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Country Per capita consumption

(kwh/year)
USA 13467
China 2986
India 714















India's power generation capacity will need to scale up -
Presently it is 209 GW
by 2030 it will be over 460 GW
at 6% growth rate



Source of Power Share in MW
Fossil Fuels
140206
Hydro-Large
39291
Renewable Sources
24998
Nuclear
4780
TOTAL 2,09,276
Currently Installed Generation
Capacity

2,09,276.04 MW = 2x10
9
X
67%
19%
12%
2%
% share in Generation
Fossil
Fuels
Hydro-
Large
Renewable
Sources
Nuclear
Source: CEA, Annual Report
Max Demand 140090 MW
Supply 125234 MW
Deficit 14856 MW
%age deficit 10.6
Reference=http://cea.nic.in/reports/yearly/lgbr_report.pdf
Most parts of India receive good solar
radiation 5-7 kWh/sq. m/day
Within 6 hours deserts receive more
energy from the sun than humankind
consumes within a year Gerhard Knies
I = 6 kwh/m
2
/day or 250w/m
2

Efficiency = 15%
=> Power Produced = 37.5 W/m2
i.e. 37.5 MW/KM2
i.e. 1 GW/25 KM
2
=>Thar desert area is 2.28 Lac KM
2

(0.28 Million KM
2
)

So now you can imagine the potential!!!












Mission aims to achieve grid tariff parity by 2022 through
Cost reduction
Research and development
Local manufacturing and supporting infrastructure


Application Segment

Target for Phase
I (2010-13)

Cumulative Target
for Phase II
(2013-17)

Cumulative Target
for Phase III
(2017-22)

Grid Solar Power
incl. Roof Top

1,100 MW

4,000 MW

20,000 MW

Off. Grid Solar
Applications
(inc. Rural Solar Lights)

200 MW

1,000 MW

2,000 MW

Solar Collectors

7 million sq.m.

15 million sq. m.

20 million sq. m.
http://www.mnre.gov.in/solar-mission/jnnsm
Solar capital of India with Asias largest solar park

More than 600 MW solar photovoltaic installations

Government launched special solar energy educational

Programs to full fill increasing demand of technical experts

Creating employment of 45,000 People in renewable energy sector

Ambitious plan of generating 100,000 Million units of clean green energy
annually


Best way to learn is looking at
High Electric bills
Increasing electricity tariff rates
Frequent electricity cut off
No contribution in environment saving

What if we used other sources of
energy to power our house !!!
Lets see how we can work it out.
Which are
Free of cost (just requires initial investment)
Provides more reliability
Helps in contributing for saving environment
Advantages of solar energy
Locally available
Free source of unlimited energy



If we want to power your house / this lecture
hall by using solar power

Then,

1) How will we proceed ?

2) What will be the system size and cost?

3) What other systems we will have to integrate ?

4) What will be the methodology of sizing of each equipment ?

5) What precautions we will have to take and how much the
overall system will cost?
1. Solar radiation assessment

2. Site survey and estimating maximum available energy

3. Understanding Photovoltaic technology

4. Requirement analysis

5. Determine load, power and energy consumption

6. System concept development

7. PV array and battery selections

8. Charge controller and inverter selection




Install and Run Pvsyst on your laptops
energy received from sun on a unit area perpendicular
to the rays of sun
Radiation is inversely proportional to square of the distance
At the mean distance of sun and earth, rate at which energy is received
from sun on unit area perpendicular to rays of sun is solar constant

Its value is 1367 W/m
2
= I
sc
Beam radiations (Direct )
Diffused radiations (Diffuse from sky + Reflected from ground)
Global (Beam+Diffused)
Measuring solar radiations
Amount of solar radiation on an object will depend on
Location

Day of year

Time of day

Inclination of the object

Orientation of object (w.r.t. North-south direction)


Here the Object is solar panel, but it is true of any object (For solar thermal also!)

