solution represents the secondary solution
(2)
i
u . Hence, the original problem reduces to seeking the solution for an elastic wave
generatedbytwoexternalforces,thesurfaceforce
(1)
n
ij j
S andthebodyforce
(1)
i
f .
Atthisstageitispossibletoexplainqualitativelythesecondharmonicgeneration
mechanism.Inthesecondapproximation,theforcingfunction,Eq.(2.59),containsterms
which are products of displacement gradients. If the primary wave field (primary
solution) exhibits simple time dependence with frequency , this fact will give rise to
terms inthe forcing functionwhichwillexhibit2 dependence.In lightofthis fact,the
52
particularsolutiontoEq.(2.63)willalsoshow2 dependence,i.e.thesecondharmonic
isgeneratedbyasingle monochromatic inputsignal in firstorder nonlinearwaveguides
(Figure2.14).Themechanismqualitativelyexplainedherewascharacterizedtoquadratic
nonlinearity. It can easily be extended to higherorder nonlinearities in order to explain
thegenerationofhigherorderharmonics.
53
2.3.4.1 Waveguide mode orthogonality
Consideringtwoelastodynamicstates(v
1
, T
1
, F
1
) and(v
2
, T
2
,F
2
) wherev isthe
velocityvector,TisthesurfacetractionandFisthebodyforce,thecomplexreciprocity
relationcanbeformulatedas(Auld,1990):
* * * *
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
( ( V =
v T v T v F v F (2.64)
Thederivationofthewaveguidemodeorthogonalityconditionisderivedherefor
guided waves in plates (Lamb modes) but the essential form of the final solution holds
for arbitrarywaveguides.Toderivetheorthogonalityrelations, body forces(F
1
, F
2
) are
neglected. In what follows solutions 1 and 2 are considered to be free modes with
propagation factors k
m
and k
n
, respectively. Furthermore, z is assumed as wave
propagation direction, while y as thickness direction. For plane strain conditions the
velocityfieldsforthetwomentionedsolutionscanbeexpressedas:
( )
( )
1
2
m
n
ik z
m
ik z
n
e v y
e v y
=
=
v
v
(2.65)
Inlightoftheseassumptions,thecomplexreciprocityrelationsimplifiesto:
{ } { } { }
z y
z y
c c
V = +
c c
(2.66)
where
{ }
* *
2 1 1 2
= v T v T (2.67)
SubstitutingEq.(2.67)intoEq.(2.66)leadsto:
( ){ }
( )
{ }
( )
* *
* * * * *
m n m n
i k k z i k k z
m n n m m n n m m n
i k k ze ye
y
c
=
c
v T v T v T v T (2.68)
54
Aftertheaboveequationisintegratedwithrespecttoyacrossthewaveguide,the
right hand side of it reduces tothe value of { } atthe plate edges. Considering a stress
freeorrigidboundaryconditionattheseedges,i.e.:
1
0or 0at 0, y y b = = = T v (2.69)
therighthandsideofEq.(2.68)iszero.Consequently,Eq.(2.68)simplifiesto:
( )
*
0
m n mn
i k k P = (2.70)
Hencetheorthogonalityconditionfortheelasticwaveguidemodesreads:
0
mn m n
P if k k = = (2.71)
It is worth noticing that for propagating modes the term P
mn
represents the
average power flow in the z direction (in other words it is the z component of the
Poynting Vector).Inthiscaseitisdefinedas:
{ }
*
1
2
mn m m
P e zdy = 9
}
v T (2.72)
2.3.4.2 Complex reciprocity relation
Thenecessarycomplexreciprocityrelationforthesecondorderproblemis(Auld,
1990):
( ) ( )
* * *
* 2 2 * * 2 * * 1
n n n
ik z ik z ik z
n n z n n n
e e e
z
o o
c
(
V =
c
v S + v n v S + v v f (2.73)
where v
n
(r) is the n
th
modal velocity for a stressfree waveguide,
n
(r) is the n
th
modal
stress obtained from v
n
(r), k
n
is the wavenumber for the n
th
mode, v
2
=u
2
/t is the
solution for the particle velocity, S
2
(r) is the stress obtained from v
2
(r), n
z
is the unit
vectorinthedirectionofpropagation,andthedifferentialoperator
V isdefinedas:
55
x y
x y
c c
V = +
c c
n n (2.74)
Theexpressions for v
2
andS
2
n
z
canbeexpanded intermsofwaveguide modes
as:
2
1
1
( , , ) ( ) ( ) . .
2
i t
m m
m
z t A z e c c
e
=
= +
v r v r (2.75)
2
1
1
( , , ) ( ) ( ) . .
2
i t
z m m z
m
z t A z e c c
e
o
=
= +
S r n r n (2.76)
where A
m
(z) is the modal amplitude and c.c. stands for complex conjugate. Using Eqs.
(2.75)(2.76)inEq.(2.73),integratingtheresultoverthewaveguidecrosssectionalarea
, and applying the divergence theorem to the second term on the lefthand side
produces:
( )
* * *
2 * * 2 1 *
4 ( )
n n n
ik z ik z ik z
mn m n n n
m
P e A z e d e d
z
o
I O
(
c (
+ I = O
(
(
c
} }
v v S n f v (2.77)
whereisthecurveenclosingthevolume ,nistheunitvectornormaltoand:
( )
* *
1
4
mn n m m n z
P d o o
O
= + O
}
v v n (2.78)
In the secondary problem, only traction is prescribed and the modes correspond
toastressfreewaveguide(
n
n = 0).Therefore,Eq.(2.77)canbereformulatedas:
* * * 1
* 1 *
4 ( )
n n n
ik z ik z ik z
mn m n n
m
P e A z e d e d
z
I O
(
c (
I = O
(
(
c
} }
v S n f v (2.79)
Theorthogonalityrelationofmodes,accordingtoAuld,reads:
*
0
mn m n
P if k k = = (2.80)
UsingtheaboveresultinEq.(2.79)leadsto:
56
( ) ( )
( ) *
4 ( )
a b
i k k z surf vol
mn n m n n
d
P ik A z f z f z e
dz
 
( + = +

\ .
(2.81)
wherethen
th
modeistheonlymodenotorthogonaltothem
th
modeand:
( )
* surf
n n
f z d
I
= I
}
v S n (2.82)
( )
* vol
n n
f z d
O
= O
}
f v (2.83)
Theterms ( )
surf
n
f z and ( )
vol
n
f z are identifiedasthecomplexexternalpowerdue
tothesurfacestress
1
S nandvolumeforcef
1
.Ifthesourceconditionisassumedtobe:
2
0at 0 z = = u (2.84)
thesolutiontoEq.(2.81)is:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
*
0
a b
n
i k k z
ik z
m m
m
A z A z e A e
(
= (2.85)
The amplitude A
m
(z) quantifies how strong the excitation of the m
th
secondary
mode inthe modal expansion is.InEq.(2.85),theamplitudeofthe secondary modes is
expressed in two different forms depending on the existence of the phasematching
condition (synchronism). The latter occurs between two modes having the same phase
velocity.Theexpressionsare:
( )
( )
( )
( )
*
*
if (ASYNCHRONISM)
4
surf vol
n n
m
n a b
mn n a b
i f f
A z k k k
P k k k
+
= =
(
(2.86)
( )
( )
( )
*
if (SYNCHRONISM)
4
surf vol
n n
m
n a b
mn
f f
A z z k k k
P
+
= = (2.87)
Theanalyticaltreatmenthas been maintainedso fartoageneral level wheretwo
propagating waveguide modes with real wavenumbers k
a
and k
b
are conveyed into the
57
nonlinear waveguide. In this case frequencymixing phenomena in addition to higher
harmonic generation occur because of nonlinear wave distortions. Secondharmonic
generation represents just a special case in which only a single mode is excited. In this
case the nonlinearity of the waveguide transforms a monochromatic (single frequency)
waveinputintoadistortedoutputwhereprimarywaveandsecondaryharmoniccoexist.
Characterizing the treatment to secondharmonic generation, the expressions for first
ordernonlinearsolutionandhigherordermodalamplituderead:
2
1
1
( , , ) ( ) ( ) . .
2
i t
m m
m
z t A z v e c c
e
=
= +
v r r (2.88)
*
(2 )
( ) ( ) (0)
n
ik z i kz
m m m
A z A z e A e = (2.89)
where
( )
( )
*
*
( ) if 2 (ASYNCHRONISM)
4 2
surf vol
n n
m n
mn n
f f
A z i k k
P k k
+
= =
(2.90)
( )
*
( ) if 2 (SYNCHRONISM)
4
surf vol
n n
m n
mn
f f
A z z k k
P
+
= = (2.91)
It is possible to notice that the modal amplitude of the generic m
th
secondary
mode oscillates in value if the solution is asynchronous, while it increases with
propagation distance z if the solution synchronous. The latter is the known cumulative
behavior occurring for nonlinear resonant modes in presence of the socalled internal
resonance. This mechanism relies on the simultaneous occurrence of two conditions,
namely:
1. PhaseMatching:k
n
*
= 2k
2. Nonzeropowertransferfromprimarytosecondarywavefield:f
n
surf
+ f
n
vol
0
58
RecentinvestigationsperformedbyDengetal.haveanalyzedtheinfluenceofan
additional requirement for the occurrence of internal resonance, namely the group
velocity matching(Deng etal.,2011). Inthis studythe authorsproved bothanalytically
and experimentally that, as long as the two aforementioned conditions (phasematching
and nonzero power transfer) are satisfied, the cumulative effect of the secondary
resonant mode takes place even when the group velocity matching condition is not
satisfied. They concluded that group velocity matching does not represent a necessary
requirementforcumulativesecondharmonicgeneration.Forthisreasonphasematching
andpowertransferonlyareconsideredindetailinthepresentwork.
( )
( )
2
1 3
3
dF x
k x k k x
dx
= = + (2.93)
59
is a quadratic function of the stretch x. It either monotonically decreases (softening) or
increases (hardening) with the stretch, depending on the sign of the ratio k
3
/k
1
(Figure
2.16).
Figure 2.16 Nonlinear spring behaviors for Duffing oscillator, depending on the ratio k
3
/k
1
.
Theequationgoverningthemotionofthisoscillatoris:
( )
3
1 3 0
cos mx cx k x k x F t + + + = O (2.94)
where c is the linear damping coefficient, m is the mass of the oscillator, F
0
is the
amplitudeoftheappliedharmonicexcitationandisitsfrequency.Undertheexcitation
60
of the simple harmonic forcing function F(t) = F
0
cos(t), the oscillator longterm
responses (after any transients have died out), because of its intrinsic material
nonlinearity,willbemarkedlydifferentfromthoseoftheapproximatelinearsystem,that
is,theconsideredsystemforwhichk
3
= 0.ThisfactisdepictedinFigure2.17.
Figure 2.17 Longterm responses for linear and nonlinear SDOF systems subjected to harmonic
excitation.
For linear systems the response is unique and harmonic input translates to a
harmonic response with the very same frequency as the input and no wave distortion
phenomenon takes place. This fact is a strict consequences of the principle of
superposition (Worden and Tomlinson, 2001), which holds for linear systems. The
motion of nonlinear systems, on the other side, can be periodic or aperiodic and, in
addition, multiple responses may coexist since solution uniqueness does not hold
anymore. Possible periodic responses include the primary resonant response (a
modification of the sole resonant response of the linear system) and secondary resonant
responses, which include subharmonics and higher harmonics generation. Possible
61
aperiodic responses are quasiperiodic responses (motions with periodically modulated
amplitudeand/orphase)andchaoticresponses.
( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 2 2 2
2 3 2 2 6 2 0
z z z z
u u u u
A B C
z t z z
c c c c
+ + + + + = (
c c c c
(2.95)
Introducingtheaforementionedacousticnonlinearityparameter:
( )
3 3
2 2
A B C

 
+ +
= +


+
\ .
(2.96)
Eq.(2.95)canbefurthersimplifiedas:
62
2 2
2
2 2
1
z z z
L
u u u
c
t z z

c c ( c  
=
 (
c c c
\ .
(2.97)
where ( )
1/ 2
0
2 /
L
c = + (
isthelongitudinalwavevelocity.
Alternativedefinitionsoftheacoustic nonlinearityparametercan beobtained by
usingdifferentthirdorderelasticmoduli(Kundu,2004).FromEq.(2.96),itcanbenoted
thatthenonlinearparameterisdimensionless.Furthermore,whenthisparameterisequal
tozero,thenonlinearwaveequation(2.97)reducestoitslinearcounterpart.
Assuming to launch a simple monochromatic sinusoidal wave of the form P =
P
0
cos(t)intothemediumatz = 0,thesolution,asdetailedinprevioussections,canbe
obtainedemployingaperturbationexpansionofthedisplacementfieldintheform
(1) (2)
z z z
u u u = + (2.98)
Thecontributionu
z
(1)
isthesolutiontothelinearwaveequation
2 (1) 2 (1)
2
2 2
0
z z
L
u u
c
t z
c c
=
c c
(2.99)
Thesolution,takingintoaccounttheaboveboundarycondition,isrepresentedby
theplanewave:
( )
(1)
1
cos
z
u A kz t e = (2.100)
wherekisthewavenumberoftheprimarymodewhileisitsangularfrequency.
( ) ( )
2 (2) 2 (2)
2
2 2 3
1 2 2
1
sin 2
2
z z
L L
u u
c c k A kz t
t z
 e
c c
=
c c
(2.101)
63
It can be noticed from Eq. (2.101) how the nonlinearity manifests itself as a
forcingfunctionwithatemporalfrequencydependencyofthetype2.Thisgivesriseto
the second harmonic in the nonlinear response. In order to solve Eq. (2.101) a general
dAlembertsolutionisassumed:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(2)
sin 2 cos 2
z
u f z kz t g z kz t e e = + (2.102)
The two functions f and g are assumed to be zdependent only and null at z=0
because the boundary condition used for the solution enforces the existence of the
fundamental wave only at z = 0. Substitution of Eq. (2.102) into Eq.(2.101) yields the
expression:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2 3 2
1 2
2
2
2
4 4
sin 2 cos 2
1
4 4 sin 2
2
4 4 cos 2
L L
f g
kz t kz t
c c
f g
k f k k A kz t
z z
f g
k k g kz t
z z
e e
e e
 e
e
   
+ =
 
\ . \ .
  c c
= +

c c
\ .
  c c
+ +

c c
\ .
(2.103)
Using the definition of longitudinal wave velocity as c
L
= /k and equating
coefficients of the sinusoidal and cosinusoidal terms between righthand side and left
hand side in Eq. (2.103), the following system of two partial differential equations is
obtained:
2
3 2
1 2
2
2
1
4 0
2
4 0
f g
k k A
z z
g f
k
z z

