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Chapter 6 Listening is most-used communication skill 70% of wwaking time spent in communication Listening, talking, reading, writing, other

waking time activities from most used to least Listening = physical and psychological process that involves acquiring, assigning meaning, and responding to symbolic messages from others Misconceptions about listening: Listening and hearing are the same thing: hearing is first step in listening process and does not imply understanding Listening is easy or automatic: listening is a complex process that requires energy, effort, and skills Listening develops naturally: listening consists of learned skills and behaviors that can be learned, relearned, improved, and refined. Anyone can listen well if he or she really tries: You can exert effort in the listening process, but if has no necessary skills not able to listen effectively The speaker is primarily responsible for the message and for the success of the interaction: The listener and speaker share responsibility. Attitude and listening are unrelated: attitude is a very important fact in listening and retaining information

Listening involves: Acquiring Attending Understanding Responding to messages from others

The Listening Process: (1) Feedback from sender-receiver is acquired, (2) passes through noise and barriers, (3) attending is performed, (4) passes through noise and barriers, (5) understanding, decoding, and interpreting is performed, (6) passes through noise and barriers, (7) response is enacted, (8) feedback is given from receiversender Acquiring: achieved through hearing = physical process of receiving sound Attending = act of choosingconsciously or subconsciouslyto focus attention on verbal or nonverbal stimuli Understanding = complex mental process that involves decoding symbolic message received from others and then interpreting and assigning a personal meaning to that message Interpreting = process in which you personalize te senders message to determine meaning for you relates to process of perception, or self-talk Responding = listeners internal emotional and intellectual reaction to a message

Message leads to reaction, analysis and evaluation, then leads to choice. Choice expressed with feedback, process repeated by other participants, back and forth if interpersonal conversation Feedback is ones observable response to a messagespeaker generally cannot be certain that oral communication has occurred until he or she receives some kind of observable feedback from the listener Barriers to listening = biases, needs, beliefs, fear, fatigue, hearing problems, tuning out, stress, communication overload, ignorance, prejudices, unfamiliar language, anger, attitudes Noise = internal and external distractions that interfere with listening and concentration Memory categories Immediate = recalling information for a brief period of time Short term = recalling information for carrying out a routine of daily task Long term = recalling information from past experience

Active listening = listener participates full in the communication process Passive listening = listener does not actively participate in interactions Impatient listening = short bursts of active listening are interrupted by noise and other distractions Anticipatory listening = listener anticipates what the speaker will say and then rushes ahead in his or her mind to plan a response Defensive listening = listeners main goal in listening is to argue or disagree Combative listening = listeners main goal is to win or to put down a speaker Distracted listening = listener pays attention to the first part of a statement, assumes what the speaker will continue to say, then stops listening and starts thinking about something else Critical listening = listening to comprehend ideas and information in order to achieve a specific purpose or goal Deliberative listening = listening to understand, analyze, and evaluate messages so you can accept or reject a point of view, make a decision, or take action Empathic listening = listening to understand, participate in, and enhance a relationship Appreciative listening = listening to enjoy, or appreciate a speakers message or a performance on an artistic level

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