*Only for easy visualization
Day of the year is characterized by an angle
Called as Declination angle ()
Angle made by line joining center of the sun and the earth
w.r.t to projection on equatorial plane (+23.45
o
to -23.45
o
)
Study the effect of day /season through fixed tilt
with our Simulation software PVsyst
Time of the day
Time is based on the rotation of the Earth with respect to the Sun
It is characterized by Hour angle (w)

It is angular measure of time w.r.t. solar noon (LAT),
Since 360
o
corresponds to 24 hours
15
o
corresponds to 1 hour
W = 15 (12 - LAT )
Local
apparent
time
In hour
Hour
angle
15
degree
per hour
With
reference
to solar
noon
In order to find the beam energy falling on a surface
having any orientation,
it is necessary to convert the value of the beam flux coming from the
direction of the sun to an equivalent value corresponding to the normal
direction to the surface.

beam flux
Equivalent flux
falling normal
to surface
u cos
n
b b
I I =
I
b

I
bn
Normal to
the plane

is affected by five parameters
- Latitude of location ()
- Day of year ()
- Time of the day (w)
- Inclination of surface ()
- Orientation in horizontal plane ()
Solid lines are reference lines
Vertical


South direction (horizontal plane)
Angle of Sun rays on collector
| e o
| o | e o |
| e o | o | u
sin sin sin cos
) sin cos sin cos cos (cos cos
) sin cos cos cos cos (sin sin cos
+
+
+ =
Incidence angle of rays on collector (|)
(w.r.t. to collector normal)
Where,
Latitude ()
Surface azimuth angle ()
Hour angle (w)
Surface slope ()
Declination angle ()

For the power output to be maximum, the incident
radiation must be perpendicular to the panel.
Optimum inclination for fixed collector
o | | =
The inclination of the fixed collector (facing South) w.r.t.
horizontal at noon time should be
Under this condition at noon time Sun rays will be perpendicular to the
collector
One need to estimate declination angle for a given day, when
optimum inclination is to be estimated
=0
o
, collector facing due south
) cos( cos cos ) sin( sin cos | | e o | | o u + =
) cos( cos o | | u =
At noon,
0 = e
0 = u
o | | u =
For optimal radiations
o | | = 0
Optimum Inclination over a Year
The noon position of the sun is changes throughout the year
What is optimum position of collector for whole year
(we need to estimate average value of declination angle over year)

-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Days of year
D
e
c
l
i
n
a
t
i
o
n

(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Average o is Zero over the year

Hence | = |
Azimuth orientation from PVsyst
Continuous tracking of sun will ensure that the sunrays are
always perpendicular to the solar panel
(tilt angle= is changed to ensure that incident angle= = 0)


Axis tracking from PVsyst
Now you know what should be the orientation of solar
panels to get maximum output from fixed collector
problem is solved Actually Only 1/4
th

Lets see what are other 3 parts
We also need to look at
1. Energy requirement
2. What PV technology to choose ,
3. Actual installation and Financial part




Requirement Analysis
Customer
concerns
Daily load
requirements
Constraints-
Cost and
space
constraints
Type of load
24x7power
requirement
for critical
loads
Seasonal
load
requirement
Future load
requirement
Type
of
Load
Rated
Power
(Watts)
No. of
Loads

Total
Rated
Power
(Watts)
Load
Duty
Factor
(0-1)

Total Avg.
Power
(Watts)

Hour
s of
use
Total Energy
Consumption
(Watt-
hours/Wh)
Total Rated Power Consumption = Rated Power x No. of Loads
Total Avg. Power = Total Rated Power x Load Duty Factor
Total Energy Consumption = Total Avg. Power x Hours of use
Prepare the load chart to analyze total energy consumption
Load entry in PVsyst

Why do we need batteries..

Storing energy produced by the PV array during the
day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed

To operate the PV array near its maximum power point

To power electrical loads at stable voltages

To supply surge currents to electrical loads and
inverters

Types of Battery
Lead Acid
Lithium Ion



Nickel Cadmium
Nickel Metal Hydride

Li-ion battery
Nickel
Cadmium
battery

Nickel metal
hydride
battery
Lead acid battery
Dominant Energy Storage medium is Lead-Acid batteries
(Mostly used in off-grid systems)
Advantages
Simple and cheap to
make
Low self discharge
rate
Today, 98% of these
batteries are recycled
Capable of high
discharge rates
Battery Sizing

1. Required Supply Wh = Load Wh * (No.of day of storage + 1)

2. Include Efficiency factors from name plate of battery
Depth of Discharge (DOD)
Battery efficiency factor (BEF)
System AC efficiency (ACEF)
{ACEF = Inverter Efficiency x AC Cable Loss Factor}


Battery Wh = Supply Wh / (DOD*BEF*ACEF)


Select Battery Voltage (VBAT) based on system voltage


Small systems (<1kWh) are 12VDC
mid-range systems (1-3kWh) are 24VDC
larger systems (>3kWh) are > =48-120 VDC.