c c
=
c c
c c
+ =
c c
(2.104)
64
Enforcing the functions f and g and their derivatives to be zero at z=0 (in
accordancetothementionedboundarycondition),itispossibletosolvethesysteminEq.
(2.104).Thesolutionis:
( )
2
2
1
0
1
8
f
g k A z 
=
=
(2.105)
InlightofthisresultthefinalsolutionforEq.(2.97)isfoundas:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2 2 2
1 1
1
cos sin 2
8
z z z
u u u A kz t k A z kz t e  e = + = (2.106)
Eq.(2.106)showsthat, inadditiontothefundamentalwaveofamplitudeA
1
and
angular frequency , a second harmonic signal is generated of amplitude
A
2
=(1/8)k
2
(A
1
)
2
z. It is evident how the second harmonic wave depends on the
nonlinearityparameterandgrowslinearlywithpropagationdistancez.Thelatterresult
isobviousifweconsiderthatbulkwavesarenondispersiveandthatphasematchingand
powertransferarealwaysguaranteed.
Eq. (2.106) suggests that may be quantified experimentally by measuring the
absoluteamplitudesofthefundamentalandsecondharmonicsignalsas:
2
2 2
1
8
A
k A z
 = (2.107)
Theabovedefinitionhasbeenderivedforthespecificcaseofwavespropagating
inanonlinearunboundedmedium.Itisnottrivialtoextendthisdefinitiontotheguided
wavepropagationregime.Studiesinthepasthaveproposedalternativedefinitionsforthe
nonlinearparameterforguidedwavesusingscalingfactors(Herrmannetal.,2006)buta
consolidated approach to obtain an analytical expression, especially for waves
65
propagating in complex waveguides, is still nonexistent. A relative nonlinear parameter
will beused inthepresentworkinaccordancewiththe majorityofstudiespublished
inliterature.Thisparameterisdefinedas:
2 2
2
1
1
'
8
A
k z
A
  = = (2.108)
It is noted that the relative nonlinearity parameter is linearly proportional to the
absolutenonlinearityparameterandtothepropagationdistancefromthesource.
66
Chapter 3
Nonlinear SemiAnalytical Finite Element algorithm
(CO.NO.SAFE) Internal resonance analysis of
nonlinear structural waveguides
3.1 Introduction
It is well recognized that the great potential of guided waves in NDE and SHM
applications strongly relies on a solid understanding of the complex propagation
phenomena involved. These complexities include the existence of multiple modes, the
frequencydependent velocities (dispersion), and the frequencydependent attenuation.
This scenario is furthercomplicatedwhentransitioning from lineartononlinearregime,
where, aside from dispersion characteristics, internal resonance conditions and wave
distortion manifestations must be unveiled and managed. The knowledge of dispersion
curves and mode shapes is of paramount importance for the development of any
applicationbasedontheuseoflinearguidedwaves.Internalresonanceanalysis,instead,
iscrucial in identifyingoptimalcombinationsofresonantprimaryandsecondary modes
tobeusedforsuccessfulapplicationofnonlinearguidedwavesinNDE/SHM.
Focusing on the linear regime, analytical wave propagation methods generally
basedonthesuperpositionofbulkwaves(Lowe,1995;SoldatosandYe,1994)arewell
established algorithms for guided wave future extraction in simple problems, such as
67
plates or cylinders made of homogeneous or multilayered isotropic materials. In these
methods,thedispersiveequationsofmotionareformulatedviaconstructiveinterference
ofbulkwaveswithrespecttothewaveguideboundaryconditions.Despitethesemethods
wereconceivedformultilayeredstructuresofviscoelastic,anisotropicmaterials,theroot
searching routines in the complex plane of wavenumbers are not straightforward,
especially for waveguides with a large number of layers, and may miss some solutions.
This shortcoming and the necessity to investigate a large number of layers such as
composite laminates and that of modeling waveguides of arbitrary crosssection (for
which exact solutions do not generally exist) triggered notable research efforts in
developing both numerical and hybrid numericalanalytical techniques to model guided
waves propagation. Several different approaches based on Finite Element modeling to
predictdispersioncurves for guidedwaves haveemerged. The most intuitivelyobvious,
but also the most computationally expensive to reach this goal is the timedomain
modeling (Moser et al., 1999). The theoretical framework behind this approach consists
inconsideringafiniteelementmodelofalengthofwaveguide,applyingaparticulartime
dependent excitation force at one location and analyzing the subsequent wave
propagation. Quantitative dispersion data are then extracted from the model response
employing specialized techniques such as twodimensional Fourier transform (Alleyne
and Cawley, 1991) and wavelet transform (Benz et al., 2003; Presser et al., 1999). The
maindisadvantagesofthismethodarethelengthofwaveguidethatneedstobemodeled
in order to allow guided modes to develop and to allow separation from end reflections
(hence high computational demand) and the postprocessing phase, not always trivial,
required to extract dispersion data. An alternative FE method consists in modeling a
68
relativelyshortlengthofwaveguidewiththenodesattheendsconstrainedtomoveonly
in the plane perpendicular to the length of the waveguide (Sanderson and Smith, 2002;
Thompson, 1997). The resonant frequencies and mode shapes of such a model are then
calculated using an eigensolver. These correspond to frequencies where standing waves
are set up over the length of waveguide that has been modeled. The number of periods
alongthelengthofthewaveguideinthemodeshapeassociatedwithaparticularresonant
frequencyenablesthewavelengthandthusthephasevelocityofaguidedwavemodeto
becalculated.Similarmodelswithdifferentlengthsofwaveguidearethenusedtoobtain
morepointsinphasevelocityfrequencyspace.
SemiAnalyticalFiniteElement(SAFE)formulationcertainlyrepresentsthemost
powerful,sophisticatedandwellsuitednumericalalternativetoovercomethelimitations
of the analytical methods and explore wave propagation phenomena in prismatic
waveguides in a very efficient computational manner. In fact, this approach requires a
finite element discretization of the 2D crosssection only when compared to the FE
methods discussed above, thus reducing the dimension of the model by one. The
displacements along the wave propagation direction are conveniently described in an
analyticalfashionasharmonicexponentialfunctions.ASAFEmethodforwaveguidesof
arbitrary crosssection was proposed for the first time four decades ago (Aalami, 1973;
Lagasse, 1973), even though the authors of these works limited their investigation to
propagative modes only (i.e. real wavenumbers only). Ten years later Huang and Dong
used a similar approach to calculate propagative, nonpropagative and evanescent modes
(i.e. complex and imaginary wavenumbers) for anisotropic cylinders (Huang and Dong,
69
1984). The three different types of waveguide modes obtained as solution of the SAFE
eigenprobleminthemostgeneralcasearedepictedgraphicallyinnextFigure3.1.
Figure 3.1 Schematic illustration of possible waveguide modes. (a) Propagative mode (real
wavenumber). (b) Propagating evanescent mode (complex wavenumber). (c) Nonpropagative mode
(imaginary wavenumber).
More recently other researchers applied the SAFE algorithm to several different
structural systems, including thinwalled waveguides (Gavri, 1994), railroad tracks
(Gavri, 1995), rib stiffened plates (Orrenius and Finnveden, 1996), rods (Mazuch,
1996), wedges (HladkyHennion, 1996) and fluid filled pipes (Finnveden, 1997).
Waveguides with periodic geometric along the direction of wave propagation and
separating into several branches have also been addressed (Mencik and Ichchou, 2005).
Other applications of the general SAFE method include nonhomogeneous anisotropic
beams (Volovoi et al., 1998) and twisted waveguides (Onipede and Dong, 1996).
ReflectionphenomenafromtheendofawaveguidewerestudiedTaweeletal.(Taweelet
al.,2000).Thepropagativemodesinbuiltupthinwalledstructures,includingachannel
beamandaplateinawind,wereinvestigatedrecently(Finnveden,2004).Inthisstudyan
innovative and advantageous derivation of the group velocity from the individual
solutions of the SAFE eigenproblem was proposed. Laminated composite waveguides
were studied using SAFE algorithm for the first time by Dong and Huang (Dong and
Huang, 1985)and,subsequently, by Mukdadietal.(Mukdadietal.,2002).Recentlythe
70
SAFEmethodhasbeenextendedtodissipativewaveguidesusinganefficientviscoelastic
model(Bartolietal.,2006)andtoprestressedwaveguides(Loveday,2009).
From the brief literature review presented above, it is clear that SAFE
formulation,initslinearfashion,hasbeentheobjectofextensiveresearcheffortsduring
the last decades. It is also evident that, while several investigations pertaining to
nonlineareffects in solidsand harmonicgenerationwerereportedinthepast, almostall
of them were limited in their applicability to structures with simple geometries (plates,
rods,shells)andsimplematerialconfiguration(isotropic,homogeneous)whereanalytical
solutionfortheprimary(linear)wavefieldareavailableinliterature.Inthepresentwork
the propagation of waves in nonlinear solid waveguides with complex geometrical and
material properties is investigated theoretically and numerically. For the solution of the
nonlinearboundaryvalueproblem,perturbationtheoryandmodalexpansiondiscussedin
previoussectionsareused.Aninnovativenumericalalgorithm,abletoefficientlypredict
and explore the nonlinear wave propagation phenomena in several types of structural
waveguides, is proposed. It is based on the implementation of a Nonlinear SAFE
formulation into a highly flexible and powerful commercial Finite Element package
(COMSOL).TheresultingCO.NO.SAFE algorithmdoesnotrequireany newelement
to be developed (which is the case for adhoc written SAFE codes) and it combines the
full powerofexisting libraries androutines ofthecommercialcodewith itseaseofuse
and extremely capable postprocessing functions and multicore processing support.
Hence internal resonance conditions of structural waveguides with different level of
complexitycanbeconvenientlyanalyzedviauserfriendlyinterfaces.Readytousehigh
order shape functions can be easily utilized in the model. This aspect is crucial for the
71
development of the present theory since the nonlinear postprocessing analysis involves
gradients of the displacement field up to the third order. In addition, immediate and
extensive postprocessing for all the required quantities can be developed through
friendly GUIs. Figure 3.2 summarizes graphically the most salient features and benefits
offeredbytheproposednumericalalgorithm.
Figure 3.2 Summary of salient features and benefits offered by the proposed numerical algorithm.
The applicability of the proposed analysis is quite wide, since it can efficiently
handle general prismatic structures, viscoelastic waveguides with damping effects,
multilayered composite laminate panels and heterogeneous systems, all cases where
theoretical wave solutions are either nonexistent or extremely difficult to determine.
Furthermore, the proposed approach requires simple modifications to the original
72
commercialFEMcodesothatthenonlinearsemianalyticalformulationcanbetakeninto
accountandtranslatedtomatchtherequiredformalism.
Afterabriefdiscussiononthebackgroundofthe presentwork andtheproposed
algorithm,severalcasestudieshavebeenanalyzedindetailtoemphasizethepotentialof
the method. Appropriate combinations of primary and secondary modes (nonlinear
resonance conditions) were identified for relatively complex waveguides that include: a
viscoelasticplate,acompositequasiisotropiclaminate,andareinforcedconcreteslab.A
railroadtrackisconsideredindetailinthenextchapter.
It is important to emphasize how the knowledge of these nonlinear resonance
conditions is of primary importance for the actual implementation of conditions
assessment systems for these structures that are based on the measurement of nonlinear
ultrasonicguidedwaves.
3.2 CO.NO.SAFE algorithm  Mathematical framework
TheNonlinearSAFE mathematical modelpresented inthisdissertation has been
implemented into COMSOL commercial finite element code in two different stages
starting from the very general threedimensional elasticity approach to avoid any
simplification inthetreatment. Ina firstphasethe linearelasticregime is assumed. The
quantitative analysis of dispersion characteristics of a given waveguide is developed in
line with the classical linear SAFE formulation. This linear solution of the governing
eigenproblemconstitutesthestartingpointforthefollowingnonlinearanalysiswherethe
modeshapes are used to calculate the velocity vectors in Eq. (2.88) and the associated
73
eigenvaluesarethewavenumbersinexpressions(2.89),(2.90)and(2.91).Thenonlinear
part of the algorithm has been originally implemented in MATLAB and seamlessly
integrated with COMSOL environment in real time by establishing an associative
connection between the two platforms via a specialized livelink application. This step
was essential for the calculation of all the complex quantities involved in the nonlinear
analysis, exploiting the extensive programming capabilities of MATALB and the full
powerofCOMSOLcommercialcode.
Theequationsofmotionintensornotationcanbewrittenas:
, ij j i
u o = (3.1)
where
ij
is the stress tensor associated with the propagating wave, x
j
are the Cartesian
coordinates, u
i
are the displacement components along each Cartesian direction, the
indices i and j run from 1 to 3, comma denotes derivation and the Einstein summation
convention is adopted over repeated indices. For the general case of a linear elastic
anisotropicsolid,theconstitutiveequationis:
ij ijkl kj
C o c = (3.2)
where c
ijkl
is the fourthorder elasticity tensor and
kl
is the Cauchy strain tensor
(infinitesimaldeformations)definedas:
( )
, ,
1
2
ij i j j i
u u c = + (3.3)
SubstitutionofEq.(3.3)intoEq.(3.2)leadstothefollowingrelationbetweenstressand
displacement:
, ,
1 1
2 2
ij ijkl k l ijkl l k
C u C u o = + (3.4)
74
Exploitingthesymmetryofstressandstraintensors:
ijkl ijlk
C C = (3.5)
Eq.(3.4)canberewrittenas:
, ,
1 1
2 2
ij ijkl k l ijlk l k
C u C u o = + (3.6)
Furthermore, being k and l dummy indices which are summed out, the constitutive
equationcanbereformulatedas:
, ij ijkl k l
C u o = (3.7)
Usingtheaboveresultintheoriginalequationsofmotion(3.1)yieldstothefinalform:
,
on
ijkl k lj i
C u u = O (3.8)
with summation implied over dummy indices j, k and l from 1 to 3. The associated
NeumannandDirichletboundaryconditionscanbedefined,respectively,as:
on
ij j i
n t
o
o = I (3.9)
on
i i u
u u = I (3.10)
In Eqs. (3.9) and (3.10), n
j
represents the unit normal vector pointing outward
fromthesurfaceofthewaveguide,isthevolumeofthewaveguide,
istheportionof
theexteriorsurface wheresurfacetractionsareprescribedand
u
istheremainingpart
ofthesurfacewhereboundarydisplacementareprescribed.
For a Cartesian reference system, the waveguide crosssection is set in the xy
planewhiletheaxiszisalongthewavepropagationdirection(Figure3.3).Theclassical
SAFE key approximation is applied, enforcing the displacement field to be harmonic
alongthewavepropagationdirection,z,andusingspatialshapefunctionstodescribeits
amplitudeinthecrosssectionalplanexy.Thisconditionmathematicallytranslatesto
75
( ) ( )
( )
, , , ,
i kz t
i i
u x y z t N x y e
e
= (3.11)
wherek isthewavenumber,istheangularfrequency,iistheimaginaryunitandN
i
(x,y)
aretheshapefunctions.
Subdividing the crosssection via finite elements (Figure 3.4), for the generic e
th
elementtheabovedisplacementfieldreads:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
, , , , ,
i
i kz t i kz t e e e
i i ij
u x y z t N x y e N x y q e
e e
= = (3.12)
InEq.(3.12)N
ij
(x,y)representstheshape function matrixwhoseorderis (3x3n),
beingnthenumberofnodesperelement.Itisdefinedas:
76
( )
1 2
1 2
1 2
...
, ...
...
n
n
n
N N N
x y N N N
N N N
(
(
=
(
(
N (3.13)
InthesameEq.(3.12)thetermq
i
e
denotesthenodaldisplacementvector forthe
e
th
elementdefinedas:
1 1 1 2 2 2
... ... ...
T
e
x y z x y z xn yn zn
U U U U U U U U U ( =
q (3.14)
InlightofthediscussedSAFEassumption,thegradientsofthedisplacementfield
inEq.(3.11)reduceto:
( )
( )
( )
( )
, ,
, ,
,
2
2
2
i kz t
i x i x
i kz t
i y i y
i kz t
i z i
i kz t
i
i i
u N e
u N e
u ikN e
u
u N e
t
e
e
e
e
e
=
=
=
c
= =
c
(3.15)
Makinguseoftheabovedefinitions,thesystemofpartialdifferentialequationsof
motion(3.8)andtheassociatedboundaryconditions(3.9)and(3.10)canbeexpressedas:
77
2
,
0in
ijkl j kl i
C N N e + = O (3.16)
,
on
ikjl j l k i
C N n t
o
= I (3.17)
on
i i u
u u = I (3.18)
with,i=1,2,3,andsummationimpliedovertheindicesj,kandl.Aftersomeintermediate
transformations,Eqs.(3.16)(3.17)canbereformulatedas(Predoietal.,2007):
( )( ) ( )
2
, 3 3 3 3
,
0in
ijkl j kl i jk ikj j i j j ij j
k
C N i C C kN kC kN N e o + + + = O (3.19)
( )
, 3
on
ikjl j l k ikj j k i
C N n iC kN n t
o
+ = I (3.20)
wherej=1,2,3andk,l=1,2.
COMSOL commercial code offers a number of powerful physics interfaces for
equationbased modeling which support several PDE formulations as well as general
ways of adding ODEs, algebraic equations, and other global (spaceindependent)
equations.ThesocalledCoefficient Form PDEinterfacecoversmanywellknownPDEs
and it is very well suited for solving linear and almost linear PDEs via finite element
method. This form has been applied inthepresentwork. Incoefficient form, COMSOL
inputformalismtomodelthemostgeneralPDEproblemreads(COMSOL,2011):
( )
2
2
e +d + in
a a
u u
c u u u au f
t t
o 
c c
V V + + V + = O
c c
(3.21)
( ) on
T
n c u u qu g h
o
o V + + = I (3.22)
on
u
hu r = I (3.23)
where is the computational domain (union of all subdomains) corresponding to the
meshed 2D crosssection of the waveguide,
Figure 3.5 Physical interpretation of the terms in the COMSOL PDE coefficient form interface.
Thesymbolisthevectordifferentialoperatordefinedas:
1 2
, ,...,
n
x x x
  c c c
V =

c c c
\ .
(3.24)
wherenisthenumberofspacedimensions.
Eq.(3.21)isthePDE, which mustbe satisfied in. Eqs. (3.22)(3.23)represent
thenatural(GeneralizedNeumannBC)andessential(DirichletBC)boundaryconditions,
respectively, which must hold in . If u is a single variable, all the coefficients in the
79
above system of equations are scalars except , and , which are vectors with n
componentsandc,whichmaybeanbynmatrix.Theyalladmitcomplexvalues,which
isessential for viscoelasticwaveguides,as highlighted inonetheanalyzedcasestudies,
discussedinthefollowingwork.
As discussed in previous sections, SAFE modeling of the guided wave
propagation problem in the linear regime can be mathematically represented by a
boundary value eigenproblem comprising Navier equations of motion and an associated
stressfreeboundaryconditionon=
.ConsideringEqs.(3.21)(3.22),theoriginalPDE
problembereformulatedasascalareigenvalueproblemviathecorrespondence/t t,
linking the time derivative to the eigenvalue . The result of this manipulation,
dismissingunnecessaryforcingterms,reads:
( )
2
   0in
a a
e d u c u u u au o  + +V V + V = O (3.25)
( ) 0on n c u u qu
o
o V + + = I (3.26)
If=e
a
=0,Eqs.(3.25)(3.26)canberewrittenas:
( )
, ,
0in
ijkl j kl ijk ijk j k j j ij j
C u u a u d u o  + + = O (3.27)
,
0on
ikjl j l k ijk j k ij j
C u n u n q u o + + = I (3.28)
It is evident how the eigenproblem formulated by Eqs. (3.27)(3.28) effectively
represent the original eigenproblem in Eqs. (3.19)(3.20) once all the coefficients have
beencorrectlydefined. Nontrivial solutionscanbefound bysolvingthistwinparameter
generalized eigenproblem in k and . The frequency is a real positive quantity. The
wavenumber k can be real, complex or imaginary and can have both positive and
negative signs, associated with socalled rightpropagating and leftpropagating
80
waveguide modes, respectively. The full dispersion curve spectrum can be simply
obtainedbyusingtheefficientparametricsweepanalysis(supportedbyCOMSOL)over
the desired range of frequencies, with as parameter of the sweep. The resulting
eigenvalues, complex in the most general case, are used to describe the velocity of the
traveling waves through their real part, k
Re
, and their amplitude decay through the
imaginary part, k
Im
. However, for each frequency a relatively complex secondorder
polynomialeigenvalueproblemneedstobesolved.Thisscenariocanbecomputationally
optimizedusingaclassictechniqueconsistinginrecastingtheoriginaleigenproblemtoa
firstordereigensystembyintroducinganewvectorvariablevdefinedas:
k = M v M u (3.29)
where M is an arbitrary diagonal matrix. In order to correctly formulate the original
problem described by Eqs. (3.19)(3.20) in the form of Eqs. (3.27)(3.28)the following
setofvariablesisintroduced:
 
