You are on page 1of 60

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thanks to Almighty Allah for His guidance and for enabling me to do my work in

excellent manner. I am grateful to my parents who remained a source of support and

inspiration for me. There are several other people who have supported me on this

research. I start with my supervisor Dr. Shahbaz Shabbir for his valuable suggestion and

supervision. Mr. Faiz-ul- Hassan, is mentioned worthy because of his assistance in data

analysis. I express my gratitude to him for his support and encouragement.

I am thankful to Dr. Muhammad Ali Chaudhary for his counseling and advise that he

gave for this research.

I am very thankful to my friend Romana Ayub for her love and supporting company. I

want to thank to my sisters and brothers especially my younger sister Komal who has

been a source of assistance, support and prayers throughout the period of study.

RIFFAT ZAMAN

1
ABSTRACT

The purpose of the research was to investigate the relationship between three variables.

The sample size of the research was forty. The tool for data collection was a well-

designed questionnaire. Data have been collected from FFC. Several factors which effect

the career choice of individuals were being studied. Initially descriptive statistics was

used and frequency distributions for questions were established. In the second phase, the

relationship between Career choice and Career satisfaction was tested one by one

through Correlation with Employee Performance. It was concluded that Employee

Performance is related(r=0.106) with the Career Satisfaction and it is not related (r=-

0.188) with Career choice. The results revealed the fact that the individuals who choose

their career under the influence of person, event and factor have low performance at

work places. On the other hand Career satisfaction boasts and enhances one’s abilities

and performance at workplace.

2
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

4.1 Age 33
4.2 Gender 34
4.3 Number of years work in the organization 35
4.4 Your parents (Father/ Mother) have same career 36
4.5 You have made you career choice at (school level/ 37
college level/ never made)
4.6 Inter- Item Correlation Matrix 69

3
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

FFC Fauji Fertilizers Company Limited

4
LIST OF APPENDIX

Appendix-A Cover Letter


Appendix-B Questionnaire
Appendix-C Job Performance Appraisal
Appendix-D Figures

5
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Career is a life long assignment, which enables individual to earn money or to satisfy

himself. It is a way of life for a person. A career imposes a number of responsibilities and

duties on an individual. Different careers have different requirements for example human

skills, location, climate, etc.

“A career may be thought of as a long-term project for an individual life.


One’s career may be “in” business, law, teaching, entertainment, professional
philanthropy, or something else” (Care, 1984).

According to Care (1984) career is a way of life one lives. Maanen (1977) give definition

of career as a series of related experiences that makes an individual’s life. Olson and

prince (1979) suggest career as a series of steps upward in the organization and see career

as a life time commitment to a specific field or organization.

Career is a term defined by the Oxford English Dictionary:

"Course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)"

Nosow and Form (1962) provides the following definitions

"Sociologically the career refers to any pattern of occupational change (vertical and/or
horizontal) of any occupational group” (Nosow and Form, 1962).

Consistent with this concept of career, Hall’s (2002) define career as different attitudes

and behaviors that linked with individuals and their work-related experiences and actions

6
over the life period. Here, career is a work related experience over a person’s life

indicates a long-time action rather than immediate performance and satisfaction.

Sims (1983) says:

“To match the job and person, a commensurate framework for assessing job demands
and personal characteristics is needed.”
Schein (1978) relates career to the career “anchors” an inner feeling of motivation or a

power of inspiration for an individual. He has mentioned that there are a number of stages

in the career cycle including growth, fantasy and exploration. An individual can reach a

realistic career choice by performing a number of jobs and by utilizing his abilities,

interests, thoughts, feelings and skills.

“Other perceived important career anchors for success include organizational stability,
identity, geographic security and services” (Jiang, Klein and Balloun, 2000).

Career choice is a name of process that starts during early age. In an age when students

start thinking about making some career choice and continues till the time when the

individual is employed in any organization (Fottler and Bain, 1984).

“A big part of making smart career choices and gaining control over your career lies in
understanding yourself. That means having a good sense of how your personality,
abilities, and values work together to impact the type of career that is ideal for you.”
(Lisa McGrimmon, n.d.)1

It is a compromise between what we want, wish for or desire and what we gets or reach

to a specific profession (Blau, Gustad, Lessor, Parnes and Wilcock, 1956).

1
http://ezinearticles.com/?Career-Choices---How-to-Choose-Your-Ideal-Career&id=996100

7
“This approach to the occupational behavior is one of adaptation. At any given point, the

compromise between individual needs and the requirements of the environment is

tentative” (Fottler and Bain, 1984).

A person who makes the choice of career is a competent and skilled individual because

he has the knowledge, skills, talent and abilities to step further and he contribute for the

society. Career choice is name of a problem for competent individual because, the one

may be unable to reach to a desired goal or don’t have opportunities for the career of his

own choice may be unable to reach to a career that matches his skills, abilities and

personality.

“Persons who are able to take up the problem of career choice I will call “competent
individuals. These are person position to self realize and to contribute to the lives of
others, and this implies many things about them” (Care, 1984).

