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1. CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory): Speed is much slower than hard disks.

. The original CD-ROM speciation is given a value of 1x speed, and later, faster CD-ROMs are quoted as a multiple of this value. Transfer rate are 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 10x, 12x, 20x, 32x, 36x, 40x, 48x, 52x, 56x, 72x. Capacity is around 650-900 Mbytes. 2. DVD-ROM (Digital Video Disk Read Only Memory): Speed is much faster than CD-ROM drives but not as fast as hard disks. Transfer rates are 1,2,2.4,2.6,4,6,8,10,12,16,18,20,22,24. Capacity is from 4.7-17 GBytes.

3. Hard Disk: (IDE, PATA), (SATA, SCIS) SSD are types of HDD. IDE interface does not support hot plugging (add/remove component while the computer is running) on the other hand SATA interface supports hot plugging. Speed of IDE data transfers at the rate of up to 133Mb/sec and SATA data transfers at the rate of 150Mb/sec to 6Gbits/sec 3 and 4 GB Internal HDD are available now. Common sizes of External HDD are 160GB, 250GB, 320GB, 500GB, 640GB, 750GB, 1TB, and 2TB.
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4. Motherboard: The motherboard serves to connect all of the parts of a computer together. The CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound and other ports and expansion cards all connect to the motherboard directly or via cables. The motherboard can be thought of as the "back bone" of the computer. There are primarily two types of motherboards, AT motherboard, and ATX motherboard . AT motherboards are older and not commonly used now days. The AT and ATX motherboards differ in the form factor. Popular Motherboard Manufacturers: ASUS, Gigabyte, Intel, AOpen, ABIT, MSI, Bios tar

CPU (Central Processing Unit):

It is also known as the microprocessor or the processor. It is the brain of the computer, and it is responsible for fetching, decoding and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations. Intel and AMD are top two manufacturer of Processor.

CPU Clock:

Also called clock rate, the speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes all the various computer components. The CPU requires a fixed number of clock ticks (or clock cycles) to execute each instruction. The faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). Main Memory / Random Access Memory (RAM):

Random access memory or RAM most commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data when you are working with your computer to enhance the computer performance. In other words, it is the working place of your computer where active programs and data are loaded so that any time the processor requires them, it doesn't have to fetch them from the hard disk which will take a longer access time. Random access memory is volatile memory, meaning it loses its contents once power is turned off. This is different from non-volatile memory such as hard disks and flash memory, which do not require a power source to retain data. When a computer shuts down properly, all data located in random access memory is returned back to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive. At the next boot-up, RAM begins to fill with programs automatically loaded at startup, and with files opened by the user a process called booting.
BIOS- Basic Input Output System:

BIOS are a term that stands for basic input/output system, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the term BIOS by another name device drivers, or just drivers. In other words, the BIOS is drivers, meaning all of them. BIOS are essentially the link between hardware and software in a system.

All motherboards include a small block of Read Only Memory (ROM) which is separate from the main system memory used for loading and running software. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions. The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard used by the computer during the startup routine (boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware. The BIOS is stored on a ROM chip because ROM retains information even when no power is being supplied to the computer.

CMOS-Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor:

Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PCs power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on. CMOS devices require very little power to operate. The CMOS RAM is used to store basic Information about the PCs configuration e.g. Floppy disk and hard disk drive types CPU RAM size Date and time Serial and parallel port information Plug and Play information Power Saving settings The Other Important data kept in CMOS memory is the time and date, which is updated by a Real Time Clock (RTC).


A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from key components of a PC. This includes the CPU itself, the main memory, the secondary cache and any devices situated on the buses. The chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks, and other devices connected to the IDE channels. A computer has got two main chipsets:The Northbridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is way it is located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the GMCH, for Graphic and Memory Controller Hub. The Southbridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between peripheral devices. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub). The Tem Bridge is generally used to designate a component which connects two buses. Chipset manufacturers include SIS, VIA, ALI, OPTI e.t.c.
Cache Memory Expansion Buses Switches and Jumpers Base Unit or The System Unit


ROM Graphic Card Sound Card Power supply box

Highest Capacity for floppy disk was 200MB.