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Averroes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ab l-Wald Muammad bin Amad bin Rud (Arabic: ) , commonly known as Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ) or by his Latinized name Averros (pron.: /vro.iz/; April 14, 1126 December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian Muslim polymath, a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics and Arabic music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics. Averroes was born in Crdoba, Al Andalus, present-day Spain, and died in Marrakesh, present-day Morocco, but his body was transferred to his family tomb at Crdoba.[5] The 13th-century philosophical movement based on Averroes' work is called Averroism. Averroes was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash'ari theologians led by Al-Ghazali. Averroes' philosophy was considered controversial in Muslim circles.[6] Averroes had a greater impact on Western European circles and he has been described as the "founding father of secular thought in Western Europe".[6][7][8] The detailed commentaries on Aristotle earned Averroes the title "The Commentator". Latin translations of Averroes' work led the way to the popularization of Aristotle and were responsible for the development of scholasticism in medieval Europe.[9]

Ibn Rud ()
Averroes

Statue of Averroes in Crdoba, Spain Born April 14, 1126 Crdoba, Al-Andalus, Almoravid Caliphate (present-day Spain)[1][2][3] Died December 10, 1198 (aged 72) Marrakesh, Morocco, Almohad Caliphate Era Region Religion School Medieval philosophy (Islamic Golden Age) Islamic philosophy Islam (Maliki Sunni) Averroism

Contents
1 Name 2 Biography 3 Works 4 Science 4.1 Medicine 4.2 Physics 4.3 Astronomy 4.4 Psychology 5 Philosophy 5.1 The Tradition of Islamic Philosophy 5.2 Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato 5.3 Independent philosophical works 5.4 System of philosophy 6 Significance 7 Jurisprudence and law

Main interests Islamic theology, Philosophy, Mathematics, Medicine, Physics, Astronomy Notable ideas Reconciliation of Aristotelianism with Islam Influenced by Influenced

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8 Cultural influences 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Name
Averroes' name is also seen as "Averros", "Averros" or "Averrhos", indicating that the "o" and the "e" form separate syllables. "Averros" is a Latinisation of the Arabic name Ibn Rushd.[10] According to Ernest Renan, Averroes was also known as Ibin-Ros-din, Filius Rosadis, Ibn-Rusid, Ben-Raxid, Ibn-Ruschod, Den-Resched, Aben-Rassad, Aben-Rois, Aben-Rasd, Aben-Rust, Avenrosdy Avenryz, Adveroys, Benroist, Avenroyth and Averroysta.[11]

