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ECE636 B2

Dynamics and Control of Voltage Source Converters (VSCs)

Winter 2013

Instructor:

Dr. Yasser Mohamed Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept. University of Alberta Office W2-014 ECERF email: yasser2@ualberta.ca

1. Electronic Power Processing

Outline

Overview of Electronic Power Processing

Power Electronic Switches

Classification of Power Converters

Basic Configurations and Switching Strategies in VSCs

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3

Power Electronics Switches

Power Electronics Switches Semi-controllable Switch Thyristor On state is controlled; off state is controlled by the
 

Semi-controllable

 

Switch

Thyristor

On state is controlled; off state is controlled by the power circuit.

 
 

Uncontrollable

Switch

Diode

On/OFF states are

controlled

by the power circuit.

Controlled Switches

1- Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO)

2- Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT)

3- Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) 4- Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET)

Power Electronics Switches Semi-controllable Switch Thyristor On state is controlled; off state is controlled by the

In ON state, the switch conducts current in one direction only (unidirectional switch). In OFF state, the switch blocks only positive voltages (unipolar) or both positive and negative voltages (bipolar), depending on the switch type.

Uncontrollable Switch : Diode

Uncontrollable Switch : Diode 3 kV, 3 kA Fast recovery diode Diode is a 2-terminal pn-junction

3 kV, 3 kA Fast recovery diode

Uncontrollable Switch : Diode 3 kV, 3 kA Fast recovery diode Diode is a 2-terminal pn-junction

Diode is a 2-terminal pn-junction device. Diode conducts when forward biased, i.e., when VAK>VF. forward voltage drop.

VF1 to 4 V and is called

When reverse biased, diode conducts a very small leakage current in reverse direction.

If the reverse bias voltage exceeds reverse breakdown voltage, the device breaks down and conducts dangerously high reverse currents. This situation has to be

avoided.

On and OFF states of diode are controlled by the power circuit, not a control signal. That is why it is completely uncontrollable switch.

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Semi-controllable Switch : Thyristor (Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR))

4 kV, 3 kA
4 kV, 3 kA
  • ON state of thyristor is controlled by a control signal, but its OFF state is controlled by the power circuit; that’s why it is semi-controllable.

  • When in OFF state, thyristor can block forward positive voltages (forward blocking voltage) below forward breakdown voltage and reverse voltages below reverse breakdown voltage. That’s why it is a bipolar unidirectional switch. Thyristor can be turned on by applying a positive gate current pulse when the device is f forward biased. To assume ON state, thyristor current must reach a certain level called latching current. To turn the thyristor off, its current has to brought below a certain level called holding current and a negative voltage has to be maintained across its terminals for longer than a specified period of time.

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Controllable Switch : Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO)

Controllable Switch : Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO) ♦ When forward biased, GTO can be turned on by

When forward biased, GTO can be turned on by injecting a positive current pulse of specified amplitude into the gate. When ON, the switch can be turned off by withdrawing a current pulse of specified magnitude from the gate. GTO is a Current Controlled Switch. A high negative gate current pulse of up to 1/3 of the anode current is required to turn off the GTO. This implies large power consumption in the gate drive circuit (high losses in the drive circuit). GTO is capable of withstanding reverse voltages (bipolar unidirectional switch). Typical GTO ratings are 6 kV, 6 kA, at switching frequency 500 Hz, and Von= 2-3 V. Very popular in 80’s and 90’s; now it is almost obsolete due to IGBT and IGCT!

Controllable Switch : Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT)

Controllable Switch : Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT) ♦ IGCT is a newer semiconductor device (introduced in
Controllable Switch : Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT) ♦ IGCT is a newer semiconductor device (introduced in

IGCT is a newer semiconductor device (introduced in 1997) in the thyristor family that is replacing GTO in high power applications due to its superior characteristics. IGCT is a Voltage Controlled Switch. This implies very small power consumption in the gate drive circuit. IGCT has reverse voltage blocking capability (suitable for current-source inverters). IGCT is superior to GTO in that IGCT can operate without dv/dt snubbing at high current density, thanks to its improved switching characteristics. IGCT has low ON-state and turn-off losses as a result of minimized Silicon thickness. IGCT has low gate drive requirements especially during conduction. IGCT has low ON-state voltage drop. Typical IGCT ratings are 3 kA, 4.5kV, 500-2000 Hz, Von= 2.4 V, maximum turn-on di/dt= 3000 A/μs, and maximum turn-off dv/dt= 4000 v/μs.

Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) ♦ When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on
Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) ♦ When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on
Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) ♦ When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on
Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) ♦ When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on
Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) ♦ When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on
Controllable Switch : Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) ♦ When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on

When forward biased, IGBT can be turned on by applying a positive voltage of specified value between the gate and source or emitter. The gate voltage has to be maintained for as long as the switch is to be ON. When ON, the switch can be turned off by applying a negative voltage of specified value between the gate and source or emitter. The gate voltage has to be maintained for as long as the switch is to be OFF. Note that only at the turn-on and turn-off, a current pulse will be input to or withdrawn from the gate. The gate current during ON and OFF states is practically equal to zero. IGBT is a Voltage Controlled Switch. This implies very small power consumption in the gate drive circuit. IGBT combines the advantages of MOSFET (low power consumption at the gate), low ON-state voltage drop, and GTO (reverse voltage blocking capability). IGBT’s reverse voltages blocking capability is lower than that of positive voltage blocking. New generation IGBTs called Non-Punch-Through (NPT IGBTs) are capable of blocking higher reverse voltages, but are slower in switching. IGBT ratings can reach 3300 V, 1200 A, and switching times as low as 1 μs with switching frequency up

to 2 kHz for high power applications (Silicon IGBT).

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Controllable Switch : Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET)

Controllable Switch : Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) ♦ When forward biased, MOSFET can be turned on
Controllable Switch : Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) ♦ When forward biased, MOSFET can be turned on

When forward biased, MOSFET can be turned on by applying a positive voltage of specified value between gate and source. The gate voltage has to be maintained for as long as the switch is to be ON. When ON, the switch can be turned off by applying a negative voltage of specified value between gate and source. The gate voltage has to be maintained for as long as the switch is to be OFF. MOSFET is a Voltage Controlled Switch. This implies very small power consumption in the gate drive circuit. MOSFET is NOT capable of withstanding reverse voltages (Unipolar unidirectional switch). MOSFET is a Positive Temperature Coefficient device. In other words, as the device temperature rises, its ON-state resistance Ron rises as well. Typical MOSFET ratings are from 100 A and small voltage to 1000 V and small current. Switching frequency of MOSFETs can reach as high as 1 MHz for small power ratings.

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches ♦ The figure shows a typical situation for a controllable switch

The figure shows a typical situation for a controllable switch in a power electronic converter. Vd is the dc source voltage and Io represents the inductive load current. When the switch in ON, the dc voltage source supplies power to the load through the switch. When the switch is OFF, the diode freewheels the load current, as the inductive load current cannot be interrupted. Note that the interruption of an inductive current can cause dangerously high Ldi/dt voltages, unless an alternate path for the flow of current is provided to avoid this situation.

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches 12

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches

The energy loss during turn-on and turn-off processes in the switch is

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches The energy loss during turn-on and turn-off processes in the switch

The energy loss during the on-state is

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches The energy loss during turn-on and turn-off processes in the switch

The switching power losses (averaged over one switching period Ts) will be

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches The energy loss during turn-on and turn-off processes in the switch

The conduction power loss (averaged over one switching period) will be

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches The energy loss during turn-on and turn-off processes in the switch

where fs is switching frequency, Von is the on- state voltage of the switch, and d is switch duty ratio.

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches The energy loss during turn-on and turn-off processes in the switch

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches Switching waveforms of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET (Cree) at 225

Switching waveforms of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET (Cree) at 225C.

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches Switching waveforms of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET (Cree) at 225

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches

1.5 MW Full scale wind turbine

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches 1.5 MW Full scale wind turbine Several MOSFETs are used to

Several MOSFETs are used to meet the current rating of 1.5 MW wind turbine.

@ 3 kHz switching frequency, rated power

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches 1.5 MW Full scale wind turbine Several MOSFETs are used to

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches

1.5 MW Full scale wind turbine

Several MOSFETs are used to meet the current rating of 1.5 MW wind turbine.

Switching Losses in Controlled Switches 1.5 MW Full scale wind turbine Several MOSFETs are used to

Future trend

  • SiC IGBT and IGCT will dominate medium and high power applications.

  • Higher switching frequencies with low switching losses will be feasible.

  • Higher switching frequencies will yield higher power quality, smaller filter size, lower cost, and more importantly higher dynamic capabilities.

  • Many topologies proposed for high power converters under limited switching frequencies will be obsolete. VSCs will be commonly used even in high power applications.

kW

kW
 

2

cm

700

400

 

225° 15 kV SiC IGBT

 

150

125° 15 kV SiC IGBT

Si
Si
 
Si

1

5

10

kHz

How to give a unidirectional switch a reverse

conduction capability?

How to give a unidirectional switch a reverse conduction capability? ♦ In ON state, the switch
How to give a unidirectional switch a reverse conduction capability? ♦ In ON state, the switch

In ON state, the switch conducts current in one direction only (unidirectional switch).

(a) Generic schematic diagram of a switch cell. (b)

Symbolic representations

of a switch cell.

In OFF state, the switch blocks only positive

voltages

(unipolar)

or

both

positive and

negative voltages (bipolar), depending on the

switch type.