1 2 3 1 2 3
T
u u u v v v u = (3.30)
With this new set of variables the coefficients appearing in the FEM formalism
discussedabovemustbe(Predoietal.,2007):
0 0 0
; ; ;
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
; ;
0 0 0
a
D iA iB
d
M
C M
c a
M
o 
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
( (
= =
( (
(3.31)
In Eq. (3.31), i represents the complex unit, the term 0 represents a zero matrix of
appropriatedimensions,andthesubmatricesaredefinedas:
81
2
55 54 53
2
45 44 43
2
35 34 33
15 14 13
65 64 63
65 63 64
25 23 24
55 53 54
45 43 44
0 0
0 0 ; ;
0 0
C C C
M D C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
A
C C C
C C C
C C C
e
e
e
( (
(
(
= =
(
(
(
(
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
51 56 55
56 52 54
41 46 45
46 42 44
31 36 35
36 32 34
11 16 16 12 15 14
61 66 66 62 65 6
; ;
C C C
C C C
C C C
B
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C C C C
C C C C C C
C
( ( ( ( (
( ( ( ( (
( (
( (
( ( (
( (
=
( ( (
( (
( (
( ( (
( (
( ( (
( (
( (
( (
=
4
61 66 66 62 65 64
21 26 26 22 25 24
51 56 56 52 55 54
41 46 46 42 45 44
;
C C C C C C
C C C C C C
C C C C C C
C C C C C C
( (
( (
(
(
( ( (
(
( ( (
(
(
( ( (
(
( ( (
(
(3.32)
where is the density, is the frequency and C
ij
(i,j = 1,...,6) are the stiffness
coefficients(generallycomplex)expressedinVoigtnotation.
The discussed manipulation doubles the algebraic size of the original
eigensystem. This size depends on the finite element mesh used to discretize the cross
sectionofthewaveguideand,consequently,onthenumberofdegreesoffreedomofthe
finiteelementmodel.Asaresult,being2Mthesizeofthelinearizedeigensystem,ateach
frequency , 2M eigenvalues k
m
and 2M associated eigenvectors are obtained. The
eigenvectors are the M forward and the corresponding M backward waveguide modes.
Theeigenvaluesoccuraspairsofrealnumbers(k
Re
),representingpropagativewavesin
the xdirections, as pairs of complex conjugate numbers (k
Re
ik
Im
), representing
propagative evanescent waves decaying in the xdirections, or as pairs of purely
imaginary numbers (ik
Im
), representing the nonoscillating evanescent waves in the x
82
directions.Thephasevelocitycanbethenevaluatedbyc
ph
= /k
Re
andtheattenuation,in
Neperspermeter,byk
Im
.
/ 2 / 2
/ 2 / 2
B B
B B
=
V = V
u u
u u
(3.33)
The fact that continuity only is imposed at the PBCs constitutes a significant
benefitforplatesystemssincetheshearhorizontalmodes(SH)arealwaysincludedinthe
eigensolution. Furthermore,the value for thewidthB inthealgorithmwithPBCs is not
important for the solution given that the resulting structure is an infinitely wide plate
made of identical, adjacent blocks with continuity of both displacement and stresses at
theirjunction.
This tool is very attractive because it opens up new possibilities to study the
guidedwavepropagation(linearand nonlinear) for ageneralclassofperiodicstructures
bydevelopingtheanalysisjustonasmallportionofthewholewaveguide.
)
(3.34)
wherekisthewavenumber,
(0)
zz
o istheaxialloadappliedtothewaveguideandu,v,and
w represent the amplitude of the displacement field along Cartesian axes x, y, z (Figure
3.3).Realizingthatthe formofthisterm identicaltothatofthekineticenergy, the new
term to be implemented is actually a stiffness term proportional tothe mass matrix and
definedas:
(0)
(0) zz
K M
o
= (3.35)
whereisthedensityofthewaveguideandMisthemassmatrix.
In light of the result above and in agreement with the theoretical framework
discussed in Section 3.2, the only modification required in CO.NO.SAFE algorithm to
accountfor axial load istrivialand involves justtheabsorptioncoefficient matrixa and
thedamping/masscoefficient matrixd
a
(Figure3.5),defined inEqs.(3.31)(3.32). After
introducingthenewtermquantifyingtheeffectoftheaxialload,thesetwomatricesread:
85
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
0 2
0 2
0 2
0
0
0
0 2
0 2
0 2
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
zz
zz
zz
zz
zz
zz
a
zz
zz
zz
a
d
e
e
e
o e
o e
o e
o
o
o
o e
o e
o e
(
(
(
(
(
=
( +
(
(
+
(
(
+
(
(
+
(
(
+
(
(
+ +
(
=
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(3.36)
Theinfluenceofanaxialloadondispersioncurveswasanalyzedonanaluminum
rod in order to validate the proposed extension. This particular problem has been
considered in the past by other authors (Chen and Wilcox, 2007; Loveday, 2009) and
serveshereasabenchmark.
The influence of a tensile axial load, T, on the phase velocity, c
ph
, at the
frequency,,forabeamwithYoungsmodulus,E,secondmomentofarea,I,andmass
perunitlength,m,isprovidedinEq.(ChenandWilcox,2007).
2 2
2
4
ph
EI
c
T mEI T
e
e
=
+
(3.37)
A1mmdiameterrodwasmodeledinCO.NO.SAFEusing250linearLagrangian
triangularelements.Figure3.6depictstheemployed finiteelement meshwithacontour
plotofthemeshqualityindex.
86
Figure 3.6 Finite element mesh with quality index contour plot of a 1 mm diameter rod used as
validation case.
The dispersion analysis was performed inside the (0100) kHz range in two
stages,firstwithnoaxialloadandthenwithatensileloadappliedcorrespondingto0.1%
axial strain. Phase velocity dispersion curves were calculated numerically using
CO.NO.SAFE code in both cases (with and without axial load) and are presented in
Figure 3.7. It is clear from this figure that only three propagating waveguide modes
coexistintheconsideredfrequencyrange,namelytheflexuralmode,thetorsionalmode
and the axial mode. Furthermore, the curves reveal that only the flexural mode is
sensitivetothepresenceofanaxialloadandthisinfluenceismorepronouncedatlower
frequencies(yellowinsetinFigure3.7).
87
Figure 3.7 Phase velocity dispersion curves for a 1 mm diameter aluminum rod with and without
axial load. Three propagating modes present in the considered frequency range are highlighted
(contour plot for the outofplane displacement field and vector plot for the inplane displacement
field).
Figure 3.8 Comparison between numerical results (CO.NO.SAFE) and closedform solution (Euler
Bernoulli) for the flexural mode in both loaded and unloaded cases.
88
Figure3.8showsacomparisonbetweendispersioncurvescalculatednumerically
(CO.NO.SAFE) and in closedform (EulerBernoulli) for the flexural mode. A
logarithmic scale is employed to accentuatethe deviation between loaded and unloaded
cases. It is clear that the numerical results employing CO.NO.SAFE extension are
practicallyidenticaltotheEulerBernoullibeammodelandinaccordancetootherresults
recentlypresentedinliterature(ChenandWilcox,2007;Loveday,2009).
In the following CO.NO.SAFE algorithm is benchmarked in three exemplary
casestudiesinvolvingwaveguideofdifferentlevelofcomplexityintermsofgeometrical
featuresandmaterialproperties.
[m/s]
c
T
[m/s]
k
L
[Nepers/wavelength]
k
T
[Nepers/wavelength]
953 12.7 2344 953 0.055 0.286
The dissipative behavior of the plate was implemented via the Hysteretic
formulation (Bartoli et al., 2006). Hence the resultant stiffness matrix is frequency
independent and was calculated just once at the beginning of the analysis once the
complexLamesconstantswereevaluated.Theresultsforthepresentcaseare:
( )( )
2 2
2
2 2
3 4
3.51 0.06
1 1 2
L T
T
L T
c c
c
c c
i GPa
v
v v
 

\ .
= = +
+
(3.38)
90
( )
2 2
2
2 2
3 4
0.86 0.08
2 1
L T
T
L T
c c
c
c c
i GPa
v
 

\ .
= =
+
(3.39)
In Eqs. (3.38)(3.39) the complex bulk wave velocities (longitudinal and
transverse)arecalculatedas:
1
,
, ,
1
2
L T
L T L T
k
c c i
t
 