Biography
Averroes was born in Crdoba to a family with a long and well-respected tradition of legal and public service. His grandfather Abu Al-Walid Muhammad (d. 1126) was chief judge of Crdoba under the Almoravids. His father, Abu Al-Qasim Ahmad, held the same position until the Almoravids were replaced by the Almohads in 1146.[12] Averroes' education followed a traditional path, beginning with studies in Hadith, linguistics, jurisprudence and scholastic theology. Throughout his life he wrote extensively on Philosophy and Religion, attributes of God, origin of the universe, Metaphysics and Averroes was the preeminent philosopher Psychology. It is generally believed that he was perhaps once tutored in the history of Al-Andalus. by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace). His medical education was directed [13] under Abu Jafar ibn Harun of Trujillo in Seville. Averroes began his career with the help of Ibn Tufail ("Aben Tofail" to the West), the author of Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and philosophic vizier of Almohad king Abu Yaqub Yusuf who was an amateur of philosophy and science. It was Ibn Tufail who introduced him to the court and to Ibn Zuhr ("Avenzoar" to the West), the great Muslim physician, who became Averroes's teacher and friend. Averroes's aptitude for medicine was noted by his contemporaries and can be seen in his major enduring work Kitab al-Kulyat fi al-Tibb (Generalities) the work was influenced by the Kitab al-Taisir fi al-Mudawat wa al-Tadbir (Particularities) of Ibn Zuhr.[14] Averroes later reported how it was also Ibn Tufail that inspired him to write his famous commentaries on Aristotle: Abu Bakr ibn Tufayl summoned me one day and told me that he had heard the Commander of the Faithful complaining about the disjointedness of Aristotle's mode of expression or that of the translators and the resultant obscurity of his intentions. He said that if someone took on these books who could summarize them and clarify their aims after first thoroughly understanding them himself, people would have an easier time comprehending them. "If you have the energy, " Ibn Tufayl told me, "you do it. I'm confident you can, because I know what a good mind and devoted character you have, and how dedicated you are to the art. You understand that only my great age, the cares of my office and my commitment to another task that I think even more vital keep
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me from doing it myself. " [15] Averroes also studied the works and philosophy of Ibn Bajjah ("Avempace" to the West), another famous Islamic philosopher who greatly influenced his own Averroist thought. However, while the thought of his mentors Ibn Tufail and Ibn Bajjah were mystic to an extent, the thought of Averroes was purely rationalist. Together, the three men are considered the greatest Andalusian philosophers.[12] Averroes devoted the next 30 years to his philosophical writings. In 1160, Averroes was made Qadi (judge) of Seville and he served in many court appointments in Seville, Cordoba, and Morocco during his career. Sometimes during the reign of Yaqub al-Mansur, Averroes' political career was abruptly ended and he faced severe criticism from the Fuqaha (Islamic jurists) of the time.[16] A contemporary of Averroes, Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi writing in 1224, reported that there were secret and public reasons for his falling out of favor with Yaqub al-Mansour:[16] And in his days [Yaqub al-Mansur], Abu al-Walid Ibn Rushd faced his severe ordeal and there were two causes for this; one is known and the other is secret. The secret cause, which was the major reason, is that Abu al-Walid [Averroes] may God have mercy on his soul when summarizing, commenting and expending upon Aristotle's book "History of Animals" wrote: "And I saw the Giraffe at the garden of the king of the Berbers". And that is the same way he would mention another king of some other people or land, as it is frequently done by writers, but he omitted that those working for the service of the king should glorify him and observe the usual protocol. This was why they held a grudge against him [Averroes] but initially, they did not show it and in reality, Abu al-Walid wrote that inadvertently...Then a number of his enemies in Cordoba, who were jealous of him and were competing with him both in knowledge and nobility, went to Yaqub al-Mansur with excerpts of Abu Walid's work on some old philosophers which were in his own handwriting. They took one phrase out of context that said: "and it was shown that Venus is one of the Gods" and presented it to the king who then summoned the chiefs and noblemen of Crdoba and said to Abu al-Walid in front of them "Is this your handwriting?". Abu al-Walid then denied and the king said "May God curse the one who wrote this" and ordered that Abu al-Walid be exiled and all the philosophy books to be gathered and burned...And I saw, when I was in Fes, these books being carried on horses in great quantities and burned[16] Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi, "The Pleasant Book in Summarizing the History of the Maghreb", (1224) Averroes's strictly rationalist views collided with the more orthodox views of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur, who therefore eventually banished Averroes, though he had previously appointed him as his personal physician. Averroes was not reinstated until shortly before his death in the year 1198 AD.

Works
See also: List of works by Averroes Averroes's works were spread over 20,000 pages covering a variety of different subjects, including early Islamic philosophy, logic in Islamic philosophy, Arabic medicine, Arabic mathematics, Arabic astronomy, Arabic grammar, Islamic theology, Sharia (Islamic law), and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). In particular, his most important works dealt with Islamic philosophy, medicine and Fiqh. He wrote at least 67 original works, which included 28 works on philosophy, 20 on medicine, 8 on law, 5 on theology, and 4 on grammar, in addition to his

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commentaries on most of Aristotle's works and his commentary on Plato's The Republic.[12] He wrote commentaries on most of the surviving works of Aristotle working from Arabic translations. There were three levels of commentary: 1. the Jami, 2. the Talkhis and 3. the Tafsir