Usually it is believed that career choice is single incident or process that occurs in the
early age, however, recent research indicates that career choice involves both the choice
of profession which can occur and re-occur in ones life and any choice that disturbing
ones career (Hall, 1976).
Career choice is also influenced by health and physical performance of an individual.

Personality of a person also play an important role when we talk about or it comes to

selecting the right job for an individual. It's become necessary for all persons to find

appropriate careers today not merely for financial reasons, but also for the satisfaction or

excellence of life. By choosing a career that matches your needs, your personality, you

are more likely to perform a job happily (J. A. Young, n.d.).2

2
http://www.doityourself.com/stry/choosingacareer

8
There is a close relationship between the career choice and the intelligence because if a

person is intelligent enough and have abilities then he will be able to select a career that

matches his/her personality. We can relate career choice to career exploration which

include physical and mental activities these activities provide information about oneself

and the outer environment and helps in exploring a career or making a choice (Jordaan,

1963).

Schein(1978) suggests that an individuals self perception about his abilities, skills,

talents, needs, values, and attitude determines what kind of career matches to his

personality and what he wants to get from his career.

Career exploration involves four components: (1) where one explores (environment

versus self), (2) how one explores (intended versus systematic), (3) how much? One

explores (frequency and amount of information), and (4) what one explores (the focus of

the exploration) (Stumpf, et al, 1983).

Career satisfaction can be defined as the level of overall happiness experienced through

one's choice of occupations. An individual may feel very certain of having made a correct

career choice but experience an unsatisfactory current work experience. A current job

situation may have many positive components but may not be fully satisfying as a career

choice. Those individuals that stick with unrealistic occupational ambition which are not

met early in their careers, the evidence propose that perceived negative experience on the

first job can affect an individuals status, earning, and quality of working life later on

(Raelin, 1980).

Organizations play important role in career satisfaction of employees. Employees remain

satisfied with their career where their organizations keep them satisfied and personal

9
internal motivation is also very important. Employees remain satisfied where they are

internally and externally satisfied (Jiang, Klein, Balloun, 2000).

Maanan and Schein (1977) suggest that employees will be satisfied with their career if

organizations provide them such opportunities.

Employees will be satisfied from their job or career if they are recognized by their

supervisors for a job well done, getting support from coworkers, and a working

environment full of opportunities for advancements (Bokorney,2004).3

Performance appraisal can be viewed as the process of assessing and recording staff

performance for the purpose of making judgments about staff that lead to decisions.

Performance appraisal should also be viewed as a system of highly interactive processes

which involve personal at all levels in differing degrees in determining job expectations,

writing job descriptions, selecting relevant appraisal criteria, developing assessment tools

and procedures, and collecting interpreting, and reporting results.4

Schneier and Beatty (1979) define performance appraisal as:

"...the process of identifying, measuring and developing human performance in


organizations”

Performance appraisal is the name of a process that defines expectations for employee

performance and it measures evaluates and record employees’ performance and provides

feedback to the employee is called performance appraisal (Bartol and Martin, 2003).

Performance is in a straight line depends on the competence of the individuals allocated

3
www.evaluationengineering.com/archive/articles/0400sal.htm - 29k-

4
http://appraisals.naukrihub.com/definition-concept.html

10
to a particular job finishing the tasks at hand (Glinow, Driver, Brousseas and Prince,

1983).

Glinow, Brousseas and Prince (1983) suggest that:

“…people were recruited for work on the basis of creativity, but are subsequently
evaluated on accuracy, career problems would likely to arise.”

Business dictionary defined job performance as:

“An employee performance is usually measured at the work places in terms of quantity
and quality and is expected from every employee at the work place”.

1.1 Problem statement

This research investigates the relationship between the career choice and career

satisfaction with the employee’s performance at FFC.

1.2 Purpose of the study

There are three main purposes for this study. First is to determine the relation between the

career choice and employee’s performance. The second purpose is to establish relationship

between career satisfactions with employee’s performance. And the third is to find out the

factors that influence and inspire individuals while making decision about their career

choices. This study contributes to our understanding of career choice and examines the

outcomes related to employee’s performance.

11
1.3 Research Questions

The study investigates three central questions:

1. Is there a relationship between career choice and employee’s performance?

2. What is the relationship between the career satisfaction and employees

performance?

3. What are the factors that influence while making decisions about career choice?

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study contributes toward our understanding of career choice that every individual

makes in the long span of his/her life. And after making a career choice what kind of

relationship creates with their performance. Given this, the results of this study provide

information toward the following ends:

1. This study provides baseline information to improve our understanding of factors

that influence every one while making decision about the career he/she wants to

adopt.

2. The result provides information about the relationship between career choice and

employees performance.

3. The results also take into account the relationship between the satisfaction of

employees with their career and it’s out come on their performance. If employee’s

are not satisfied with their career choice or they don’t like present field of work what

type of effects it has on their performance.

4. The information survey can be used for recruitment.

12
1.5 Theoretical framework

This study determines relationship between career choice and employee’s performance.

Influenced by
Father/Mother

High salary Trip

Influenced Influenced by
Career Choice
by someone media

Internet
Visit Satisfied un-
satisfied

Employees
Performance

Figure 1.1 The Study Model.