= +

\ .
(3.40)
Theresultantviscoelasticstiffness matrix, withtermsexpressed in GPa, isgiven
by:
2 0 0 0
2 0 0 0
2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
5.23 0.09 3.51 0.06 3.51 0.06 0 0 0
3.51 0.06 5.23 0.09 3.51 0.06 0 0 0
3.51 0.06 3.51 0.06 5.23 0.09 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.86 0.08 0 0
0
C
i i i
i i i
i i i
i
( +
(
+
(
(
+
= =
(
(
(
(
(
+ +
+ +
+ +
=
0 0 0 0.86 0.08 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.86 0.08
i
i
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(3.41)
First, the plate system was solved in the linear regime to calculate dispersion
curves and propagative modes, necessary for the nonlinear analysis. PBCs were
employed in relation to that. According to this approach, the present plate system was
modeled using a mesh of just 60 quadrilateral cubic Lagrangian elements mapped and
deployed in a (3.17 12.7) mm periodic cell (Figure 3.9). The resulting Lamb wave
91
solutions are displayed in Figure 3.10 and Figure 3.11 in the (0500) kHz frequency
range. They are found to be in perfect agreement with wellknown results previously
published in literature. Primary and secondary modes for the nonlinear analysis are
highlightedwithgreencirclesinthesamefigures.
DuetothelackofstudiesinliteratureconcerningspecificallytheHPPEmaterial,
the third order LandauLifshitz elastic constants characterizing a very similar plastic
polymer(Polystyrene)wereadoptedforthenonlinearanalysis(CattaniandRushchitskii,
2007).TheassumedvaluesareA=10.8GPa,B=7.85GPaandC=9.81GPa.
Figure 3.9 Geometry and associated mesh for a 2D periodic cell representative of the 12.7 mm thick
HPPE plate (dimensions in mm).
92
Figure 3.10 Phase velocity dispersion curves in the (0500) kHz frequency range with primary and
secondary modes selected for nonlinear analysis highlighted (green circles).
Figure 3.11 Attenuation curves (expressed in dB/m) in the (0500) kHz frequency range with
primary and secondary waveguide modes selected for nonlinear analysis highlighted (green circles).
93
Thenonlinearanalysiswasdevelopedbetween250kHz(primarymode)and500
kHz (secondary mode). Being the waveguide dissipative, all the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors are complex. Propagative modes were separated from evanescent and non
propagative solutions by using a threshold of 10% between imaginary and real parts of
eacheigenvalue. Afterapreliminaryanalysisondifferentpotentialcombinationsamong
thepropagativemodes,oneparticularmodewasselectedasinput(primarymode)forthe
nonlinearpostprocessing.Itisassociatedwithacomplexeigenvaluek=669.62+87.56i
andacorrespondingphasevelocityc
ph
=2345.80m/sat250kHz.
The application of CO.NO.SAFE algorithm in this case is simplified because of
the assumption of 2D strain regime (the plate is considered infinite in the width
direction).Forthisreasonallthetermsusedinthenonlinearpostprocessingdiscussedin
Chapter2areevaluatedona linesegmentrunningthroughthethickness. Thisapproach
issometimesreferredas1DSAFE(Predoietal.,2007),andappearedinliteratureforthe
firsttimealmostfourdecadesago(DongandNelson,1972;NelsonandDong,1973).
Theresultsoftheanalysispinpointedthepresenceofaresonantsecondarymode.
Asmentionedbefore,whilethecontributionofallothermodesisoscillatoryandbounded
(Eq. (2.90)), this secondary mode shows a cumulative behavior and represents the
dominanttermintheexpansionEq.(2.88),participatingwithacontributionthatlinearly
increaseswithdistance.Infact,afterallthesecondarymodalamplitudeswerecalculated
from Eq. (2.91)) for the synchronous case, the identified resonant secondary mode
exhibits a value which is orders of magnitude larger than those associated to the
asynchronousmodes(Figure3.12).
94
Figure 3.12 Modal amplitude plot of secondary propagative modes for the viscoelastic HPPE plate.
96
Figure 3.13 Selected primary waveguide mode propagating in the HPPE plate at 250 kHz. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Contour plot with superimposed vectorial plot of
inplane displacement field. (c) 3D view of global displacement field.
97
Figure 3.14  Resonant secondary waveguide mode propagating in the HPPE plate at 500 kHz. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Contour plot with superimposed vectorial plot of
inplane displacement field. (c) 3D view of global displacement field.
98
3.3.2 Anisotropic elastic composite laminate
A multilayered composite laminate with unidirectional laminae in a quasi
isotropic layup was examined next. More specifically, the selected system consists of
eight unidirectional T800/924 graphiteepoxy plies with a stacking sequence of
[45/0/90]
S
. Thesame laminatewas investigatedinthe linearregime byPavlakovicand
Lowe using the software DISPERSE developed at Imperial College, London, UK
(PavlakovicandLowe,2003).Eachlayerhasathicknessof0.125mmresultinginatotal
laminate thickness of 1 mm. The material properties for each single lamina in the
principaldirectionsofmaterialsymmetryare:=1500kg/m
3
,E
11
=161GPa,E
22
=9.25
GPa, G
12
= 6.0 GPa,
12
= 0.34 and
23
= 0.41 (Percival and Birt, 1997). The
correspondingstiffnessmatrix,expressedinGPa,isgivenby:
11 12 13
12 22 23
13 23 33
44
55
66
0 0 0 168.4 5.45 5.45 0 0 0
0 0 0 5.45 11.3 4.74 0 0 0
0 0 0 5.45 4.74 11.3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.28 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.0
C C C
C C C
C C C
C
C
C
C
( (
( (
( (
( (
= =
( (
( (
( (
( (
(
(3.42)
Thestiffnessmatrixforeachlaminaneedstobeopportunelyrotatedaccordingto
the angle between the fiber direction and the wave propagation direction (Bartoli et al.,
2006).Inthefollowing,awavepropagationdirectionforminga0anglewithrespectto
the fiber direction 1 was assumed (the extension to cases where this angle assumes
different values is trivial). After all the matrix rotations were developed, the governing
eigenvalueproblemwassolvedas inthepreviouscasestudy,usingtherotatedstiffness
matricesintheconstitutiverelations.
99
A mapped mesh made of 48 quadrilateral cubic Lagrangian elements was
adopted.Itwasusedtomodela(0.31)mmrectangularcellwithPBCsonbothlateral
sides. Geometric characteristics, composite layout and finite element model for the
laminateperiodiccellareshowninFigure3.15.ResultantLambwavesolutionsbetween
50kHzand5MHz,areillustratedinFigure3.16.Thedispersioncurvesmatchextremely
wellwiththeresultsalreadypublished in literature(Bartolietal.,2006;Pavlakovic and
Lowe,2003).Theprimaryandsecondarymodesadoptedforthenonlinearanalysis,along
with two particular propagative modes at 3 MHz (labeled as Mode M1 and Mode M2),
arehighlightedinFigure3.16usingdifferentsymbols.ModesM1andM2wereanalyzed
in further detail to emphasize how the abrupt changes in material properties between
adjacentpliesleadtocomplexmodeshapes;theyaresignificantlydifferentthantheones
characterizing an equivalent isotropic homogeneous system. In fact, abrupt changes in
slopeinthedisplacementfieldscanbeobservedattheinterfacesbetweenadjacentlayers,
as depicted in Figure 3.17 and Figure 3.18 More specifically, Figure 3.17a and Figure
3.18adepicttheoutofplanedisplacementfield(alongthedirectionofpropagation)asa
3Dcontourplot(heightandcolorgradientsproportionaltotheoutofplanedisplacement
amplitudes)forthetwoselectedmodes,respectively.
Figure 3.17b and Figure 3.18b show, for the same two modes, the inplane
displacement field (crosssection components) via a vector plot (arrows represent the
resultantofthetwodisplacementcomponentsas directionandamplitude)superimposed
toacontourplot(colorgradientsproportionaltoinplanedisplacementamplitudes).
100
Figure 3.15  (a) Geometrical details for a 2D periodic cell representative of a 1 mm thick elastic
composite 8layer quasiisotropic laminate (dimensions in mm). (b) Finite element mesh with periodic
boundary conditions highlighted.
Figure 3.16 Phase velocity dispersion curves in the (0.055) MHz range with exemplary propagative
modes at 3 MHz, along with selected primary and secondary modes for nonlinear analysis.
101
Figure 3.17  Selected mode M1 propagating at 3 MHz in the composite laminate. (a) Contour plot of
outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
Figure 3.18  Selected mode M2 propagating at 3 MHz in the composite laminate. (a) Contour plot of
outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
102
Thethirdorderelasticconstantsassumedforeachlaminaare:A=15GPa,B=
33GPaandC=14GPa(Prosser,1987).Thenonlinearanalysiswasdevelopedbetween
2.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz. A complex primary mode combining attributes typical of axial
andflexuralhorizontalmodeswasselectedastheinput.Oneofthepropagativemodesat
thedoubleharmonic(5MHz)wasfoundtobeininternalresonancewithaverydominant
secondary modal amplitude and, consequently, very attractive for an actual application.
Theresults,intermsofmodalamplitudeplots,areshowninFigure3.19.
Figure 3.19 Modal amplitude plot of secondary propagative modes for the anisotropic elastic
composite laminate.
Figure3.19emphasizeshowdrasticthepredominanceoftheonlyresonantmode
intermsofmodalamplitudeis,whencomparedwithalltheotherpropagativesecondary
modes existing at 5 MHz. Outofplane and inplane displacement fields along with
globalmodeshapefortheinvestigatedcombinationofresonantmodesarerepresentedin
Figure3.20andFigure3.21inthesamefashionasinthepreviouscase.
103
Figure 3.20  Selected primary waveguide mode propagating in the anisotropic elastic composite
laminate at 2.5 MHz. (a) Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Contour plot with
superimposed vectorial plot of inplane displacement field. (c) 3D view of global displacement field.
104
Figure 3.21  Resonant secondary waveguide mode propagating in the anisotropic elastic composite
laminate at 5 MHz. (a) Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Contour plot with
superimposed vectorial plot of inplane displacement field. (c) 3D view of global displacement field.
105
Both primary and secondary modes concentrate the axial wave energy near the
center of the waveguide; consequently, this combination appears appealing for the
inspection of the laminate because of the expected reduced wave leakage into
surroundingareas.
Figure 3.22 Geometrical details and finite element mesh for a periodic cell representative of a 8 cm
thick reinforced concrete slab (dimensions in cm).
Figure 3.23 Quality index distribution characterizing the assumed reinforced concrete slab finite
element model.
107
The finite element mesh has been developed using the advancing front
algorithm (COMSOL, 2011). The mesh quality is quantified using an index spanning
from0(degeneratedelement)to1(completelysymmetricelement).Theresultintermsof
qualityindex(averagevalueequalto0.9198)isillustratedinFigure3.23.
Guided wave solutions for the reinforced concrete slab were obtained in the (0
100) kHz frequency range and are presented in Figure 3.24. Due to the conspicuous
differenceinmaterialproperties betweenconcreteandsteel,quitecomplexmodeshapes,
withabruptvariationsatthesteelconcreteinterface,canbeseen.
Figure 3.24 Phase velocity dispersion curves in the (0100) kHz frequency range with salient
propagative modes at 40 kHz and combination of primary and secondary waveguide modes selected
for nonlinear analysis pinpointed.
108
Two of the propagative modes at 40 kHz (both highlighted in Figure 3.24 and
labeledasModeM3andModeM4)arerepresentedindetailinthefollowingtohighlight
the complexity of wave propagation phenomena in such a complex waveguide. The
influenceofthesteelbarsonthewavepropagationcharacteristicsisevident.
Figure 3.25 Selected mode M3 propagating at 40 kHz in the reinforced concrete slab. (a) Contour
plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
Figure 3.26  Selected mode M4 propagating at 40 kHz in the reinforced concrete slab. (a) Contour
plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
109
CO.NO.SAFE algorithm was used with 40 kHz as the primary frequency. The
primary mode selected as input exhibits essentially a flexural horizontal displacement
field.Itswavenumberisk=65.59rad/mwhileitsphasevelocityisc
ph
=3831.79m/s.In
order to optimize the computational efficiency without any loss in accuracy, a smaller
cell(halfinwidth)wasadoptedforthenonlinearanalysis.Thissmallerperiodiccellwas
defined by appropriately applyingthePeriodicBoundaryConditionson its lateralsides,
likewiseinpreviouscases.
Figure 3.27  Modal amplitude plot of secondary propagative modes for the reinforced concrete slab.
Results of the nonlinear analysis are presented in Figure 3.27 in terms of modal
amplitudeplot.Theyrevealthepresenceof fewasynchronousmodescharacterized by a
relatively large power transfer (modal amplitude values inside the circle) and only a
single resonant secondary mode able to verify also the phasematching condition. This
resonant mode is characterized by k = 124.04 rad/m and, being synchronous, it has the
110
same phase velocity as the primary mode (taking opportunely into account inevitable
numericalerrors).
Figure 3.28 Complex power transfer distribution through the volume (top) and through the surface
(bottom) between primary and resonant secondary modes propagating in the reinforced concrete
slab in the (4080) kHz frequency range.
Thenatureoftheidentifiedfavorablecombinationofmodesisillustratedindetail
inFigure3.29andFigure3.30.
111
Figure 3.29 Selected primary waveguide mode propagating in the reinforced concrete slab at 80
kHz. (a) Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Contour plot with superimposed
vectorial plot of inplane displacement field. (c) 3D view of global displacement field (concrete
domain in gray, reinforcement domain in red).
112
Figure 3.30  Resonant secondary waveguide mode propagating in the reinforced concrete slab at 80
kHz. (a) Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Contour plot with superimposed
vectorial plot of inplane displacement field. (c) 3D view of global displacement field (concrete
domain in gray, reinforcement domain in red).
113
3.4 Conclusions
The use of nonlinear guided waves is gaining increasing attention in the
nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring communities. Proper
application of nonlinear measurements requires a solid understanding of the higher
harmonicgenerationthatcanbeexpectedforthetestwaveguide.Thepresentsectionhas
demonstrated the potential of an innovative numerical algorithm for internal resonance
analysisofcomplexwaveguides.ItextendstheclassicalSAFEalgorithmtothenonlinear
regime and is implemented in a powerful multipurpose commercial code (COMSOL).
The result is a new tool that opens up new possibilities for the analysis of dispersion
characteristics and, most importantly, nonlinear internal resonance conditions, for a
variety of complex structural waveguides that do not lend themselves to alternative
analyses such as purely analytical solutions. The specific complex cases that were
examined include: viscoelastic waveguides with damping effects (HPPE plate),
multilayered composite panels (8ply quasiisotropic laminate), and heterogeneous
periodic systems (reinforced concrete slab). In all these cases, the proposed algorithm
successfully identified appropriate combinations of resonant primary and secondary
modesthatexhibitthedesiredconditionsofsynchronismandlargecrossenergytransfer.
Thesepropertiescan beexploited inanactualsystemaimedatmonitoringthestructural
condition of the waveguide by nonlinear waves (detect defects, measure quasi  static
loadsorinstabilityconditions,etc...).
Thenextchapterdiscusses,amongothertopics,theuseofproposedalgorithmto
guide and optimize the design of an innovative nonlinear technique for thermal stress
114
monitoringinContinuousWeldedRails(CWR).Thecomplexity,here, ismainlyrelated
totheparticulargeometricalfeaturesoftherailcrosssection.
3.5 Acknowledgements
This chapter, in part, has been published in the Mathematical Problems in
Engineering Journal, Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea Francesco; (2012). The title of
this paper is Higher Harmonic Generation Analysis in Complex Waveguides via a
Nonlinear SemiAnalytical Finite Element Algorithm. The dissertation author was the
primaryinvestigatorandprimaryauthorofthispaper.
This chapter, in part, has been recently submitted to the ASCEE Journal of
EngineeringMechanics,Nucera,Claudio;LanzadiScaleaFrancesco;(2012).Thetitleof
this paper is Nonlinear SemiAnalytical Finite Element Algorithm for the Analysis of
Internal Resonance Conditions in Complex Waveguides.Thedissertationauthor wasthe
primaryinvestigatorandprimaryauthorofthispaper.
115
Chapter 4
Application to nondestructive thermal stress
measurement in Continuous Welded Rails (CWR)
4.1 Need for the study
Railroad tracks have appeared more than four centuries ago. In fact, the
underlyingtechnologydevelopedovera longperiod, startingwithprimitivetimberrails
inminesinthe17
th
century.Foralongperiodoftimerailroadtrackswereconnectedend
toendtoproduceacontinuoussurfaceonwhichtrainsmayrun(jointed rails).Thiswas
traditionally accomplished bolting the two adjacent rail portions using metal fishplates
(Figure 4.1). In this way each rail section could expand and accommodate temperature
relatedphysicalexpansionandcontractionarisingfromseasonalthermalvariations.
The diffusion of portable flashbutt welding machines along with the possibility
of improving ride comfort, expand rail life and obtain higher traveling speed, reduced
track maintenance and costs and a better geometry of the track triggered the use of
Continuous Welded Rails (CWRs). Their attractiveness is evident when modern trends
towards heavier axle loads and higher train velocities are considered. In this form of
track, two successive rail sections are welded together to form continuous structural
lengths of a few hundreds of meters and, in some instances, even a few kilometers
116
(Figure 4.2). The major problem with CWRs consists in the almost total absence of
expansionjoints,whichcancreatesevereissuesintermsofsafety.
Figure 4.1 Fishplate bolted to join two successive rail sections in a jointed railroad track.
A more dangerous and frequent issue for the safety of rail transportation can
happen in presence of hot weather. In Chapter 1 it has already been discussed that any
differenceofactualrailtemperature fromrail neutraltemperatureT
N
(defined insection
1.2) generates a longitudinal thermal stress. In fact, when the ambient temperature is
118
higherthanT
N
,aCWRenters intoastateofcompression, accordingtoEq.(1.1).When
this state of compressive state reaches sufficiently high levels, the rail can exhibit
buckling collapse mechanisms characterized by sudden and rapid lateral or vertical
movementoverarelativelyshortlength(Figure4.1)(Kerr,1975,1978b;KishandClark,
2004; Kish and Samavedam, 2005). This form of collapse is referred as rail thermal
buckling or sun kink. It constitutes an extremely dangerous situation because if the
buckling occurs under a train, a derailment is likely; if it occurs between trains, traffic
musteitherbestoppedorsloweddownuntilthebuckledtrackconditionisfixed.
Figure 4.5 Federal Railroad Administration Statistics on rail accidents due to track conditions in
the period January 1975  February 2012 (http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/default.aspx).
121
isoftenassociatedwiththeraillayingoranchoringtemperature.Themaindifficulty
intrackingthisvaluearisesfromthefactthatT
N
oftherailwhileinserviceisrelatively
122
dynamicinthesensethatitmaychangeduetonumerousfactors(creep,breathing,ballast
settlement,railinstallation,distressing,realignment,brokenrailrepairs,etc...).Evenfora
rail with a known laying temperature or anchoring temperature,the neutral temperature
forarailinservicemaynotbeknown.
In lightofthediscussionabove it isclear how muchtherailroad industrywould
benefit intermsof bothsafetyandeconomyofoperation fromanoninvasivetechnique
able to develop insitu measurement of thermal stress in rails and detect incipient
buckling conditions, with sensitivities large enough toovercome the effects of tietotie
variations, changing temperature, and changing steel microstructure. This dissertation
proposes an innovative system aimed at nondestructively assess the T
N
and potential
incipientbucklingconditionsofaCWRinservicebymeasuringthethermalstressinthe
rail,,atarailgiventemperature,T.
Inthisworktheevaluationofthethermalstressisaccomplishedbymeasuringthe
nonlinear behavior of ultrasonic guided waves propagating along the rail running
direction.Specificguided wave modesand specificguided wave frequencies needtobe
selected to gain sufficient sensitivity to thermal stress. In presence of nonlinearity the
harmonic motionofastructuralcomponentatagivenexcitation frequency f isdistorted
by the existence of higherharmonics that are multiples of the fundamental harmonic.
The presence/magnitude of these higherharmonics is the particular nonlinear
phenomenonexploitedtotracktherailthermalstressviatherelativenonlinearparameter
defined in Eq. (2.108). The novelty here comes from the direct linking between this
nonlinearresponseandthestateofthermalstressintherailgeometry.
123
CO.NO.SAFE algorithm was used to pinpoint a favorable combination of
resonant primary and secondary modes. Nonlinear 3D finite element simulations using
ABAQUS commercial code were used later to predict numerically the behavior of the
nonlinear parameter with respect to temperature variations. In order to strengthen the
proposed system, several proofofprinciple investigations were conducted atthe UCSD
LargeScaleRailNT/BucklingTestbedconstructedatthePowellStructuralLaboratories
under FRA funding. Based on several experimental validations (detailed in the
following),aprototypehasbeendesignedforawaysidestationaryinstallationontherail
web.
Aftera brief illustrationofthe stateoftheartandtheproposedtechniquesupto
datetoidentifyT
N
inCWRs,thepresentchapterdiscussesthecomputationaleffortsthat
guidedandoptimizedthedevelopmentoftheproposedsystem.
Figure 4.9 VERSE Equipment for neutral temperature measurement in CWRs. (a) Field
deployment. (b) Schematic layout.
125
 Measurementofdynamicresonanceoftorsionalmodeofvibration(DSTRESEN
Method): The Dstresen technique is based on the measurement of dynamic
resonance (acceleration amplitude) below 90 Hz for the torsional mode of
vibration of the rail. The approach does not require unfastening, hence the
potential attractiveness. Unfortunately, as confirmed in recent investigations at
TTCI (Read and Shust, 2007), the method is highly sensitive to rail
fastening/support conditions. Consequently normal tietotie variations can make
the stress or T
N
measurement challenging and unreliable with this method.
Furthermore, DStresen method works for rails which are in tension or
compression but, unfortunately, it is necessary to know what the actual state of
stress before to testing is, in order to collect correct results. Because of these
problems,theindustryhasconsideredthismethodmoreasanestimator,rather
thanadirectmeasurement,ofrailneutraltemperature.
 Measurementofultrasonic velocityof bulkwaves(Acoustoelastic Method):The
acoustoelastic method for stress measurement in rails has been known for more
than thirty years (Egle and Bray, 1976). Acoustoelastic stress measurement is
based on the theory of finite deformations (Murnaghan, 1967) which produce a
change in ultrasonic velocity with applied stress. It typically uses longitudinal,
shear or surface (Rayleigh) waves in the ~MHz frequency range. The biggest
challenge of the technique is that the acoustoelastic variation of wave velocity
with stress is extremely small (~0.1% velocity change per GPa of stress for rail
steel).Thislowsensitivityoftenmasksthestressindicationsbyotherparameters
affecting wave velocity (namely temperature variations and steel microstructure
126
variations). For this reason, the acoustoelastic method for stress measurement in
railshasbeenchallengingtoimplementinpracticalfieldconditions.
 Measurementofmagneticpermeabilityofsteel(MAPSSFTMethod):Introduced
intheearly1990s,thistechnique(Figure4.10)exploitstherelationshipbetween
stress and the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. The magnetic
propertiesaresensitivetotherailtotalstresses(residualstressplusthermalstress
duetorestrainedexpansion).Onlythethermalstressduetorestrainedexpansion
with the current rail temperature  is needed todetermine the rail T
N
from Eq.
(1.1). Consequently, the technique needs to eliminate the effect of residual
stressesbyusingcalibrationcurvesobtainedfromdifferentrailmanufacturers/rail
typeswheremagneticmeasurementsaretakenatzerostresstoisolatetheresidual
stresscomponent. The magneticprobesareattachedtotherailwebtoattemptto
determine the thermal stresses at the rail neutral axis. The thermal stress
determination from this technique currently requires 8 scans, or at least 30
minutes, to produce a single value of rail Neutral Temperature. A statistical
analysis is also performed to fit the data to a statistical trend. Consequently, the
techniquecancurrentlyonlybeusedatwaysideandnotinmotion.Finally,tothe
authors knowledge, this technique cannot distinguish tension vs. compression
stresses.
 Measurement of phase or group velocity of ultrasonic guided waves: A few
studies have attempted to overcome the low sensitivity of ultrasonic velocity to
stress for bulk waves by exploiting the dispersive behavior of ultrasonic guided
127
waves that depend on the waveguide geometry of the rail structure (Chen and
Wilcox, 2007; Loveday and Wilcox, 2010). However, these techniques are
affected by the following two problems: (1) the phase velocity technique was
proposed at low frequencies, hence the sensitivityto rail support conditions (tie
totie variation); (2) phase and group velocities alone are highly sensitive to
changes in the material constants due totemperature alone. Consequently, it has
been extremely challenging to eliminate the temperaturedependent elastic
constant effects from the effect of the actual thermal stress from restrained
expansion. As discussed above for MAPSSFT, the latter effect is the only
parameterdirectlyrelatedtotherailNeutralTemperature.
130
Two exemplary cases in the low frequency range (primary mode at 80 kHz and
secondary mode at 160 kHz) were selected first as representative to benchmark the
potential of the proposed algorithm in analyzing higher harmonic generation in
geometrically complex waveguides. Real resonant combinations and false positive,
where either one of the two requirements for internal resonance is not satisfied, were
correctlydistinguished.Inthefirstcase,phasematchingbetweenprimaryandsecondary
modes is verified. However, due to the characteristic energy distribution over the rail
crosssection,nopowertransferispresentbetweenthemodesand,consequently,internal
resonancedoesnotoccur;hence,thesecondarymodalamplitudeisboundedinvalueand
oscillates with distance along the direction of wave propagation (Eq. (2.90)). In the
second case, instead, both required conditions are verified and internal resonance takes
place,leadingtoaresonantsecondarywavefieldgrowinglinearlywithwavepropagation
distance.
Latertheanalysis isextendedtohigher frequencies, consideringaprimary mode
in inputat200kHz.Movingtowardshigher frequency isparticularly beneficial in view
ofawaysideinstallationfortheproposedsystembecause,eventhoughmorepropagative
modesappearaspartoftheeigensolution,themajorityofthemfocusthewaveenergyin
confined portions of the rail section. The interrogating combination of modes selected
inside this frequency range can potentially exhibit smaller sensitivity to tietotie
variationsandotherexternalinfluencesthatcancorrupttheapplicabilityoftheproposed
technique.ThematerialpropertiesconsideredaregiveninTable4.1Table4.1Material
properties assumed for railroad nonlinear track analysis.. LandauLifshitz thirdorder
elasticconstantsaredetailedin(SekoyanandEremeev,1966).
131
Table 4.1 Material properties assumed for railroad nonlinear track analysis.
[kg/m
3
] [GPa] [GPa] A[GPa] B[GPa] C[GPa]
7932 116.25 82.754 340 646.667 16.667
ThefiniteelementmeshusedfortheanalysisisshowninFigure4.12.Ithasbeen
developedusingtheadvancingfrontalgorithm(COMSOL,2011).Themeshqualityis
(averagequalityindexequalto0.9319)isillustratedinFigure4.13.Inordertocorrectly
explorethedisplacementfieldandallthederivedquantities(essentialforthecalculation
of all the terms during the nonlinear postprocessing), 351 cubic Lagrangian 10node
triangularisoparametricelements(Figure4.14)wereemployed(Onate,2009).
Figure 4.12 Finite element mesh adopted for the railroad track nonlinear analysis.
132
Figure 4.13  Quality index distribution for the AREMA 136 RE finite element model.
Figure 4.14 Cubic Lagrangian 10node triangular elements analytical description (Onate, 2009).
133
In Figure 4.14 L
1
, L
2
, and L
3
represent the area coordinates which can be
interpretedastheratiobetweenthedistancefromagenericpointPinsidethetriangleto
theoppositesidedividedbythedistancefromthenodetothatside(Figure4.15).These
coordinates have proved to be very useful to derive the shape functions of triangular
finiteelements.
Figure 4.15 Area coordinates for an exemplary triangular element (Onate, 2009).
Using the above coordinate system, the shape functions for the 10node cubic
Lagrangiantriangularelementcanbeexpressedas(Onate,2009):
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 4 1 1 2
5 2 1 2 6 2 2 3
7 3 2 3
1 1
(3 1)(3 2) (3 1)(3 2)
2 2
1 9
(3 1)(3 2) (3 1)
2 2
9 9
(3 1) (3 1)
2 2
9
(3 1)
2
N L L L N L L L
N L L L N L L L
N L L L N L L L
N L L L
= =
= =
= =
=
8 3 3 1
9 2 3 1 10 1 2 3
9
(3 1)
2
9
(3 1) 27
2
N L L L
N L L L N L L L
=
= =
(4.1)
InFigure4.16,theresultantwavenumberandphasevelocitydispersioncurvesin
the(0600)kHzfrequencyrangearerepresented.
134
Figure 4.16 AREMA 136 RE railroad track dispersion properties in the (0600) kHz frequency
range. (a) Wavenumber curve. (b) Phase velocity dispersion curve.
135
The complexity of the guided wave propagation for this particular waveguide is
clear considering the abundance of propagative modes present and their dispersion
characteristics(especiallyathigher frequencies). Byanalyzingthetwozoomed insets in
Figure 4.17, it can be noticed that relatively few propagative modes exist for this
particularwaveguideuntilaround100kHz,whileathigherfrequenciesthepictureisway
morecomplex.Severalmodescoexistwithintricatedispersioncharacteristics.
Figure 4.17 Zoomed views on rail phase velocity dispersion curve around 80 kHz and 330 kHz,
respectively.
Figure4.18showssomepropagativemodesfoundinsidetherange(80160)kHz.
It can be noted how differently the energy is concentrated within the waveguide. As
statedbefore,twoexemplarycasesareusedas benchmarkanddiscussed indetail inthe
136
following sections. Figure 4.19 illustrates these combinations of modes in the phase
velocitydispersioncurve.
Figure 4.18  Propagative modes in the (80160) kHz frequency range. (a) Flexural vertical mode
(energy mainly concentrated in the rail head). (b) Flexural horizontal mode (energy exclusively
confined in the rail web). (c) Axial mode. (d) Complex mode involving a mixture of axial, torsional
and flexural displacements.
Figure 4.19  Selected combinations of synchronous primary and secondary rail waveguide modes in
the (80160) kHz frequency range.
137
4.3.1 Nonresonant combination
A flexural horizontal primary mode (Figure 4.20) was selected as primary
excitation (input for the CO.NO.SAFE algorithm). The nonlinear analysis revealed the
presence of a synchronous secondary mode at 2 (Figure 4.21) exhibiting a similar
flexural horizontal displacement distribution. However, the power transfer through the
volume and the surface of the waveguide (Figure 4.22) is such that the other necessary
requirement for internal resonance is not met for this particular combination, leading to
anoscillatingsecondarymodalamplitudevalueandabsenceofinternalresonance.Atthe
sametime, aconspicuouspowertransferoccursbetweentheselectedprimary modeand
someasynchronoussecondary modes; hereagain internalresonancedoes nottakeplace
becauseofthe lackofoneofthetwoessentialrequirements(phasematching). This fact
translates into the very small value associated of modal amplitude associated with the
onlysynchronous mode, andtherelatively highervaluesassociatedtotheasynchronous
secondarymodes.
Figure 4.20 Selected primary mode propagating at 80 kHz in the AREMA 136 RE rail web. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
138
Figure 4.21 Synchronous although nonresonant secondary mode propagating at 160 kHz in the
AREMA 136 RE rail web. (a) Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of in
plane displacement field.
Figure 4.22 Complex power transfer distribution through the volume (top) and through the surface
(bottom) between nonresonant primary and secondary modes propagating in the rail web in the (80
160) kHz frequency range.
139
Figure 4.23a and Figure 4.23b illustrate the selected primary and secondary modes,
respectively. Figure 4.23c plots the modal amplitude results for the propagative
secondarymodespresentat160kHz.
Figure 4.23 Nonresonant combination of modes propagating in the AREMA 136 RE rail web. (a)
Selected primary mode at 80 kHz. (b) Phasematched (synchronous) although nonresonant
secondary mode at 160 kHz. (c) Modal amplitude plot for propagative secondary modes.
140
4.3.2 Resonant combination
In this case a flexural vertical mode was selected as primary excitation (Figure
4.24). The results of the nonlinear SAFE analysis disclosed the presence of some
synchronous secondary modes with one in particular (Figure 4.25), exhibiting a slightly
differentflexuralverticalbehavior,abletoverifybothrequirements.
Figure 4.24 Selected primary mode propagating at 80 kHz in the AREMA 136 RE rail head. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
Figure 4.25  Resonant secondary mode propagating at 160 kHz in the AREMA 136 RE rail head. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
141
This time the complex power transfer through volume and surface of the rail
(Figure 4.26) is such to generate internal resonance and a nonlinear double harmonic
growinglinearlywithdistance.
Figure 4.26 Complex power transfer distribution through the volume (top) and through the surface
(bottom) between resonant primary and secondary modes propagating in the rail head in the (80
160) kHz frequency range.
Likewise the previous case, Figure 4.27a and Figure 4.27b display the selected
modes, while Figure 4.27c spotlights the very high value of modal amplitude related to
thesecondaryresonantmode;smallamplitudevaluesassociatedtotheothersynchronous
modes, for which power transfer is absent, are also shown in the same figure. The
obtained results point up an optimal combination of primary and secondary wave fields
able to maximize the nonlinear response of the waveguide. Furthermore, it is worth
noticinghowtheselectedprimarymodeisnotonlyabletoproducearesonantcondition,
butalsoveryattractiveintermsofpracticalexcitabilitybyapiezoelectrictransducer.
142
Figure 4.27 Resonant combination of modes propagating in the AREMA 136 RE rail head. (a)
Selected primary mode at 80 kHz. (b) Resonant secondary mode at 160 kHz. (c) Modal amplitude
plot for secondary propagative modes.
Figure 4.28 Finite element mesh adopted for the nonlinear analysis of the AREMA 136 RE rail at
higher frequencies.
Figure 4.29 Complex waveguide modes propagating at relatively high frequencies (200 kHz) in the
AREMA 136 RE railroad track. (a) Contour plot of outofplane displacement field for complex
mode 1. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field for complex mode 1. (c) Contour plot of outof
plane displacement field for complex mode 2. (d) Vector plot of inplane displacement field for
complex mode 2.
145
Aparticularpropagatingmodeat200kHzshowingastrongenergyconcentration
intherailwebwasselectedasinputforthenonlinearinternalresonanceanalysis(Figure
4.30). The analysis revealed the presence of a resonant secondary mode propagating at
400kHz(Figure4.31). Itischaracterized byasimilardisplacement fieldand itexhibits
strongenergyconcentrationinthewebarealikethefundamentalmodeat200kHz.
Figure 4.30  Selected primary mode propagating at 200 kHz in the AREMA 136 RE rail web. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
Figure 4.31  Resonant secondary mode propagating at 400 kHz in the AREMA 136 RE rail web. (a)
Contour plot of outofplane displacement field. (b) Vector plot of inplane displacement field.
146
Figure 4.32 illustrates these combinations of modes in the phasevelocity
dispersion curve while Figure 4.33 displays the complex power transfer through the
volumeandtheexternalsurfaceoftherail.
Figure 4.32 Combination of synchronous primary and secondary modes propagating in the (200
400) kHz frequency range selected for internal resonance analysis.
Figure 4.33  Complex power transfer distribution through the volume (top) and through the surface
(bottom) between resonant primary and secondary modes propagating in the rail web in the (200
400) kHz frequency range.
147
Figure 4.34  Resonant combination of modes propagating at relatively high frequencies in the
AREMA 136 RE rail web. (a) Selected primary mode at 200 kHz. (b) Resonant secondary mode at
400 kHz. (c) Modal amplitude plot for secondary propagative modes.
Thesecondarymodalamplitudeplotemphasizeshowstrongisthepredominance
ofasinglesecondarymodeat400kHz(theresonantone)whencomparedtoalltheother
modespropagatingatthesamefrequency.Theinsetshowssmallmodalamplitudevalues
148
associated with some synchronous propagating modes. They match (numerically) the
phase velocityoftheprimary mode buttheir particularpowertransfercharacteristics do
notgenerateinternalresonance.
The obtained favorable combination of resonant modes propagating at relatively
high frequency and, most importantly, concentrating the energy in the rail web
constituted a pivotal result in the development of the Neutral Temperature/Buckling
detectionsystem.Thelittleinteractionwiththerailheadeliminatedtheeffectsofresidual
stressesandchangesingeometry(wear)ofthewaveguide.Thelittleinteractionwiththe
railfoot,instead,eliminatedeffectsoftherailsupports(tietotievariationproblem).
As introduced in Chapter 2, the efficiency of a nonlinear NDE/SHM technique
dramatically relies on the knowledge of the particular mode to excite in terms of
modeshapeandfrequencytogenerateinternalresonanceandanonlinearresponsewhich
iscumulativeand,consequently,growswithdistance.Failinginthistaskinevitablyleads
to an inefficient approach where the nonlinear response, although present, is small
(second harmonic amplitude is bounded and oscillates with distance) and most likely
shadowedbyothercauses.
Guided by the results discussed above, a full 3D nonlinear finite element model
has been analyzed in ABAQUS commercial code in order to explore numerically the
evolution of the system nonlinearity as a function of the stress level acting in the rail.
Thiswasaccomplishedconsideringboththeeffectofamechanicalpretension(developed
in the field before laying the rail to conveniently shift its Neutral Temperature) and a
thermalvariationuniformlyappliedtothewaveguidevolume.
149
4.4 ABAQUS 3D Finite Element simulations
4.4.1 Introduction
Thissectionpresentstheresultsofaseriesofnumericalsimulationscarriedoutin
ABAQUS commercial finite element package. They were aimed at predicting the
variability of the nonlinear parameter with stress level acting in the rail. The
interrogating waveguide mode was selected accordingly to the results obtained in the
previous section in order to produce internal resonance. Both ABAQUS Implicit and
Explicitsolvers(DassaultSystmes,2011)wereinvokedexploitingtheirfullpotential.In
particular, ABAQUS/Standard (implicit) was used to apply different prestress levels to
therail,whileABAQUS/Explicitwasemployedtoanalyzetheguidedwavepropagation
phenomena. The former uses a stiffnessbased solution technique that is conditionally
stable,whilethelatterusesanexplicitintegrationalgorithm,basedonacentraldifference
method, that is unconditionally stable and particularly efficient when dealing with very
largemodelsandveryfastdynamicevents.
As detailed in the following paragraphs, the analyses were particularly
challenging because both mechanical and thermal effects had to be considered and,
especially,extremely fasttransientdynamic effects hadtobecorrectlycapturedwith an
appropriate finite element mesh. These requirements were tackled performing all the
calculations on a Dell Precision T5500 workstation featuring 12 Intel processors (24
threads),48GBofRAM,SolidStatedrivesandNVIDIAQuadroFX1700GPU.
150
4.4.2 Geometry
A 52cm long section of a AREMA 136 RE railroad track (section details in
Figure4.11)wasconsideredforthefiniteelementanalysis.ItisdepictedinFigure4.35.
4.4.3 Material
Assumedrailsteelmaterialpropertiesare:
 =7800kg/m
3
(density)
 E = 209GPa(YoungsModulus)
 = 0.3(Poissonsratio)
 =1.23E05m/m C(coefficientofthermalexpansion)
 A=340GPa(LandauLifshitzthirdorderAconstant)
 B=646.667GPa(LandauLifshitzthirdorderBconstant)
151
 C=16.667GPa(LandauLifshitzthirdorderCconstant)
Damping effects were neglected. ABAQUS material library does not include
LandauLifshitz hyperelastic material formulation. Therefore,atthisstagethisparticular
model was implemented using a general Polynomial hyperelastic formulation with
auxiliary test data generated using Eq. (2.53) as input source and classical nonlinear
effects (due to the material nonlinearity) were explored. It is worth noticing that in
Chapter 5 a new constitutive model specifically formulated for nonlinear axially
constrained waveguides will be presented. At the present, studies are ongoing to
implement this new formulation in ABAQUS using a special User Defined Material
Subroutine.
( )
( )( )
( )
1
2
1
2
1
6005.83m/sec
1 1 2
3210.25m/sec
2 1
L
T
E
c
E
c
v
v v
v
 