which are, respectively, a simplified overview, an intermediate Liber de herbis, 14th century.[17] commentary with more critical material, and an advanced study of Aristotelian thought in a Muslim context. The terms are taken from the names of different types of commentary on the Qur'an. It is not known whether he wrote commentaries of all three types on all the works: in most cases only one or two commentaries survive. He did not have access to any text of Aristotle's Politics. As a substitute for this, he commented on Plato's The Republic, arguing that the ideal state there described was the same as the original constitution of the Arab Caliphate,[12] as well as the Almohad state of Ibn Tumart. His most important original philosophical work was The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-tahafut), in which he defended Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifa). Al-Ghazali argued that Aristotelianism, especially as presented in the writings of Avicenna, was self-contradictory and an affront to the teachings of Islam. Averroes' rebuttal was two-pronged: he contended both that al-Ghazali's arguments were mistaken and that, in any case, the system of Avicenna was a distortion of genuine Aristotelianism so that al-Ghazali was aiming at the wrong target. Other works were the Fasl al-Maqal, which argued for the legality of philosophical investigation under Islamic law, and the Kitab al-Kashf , which argued against the proofs of Islam advanced by the Ash'arite school and discussed what proofs, on the popular level, should be used instead. Averroes is also a highly regarded legal scholar of the Maliki school. Perhaps his best-known work in this field is Bidyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihyat al-Muqtaid ( ) , a textbook of Maliki doctrine in a comparative framework. Jacob Anatoli translated several of the works of Averroes from Arabic into Hebrew in the 13th century. Many of them were later translated from Hebrew into Latin by Jacob Mantino and Abraham de Balmes. Other works were translated directly from Arabic into Latin by Michael Scot. Many of his works in logic and metaphysics have been permanently lost, while others, including some of the longer Aristotelian commentaries, have only survived in Latin or Hebrew translation, not in the original Arabic. The fullest version of his works is in Latin, and forms part of the multi-volume Juntine edition of Aristotle published in Venice 1562-1574.

Imaginary debate between Averroes and Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali

Science
Medicine
Averroes wrote a medical encyclopedia called Kulliyat ("Generalities", i. e. general medicine), known in its Latin translation as Colliget. He also made a compilation of the works of Galen, and wrote a commentary on the Canon of Medicine (Qanun fi 't-tibb) of Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037).

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Physics
Averroes also authored three books on physics namely: Short Commentary on the Physics, Middle Commentary on the Physics and Long Commentary on the Physics. Averroes defined and measured force as "the rate at which work is done in changing the kinetic condition of a material body" and correctly argued "that the effect and measure of force is change in the kinetic condition of a materially resistant mass". He took a particular and keen interest in the understanding of "motor force".[18][19] Averroes also developed the notion that bodies have a (non-gravitational) inherent resistance to motion into physics. This idea in particular was adopted by Thomas Aquinas and subsequently by Johannes Kepler, who referred to this fact as "Inertia".[20][21] In Optics Averroes followed Alhazen's incorrect explanation that a Rainbow is due to reflection, not refraction.[22]

Astronomy
Regarding his studies in astronomy, Averroes argued for a strictly concentric model of the universe, and explained sunspots and scientific reasoning regarding the occasional opaque colors of the moon. He also worked on the description of the spheres, and movement of the spheres.[23]

Psychology
Averroes also made some studies regarding Active intellect and Passive intellect, both of the following were formerly regarded subjects of Psychology.[6][24][25]

Philosophy
The Tradition of Islamic Philosophy
Averroes furthered the tradition of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world (falsafa). His commentaries removed the neo-Platonic bias of his predecessors.[2] Criticizing al-Farabi's attempt to merge Plato and Aristotle's ideas, Averroes argued that Aristotle's philosophy diverged in significant ways from Plato's.[26] Averroes rejected Avicenna's Neoplatonism[27] which was partly based on the works of neo-Platonic philosophers, Plotinus and Proclus, that were mistakenly attributed to Aristotle.[28] In metaphysics, or more exactly ontology, Averroes rejects the view advanced by Avicenna that existence is merely accidental. Avicenna holds that "essence is ontologically prior to existence". The accidental, i. e. attributes that are not essential, are additional contingent characteristics. Averroes, following Aristotle, holds that individual existing substances are primary. One may separate them mentally; however, ontologically speaking, existence and essence are one.[29][30][31] According to Fakhry,[32] this represents a change from Plato's theory of Ideas, where ideas precede particulars, to Aristotle's theory where particulars come first and the essence is "arrived at by a process of abstraction. "

Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato


Averroes wrote commentaries on most of the surviving works of Aristotle working from Arabic translations. He

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wrote three types of commentaries. The short commentary (jami) is generally an epitome; the middle commentary (talkhis) is a paraphrase; the long commentary (tafsir ) includes the whole text with a detailed analysis of each line.[33] Unlike the European scholars who came after him, Averroes argued that rhetoric and poetics were both part of Aristotle's work on logical thought.[citation needed] Averroes, not having access to Aristotle's Politics, substituted Plato's Republic. Averroes, following Plato's paternalistic model, advances an authoritarian ideal. Absolute monarchy, led by a philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires extensive use of coercion.[34] Although, persuasion is preferred and is possible if the young are properly raised.[35] Averroes, following Plato, accepts the principle of women's equality. They should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers.[36][37] He also accepts Plato's illiberal measures such as the censorship of literature. He uses examples from Arab history to illustrate just and degenerate political orders.[38]

Commentarium magnum Averrois in Aristotelis De Anima libros. French Manuscript, third quarter of the 13th century.