Battery Ah = Battery Wh/VBAT

Select nearest larger rating available





To be on the
safe side
Battery pack
Check available Battery unit voltage and Ah

No. of Battery units in parallel = Battery Pack Ah / Battery Unit Ah

No. of Battery units in series = Battery Pack Voltage/Battery unit voltage



Remarks

Standard deep cycle lead acid battery voltage rating available is 12V

Standard battery Ah available is 120Ah, 150Ah, 180Ah etc.

Example: 24V/350Ah Battery Pack

Battery specifications in PVsyst
Light energy Electricity
It is generated due to principle of
photoelectric effect


Lets look at the process in some
further detail:
Photovoltaic energy is the direct
conversion of light into electricity at
the atomic level.


Some materials exhibit a
property known as the
photoelectric effect that causes
them to absorb photons of light
and release electrons.

When these free electrons are
captured, an electric current
results that can be used as
electricity.

L
kT qV
total
I e I I = ) 1 (
/
0
Where I
L
is photo current
(constant)
I
L
= I
sc
Shows Current (I) and Voltage (V) relation
Graphical representation
Characteristics and Efficiency
in
m m
P
I V
Intensity light Incident
Power Cell Max
=
=
q
q
.
I
sc

I
V
m

I
m

P
m

X
V
oc
Efficiency
Uses
To compare solar cells
To estimate actual output
Depends on
Material
Temperature
V
1
st
Generation
silicon wafer-
based
photovoltaic,

Single-crystalline
and multi-
crystalline wafers
2
nd
Generation
Thin-film deposits
of semiconductors

amorphous silicon,
cadmium telluride,
copper indium
gallium diselenide
or copper indium
sulfide
3
rd
Generation
Multi-junction solar
cells
Dyesensitized
nanocrystalline
Gratzel solar cells
Organic polymer-
based photovoltaic
Thermo
photovoltaic solar
cells.
0.00
0.40
0.80
1.20
1.60
2.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
0.00
0.40
0.80
1.20
1.60
2.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

Series
connection
adds the
voltage,
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

Parallel
connection
adds the
currents

PV Sizing
1. Load Wh = Daily energy requirements

2. Average daily peak sun hours (PSH) in design month for selected tilt and
orientation of PV array.

3. System Efficiency Factor (SYSEF)
SYSEF = Battery EF x PV EF x Cable EF x Charger EF x Inverter EF

4. PV Watts peak (Total Wp)= Load Wh/(PSH*SYSEF)

5. Select PV module voltage based on system voltage.
(System voltage is integral multiple of PV module voltage)

6. Select module Wp and size based on available space.

7. No. of PV Modules = Total Wp/Module Wp

8. Use nearest larger number of modules
Off-grid System Loss Factors
Factors % Loss
PV Response to Insolation 2-4
PV Mismatch 1-3
PV Soiling 1-3
PV Thermal Loss 5-10
DC Cable Loss 1-2
MPPT Charge Controller 1-2
Battery 10-15
Inverter including Transformer 4-6
AC Cable Loss 0.5-1
Total System Loss 25-40
Design of PV Array
1. Integral No. of modules in string = system voltage/module nominal
voltage


2. No. of strings in array = Total No. of modules/No. of modules in string


3. Use nearest larger number of strings in an array.


4. List No. of modules in array and Standard Testing Condition Wp rating of
array.



PV MODULE Specifications in PVSYST
Something like a charge controller !!!
The additional advantage could be
Increased battery life
Preventing reverse current

A charge controller limits the rate at which
electric current is added to or drawn from
electric batteries.


Types

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)
- Helps to remove buildup on the plates in a battery extending a batterys life.

MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking)
- Adjusts the output voltage level to get maximum power output


Why solar charge controller is required !!!
Charge
controller
For battery
Increases
battery life
Regulate
power
Preventing
reverse current
Optimize
power output
Charge Controller Selection
1. Match controller nominal system voltage to PV system voltage

2. Controller input voltage rating >= 1.2 x array open circuit voltage

3. Max. charge current >= 1.25 x array max. power point current.

4. Nom. load current = Max. DC Load Power/System Voltage.

5. Controller output current rating >= 1.5 x nom. load current.
Charge control specifications in PVsyst
Shadow analysis in PVsyst


PV technology
c-Si/TF-governed by environment, space, cost etc.