= =


+
\ .
 
= =


+
\ .
(4.2)
Assuming f
max
= 400 kHz, the wavelength of a shear wave propagating in the
material can be calculated as
T
= c
T
/f
max
= 8.03 mm. In order to meet the spatial
resolutioncriterionofhavingn=8nodesperwavelength,therecommendedelementsize
canbeevaluatedasL
max
=
T
/(n1) =1.15mm.Itisworthnoticingthatinreality
T
could
belargerthanthesmallestwavelengthencounteredatthemaximumfrequencyf
max
since
some particular waveguide modes can exhibit phase velocities c
ph
< c
T
. However, the
shearwavevelocityhasbeenassumedinthepresentworkasaccurateenoughtodescribe
the smallest wavelength of the model and, therefore, define the typical finite element
dimension.
The actual mesh was developed using 8node linear hexaedral elements with
ReducedIntegration(DassaultSystmes,2011),.Exploitingtheinvariabilityofthecross
sectional features along the rail running direction, the mesh was first deployed in the
crosssection plane and then it was extruded along the wave propagation direction. A
typical element dimension of 1.5 mm (slightly bigger than the value suggested above)
wasemployedfortherailheadandrailweb.Inordertocontainthemodelcomputational
153
demands inside reasonable limits, the mesh was progressively deteriorated moving
towardstherailfootarea.Thisprocessreduceddramaticallythetotalmodelsizewithout
compromising the results. In fact,the coarser zone is away from the rail web, which is,
instead, the area of particular interest where waveforms are acquired and finally post
processed. The mesh intherailcrosssectionplane isrepresented inFigure4.36. Figure
4.37andFigure4.38illustratemeshqualityviaAspectRatioandJacobian(Onate,2009),
respectively.
From Figure 4.37 and Figure 4.38 it is evident how the mesh quality slightly
deterioratesjust intherail footand incurvedtransitionareas betweenrail headandrail
web.
154
Figure 4.37 Finite element mesh quality. Aspect ratio distribution in the rail crosssection.
Figure 4.38 Finite element mesh quality. Jacobian distribution in the rail crosssection.
155
Salientfeaturesoftheresulting3DFEmodelare:
 966264nodes
 8983008nodelinearhexaedralelements
 2898792totalDOFs
Figure4.39showsthefull3Dmeshemployedfortheanalysis.
156
Thesmallestedge lengthoftheentire mesh isapproximatelyL
min
=0.75 mm. In
transient FE simulations, a valid rule to meet time resolution requirements consists in
usingaminimumof20pointspercycleatthehighestfrequency(Bartolietal.,2005).It
isalsorecommendedtoadoptatimestepsmallenoughtoavoidthatthelongitudinalbulk
wavestravelacrossthesmallestspatialresolutioninonestep(DattaandKishore,1996).
Furthermore, since the time transient response will serve as a basis for the time Fourier
transformprocess(describedinthepostprocessingphase),inordertosatisfyShannons
principleandavoidaliasing,asamplingfrequencyf
s
atleasttwicethehighestfrequency
excitedmustbechosen.Forthepresentcasethisconditionreads:
2 400
s
f kHz > (4.3)
Theaforementionedthreeconditionscanbeexpressedas:
( )
max
min
,800
1
0.125 06
20
min 0.126 06
1
1.25 06
L
s kHz
E
f
L
t E
c
E
f
A s =
(4.4)
Based on Eq. (4.4),the integration time step for the Explicit part of the analysis
was conservatively set equal to t = 1E07 sec. This limit clearly does not affect the
implicit part of the analysis (where the preload and thermal stresses are applied to the
rail)thankstoitsunconditionalstability.
157
4.4.6 Boundary conditions
Axialconstraintswereappliedtothefrontandrear facesoftherail FE modelto
fixdisplacementsalongZdirection,asdepictedinFigure4.40.
Figure 4.40 Axial constraints applied to the Finite Element model front and rear faces.
 SCENARIO1:railisunstressedandthisrepresenttheNeutralTemperaturestate;
158
 SCENARIO2:railispretensionedimposingauniformdisplacementtooneofits
extremefaces,andfixingtheotherface.Thedisplacementmagnitudewassuchto
produceaNeutralTemperatureof90F.
 SCENARIO3:railispretensionedimposingauniformdisplacementtooneofits
extremefaces,andfixingtheotherface.Thedisplacementmagnitudewassuchto
produceaNeutralTemperatureof120F.
 SCENARIO4:startingfromthefinalpretensionedstateofScenario2,bothfaces
of the rail are axially constrained and a thermal variation was superimposed and
applied uniformly tothe whole rail volume. The amplitude of this variation was
such to produce a final state in which the rail is precompressed and the absolute
value of the stress amplitude is equivalent to the one present at the end of
Scenario2.
 SCENARIO5:startingfromthefinalpretensionedstateofScenario3,bothfaces
of the rail are axially constrained and a thermal variation was superimposed and
applied uniformly tothe whole rail volume. The amplitude of this variation was
such to produce a final state in which the rail is precompressed and the absolute
value of the stress amplitude is equivalent to the one present at the end of
Scenario3.
ThepreloadscenariosabovearegraphicallydescribedinFigure4.41.
Figure 4.41 Preload scenarios (calculated using ABAQUS/Standard) used as initial states for the
wave propagation dynamic analysis (calculated using ABAQUS/Explicit).
Figure 4.42 Toneburst signal generated to interrogate the rail waveguide in the explicit analysis
step (unitary amplitude used for representation purposes).
Figure 4.43 Schematic of the explicit numerical simulation layout (L = 52 cm). Guided wave
propagation is triggered conveying a 10cycle windowed sinusoidal signal into the rail at the
transmitter node location. Waveforms are acquired at the receiver node location.
161
Anominalamplitude(largerthanarealisticforceimposedinanactualstructural
componentduringanNDE/SHMassessment)wasadopted.Thisshouldnotcompromise
thefinalresults.Aseparatestudyshouldconsidertheeffectofdifferentinputenergy.
To avoid numerical singularities, the load was implemented as pressure on the
surfaceofthefourfiniteelementssurroundingthetransmitternode(Figure4.44).
Figure 4.45 System resources map during the execution of each explicit simulation.
4.4.8 Results
Complexdynamicfeaturesofguidedwavepropagationphenomenadevelopingin
therailareillustratedinFigure4.46throughFigure4.51asVonMisesEquivalentStress
contour plots for several successive time instants. For the sake of brevity, results of the
explicit analysis on the unstressed rail only (Scenario 1) are presented. In the plots
differentscale factor wereemployedtorepresentthedisplacement fieldtoconveniently
emphasizetheevolutionofthewavepropagationprocess.
The stress distribution clearly indicates how complicated the propagation of
guided wave in a geometrically complex waveguide such as a railroad track is. Several
waveguide modes coexist. Faster longitudinal modes precede slower transverse modes
163
duringthepropagation.Fromtheplots it isalsoclear howcomplexthe evolutionofthe
wavefrontis.
Figure 4.46 Contour plot of Von Mises Equivalent Stress after 8E06 sec.
Figure 4.47  Contour plot of Von Mises Equivalent Stress after 2.4E05 sec.
164
Figure 4.48 Contour plot of Von Mises Equivalent Stress after 4.8E05 sec.
Figure 4.49  Contour plot of Von Mises Equivalent Stress after 6.4E05 sec.
165
Figure 4.50 Contour plot of Von Mises Equivalent Stress after 8E05 sec.
Figure 4.51  Contour plot of Von Mises Equivalent Stress after 1E04 sec.
166
Accelerationwaveformsresultingfromtheexplicitanalysiswerecollectedatthe
receiver node (Figure 4.43) for all the five scenarios. Once postprocessed with a Fast
FourierAlgorithmthenonlinearparameterwasevaluatedandplottedfortheconsidered
cases. The final result corroborates the theoretically predicted variability of with the
stresslevelactinginthewaveguideandispresentedinFigure4.52.AUshapetrendwas
foundreinforcingtheideaofusingthenonlinearparametertotrackthestresslevelofthe
railandpinpointingitsneutralstate(correspondingtoNeutralTemperature)asminimum
ofthecurvevs.Load.
Figure 4.52 Nonlinear parameter plotted against the preload state imposed to the rail model
during the preliminary implicit analysis step.
167
4.4.9 Conclusions
The results of the analyses carried out using ABAQUS code corroborated
theoretical expectations and were pivotal in predicting the evolution of the nonlinear
parameter as a function of the thermal stress acting in the rail. Implicit and Explicit
solvers were conveniently combined to model the preload phase and the wave
propagation phase, respectively. Final results suggested a Ushape trend for vs. stress
withaminimumattheneutralstatecorrespondingtotherailNeutralTemperature.
Thesefindingshighlightedthepotentialofthenonlinearparameterandreinforced
theideaofusingitasanindicatorinordertotracktherailneutraltemperatureinsituina
nondestructivemanner.
Inthe followingchapteranovelphysical model will bepresented. Itis basedon
fundamental concepts of molecular dynamics (interatomic potential) and will be
employed to explain the origin of nonlinear wave propagation in waveguides under
constrainedthermalexpansion.
4.5 Acknowledgements
This chapter, in part, has been published in the Mathematical Problems in
Engineering Journal, Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea Francesco; (2012). The title of
this paper is Higher Harmonic Generation Analysis in Complex Waveguides via a
Nonlinear SemiAnalytical Finite Element Algorithm. The dissertation author was the
primaryinvestigatorandprimaryauthorofthispaper.
168
Chapter 5
Nonlinear thermoelastic model for axially constrained
waveguides
5.1 Introduction
Nonlinear phenomena arising in guided wave propagation have been classical
treatedusingAcoustoelasticity(EgleandBray,1976)andFiniteAmplitudeWavetheory
(de Lima and Hamilton, 2003). According tothese theories, finite strains (and similarly
finite amplitude waves) constitute a requirement for the occurrence of nonlinearity.
Despiteaninitialpretensionthatcouldintroducefinitedeformationinthewaveguide, in
continuous welded rails the appearance of nonlinear effects should be explored from a
different standpoint. These waveguides, in fact, are axially constrained because of the
welds and they do not generally experience finite deformations, apart from the initial
pretensionimposedtoconvenientlyshifttheirNeutralTemperature.
As detailed in next Chapter 6, nonlinear effects in terms of higher harmonic
generation clearly appear in these particular structures when they are subjected to
constrained thermal variations. When the rail experiences temperature changes, the
structurecannotgloballydeform becauseofthe boundaries but, atthesametime, lattice
169
particles acquire an increasing energy of vibration (proportional to temperature) in
agreementwithclassicaltheoriesofmaterialscience(Tilley,2004).
A new constitutive model aimed at describing mathematically nonlinear
phenomena inwavepropagationalongconstrainedwaveguidesunderthermal variations
is presented in this chapter. After a brief theoretical treatment, the proposed model is
validatedviaexperimentaltestsperformedonasteelblock.Resultsofthisvalidationare
alsopresentedhere.
\ .\ . \ . \ .
(
(5.1)
whereristheinteratomicdistance, wisthesocalledpotentialwelldepth,qisthevan
der Waals radius, n and m are coefficients. The van der Waals radius represents the
interatomic distance at which the interatomic potential is null while the potential well
depthquantifiesthestrengthoftheinteractionbetweenthetwoatoms.
Miepotentialconsistsoftwocomponents,asteeprepulsivepart(firstterminside
thebrackets inEq.(5.1)),andasmootherattractivepart.Aschematic illustrationofthis
170
potentialwith indicationof wandqandattractiveandrepulsive branches highlighted is
providedinFigure5.1.
Figure 5.1 Interatomic potential model proposed by Gustav Mie (Mie, 1903).
The interatomic force exerted reciprocally by the two atoms can be calculated
simplyderivingthepotentialabovewithrespecttotheinteratomicdistancer. Theresult
is:
( )
n m
m
n m
MIE
MIE
q q
n m
n r r
n w
m r r
dV
F r
dr n m
(
   