Independent philosophical works


His most important original philosophical work was The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-tahafut), in which he defended Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifa). Al-Ghazali argued that Aristotelianism, especially as presented in the writings of Avicenna, was self-contradictory and an affront to the teachings of Islam. Averroes' rebuttal was two-pronged: he contended both that al-Ghazali's arguments were mistaken and that, in any case, the system of Avicenna was a distortion of genuine Aristotelianism so that al-Ghazali was aiming at the wrong target. Other works were the Fasl al-Maqal, which argued for the legality of philosophical investigation under Islamic law, and the Kitab al-Kashf . Jacob Anatoli translated his works from Arabic to Hebrew in the 13th century. Many of them were later translated from Hebrew to Latin by Jacob Mantino and others. Other works were translated directly from Arabic to Latin by Michael Scot. Many of his works in logic and metaphysics have been permanently lost, while others, including some of the longer Aristotelian commentaries, have only survived in Latin or Hebrew translation, not in the original Arabic. The fullest version of his works is in Latin, and forms part of the multi-volume Juntine edition of Aristotle published in Venice 1562-1574.

System of philosophy
Main article: Averroism Averroes tried to reconcile Aristotle's system of thought with Islam. According to him, there is no conflict between religion and philosophy, rather that they are different ways of reaching the same truth. He believed in the eternity of the universe. He also held that the soul is divided into two parts, one individual and one divine; while the individual soul is not eternal, all humans at the basic level share one and the same divine soul. Averroes has two kinds of Knowledge of Truth. The first being his knowledge of truth of religion being based in faith and thus could not be tested, nor did it require training to understand. The second knowledge of truth is

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philosophy, which was reserved for an elite few who had the intellectual capacity to undertake its study.

Significance
Averroes is most famous for his commentaries of Aristotle's works, which had been mostly forgotten in the West. Before 1150, only a few of Aristotle's works existed in translation in Latin Europe (i. e. excluding Greek Byzantium). It was in large part through the Latin translations of Averroes's work beginning in the 12th century that the legacy of Aristotle was recovered in the Latin West. Averroes's work on Aristotle spans almost three decades, and he wrote commentaries on almost all of Aristotle's work except for Aristotle's Politics, to which he did not have access. Hebrew translations of his work also had a lasting impact on Jewish philosophy. Moses Maimonides, Samuel Ben Tibbon, Juda Ben Solomon Choen, and Shem Tob Ben Joseph Falaquera were Jewish philosophers influenced by Averroes.[39] His ideas Averroes, detail of the fresco The were assimilated by Siger of Brabant and Thomas Aquinas and others School of Athens by Raphael. (especially in the University of Paris) within the Christian scholastic tradition which valued Aristotelian logic. Famous scholastics such as Aquinas believed him to be so important they did not refer to him by name, simply calling him "The Commentator" and calling Aristotle "The Philosopher. " Averroes had no discernible influence on Islamic philosophic thought until modern times.[40] His death coincides with a change in the culture of Al-Andalus. In his work Fasl al-Maql (translated a. o. as The Decisive Treatise), he stresses the importance of analytical thinking as a prerequisite to interpret the Qur'an.

Jurisprudence and law


Averroes is also a highly regarded legal scholar of the Maliki school. Perhaps his best-known work in this field is "Bidyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihyat al-Muqtaid, " a textbook of Maliki doctrine in a comparative framework, which is renderd in English as The Distinguished Jurist's Primer[41]. He is also the author of "al-Bayn wa'l-Tal, wa'l-Shar wa'l-Tawjh wa'l-Ta`ll fi Mas'il al-Mustakhraja, " a long and detailed commentary based on the "Mustakhraja" of Muammad al-`Utb al-Qurtub.