Mounting system
Rooftop/Terrace mounted/Ground mounted PV array
also determine orientation and tilt of PV array based on
latitude and usage pattern.
Choosing PV technology and
mounting structure
Types of Mounting system
On tilted roof
On flat roof
1. On-Roof Solar PV Panel Mounting Systems
2. Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV)
Photovoltaic facade on
Scheidegger Building, near Bern,
Switzerland.
BIPV Project - OLV hospital
Aalst, Belgium
3. On open ground Photovoltaic mounting structure
4. Tracking photovoltaic mounting structure
4 steps to design PV system for your home
1. Optimize tilt of solar panel


2. Estimate power and energy output of the plant based on
selected array and battery size and system efficiency
factors.


3. Review system design, sizing and costs.


4. Implement design.


In the form of
Savings
Eco-friendly energy utilization
Reliable solutions
Lets see how much I saved by implementing this new energy solution

Run simulation in PVsyst
Sizing and system specification
Typical Size - 1W to tens of kW
Battery back up is essential for operation in monsoon and at night
Long life and low maintenance
Upgradability is often required
Loads are combination of DC and AC

Applications
Remote housing
Water pumping
Telecom

Costing
Module cost is 30-40% of system cost, battery cost is recurring and
appliances cost is often included in system cost.
System cost is in the range of Rs. 1.25-1.5 Lakhs/kW

Off-Grid Systems: Scope, Applications and Costs
Solar PV system
Sine wave inverter
Square
wave
Mechanism
continually
changes
current
direction
Induced to Sine wave

1. Stand alone inverter


Used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC energy from
batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays.

Unlike grid tie inverters, stand-alone inverters use batteries for storage.

These types of inverters are mostly used in residential buildings in remote
locations which are devoid of the utility grid and is powered by renewable
energy sources.
2. Grid tied inverter

That converts direct current (DC) electricity into alternating current(AC)
and feeds it into an existing electrical grid.

During a period of overproduction from the generating source, power is
routed into the power grid, thereby being sold to the local power
company.

During insufficient power production, it allows for power to be purchased
from the power company

The grid tie inverter must synchronize its frequency with that of the grid
(e.g. 50 or 60 Hz) using a local oscillator and limit the voltage to no higher
than the grid voltage
SOLAR POWER CONDITIONING UNIT (PCU) is used
as control system for grid tie inverter

S
T
A
N
D

A
L
O
N
E
G
R
I
D

T
I
E
D
Inverter Selection
Match inverter DC input voltage to system voltage.

Match inverter AC output voltage to nom. load voltage.

Inverter output power rating 1.5 to 2 times (min. 1.2 times) max. load
power to allow for future expansion.

Inverter nom. load current = Max. load power/Nom. output voltage


To conceptualize
the system
Designing
electric system
for efficient
power utilization
Development
of Energy
storage
system
Implementation
of energy
efficient system
What is there for you in the box
Opportunities
Manufacturing
Installation &
Maintenance

Product
Design
Design &
Engineering
Semiconductor technology
Building integrated Photovoltaic
Research and Development
Customized project development
Project consultancy
Project Development & Consultancy
System integration in solar PV
Low skill in module assembly
Manufacturing
Third-party installers are not skilled
Grid integration of mega watt scale PV power projects
Construction and Installation
Trouble shooting of circuitry of appliances
Mechanical Maintenance
Operation and Maintenance
After sales-service, customer care
Techno-commercial analysis
Marketing
Sector Estimated
Current
employment
Estimated projected
Employment
2017 2022
Solar PV On-Grid 4,000 39,000 1,52,000
Solar PV Off-Grid 72,000 1,40,000 2,25,000
Total 76,000 1,79,000 3,77,000
With the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) scheme
of the Government of India, the installed capacity is estimated to
reach 20 GW by the year 2022. This would create enormous
employment opportunities in the country.

Infinite Free Energy




No Green House Gasses Saving Livelihood
Decentralized Power Price Stability Better Job Opportunities
Solar lantern
Solar fly pad
Solar PV shading
Solar powered satellite
Overhead PV system Solar car