(
 
 
\ . \ .
(
+

(
\ .
(
= =
(5.2)
Dependingonthevaluesofcoefficientsnandm,severalalternativeformulations
havebeenproposedtodescribetheinteratomicpotentialovertheyears.Oneofthemost
widely used, especially in molecular dynamics, was proposed by Sir John Edward
171
LennardJonesin1924(Jones,1924a,b,c).Inthisparticularmodelthecoefficientsnand
mtakethevaluesof12and6,respectively.UsingthesevaluesEqs.(5.1)andbecomes:
12 6
4
LJ
q q
V w
r r
(
   
=
(
 
\ . \ .
(
(5.3)
12 6
13 7
12 6
4
LJ
F w
r r
o o (
= +
(
(5.4)
It is worth mentioning that the LennardJones model is not the most reliable
representation of the interatomic potential, but its use is widespread due to its
computationalexpediency.
Figure 5.2 LennardJones interatomic potential model with equilibrium points and intercepts for
three different energy levels highlighted.
Next Figure 5.3 depicts exemplary plotsof interatomic potential and interatomic
forcewithequilibriumpointshighlightedassumingw=40kJ/molandq=4Angstroms.
The interatomic force iszerowhenthe interatomicpotentialreaches its minimumatr=
r
0
,itispositive(attraction)andexponentiallytendingto0forinteratomicdistancesr>r
0
(lattice particles gradually departing), and, finally, it is negative (repulsion) and
asymptotically tending to  for interatomic distances r < r
0
(lattice particles gradually
173
nearing). The latter clearly represents just a theoretical limit to guarantee compatibility
conditionsandcontinuityofmatter.
Figure 5.3 LennardJones interatomic potential and interatomic force curves with equilibrium
positions highlighted.
Thesalientaspecttobeemphasizedatthisstageisthedifferentphysicalbehavior
betweenattractivebranchandrepulsivebranch.Thisdifferenceleadstoasymmetryinthe
interatomicpotentialcurvewithrespecttotheverticalaxisatr=r
0
(passingthroughthe
minimumofenergy).Becauseoftheaboveasymmetry,atemperatureincreasegenerates
two main effects: a proportional increase in the atomic vibrations and a shift of the
interatomic distance of equilibrium towards the right in the plot. This fact explains
thermal expansion in solids under a positive thermal variation and, conversely, thermal
contraction under a negative thermal variation. If the interatomic potential curve was
174
parabolic (symmetric with respect to the vertical axis passing through its minimum)
consequently the average bonding distance curve would have been a vertical line
denoting invariability of the equilibrium points with increasing temperature. This
theoretical case would be characterized by absence of thermal expansion/contraction,
whichdoesnotcorrespondtoreality.
The asymmetry behavior introduced above is generally referred as
Anharmonicity of the interatomic potential. This anharmonicity is pivotal for the
present treatment involving a solid (rail waveguide) which is axially constrained and
thermally stressed. In this way, the dispensing of energy in form of heat translates into
theacquisitionofapotentialwhich,inagreementwiththediscussionabove,isnonlinear.
Once this potential is correctly introduced in the general form of the elastic potential,
higherharmonicgenerationinthermoelasticconstrainedwaveguidescanbeanalytically
describedfollowinganapproachinlinewiththeoneclassicallyusedforacoustoelasticity
andfiniteamplitudewavetheory.
Considering specifically a CWR rail (the discussion, however, stands for any
other constrained waveguide subjected to thermal variations), with a given starting
energy level V
1
corresponding to an initial temperature T
1
, the application of a positive
thermal variation brings the system to a higher energy level V
2
corresponding to a
temperature T
2
. Being the solid constrained, in this process it stores an energy potential
that evolves in a nonlinear fashion with temperature. Figure 5.4 illustrates the scenario
above.
Referring to this figure, the two atoms are basically constrained to maintain the
interatomicdistance r*(correspondingtothe initialenergy level)duetothepresenceof
175
the axial constrains. Therefore, dispensing energy to the system does not change the
equilibrium position(itremainsatr*) andthewaveguideacquiresan amountofenergy
proportionaltotheyellowareainfigurethatevolvesnonlinearlywithtemperature.
Figure 5.4 LennardJones interatomic potential with indication of the energy acquired by the
interacting atoms in a constrained waveguide when temperature is increased from T
1
to T
2
.
6
q
x
r
 
=

\ .
(5.5)
Usingthis new independentvariablethe interatomicpotential inEq.(5.3)canbe
formulatedas:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
, , 4 4 1
LJ
V x q r w w x x wx x = = (5.6)
176
The result is a quadratic form that can be conveniently written as (from now on
V
LJ
issubstitutedbyVforsimplicity):
2
0
4
V
x x
w
= (5.7)
ThetworootsofEq.(5.7)are:
1 2
1 1 1 1
2 2
V V
w w
x x
+ + +
= = (5.8)
UsingagainEq.(5.5)theinteratomicdistancercanbeexpressedasfunctionofx
as:
1
6
6
q
r qx
x
= = (5.9)
Consequently the two solutions in Eq. (5.8), expressed in terms of interatomic
distancer,are:
1 1
6 6
1 2
1 1 1 1
2 2
V V
w w
r q r q
   
+ + +
 
 
= =
 
 
\ . \ .
(5.10)
SolutionsinEq.(5.10)providethetwointeratomicdistancesr
1
andr
2
intercepting
the interatomic potential curve V(r) for any value of interatomic potential V and for a
given material(fixingthe valueof its w andq),asshown in Figure5.5.Thecorrectness
of the obtained solutions can be quickly tested by calculating the interatomic distances
correspondingtoV=0.Substitutingthis value inEq.(5.10)oneobtainsr
1
=qand r
2
=
, in accordance with the definition of van der Waals radius q and the exponential
tendencytozerooftheinteratomicpotentialwithatomsgraduallydeparting(Figure5.1).
177
(
(
(
( +
(
   
+ +
(
+
 
(
\ . \
(
 
(
 
(
\ . \ .
=
.
(5.11)
InEq.(5.11)thesubscriptABDstandsforAverageBondingDistance.
178
5.4 Proposed nonlinear constrained thermoelastic waveguide
model
InEq.(5.11)theaveragebondingdistancecurveisformulatedasr(V).However,
in order to implement this energy contribution intothe classical elastic potential energy
frameworkanddevelopanewconstitutivemodel,itisnecessarytocalculatetheinverse
functionofEq.(5.11),namelyV(r). ItcanbenoticedfromEq.(5.11)thatthecalculation
of the inverse function, in practical terms, consists in solving an equation of twelfth
order.Findingaclosedformsolutionforpolynomialsoffifthorderandbeyondisalong
standing mathematical problem and is generally very challenging (in fact not even
possible in the majority of cases) (King, 2009). This preamble explains the vast
employment of numerical methods to solve approximately the original problem with
sufficientaccuracy.
In the present work, MATLAB Curve Fitting Toolbox was used to calculate the
averagebondingdistancecurveexpressedasV(r).Assumingexemplaryvaluesforqand
w (clearly the validity of the present approach is not compromised by this assumption),
namelyq=4andw=40,thefollowingcubicinterpolationcurvewasobtained(risused
inplaceofr
ABD
tosimplifythenotationfromthispointon):
3 2
3 2
( )
= 1.63 06 3.594 04 3.112 02 5.661
V r ar br cr d
E r E r E r
= + + + =
+ +
(5.12)
The precision of the interpolating function is graphically assessed in Figure 5.6.
The following mathematical analysis follows the framework classically used for finite
179
amplitudewavetheory(Kundu,2004),convenientlymodifiedtoimplementtheproposed
interatomicpotential.
Figure 5.6 Cubic interpolating function (formulated as V(r)) employed to invert the original
average bonding distance curve (formulated as r(V)).
A1Dlatticecomprisingpatomsconnectedbynonlinearspringsisconsidered.To
characterizethetreatmenttoconstrainedwaveguides,thelatticeisassumedtobeaxially
fixed. Comparedtotraditional formulations,the novelty here interestsadifferentspring
elastic potential which takes into account the LennardJones nonlinear interatomic
potential (Eq. (5.12)). Assuming an infinitesimal deformation of the system from an
initial equilibrium state (Figure 5.7) and introducing the nonlinear interatomic potential
discussed above (only source of nonlinearity here),the overall elastic potential of the p
particlescanbeexpressedas:
2 3 4
0 1 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2! 3!
p p p
V V d k c u k b u a u O u = + + + A + + A + A + A
(5.13)
180
wherek
1
isthefirstorderelasticconstant,k
2
isthesecondorderelasticconstant,uisthe
displacement from the equilibrium condition, a, b, c and d are the coefficients of the
cubicfunctioninterpolatingthenonlinearLennardJonespotential(Eq.(5.12)).
Theterm(V
0
+ d) inEq.(5.13)representsaconstantthatwill vanishduringthe
derivationoftheequationofmotion,asdetailedinthefollowingwork.
Figure 5.7 1D Lattice of atoms connected by nonlinear springs before and after an infinitesimal
deformation is imposed to the system (Kundu, 2004).
Applying Newtons second law to the nth particle, the differential equation
governingitsmotionreads:
2
1 1 2
2 3
2 1 1
( ) ( )
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ...
2! 3!
n
n p p
p n n
p p p p
p p
n n
d u dV d
m F k c u u
dt du du
d d
k b u u a u u
du du
+
+ +
= = = + +
+ +
(5.14)
Eq.(5.14)canbesimplifiedmakinguseoftheDiracDeltafunction:
1
1, ,
0
p p
p n p n
p n n
du du
du du
o o
+
+
 
= =

\ .
(5.15)
SubstitutingEq.(5.15)intoEq.(5.14)leadsto:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 1 1 1 1 2
1
( ) ...
2
n
n n n n n n n n
d u
m k b u u u u a u u u u
dt
+ +
(
= + + + (
(5.16)
Itispossibletoreformulatelastequationinordertohighlighttheforceexertedon
thegenericnthparticlebyparticlesn+1andn1:
181
( )
( )
2
2
2 1 1
, 1 , 1 1 2 2
2
2 1 1
1 2
1
( )
2
1
( ) ...
2
n n n n n
n n n n
n n n n
d u u u u u
m F F k c k b h a h
dt h h
u u u u
k c k b h a h
h h
+ +
+
(
   
= = + + + + +
(
 
\ . \ .
(
(
   
+ + + + +
(
 
\ . \ .
(
(5.17)
Auxiliarytermhwas introducedforconvenience withoutalteringthe finalresult
inviewofthesubsequentdevelopments,describedbelow.
Figure 5.8  3D Lattice of atoms connected by nonlinear springs before and after an infinitesimal
deformation is imposed to the system (Kundu, 2004).
All the concepts discussed for the 1D lattice of atoms can be easily extended to
the 3D case (Figure 5.8). In this scenario, everything that was applicable for the nth
particlecanbeusedforthenthplane.Inordertosimplifythetreatmentwithoutanyloss
in generality, the resulting equation of motion will be characterized to the case of 1D
longitudinalbulkwavesalongdirectionx
1
(thereforethefollowingsubscripts).Thesame
reasoning could be applied to derive the governing equations for more general cases.
Introducing the unit surface S
1
, perpendicular to axis x
1
, the equation of motion for the
nthplanebecomes:
182
( )
2
1, , 1 , 1
1
2
1 1 1 1
1, 1 1, 1, 1, 1
2 1
1 1 1
2 2
2
1, 1 1, 1, 1, 1
1
1 1 1
( )
1 1
( )
1
...
2
n n n n n
n n n n
n n n n
d u F F
k c m
S dt S S S
u u u u
k b h
S h h
u u u u
ah
S h h
+
+
+
+
= = +
(     +
+ +
(  
\ . \ .
(
   
( + +
 
(
\ . \ .
(5.18)
The passage from the discrete system to its continuum counterpart it is simply
required to let the term h
1
tend to zero in Eq. (5.18). Exploiting the definition of
derivative,namely:
( )
1 1
1, 1 1, 1 1 1 1 1
1
0 0
1 1 1
( )
lim lim
n n
h h
u u u x h u x
u
h h x
+
+
c
= =
c
(5.19)
Eq.(5.18)canberearrangedas:
( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1
1 1 1
2
1,
1 1 1 1 1
11 1 11 1 1 2
1 1
1 2 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 2
2
1 1 1
1 1 1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1
...
2
n
x x h
x x h
d u F x F x h
x x h
dt S S
k c k b h u u
S S x x
ah u u
S x x
o o
= = =
(
    + + c c
( = + +
 
c c
(
\ . \ .
(
    c c
( + +
 
c c
( \ . \ .
(5.20)
At this stage three new elastic coefficients of first, second and third order are
introduced. They conveniently combine the influence of the classical elastic potential
withthenewnonlinearinteratomicpotential.Thesecoefficientsaredefinedas:
1
1
1
2 1
2
1
2
1
3
1
( )
( )
k c
C
S
k b h
C
S
ah
C
S
+
=
+
=
=
(5.21)
183
Eq. (5.20) can be now divided by h
1
and the resulting expression is further
manipulated, letting h
1
tend again to zero. Taking into account the new elastic
coefficients in Eq. (5.21) and the fact that m/(S
1
h
1
) = , the final result of the above
processis:
2 2 2
1 11 1 1 1
2 3 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
...
u u u u
C C
t x x x x
o
  c c c c c
= = + +

c c c c c
\ .
(5.22)
The equation above represents the nonlinear partial differential equation
governing the propagation of a longitudinal bulk wave in 1D for thermoelastic axially
constrainedsolid.In lightoftheaboveresult,twonewdefinitionsareintroducedforthe
bulkwavevelocityandthenonlinearparameter,respectively:
( )
( )
2 1 2
1
1
3 1
1
2 2
WAVESPEED
NONLINEARPARAMETER
k b h C
V
S
C ah
k b C
+
= =
= =
+
(5.23)
It is clear from Eq. (5.23) that thermal changes coupled with axial constraints
affect the speed of the propagating wave and the nonlinearity of the system via the
coefficientsaandb.Theseare functionofthe materialthrough its interatomicpotential
curve.
UsingthedefinitionsfromEq.(5.23),Eq.(5.22)canbeconvenientlyarrangedas:
2 2
1 1 1
1 1 2 2
1 1
1
u u u
V
t x x
(   c c c
=
( 
c c c
\ .
(5.24)
In analogy with the classical finite amplitude wave formulation (Kundu, 2004),
theconstitutiveequationofthesystembecomes:
184
2
1 1
11 1 2 1
1 1
1
...
2
u u
C C
x x
o
(
    c c
( = + +
 
c c
(
\ . \ .
(5.25)
Intensornotation,Eqs.(5.24)(5.25)read:
1 , , ijkl ijklmn m n k ji
u C C u u
(
= +
(5.26)
, , , ij ij ijkl k l ijklmn k l m n
C C u C u u o = + + (5.27)
wherecommadenotesderivation.
It is worth mentioning that the development in Eqs. (5.26)(5.27) has been
stopped to include only terms up to first order nonlinearity (quadratic nonlinearity). A
similar approach is envisioned to extend the present formulation to higherorder
nonlinearities.
In line with the discussion in Chapter 2, the solution of Eq. (5.24) is calculated
usingtheperturbativeapproach.Thereforethesolutionofthegoverningequationcanbe
writtenas:
( ) ( ) ( )
(1) (2)
1 1 1
, , , u x t u x t u x t = + (5.28)
where
(1)
1
u represents the linear part of the solution and
(2)
1
u the nonlinear part of the
solution,with
(2)
1
u <<
(1)
1
u (perturbationcondition).
It is assumed that at x
1
= 0 only a pure sinusoid exists. It constitutes the input
signalandisdefinedas:
( ) ( )
1
, cos u x t A t e = (5.29)
Basically, Eq. (5.29) represents the boundary condition of Eq. (5.24). The linear
part of the solution can be evaluated solving the following linear second order partial
differentialequation:
185
2 (1) 2 (1)
2
1 1
1 2 2
1
u u
V
t x
c c
=
c c
(5.30)
whosesolutionis:
( )
( )
1
1 1 1
cos u A kx t e = (5.31)
UsingEq.(5.31),thenonlinearpartofthe solutioncan becalculatedsolvingthe
followinglinearequation:
c c c c
=
c c c c
(5.32)
Eq.(5.32)canbemanipulatedthroughthefollowingdefinitions:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(1)
1
1 1
1
2 (1)
2 1
1 1 2
1
sin( )
cos( )
1 1
sin cos sin sin
2 2
u
Ak kx t
x
u
Ak kx t
x
e
e
o  o  o 
c
=
c
c
=
c
= + +
(5.33)
SubstitutingtheabovedefinitionsinEq.(5.32)leadsto:
( )
2 (2) 2 (2)
2 2
3 2 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 2 2
1
1
sin 2
2
u u
V V k A kx t
t x
e
c c
=
c c
(5.34)
The governing equation for the nonlinear part is a linear inhomogeneous second
order partial differential equation in analogy with the classical approach. The main
difference when compared to Eq. (2.97) is that
2
1
V and
1
appear in place of
2
L
c and  ,
respectively.
InordertosolveEq.(5.34),thefollowingdAlembertsolutionisassumed:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(2)
1 1 1 1 1
sin 2 cos 2 u f x kx t g x kx t e e = + (5.35)
186
Substituting Eq. (5.35) into Eq.(5.34) and developing all the derivations in tensor form
resultsin:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
2 3 2
, , 1 1 1
2
, , 1
4 4
sin 2 cos 2
1
4 4 sin 2
2
4 4 cos 2
xx x
x xx
f g
kx t kx t
V V
f k f kg k A kx t
kf g k g kx t
e e
e e
e
e
   
  + =
 
\ . \ .
 