Cultural influences
Reflecting the deference that some medieval European scholars paid to him, Averroes is named by Dante in The Divine Comedy along with the thinkers and creative minds of ancient Greece and Rome whose spirits dwell in "the place that favor owes to fame" in Limbo. Averroes appears in a short story by Jorge Luis Borges, entitled "Averroes's Search", in which he is portrayed trying to find the meanings of the words tragedy and comedy. He is briefly mentioned in the novel Ulysses by James Joyce alongside Maimonides. He appears to be waiting outside the walls of the ancient city of Cordoba in Alamgir Hashmi's poem In Cordoba. He is also the main character in Destiny, a Youssef Chahine film. The claim that Averroes deserves equal respect with Maimonides got the fictional Balthazar Abrabanel banished from Amsterdam by the Amsterdam rabbinate in Eric Flint's novel 1634. Averroes is also the title of a play called "The Gladius and The Rose", written by Tunisian writer Mohamed Ghozzi, and which had the first price in the theater festival in Charjah in 1999.

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The asteroid 8318 Averroes was named in his honor. Plant genus Averrhoa was named after him. The Muslim pop musician Kareem Salama composed and performed a song in 2007 titled Aristotle and Averroes. Averroes is the subject of the film Al Massir by Youssef Chahine.

See also
Averroism Al-Andalus List of Arab scientists and scholars List of Islamic studies scholars

References
1. ^ Liz Sonneborn: Averroes (Ibn Rushd): Muslim scholar, philosopher, and physician of the twelfth century, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2005 (ISBN 1404205144, ISBN 978-1-4042-0514-7) p.31 [1] (http://books.google.fr/books?hl=en& lr=&id=iIjayOIulPcC&oi=fnd&pg=PA6& dq=almoravid+empire&ots=VcSooWeLJk& sig=ZGoSsYzemRX4QOGriYn3xNzUKmI& redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=almoravid%20empire& f=false) 2. ^ a b (Leaman 2002, p. 27) 3. ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 1) 4. ^ "H-Net Reviews" (http://www.h-net.org/reviews /showrev.cgi?path=227091077594594) . H-net.org. http://www.h-net.org/reviews /showrev.cgi?path=227091077594594. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 5. ^ Duignan, Brian (2010). Medieval Philosophy: From 500 to 1500 Ce (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=p9eh18dRTwAC) . The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 102. ISBN 1615302441. http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=p9eh18dRTwAC. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 6. ^ a b c "Averros (Ibn Rushd) > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy" (http://www.philosophybasics.com /philosophers_averroes.html) . Philosophybasics.com. http://www.philosophybasics.com /philosophers_averroes.html. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 7. ^ "John Carter Brown Library Exhibitions - Islamic encounters" (http://www.brown.edu/Facilities /John_Carter_Brown_Library/islam/pages /exchange.html) . http://www.brown.edu/Facilities /John_Carter_Brown_Library/islam/pages /exchange.html. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 8. ^ "Ahmed, K. S. "Arabic Medicine: Contributions and Influence". The Proceedings of the 17th Annual History of Medicine Days, March 7th and 8th, 2008 Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB." (http://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/47472 /1/2008_HMD_Ahmed.pdf) . http://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/47472 /1/2008_HMD_Ahmed.pdf. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 9. ^ Sonneborn, Liz (2006). Averroes (Ibn Rushd): Muslim Scholar, Philosopher, and Physician of the Twelfth Century (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=iIjayOIulPcC) . The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 89. ISBN 1404205144. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=iIjayOIulPcC. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 10. ^ Robert Irwin (2006). Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and its Discontents. The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-58567-835-8. 11. ^ Ernest Renan, Averros et l'Averrosme: essai historique (http://www.archive.org/details /averrosetlaver00rena) , 1882. 12. ^ a b c d Ahmad, Jamil (September 1994), "Averroes" (http://www.monthly-renaissance.com/issue /content.aspx?id=744) , Monthly Renaissance 4 (9), http://www.monthly-renaissance.com/issue /content.aspx?id=744, retrieved 2008-10-14 13. ^ H. Chad Hillier (2006). Averroes (Averroes) (1126 - 1198 CE) (http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm) , Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 14. ^ Bynum, WF & Bynum, Helen (2006), Dictionary of Medical Biography, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32877-3 15. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman (1996), History of Islamic Philosophy, p. 314, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-13159-6. 16. ^ a b c Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi, al-Mojib fi Talkhis Akhbar al-Maghrib [The Pleasant Book in