  • If the switch is reverse biased by a few volts, the diode conducts and provides a path for the reverse current.

  • VSCs require switching cells to provide two-way power flow medium.

According to Commutation (the process of current transfer from outgoing switch

(switch turned of) to incoming switch (switch turned on)

line-commutated (or naturally-commutated converter): The commutation process depends on the AC voltage polarity

According to Commutation (the process of current transfer from outgoing switch (switch turned of) to incoming
According to Commutation (the process of current transfer from outgoing switch (switch turned of) to incoming

- 6-pulse line-commutated converter, widely

used in conventional HVDC transmission

systems.

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According to Commutation (the process of current transfer from outgoing switch

(switch turned of) to incoming switch (switch turned on)

Forced-commutated (or self-commutated converter) Gate-Turn Off Switches control the current transfer process

According to Commutation (the process of current transfer from outgoing switch (switch turned of) to incoming
According to Commutation (the process of current transfer from outgoing switch (switch turned of) to incoming

full-bridge, single-phase, two-level VSC

three-wire, three-phase, two-level VSC

three-phase current-source converter

According to DC-Source Characteristics

Three-phase voltage-source converter

+ Vd _
+
Vd
_

Three-phase current-source converter

According to DC-Source Characteristics Three-phase voltage-source converter + Vd _ Three-phase current-source converter I d Three-phase

Id

Three-phase impedance-source (Z-source) converter

According to DC-Source Characteristics

Three-phase voltage-source converter

- AC voltage is less than dc voltage

Buck (step-down) dc/ac converter (buck inverter) Or Boost (step-up) ac/dc converter (boost rectifier)

+

Vd

_

  • - Low number of passive components (low losses)

  • - Switching cells are used. IGBTs offer fast switching, low losses and high ratings. SiC IGBTs will remarkably extend the range power ratings and switching frequencies

According to DC-Source Characteristics Three-phase voltage-source converter - AC voltage is less than dc voltage 

Output voltage and load current in a 3-ph VSC

  • - DC-link voltage has fixed polarity. Film-type DC capacitors offer high density, smaller size, and higher reliability.

-AC voltage is pulsed. Reflecting waves can be yielde with long cables between the converter the load (e.g motor)

  • - Dominating in broad band of applications (up to

HVDC light) with increasing capacity.

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According to DC-Source Characteristics

- Three-phase VSC motor drive with long cable. Unmatched impedance causes high voltage reflected wave that can damage winding insulation.

- Even in short cables, this can be a problem

when the frequency of oscillation matches internal high frequency resonant modes in the motor.

Pulse at the motor

Pulse at the inverter
Pulse at the
inverter

Typical line-to-ground voltage oscillation in a PWM-based induction motor drive with 40m cable due to the reflected-wave phenomenon.

One solution to this problem is use matching and damping filter (e.g. RLC filter)

According to DC-Source Characteristics - Three-phase VSC motor drive with long cable. Unmatched impedance causes high

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According to DC-Source Characteristics

Three-phase current-source converter

Id
Id

- AC voltage is greater than dc voltage Buck (step-down) ac/dc converter (buck rectifier) Or Boost (step-up) dc/ac converter (boost inverter)

  • - Bulky dc-inductor is usually needed (high losses)

  • - Switching cells can’t be used. Switches should offer

unidirectional current flow and bipolar voltage blocking. Although bipolar versions of the GTO and the IGCT are commercially available, they are

limited in terms of switching speed and are mainly

tailored for very high-power electronic converters.

  • - DC-link current has fixed polarity.

  • - AC voltage is sinusoidal. This is a good feature for

large motors with long cables (e.g. submerged ac

motors).

  • - Less frequently used in the industry.

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According to Source Characteristics

Three-phase impedance-source (Z-source) converter

-The impedance network at the input gives the converter a buck-boost nature in both

rectifier and inverter modes.

-Higher utilization of passive components increases the losses.

-Not highly accepted in the industry due to

higher losses

Basic Configurations

Single Phase Half-bridge 2-level VSC

Single Phase Full-bridge 2-level VSC

3-Phase Full-Bridge 2- Level VSC

Multi-module VSCs

Multi-level VSCs

Switching Strategies

Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM)

Square-Wave VSCs

Selective harmonic Elimination

Voltage Cancellation (for single phase VSCs)

Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

(SVPWM)

Sinusoidal PWM with 3rd-Harmonic Injection

- Mohan, Undeland and Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.

-Yazdani and R. Iravani, Voltage-sourced converters in power systems, Modeling, Control, and Applications, John Willy, 2010.

- Hui Zhang, and Leon M. Tolbert, Efficiency impact of silicon carbide power electronics for modern wind turbine full scale frequency converter,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 21-28, 2011.

- F. Peng, “Z-Source inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol. 39, no., 2, pp. 504 510, 2003.