= +

\ .
+ +
(5.36)
Thedefinitionofphase velocity for longitudinal bulkwaves for thepresentcase
reads:
1
V
k
e
= (5.37)
Therefore,byequatingthesinandcoscoefficientsontherighthandsideandleft
hand side, the following system of two second order ordinary differential equations is
obtained:
3 2
, , 1 1
, ,
1
4 0
2
4 0
xx x
xx x
f kg k A
g kf
=
+ =
(5.38)
Enforcing the functions f and g and their derivatives to be null at x
1
= 0 (where
justthepuresinusoidexistsinaccordancetotheboundaryconditions),thefinalsolution
was simply obtained using Mathematica symbolic package (Wolfram, 1996), as shown
below:
187
Theassembledfinalsolutionoftheproposednonlinearmodelis:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
cos sin 2
8
u u u A kx t k A x kx t e e = + = (5.39)
The form of this solution is similar to the classical nonlinear solution for
longitudinal bulk waves in solids with quadratic nonlinearity (de Lima and Hamilton,
2003). However, in the present case the proposed nonlinear interatomic potential is
implementedanditscontributiontothefinalsolutionappearsthroughthenonlinearterm
1
,asdefinedinEq.(5.23).
In the following paragraph, the nonlinear model just discussed is experimentally
validatedonasteelblocksubjectedtoheatingcycles.Nonlinearultrasonicmeasurements
are taken at each temperature level and the effect of the interatomic potential in
constrained waveguides is explored comparing the results obtained with and without
axialconstraintsappliedtotheblock.
InSection5.6analternativetheoreticalformulationisproposed.Anewsystemof
partial differential equations is derived in closedform starting from a slightly different
Mieinteratomicpotentialmodel.
188
5.5 Validation test nonlinear bulk waves in a steel block
Aseriesofexperimentaltestswasconductedonasteelblockinordertovalidate
the proposed constitutive model. The influence of axial constraints (in presence of
thermal variations, therefore thermal stresses) in terms of on nonlinear effects in
longitudinalbulkwavepropagationwasinspected.Asteelblockwasusedasthemedium
for wave propagation. It was specifically shaped to accommodate a hightemperature
heatingtape(Figure5.9).
Figure 5.9 Technical drawing with annotations of the steel block specimen.
Figure 5.10 Topology optimization process performed to obtain the final bracket shape adopted in
the experiments to constrain the block.
Figure 5.11 Technical drawing with annotations for the Lbracket final design.
191
Startingfromapreliminaryshapedesign(consistinginasimpleprismaticblock)
which was assumed to be the maximum physical extent of the component, a topology
optimization algorithm implemented in ABAQUS finite element commercial code was
usedtodetermineanewmaterialdistributioninsidethevolumeofthebracket.Thesolver
was set to limit the maximum displacementto 30 m under the effectof an increase in
temperature equal to 80 C (in reality the specimen experience an increase of 58 C as
mentioned before) and this constitutes the optimization constraint. This threshold was
consideredsmallenoughtoassumerigidboundariesfortheblock.
Theoptimizedshapewasthenrefinedsothatitcouldbeeasilymanufacturedand
a circular hole was placed in the middle of the bracket front face to accommodate the
sensors. This adopted shape was finally validated repeating the finite element analysis
again with the block fixed on both sides and subjected to a thermal variation of 80 C.
Resultsweresatisfactoryshowingamaximumdisplacementof28.7m.Figure5.10and
Figure5.11representthestagesoftheoptimizationperformedtoobtainthefinalbracket
shapeandthetechnicaldrawingdetailingitsgeometry,respectively.
Figure5.12andFigure5.13provideanoverallviewoftheexperimentalsetupfor
both constrained and unconstrained configurations. A thermal camera was also used
duringtheheatingcycletoensurethattheheatingbeltwaseffectivelyabletoproducea
uniform temperature distribution in the specimen volume. A screenshot acquired during
theheatingprocessisdepictedinFigure5.14.
192
Figure 5.12 Experimental setup used for the unconstrained steel block test.
Figure 5.13  Experimental setup used for the constrained steel block test.
193
Figure 5.14 Temperature distribution in the specimen assembly during the validation test.
Selected results are presented in the following for two input frequency, namely
1.75MHzand2MHz.Thefirstarrivalwasisolatedinthereceivedsignals,asdepictedin
Figure5.15andFigure5.16.
Figure 5.15 Timehistory of received signal with 1.75 MHz as input frequency (first arrival is
highlighted).
194
Figure 5.16  Timehistory of received signal with 2 MHz as input frequency (first arrival is
highlighted).
Once the first arrival was postprocessed using a Fast Fourier Transform
algorithm, the nonlinear parameter was evaluated for both constrained and
unconstrained cases at each temperature level. In order to highlight the influence of the
constraintsonthewavepropagation,resultsarecomparedforbothtestscenariosandboth
inputfrequenciesinFigure5.17.
Itcanbeseenfromtheseplotsthatwhentheblockisfreelyexpandable, noclear
trendisobservedfor nonlinearparametervs.temperaturecurve.However,inpresence
of the Lbracket nonlinear effects (quantified via the nonlinear parameter ) come into
play and, most importantly, they actually evolve following a very regular trend with
increasing temperature. This experimental evidence confirms theoretical predictions in
accordancewiththeproposednonlinearconstitutivemodelforconstrainedwaveguides.
195
Figure 5.17 Nonlinear parameter vs. temperature for unconstrained and constrained tests and for
two representative input frequencies, namely 1.75 MHz and 2 MHz.
( )
( )
4 2
4 2
4 2
4 2 5 3
4
2
4
q q
V r w
r r
q q
F r w
r r
(
   
=
(
 
\ . \ .
(
(
= +
(
(5.40)
ThesubscriptsinEq.(5.40)referstotheassumedvaluesforcoefficientsnandm.
When compared to LennardJones formulation (Eqs. (5.3)(5.4)), the present model
slightlyvariestheslopesoftheattractiveandrepulsivebranchesbecauseofthedifferent
exponents.
In accordance with the mathematical development discussed in Section 5.4, the
average bonding distance curve function is calculated using the following variable
substitution:
2
q
x
r
 
=

\ .
(5.41)
Using this new variable the same quadratic polynomial detailed in Eq. (5.7) is
obtained.FollowingthesamestepsasinSection5.4,thefinalresulthereis:
( )
1 1
2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2
V V
q
w w
r V
(
   
(
+ + +
 
(
 
= +
(
 
(
 
(
\ . \ .
(5.42)
197
Whencomparedtothepreviouscase,itcanbenoticedthatthebiggestdifference
isthefunctionshowninEq.(5.42)thatisanalyticallyinvertibleinclosedform.Thiswas
doneusingMathematica.Asaresult,thenewinteratomicpotentialexpressedasfunction
oftheaveragebondingdistancecurvereads:
( )
2 2 4 3 2 2
4
2 4
2
r wq wq wq r q
V r
r
+
= (5.43)
Implementingtheinteratomicpotential(5.43)intothegeneralelasticpotential(in
analogy to Eq. (5.13)) and following the path drew in Section 5.4, the following
constitutiveequationvalidfor1Dlongitudinalbulkwaveisobtained:
( )
2 4 3
1
11 3 5 1
3 2 1 2
1 1
2 1 1
1 1
1 1
5
1
5 2
2
2 1 1
1 1
2 2 6
2
4
2
4
u wq wq wq
x
u u
u u
q
x x
x x
wq
u u
q
x x
o
c
= + + + + +
c
    c c
(
    c c
 
+ (
c c
 
\ . \ .
c c
( \ . \ .
+
(
    c c
+ (
 
c c
( \ . \ .
(5.44)
OntherighthandsideofEq.(5.44),the firstterm siderepresentsthe linearpart
of the longitudinal stress while the remaining terms arise from the assumed nonlinear
interatomicpotential.
DevelopingthespatialderivativeofEq.(5.44),theequationofmotionisobtained
as:
198
( )
2 2 2 2 4
11 1 1 1
1 4 6 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1
2 2 3 3
1 1
3 1 2 2
2 2 4 2 1 1
2 2
2 2 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
5
1
1
6 10
2
24 18
4 4
8
u u u wq wq
u
x x x x
u u
x x
u u wq wq
x x
u u u u
q q
x x x x
wq
u
x
o
c c c c
= = + +
c c c c
    c c
 
c c
\ . \ .
c c
+
c c
( (
        c c c c
+ + ( (
   
c c c c
( ( \ . \ . \ . \ .
c
c
2 2 5
1 1
3 1 2 2
4 2 6 2 1 1
2 2
2 2 1 1 1
1 1 1
10
4 4
u u wq
x x
u u u
q q
x x x
c c
c c
( (
        c c c
+ + ( (
   
c c c
( ( \ . \ . \ . \ .
(5.45)
Eq. (5.45) can be conveniently rearranged making use of tensor notation and
introducingthefollowingauxiliaryterms:
2
4
3
3
5
5
2
2 1
1
2
6
10
24
18
8
10
4
a
b wq
c wq
d wq
e wq
f wq
g wq
u
A q
x
= +
=
=
=
=
=
=
  c
= +

c
\ .
(5.46)
Thefinalresultis:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1, 1, 1,
1 1, 4 6 2
3
1, 1, 1,
1, 1, 1,
4 4 6
3
1, 1, 1,
xx xx xx
xx
x x x
xx xx xx
x x x
u u u
u au b c d
u u A u
u u u
e f g
A u A u A u
= + + + +
+ + +
(5.47)
ThesolutionofEq.(5.47)isobjectofongoingstudies.
199
5.7 Physical interpretation
The model proposed in the present chapter pinpoints the anharmonicity of the
interatomic potential as the source of nonlinearity in solids under constrained thermal
expansions. On the other side, the classical frameworkof nonlinear elasticity, discussed
in Chapter 2, explains the origin of nonlinear effects with finite deformations and
associated material nonlinearity. In CWR rails, both mechanical pretension and
constrainedthermalexpansiontakeplace.Acombinationofthetwomodelsseemstobe
theappropriate mathematical framework toefficientlypredict nonlineareffects inCWR
railsandexplaintheUshapetrendpredictedbythesimulationscarriedoutinABAQUS
(Chapter 4). The authors physical interpretation of nonlinear mechanisms in CWR is
illustratedinFigure5.18.
Figure 5.18 Schematic illustration of nonlinear effects in guided waves propagating in CWR rails.
200
5.8 Conclusions
A new physical model, based on interatomic potential, was discussed in this
chapter. It explains the origin of nonlinear wave propagation under constrained thermal
expansion. In fact, where the classical physics of nonlinear wave propagation assumes
finitestrains,thecaseathandofconstrainedthermalexpansionis,instead,characterized
by infinitesimal (ideally zero) strains. Theoretical predictions were corroborated and
validated experimentally for longitudinal bulk waves propagating in a steel block that
was constrained and subjected to thermal excursions. Implementation of the proposed
model into ABAQUS commercial code via a specialized User Defined Material
Subroutine is object of ongoing work. Once successfully coded and validated, this
materialmodelwillbeusedtorefinethenumericalsimulationsdiscussedinSection4.4,
properly accounting for constrained thermal variations influence on the nonlinear
parameter.
5.9 Acknowledgements
This chapter, in part, will be submitted for publication to the Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America, Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; (2012).
The running title of this paper is Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Constrained Solids
Subjected to Thermal Loads.Thedissertationauthorwillbetheprimaryinvestigatorand
primaryauthorofthispaper.
201
Chapter 6
RAILNT System Development
6.1 Introduction
The present chapter describes the development of a rail inspection prototype
aimed at nondestructively assessing rail Neutral Temperature and incipient buckling
conditions. The practical system implementation is discussed first. Then the results of
several largescale proofofconcept experimental tests are presented in order to
corroborate numerical findings and theoretical predictions described in Chapters 45.
Finallyaprototypesystemispresentedandillustratedindetail.
( )
( )
' 2, 3,...,
n
A nf
for n N
A f
 = = (5.48)
In another version, the relative nonlinear parameter can be computed by
normalizingtothefirstpowerofthefundamental,i.e.
( )
( )
' 2, 3,...,
A nf
for n N
A f
 = = (5.49)
NormallytheamplitudesAaresimplytheFourierTransformmagnitudevaluesof
thereceivedsignalsatthecorrespondingfrequencies.
Alternativelythenonlinearityofthewaveguide(rail)canbequantifiedmeasuring
the modulation of the interrogating guided wave mode by a lowfrequency vibration
(GuyerandJohnson,1999;VandenAbeeleetal.,2000a;VandenAbeeleetal.,2000b;
VanDenAbeeleetal.,2001).ThistechniqueisreferredinliteratureasNonlinearWave
ModulationSpectroscopy(NWMS)andisschematicallyillustratedinFigure6.1.
In this case a lowfrequency vibration centered at f
1
and an interrogating high
frequencyultrasonicguidedwavecenteredatf
2
aresimultaneouslyconveyedintotherail.
Apartfromhigherharmonicgenerationlikethepreviousapproach(nf
1
andnf
2
withn=2,
203
3,, N), the Fourier transformation discussed in this part reveals frequency mixing
terms, specifically the sum frequency (f
1
+ f
2
) and the difference frequency (f
1
 f
2
).In
this case the nonlinear parameter can be calculated from the amplitude of the
frequencymixedterm,A(f
1
+ f
2
)orA(f
1
 f
2
),usuallynormalizedbythehigherofthetwo
fundamentalfrequencies,f
2
:
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2 1 2
2 2
' or '
A f f A f f
A f A f
 
+
= = (5.50)
As in the previous approach, the amplitudes A are simply extracted from the
Fourier Transform magnitude values of the received signals at the corresponding
frequencies.
Higherharmonicgenerationisthepreferredapproachandhasbeenconsideredin
detailinthepresentdissertation.Inapracticalrailtesting,twotypesofimplementationof
the proposed method could exist: a stationary wayside implementation and an in
204
motion implementation. In the following these two flavors are briefly discussed. The
stationarywaysideinstallationistheoneadoptedinthepresentresearch.
Figure 6.2  Schematic of nonlinear ultrasonic measurements to determine rail thermal stresses or
rail Neutral Temperature. Wayside implementation on the rail web.
Figure 6.3  Possible variations of the wayside implementation with sensor installation on the rail
head.
head
web
base
Ultrasonic transmitter Ultrasonic receiver
Ultrasonic guided wave
frequency
f
1
f
1
2f
1
3f
1
.
fundamental
higher harmonics
A(f
1
)
A(2f
1
)
frequency
F
F
T
m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
F
F
T
m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
N
o
n
l
i
n
e
a
r
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r