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Summarizing the History of the Maghreb], pp.150-151 (1224), King Saud University ^ "Inventions et decouvertes au Moyen-Age", Samuel Sadaune, p.112 ^ http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093 /acprof: oso/9780199567737.001.0001/acprof9780199567737 ^ IBN RUSHD: AVERROES PB - Urvoy - Google Books (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=498OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA46& lpg=PA46&dq=ibn+rushd+force&source=bl& ots=KOpxHYLx6A&sig=mdfAoCwvB0KHQ2IF0PUXIRzfnI&hl=en& ei=7oDfTtjADYPSsgafouWCCQ& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2& sqi=2&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=ibn%20rushd%20force&f=false) . Books.google.com.pk. 1991-04-25. http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=498OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA46& lpg=PA46&dq=ibn+rushd+force&source=bl& ots=KOpxHYLx6A&sig=mdfAoCwvB0KHQ2IF0PUXIRzfnI&hl=en& ei=7oDfTtjADYPSsgafouWCCQ& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2& sqi=2&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=ibn%20rushd%20force&f=false. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ^ Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science Rushd Rshid, Rgis Morelon - Google Books (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=dIWtmfwvItkC&pg=PA269& dq=ibn+rushd+inertia&hl=en& ei=c4HfTs2jCYj6sga3uNXQCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7& ved=0CE8Q6AEwBg#v=onepage& q=ibn%20rushd%20inertia&f=false) . Books.google.com.pk. http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=dIWtmfwvItkC&pg=PA269& dq=ibn+rushd+inertia&hl=en& ei=c4HfTs2jCYj6sga3uNXQCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7& ved=0CE8Q6AEwBg#v=onepage& q=ibn%20rushd%20inertia&f=false. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ^ Renaissance of Sciences in Islamic Countries Abdus Salam, H. R. Dalafi, Mohamed Hassan Google Books (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=KfoQmi4o4zcC&pg=PA31& dq=ibn+rushd+inertia&hl=en& ei=c4HfTs2jCYj6sga3uNXQCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9& ved=0CFsQ6AEwCA#v=onepage& q=ibn%20rushd%20inertia&f=false) . Books.google.com.pk. http://books.google.com.pk

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26. 27. 28.

29.

/books?id=KfoQmi4o4zcC&pg=PA31& dq=ibn+rushd+inertia&hl=en& ei=c4HfTs2jCYj6sga3uNXQCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9& ved=0CFsQ6AEwCA#v=onepage& q=ibn%20rushd%20inertia&f=false. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ^ Hseyin Gazi Topdemir, Kamal Al-Din Al-Farisi's Explanation of the Rainbow, [2] (http://www.idosi.org/hssj/hssj2(1)07/10.pdf) , Humanity & Social Sciences Journal 2 (1): 75-85, 2007,p77 ^ "Ibn Rushd (Averroes) [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]" (http://www.iep.utm.edu/ibnrushd/#H7) . Iep.utm.edu. 2010-01-05. http://www.iep.utm.edu /ibnrushd/#H7. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ^ The Legacy of Muslim Spain - Google Books (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=cbfORLWv1HkC&pg=PA826& dq=ibn+rushd+psychology&hl=en& ei=6YHfTvLQMMjwsgbNwqzbCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10& ved=0CFoQ6AEwCQ#v=snippet&q=psychology& f=false) . Books.google.com.pk. http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=cbfORLWv1HkC&pg=PA826& dq=ibn+rushd+psychology&hl=en& ei=6YHfTvLQMMjwsgbNwqzbCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10& ved=0CFoQ6AEwCQ#v=snippet&q=psychology& f=false. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ^ Ibn Rushd's Metaphysics: A Translation with Introduction of Ibn Rushd's ... - Averros - Google Books (http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=BqQfAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA49& dq=ibn+rushd+psychology&hl=en& ei=6YHfTvLQMMjwsgbNwqzbCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA) . Books.google.com.pk. 1986-12-31. http://books.google.com.pk /books?id=BqQfAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA49& dq=ibn+rushd+psychology&hl=en& ei=6YHfTvLQMMjwsgbNwqzbCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 6) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 7) ^ Popkin, Richard H., ed. (1999). The Columbia History of Western Philosophy. MJF Books. pp. 184185.. The works in question were the Liber de Causis and The Theology of Aristotle. ^ Hyman, Arthur, ed. (2010). Philosophy in the Middle Ages: The Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Traditions (3rd ed.). Hackett Publishing Co.. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-60384-208-2.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averroes

30. 31. 32. 33.