=
A
(
2
f
1
)
/
A
(
f
1
)
^
2
Rail temperature
Rail Neutral Temperature
(or zero thermal stress) at
minimum of curve
tensile stress 0 compressive
stress
Rail thermal stress
Temperature, T
Thermal stress, o
Risk of
buckling
Risk of broken
rail
head
web
base
Ultrasonic transmitter Ultrasonic receiver
Ultrasonic guided wave
Ultrasonic transmitter Ultrasonic receiver
Ultrasonic guided wave
Ultrasonic transmitter
Ultrasonic receiver
Ultrasonic guided wave
(c)
(b)
(a)
206
Figure 6.4 3D rendered view of the proposed system installed to the rail web.
Figure 6.5 3D rendered view of the proposed system installed to the rail head.
In another possible version of the wayside implementation, the rail Neutral
Temperature can be estimated instantaneously by a single measurement at a single
railtemperatureT.Inordertoaccomplishthisgoal, thecurveof< vs.T>will likely
207
have to be previously calibrated for a given type of rail and given rail manufacturer.
Since, as detailed in the next section, the parameter cannot distinguish tension stress
vs. compression stress (i.e. curve is symmetric around the minimum), a concurrent
measurement of wave velocity by a simple timeofflight measurement can be recorded
usingthesametransducer.Thewave velocity, whichalsochangeswith stress, willthen
indicatethesignofthe stress, i.e.thesideofthe < vs.T>curveofthatpointofthe
rail.
Knowledgeofthecurrentthermalstress,,andtemperature,T,willfinallyallow
todeterminetherailNeutralTemperaturefromEq.(1.1).
Figure 6.6  Schematic of nonlinear ultrasonic measurements to determine rail thermal stresses or
rail Neutral Temperature. Inmotion implementation with ultrasonic wheel transducers.
Figure 6.9  Largescale experimental setup at UCSD Powell Structural Laboratories  rendered
isometric view with descriptors.
212
Figure 6.10 Largescale experimental setup at UCSD Powell Structural Laboratories  rendered
plan view.
Figure 6.11  Largescale experimental setup at UCSD Powell Structural Laboratories technical
drawings and details.
213
Figure 6.9 represents a rendered isometric view with descriptions of the various
experimental layoutcomponentswhile Figure6.10providesarenderedplan viewofthe
testingarea.AtechnicalillustrationofthetestlayoutisshowninFigure6.11throughan
elevation view, a plan view and a detail view on the testbed crosssection. A laser
positioningsystemwasemployedforsleepersalignment(Figure6.12)
Figure 6.12 Sleepers placement and alignment using a laser positioning system.
Figure 6.14 Fixed posttensioned concrete block. Rendered view, rebars layout and technical
drawing.
215
Figure 6.15 Sliding posttensioned concrete block. Rendered view, rebar layout and technical
drawing.
The installation temperature was of 21.1 C (70 F). Therefore, taking into
account material and geometrical properties of rail steel (described in Chapter 4) and
using Eq. (1.1), the applied pretension was such to have the Neutral Temperature at
around32.2C(90F).
Figure 6.16 Vickers hydraulic actuators employed to apply initial pretension to the railroad track.
216
Special Uchannels and end plates were welded at rail ends in order to improve
thesheartransferintheconcreteblocks.Thesestructuralelementsarehighlightedinnext
Figure6.17.
Figure 6.17 Uchannels and end plate welded to the rail end to improve shear transfer in the
concrete blocks.
217
Figure 6.18 ThermalFlex rail heating system. Deployment layout and details.
Starting from the initial pretensioned state (at ambient temperature), several
heating tests with various sensors layouts (discussed in the following) were performed
218
increasing progressively the rail temperature in successive steps via the heating system.
Inthisway,repeatedultrasonicnonlinearmeasurementsweresystematicallyrecordedat
eachtemperaturestep,passingthroughtheneutraltemperaturestate(Figure6.20).
Figure 6.20 Thermal test protocol. Ultrasonic nonlinear features recorded at each measurement
point during the heating cycle.
Following this particular test protocol it was possible to efficiently analyze the
evolutionofthenonlinearresponse(intermsof nonlinearparameter)asafunctionof
thestateofthermalstressactingintherail.
Therailwasheavilyinstrumentedinordertoexploreefficientlyandexhaustively
the full static and dynamic response of the track. More specifically, 48 selftemperature
compensatedstraingages(Ajovalasit,2008)and 6 linearpotentiometerswereemployed
tomonitorinrealtimestrainsanddisplacements,respectively.Temperaturewasrecorded
using6thermocouplesinstalledattherailneutralaxis.Aninfraredthermalcamera(Flir
Systems A320  http://www.flir.com/US/) was used to map graphically the temperature
219
distribution during heating cycles. Figure 6.22 shows an overview of the experimental
setup.
Figure 6.22 Overall view of the experimental setup (UCSD Powell Structural laboratories).
220
6.3.2 Data acquisition system
ANationalInstrumentPXI1010Chassiswasusedaspartofthedataacquisition
(DAQ) system. A schematic representation of its front and rear sides is provided in
Figure6.23andFigure6.24,respectively.Theinterrogatingsignalsgenerallyconsistedin
narrowband modulated sinusoids centered at a particular frequency using specific
windowfunctions.ThesewaveformsweregeneratedthroughaNationalInstrumentPXI
5411 HighSpeed Arbitrary Waveform Generator (Figure 6.25). It includes all the
features of sweep generators and function generators and features a 40 MS/s waveform
update rate, linking and looping capabilities and up to 8 million samples of standard
waveformmemoryperchannel.
221
A48channelsinstrumentationcabinetwasusedtomonitorandrecordallthedata
acquired by the array of sensors installed on the rails. Figure 6.27 shows the assembled
DAQ system while Figure 6.28 depicts the control station and the instrumentation
cabinet. A signal sampler (RITEC SS40) with 40 dB of attenuation was installed after
the highpower amplifier in order to monitor the amplified interrogating waveform in a
separate oscilloscope (LeCroy WaveJet 314) (Figure 6.29). The arbitrary waveform
generatorservedalsoatriggerfortheoscilloscopeandforthedigitizer.
InFigure6.30boththepossiblewaysidestationaryimplementationsareincluded.
However, as it has already been mentioned, in the present work the prototype
development was focused on the web implementation. This solution (discussed in next
section) is moreconvenientbecause itdoesnotinterfereatallwithtrainsoperation. For
the sake of completeness, results for both possible wayside installations are reported,
225
highlighting the potential of the proposed technique, especially in view of a possible
futureinmotionimplementationwhere,mostlikely,therailheadwillbeexcited.
Figure 6.31 LabVIEW program used to control waveform generation and signal acquisition phases.
(a) Front panel. (b) Block diagram.
Figure 6.33  Physical Acoustics R15 ultrasonic transducer frequency response spectrum
(Calibration based on ASTM E1106 in blue and Calibration based on ASTM E976 in red) with
second harmonic range highlighted.
227
Thetwoultrasonicreceiverswereinstalledontherailat25.5and50awayfrom
theexciterusingspeciallydesignedmagneticholders(Figure6.34).
Figure 6.34 Rail head installation  PAC ultrasonic transducers installed on the rail using specific
magnetic holders.
Figure 6.35 Nonlinear parameter (quantifying second harmonic generation) measured on the
largescale rail testbed using the wayside configuration with transducers installed on the rail head.
Figure 6.36 Second harmonic generation and cumulative effect measured on the largescale rail
testbed using the wayside configuration with transducers on the rail head. (a) Timehistory signal
for receiver #1 (25.5 away from transmitter). (b) Nonlinear parameter curve against longitudinal
thermal strain for receiver #1 (highlighted mode). (c) Timehistory signal for receiver #2 (50 away
from transmitter). (b) Nonlinear parameter curve against longitudinal thermal strain for receiver #2
(highlighted mode).
6.3.4 Experimental results for rail web implementation
In view of a practical web implementation, the proposed technique was further
investigatedinstallingthetransmitterandthereceiversontherailwebattheneutralaxis
location,accordingtothepositionsshowninFigure6.2.Thetworeceiverswereplacedat
12.75and25.5awayfromthetransmitter,respectively(Figure6.37).
230
Figure 6.37  Rail web installation  PAC ultrasonic transducers installed on the rail using specific
magnetic holders.
Theoptimalcombinationofresonantwaveguidemodesdiscussedinsection4.3.3
was exploited in this test and 200 kHz was considered as fundamental frequency of the
interrogatingwaveform.ThePhysicalAcousticsR15ultrasonictransducerswereusedfor
both transmission and reception. Their frequency response spectrum (depending on the
adoptedcalibrationprocedure)showsaslightdecreaseinresponseamplitudeat200kHz
and 400 kHz (Figure 6.38). However, this was not a critical issue for the experimental
investigation.
Figure 6.38  Physical Acoustics R15 ultrasonic transducer frequency response spectrum
(Calibration based on ASTM E1106 in blue and Calibration based on ASTM E976 in red) with
fundamental and second harmonic ranges highlighted.
231
Experimental results confirmed the general trend previously discussed for the
head installation.However,theweb installationrequiresdifferentwaveguide modesand
frequencies than the head installation. The selection of the correct modes to be used
playedadecisiveroleforthiscasetoo.ExemplaryresultsareillustratedinFigure6.39in
thesamefashionasfortheheadinstallationcasediscussedbefore.Itcanbenoticedhow
the nonlinearity associated with the third waveguide mode (highlighted in Figure 6.39a
and Figure6.39c) is veryefficient intrackingtherailthermal stressstate.Alsowiththe
presentsystemimplementation,thenonlinearityparameterevolvesfollowingaUshape
curve against longitudinal thermal strain and its minimum pinpoints very precisely the
zerostressstate(neutraltemperature).
Figure 6.39  Second harmonic generation measured on the largescale rail testbed using the wayside
configuration with transducers on the rail web. (a) Timehistory signal for receiver #1 (12.75 away
from transmitter). (b) Nonlinear parameter curve against longitudinal thermal strain for receiver #1
(highlighted mode). (c) Timehistory signal for receiver #2 (25.5 away from transmitter). (b)
Nonlinear parameter curve against longitudinal thermal strain for receiver #2 (highlighted mode).
232
6.3.5 Temperature influence analysis free rail test
Manyoperationalparametersandenvironmental conditions can negativelyaffect
the measurements and, consequently, the efficiency of the proposed methodology.
Among them, temperature influence on waveguide material characteristics is the most
critical. A recent study (Loveday and Wilcox, 2010) explored the sensitivity of guided
wavemodestoaxialloadandchangesintheelasticmodulusduetotemperature.Aftera
comprehensive analytical and computational treatment, the authors concluded that
temperature influence on guided wave propagation properties (via elastic modulus
changes) was one orderof magnitude larger than the influence of axial load in terms of
acoustoelasticeffect(EgleandBray,1976).
In order to confirm the insensitivity of the proposed technique to temperature
variations alone, an unconstrained (freely expandable along the running direction)
AREMA136RErailwasinstalledinthemiddleofthetwoconstrainedrails(Figure6.9).
The web installation setup previously discussed was reproduced (Figure 6.40) and
nonlinear measurements were performed during several heating cycles. The rail was
supported by steel rollers. A layer of Teflon was guaranteed underneath each roller to
convenientlyreducefriction(Figure6.41).
ResultsarepresentedinFigure6.42.Nocleartrendisevidentbetweennonlinear
parameterandtemperatureor,proportionally,longitudinalthermalstrain.Thisoutcome
indicates that is effectively related to thermal stress and not on side effects of
temperaturealone.
233
Figure 6.42 Results of experimental tests on unconstrained rail. Nonlinear parameter vs.
temperature plots for both receivers.
234
6.3.6 Repeatability
Repeatability was assessed collecting experimental measurements at different
locationsinbothrails.SelectedresultsarepresentedinFigure6.43.
Figure 6.43 Test results repeatability assessment. Nonlinear parameter curves evaluated at two
different locations of the largescale testbed.
235
6.3.7 Validation tests on a plate extracted from rail web
Aseriesofadditionalexperimentaltestswascarriedoutonaplateextractedfrom
the web of an AREMA 136 RE railroad track (Figure 6.44) to further corroborate the
proposed technique in a more controlled laboratory setup and inspect separately the
influenceofthermalandmechanicalstressesonthenonlinearityoftheresponse.
Figure 6.44 Geometrical details of the plate extracted from the rail web and used for validation
tests.
237
Figure6.46showsatypicalresult.Inaccordancetotheclassicalfiniteamplitude
wave theory, Ushape trends were found for nonlinear parameter vs. longitudinal strain
curves,withaminimuminproximityoftherailNeutralTemperature.
Figure 6.46 Nonlinear parameter vs. longitudinal strain curve for Validation test I.
238
Figure 6.47  Validation test II experimental layout (Thermal stress only with pretension).
Figure 6.48  Nonlinear parameter vs. longitudinal thermal strain curve for Validation test II.
239
Theoretical Rail NT was calculated using Eq. (1.1) and considering rail steel
material properties discussed before and the initial pretension state. In the present test
nonlinearity arises from both the initial mechanical pretension and the evolution of the
thermalstress,inagreementwiththeproposedtheoreticalconstitutivemodel(Chapter5).
Thewebplatewasfinallytestedinabsenceofinitialmechanicalpretension.Isso
doing, the thermal stress influence on nonlinear guided wave propagation could be
analyzed separately and a further confirmation of the proposed constitutive model was
obtained. Experimental results are discussed in the following sections. In one case the
plate was unconstrained and it could freely expand under thermal variations. In the last
case the plate was axially constrained and nonlinear parameter evolution was studied
duringafinalheatingcycle.
Figure 6.49  Validation test III experimental layout (Unconstrained plate without pretension).
Figure 6.50  Nonlinear parameter vs. longitudinal thermal strain curve for Validation test III.
241
6.3.7.4 Validation test IV Axially constrained plate without pretension
IncontrasttoValidationtestIII,inthislastexperimenttheaxialdeformationdue
to thermal changes induced by the heating belt is constrained by two rigid Lbrackets
(describedinSection5.4).TheexperimentalsetupisshowninFigure6.51.
Figure 6.51 Validation test IV experimental layout (Axially constrained plate without pretension).
InFigure6.52resultsarepresentedforthesamefrequencyandwaveguidemode
to highlight the difference with the previous case. It is clear how the presence of the
boundaries translates into thermal stress which, in turn, generates nonlinearity in the
response (according to the proposed theoretical model discussed in Chapter 5). This
nonlinearity, as expected, increases quite smoothly with increasing temperature. The
clear difference in trend between Figure 6.50 (unconstrained plate) and Figure 6.52
(constrainedplate), confirmstheoreticalpredictions andexperimental findingsdiscussed
inprevioussections.
242
Figure 6.52 Nonlinear parameter vs. longitudinal thermal strain curve for Validation test IV.
6.4 Discussion
The results of the validation tests confirmed the suitability of the nonlinear
parameter in effectively and efficiently mapping the zero stress state of structural
elementssubjectedtothermaland/or mechanical stresses. ThroughValidationtestIII,it
wasalsoconfirmedthattemperatureeffectsalonedonotaffecttheproposedtechnique.
243
6.5 RAILNT prototype design
6.5.1 Introduction
This section describes the development stages and actual prototyping of the
proposed rail inspection system (RAILNT) aimed at nondestructively determining the
longitudinalforces(orstresses)intherailasafunctionofchangingrailtemperature.The
system is designed to be magnetically installed on the rail web, according tothe layout
shown in Figure 6.2. The prototype technology embeds theoretical predictions and
computational results presented in Chapters 45, and experimental findings discussed in
thefirstparagraphsofthepresentchapter.
6.5.2 Hardware
The RAILNT system prototype features several instrumentations which were
assembledinanalogytothesystememployedfortheproofofprincipletesting,presented
in Section 6.3. The original setup concept was conveniently modified and optimized to
gainportabilityinviewoffielddeployment.
A National Instrument PXI1033 5slot chassis with integrated MXIExpress
controller (Figure 6.53) was used to accommodate the DAQ system components. A
schematicrepresentationofitsfrontandrearsidesisprovidedinFigure6.54andFigure
6.55,respectively.
Like in the largescale tesdbed experiments, a National Instrument PXI5411
HighSpeed Arbitrary Waveform (Figure 6.25) was used to generate the interrogating
244
waveforms and a National Instrument PXI5105 HighSpeed Digitized served as
acquisitionmodule(Figure6.26).
Figure 6.53 NI PXI1033 chassis with integrated MXIExpress controller and 34mm Express Card.
APiezosystemEPA104amplifier(Figure6.56)wasinstalledtoraisetheenergy
oftheinterrogatingsignal.Itisasinglechannel,highvoltage(200Vp),highcurrent(
200mA),andhighfrequency(DCto250kHz).
A laptop computer was interfaced with the chassis using its integrated MXI
Expresscontrolleranda34mm expresscardanditwasusedtocontroland managethe
dataacquisition,storingandpostprocessing.
Twoultrasonictransducerswereusedastransmitterandreceiver,respectively.
246
Thetwotransducerswereembodiedintoaspeciallydesignedholder.Itfeaturesa
perforatedencasementtoprotecttheassemblyandguaranteesufficientaircirculation(in
order to avoid excessive heat inside the enclosed chamber that could negatively affect
transducersfunctioning) andtwomagneticholderstoaccommodatebothtransmitterand
receiverandmagneticallyholdtheprototypeinplace.Tworailswerehollowedtoallow
receiverrepositioningifneeded. Withthissetup,theprototypecanbeeasilyandquickly
installed on the rail web. Figure 6.57 illustrates a 3D rendered views of the RAILNT
prototype front and rear side with descriptors. Figure 6.58 shows a picture of the actual
prototype.
247
249
Figure 6.61 RAILNT prototype installed on the experimental rail (UCSD Powell Laboratories).
Figure 6.62 RAILNT DAQ system assembled during proofofprinciple experimental tests.
251
A firstfieldtestfortheproposedtechnology is beingplanned forthesummerof
2012 in coordination with Federal Railroad Administration, BNSF Railway Company
andVolpeNationalTransportationSystemsCenter.Thistestwillbeperformedona50
long experimental CWR section at Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) in
Pueblo,CO(Figure6.63).
6.6 Conclusions
TheexperimentalresultsobtainedwiththeprototypeintheLargeScaleTestbed
are extremely encouraging, showing an accuracy of only a few degrees for the
determinationoftherailNT.Ifconfirmedinthefield,thisresultcouldrevolutionizethe
252
way CWR are maintained to prevent rail buckling with respect to the thermal stress
managementproblem.
A potential future vision of a field deployment for the proposed system could
consistinaseriesofinspectiondevicesinstalledontherailwebatdistributedlocationsto
create a sensor network. This array could perform continuous nonlinear measurements
andmaptherailNeutralTemperatureforthevariousrailsections(Figure6.64).Indoing
so, dangerous sections could be easily pinpointed and necessary remedial actions could
beconsequentlytakentopreventbucklingoccurrence.
253
6.7 Acknowledgements
A Provisional Patent Application has been filed for the proposed inspection
systemon11/10/2011(USPTO#61/558353).
This chapter, in part, will be submitted for publication to the Structural Health
Monitoring Journal, Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; (2012). The running
title of this paper is Measurement of Neutral Temperature in Continuous Welded Rails:
Results from UCSD LargeScale Rail NT Testbed. The dissertation author will be the
primaryinvestigatorandprimaryauthorofthispaper.
254
Chapter 7
Conclusions and future work
7.1 Review of the research work performed and summary of
the novel contributions
The broader topic of this dissertation is nonlinear ultrasonic wave propagation.
Theuseofnonlinearfeaturesinultrasonictestingofmaterialsandstructureshasrecently
gained increasing attention by the structural health monitoring and nondestructive
evaluationcommunities.Nonlinearwavefeatures(e.g.higherharmonicgeneration)have
shown greater sensitivity to structural conditions when compared to the more
conventionallinearultrasonicfeatures(amplitude,phase,velocity,etc...).
Thisdissertationfocusesonnonlinearitiesarisinginthecaseofultrasonicguided
waves that lend themselves to the monitoring of structural waveguides. A novel
numericalframeworkisproposed.Itcombinesanonlinearsemianalyticalfiniteelement
formulation with finite element preprocessors, solvers and postprocessors
(CO.NO.SAFE). This tool allows to predict favorable conditions of higherharmonic
guided wave generation (i.e. obeying synchronicity and nonzero power flux
requirements) in complex waveguides. Several benchmark cases were studies by the
CO.NO.SAFE algorithm including: a viscoleastic isotropic plate, an elastic anisotropic
255
composite laminate, areinforced concreteslab, and arailroadtrack. The lastcase isthe
principalapplicationofthedissertation.
Continuously Welded Rail (CWR) is used in modern rail construction including
highspeedrailtransportation. Theabsenceofexpansion joints inthesestructuresbrings
aboutthe risk of breakage in cold weather and of buckling in warm weather due tothe
resulting thermal stresses. In fact, safety statistics data from the US Federal Railroad
Administration (FRA) indicate rail buckling from uncontrolled thermal stresses as the
leadingcauseoftrainaccidents,withinthetrackcategory, inrecent years.Currently, no
wellestablished method exists to properly monitor the rail thermal stresses insitu. Of
particular interest is the determination of the rail Neutral Temperature (NT), or the rail
temperaturewherethethermalstressiszero.
Theconsiderationofnonlinearwavefeaturestomonitorthermalstressesinsolids
hasrequiredthedevelopmentofanewphysical modelthatdoesnotrelyon finitestrain
conditionsthatareassumedbyclassicalnonlinearwavestudies.Instead,theoriginofthe
nonlinearitywasexplainedinthisdissertationonthebasisofinteratomicpotentialsunder
varyingtemperature.Thesepotentialssuggestatleastacubicdependenceonstrainofthe
residual strain energy that is stored in the material due to the prevented thermal
expansion. The cubic relation between strain energy and strain gives raise to second
harmonic generation of propagating elastic waves. This principle was validated
experimentally for longitudinal bulk waves propagating in a steel block that was
constrainedandsubjectedtothermalexcursions.
Followingthistheoretical development, thestudywas focusedtotheproblemof
the measurement of rail NT. For this case, CO.NO.SAFE models were developed for a
256
AREMA136RErailinordertoidentifyproperwaveguidemodesthatexhibitnonlinear
behavior under thermal stresses. Requirements of the desired modes were little
interaction with the rail head and with the rail foot. The rail head was avoided to
eliminate effects of residual stresses and changes in geometry (wear) of the waveguide.
Therailfootwasavoidedtoeliminateeffectsoftherailsupports(thesocalledtietotie
variation problem). Hence special nonlinear waveguide modes were identified with
predominantmotionoftherailwebalone.
Handinhandwiththemodelingstudy,anextensivesetofexperimentaltestswas
conducted at UCSD LargeScale Rail NT Testbed. This facility, a oneofakind 70ft
longtrack,allowstoimposethermalloadsinahighlycontrolledlaboratoryenvironment,
andyetinaquiterealisticmanner.TheTestbedwasinstrumentedwith48straingages,6
thermocouples, 6 potentiometers, and an infrared camera to fully capture its behavior
duringthethermalcycles.
A prototype was designed, constructed and tested on the Largescale Testbed.
The prototype consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and an ultrasonic receiver that are
mountedonacasethatismagneticallyattachedtotherailwebforawaysideinstallation.
The nonlinear parameter (higherharmonic generation) of the selected ultrasonic guided
modes is measured as a function of rail temperature. A minimum of the ultrasonic
nonlinear parameter indicates precisely the rail NT (zero stress temperature). The
accuracy of the rail NT measurement was found of only a few degrees. This is an
excellentresultthatwasconsistentlyconfirmedatseverallocationsoftheTestbed.
Theseencouragingresults have now ledtotheplanningofa fieldtestoftherail
NTtechnologythatisbeingorganized byUCSDinclosecollaborationwiththeFederal
257
Railroad Administration, the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad, and the
TransportationTechnologyCenterinColorado.
If the field tests are successful, this technology has certainly the potential to
revolutionizethemaintenanceofCWRvisvisthethermalstressproblem.Forexample,
knowledge of the current rail NT insitu would allow railroads to take conditionbased
decisions,suchasimposingslowordermandatestotrainsinwarmweather.