^ (Fakhry 2001, pp. 89) ^ (Leaman 2002, p. 35) ^ (Fakhry 2001, pp. 8) ^ McGinnis, Jon, ed. (2007). Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources. Hackett Pub Co Inc. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-87220-871-1. 34. ^ Black, Antony (2011). The History of Islamic Political Thought (2nd ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7486-3987-8.

35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 106) ^ (Averroes 2005, p. xix) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 110) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 114) ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 132) ^ (Leaman 2002, p. 28) ^ Nyazee, The Distinguished Jurist's Primer, 2 vols. (Reading: Garnet Publishing 1994 & 1996)

Further reading
Averroes, Translated by Ralph Lerner (2005), Averroes On Plato's Republic, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-8975-X Fakhry, Majid (2001), Averroes (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 1-85168-269-4 Glasner, Ruth. Averroes' Physics: A Turning Point in Medieval Natural Philosophy (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009). Kogan, Barry S. (1985), Averroes and the Metaphysics of Causation, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-88706-063-3 Leaman, Olivier (1998), Averroes and his philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-0675-5 Leaman, Olivier (2002), An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-79757-3 Baffioni, Carmela (2004), Averroes and the Aristotelian Heritage, Guida Editori, ISBN 88-7188-862-6 Sorabji, Richard Matter, Space and Motion Duckworth 1988 Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann, Sketch of a Cosmic Theory of the Soul from Aristotle to Averroes (http://www.buchhandlung-walther-koenig.de/cat/kwb_45_variantology_4 /pid_170000000000790428.aspx) , in: Variantology 4. On Deep Time Relations of Arts, Sciences and Technologies In the Arabic-Islamic World and Beyond, ed. by Siegfried Zielinski and Eckhard Frlus in cooperation with Daniel Irrgang and Franziska Latell (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther Knig, 2010), pp. 1942.

External links
Works of Averroes DARE (http://dare.uni-koeln.de) , the Digital Averroes Research Environment, an ongoing effort to collect digital images of all Averroes manuscripts and full texts of all three language traditions. Averroes (http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ir/index.html) , Islamic Philosophy Online (links to works by and about Averroes in several languages) php%3Ftitle=77&Itemid=28 The Philosophy and Theology of Averroes: Tractata translated from the Arabic (http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.) , trans. Mohammad Jamil-ur-Rehman, 1921 The Incoherence of the Incoherence (http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ir/tt/index.html) translation by Simon van den Bergh. [N. B. : This also contains a translation of most of the tahafut as the refutations are mostly commentary of al-Ghazali statements that were quoted verbatim.] SIEPM Virtual Library (http://capricorn.bc.edu/siepm/books.html#12) , including scanned copies (PDF) of the Editio Juntina of Averroes' works in Latin (Venice 1550-1562) Information about Averroes Forcada, Miquel (2007). "Ibn Rushd: Ab alWald Muammad ibn Amad ibn Muammad ibn Rushd
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averroes

alafd" (http://islamsci.mcgill.ca/RASI/BEA/Ibn_Rushd_BEA.htm) . In Thomas Hockey et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 5645. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. (PDF version (http://islamsci.mcgill.ca/RASI/BEA/Ibn_Rushd_BEA.pdf) ) Iskandar, Albert Z. (2008) [1970-80]. "Ibn Rushd, AbL-Wald Muammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muammad (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2830903792.html) ". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com. Fouad Ben Ahmed. "Ibn Rud: Knowledge, pleasures and analogy" (http://philosophy-e.com/ibnrusd-knowledge-pleasures-and-analogy/) , in: Philosophia: E-Journal of Philosophy and Culture, 4/2013. ISSN: 1314-5606 Averroes (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0038x79) on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now (http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/p0038x79/In_Our_Time_Averroes) ) Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Averroes". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. "Averroes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. Averroes Database (http://www.thomasinst.uni-koeln.de/averroes/) , including full bibliography of his works "Averroes" (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20061005.shtml) , BBC Radio 4 discussion, 5 October 2006, "In Our Time" programme. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Averroes&oldid=545866923" Categories: 1126 births 1198 deaths People from Crdoba, Andalusia 12th-century philosophers Al-Andalus Medieval Arab philosophers Sunni Muslim scholars Aristotelian philosophers Commentators on Aristotle Commentators on Plato Malikis Almoravid dynasty Medieval Arab astronomers Muslim philosophers Physicians of medieval Islam Deaths in Morocco Medieval physicists Psychologists This page was last modified on 21 March 2013 at 03:31. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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