13
The above study model shows different person, event and factor that affect a person while

making decision of his/her career. During one’s tender age what type of influence parents

have on one’s career decision. Salary is being considered an important factor in the career

choice because it marks one’s life for the rest. Media can be counted as another catalyst

for boasting one’s aspirations. Researcher has kept in mind various forms of media like

print and electronic including television and radio. Idealism is another source of

inspiration and students usually inspire from some one closely related in family or from

peers. Researcher has taken siblings, friends, teachers, relatives, principal and

grandparents as a source of inspiration. Visit/trip to any institutional/ vocational place can

make someone to pick related profession for life. Now a days Internet has converted the

whole world into a global image. Researcher has also forced on this piece of science

another important inspiration.

This study focuses on the employees, those who are satisfied and also those who are not

satisfied with their career. And finally finds out their relationship with employee’s

performance.

1.6 Objectives of the Study

The objective of the present research is to find out what are the basic factors that most

influence individuals while selecting a career. Individuals choose their career on the basis

what they think of themselves and different factors in their vicinity, which mark their

personality. And afterward what kind of impact their career choice has on their

performance. So, in this study our objective is to answer the following major areas.

• To find out the factors and situations that influence individuals to choose a career

• What kind of impact their career choice has on their performance at work?

14
• What type of relationship created between the career satisfaction and their

performance?

1.6.1 Sub Objectives

• Affect of parents on career choice?

• At which level (School/ College) students usually made their career choice?

• Affects of media in choosing a career.

• Reasons for unsatisfaction from profession.

• What type of improvements they want in their benefit packages?

1.7 Overview of Organization

The organization, which is selected for research, is the Fuaji Fertilizer Company limited.

FFC was incorporated in 1978 as a private limited company. This was a joint venture

between Fauji Foundation (a leading charitable trust in Pakistan) and Haldor Topsoe A/S

of Denmark.5

The FFC Management acknowledges the importance of human resources always. The

Human Resources Department, therefore, right from the inception of the Company has

played a vital role in steering the Company through all its phases, operations and

progress.

The reason for selecting this organization is that they hire quality manpower, keeping

them happy, satisfied, and motivated. They give merit-oriented treatment to all

employees. For Human Resource development, another aspect that receives its due share
5
http://www.ffc.com.pk/contents/aboutffc.htm

15
is training. The employees are exposed to various kinds of cross training, technical

courses, management courses, workshops and seminars both at home and abroad. At

Plant site, the Company has a Technical Training Centre, which is unique, and the only

centre in Asia having a true replica of the Plant for providing realistic training as far as

possible, to the employees.

Whole data was collected through questionnaire. The present research is important

because it is going to show the factors that contribute to the career choice and impact of

career choice and career satisfaction on the employee’s performance. Rest of the research

is organized as follows: Chapter 2 provides a brief review of the existing literature.

Chapter 3 covers methodology of the research that how the data is collected and which

method is applied to test the data. Chapter 4 reports the data analysis and discussion and

finally, Chapter 5 presents the conclusions and the recommendations.

1.8 Definitions of Terms

1.8.1 Career: Sociologically the career refers to any pattern of occupational

change (vertical and/or horizontal) of any occupational group (Nosow and Form,

1962).

1.8.2 Career choice: The career choice that adolescents make is a decision that is

influenced not only by their development but also by the context in which they

live (Chen, 1997).

1.8.3 Impact: The effect or impression of one thing on another.

1.8.4 Job: A regular activity performed in exchange for payment, especially as

one's trade, occupation, or profession.6


6
http://www.answers.com/topic/job

16
1.8.5 Employee performance: Performance is the key criterion in any system

affected by assignment of individuals to job (Glinow, Brousseas and Prince,

1983)

1.8.6 Career satisfaction: Career satisfaction can be defined as the level of

overall happiness experienced through one's choice of occupations7

Career satisfaction is a function of both external career situations and internal

career anchors (Jiang, et al, 2000).

7
http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2004/041102/f041102a.htm

17
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Making smart career choice is all about understanding yourself. This means having

realistic approach toward your personality, abilities and values. These characteristics

together generate a career that matches your personality and is ideal for you. A good

career and personality match is an important step in building a rewarding and productive

career, while a poor career and personality match can seize you back in your career

success and happiness (Grimmon, n.d).8

A study conducted by Paolillo and Estes (1982) deal with the different factors that

influence on the choice of students who adopt profession of accounting and their

comparison with attorneys, engineers and the physicians. Data was collected from

accountants, attorneys, engineers, and physicians and that data showed a significant

difference in career-choice. Total 2500 questionnaires were mailed and 694 were useable

questionnaires mean 28%. Non-response was not considered as a bias. The findings

shows that accountants make choice of career in the first two years of college on the other

side attorneys decide in the junior or senior years in college and the engineers and

physicians decide when they finish their high school.

A quadratic discriminate analysis model was used to find out the factors that affect their

choices. The respondent was asked to show their opinion on a five-point Likert scale. 12

different factors were provided and they have to give weight to each point. Data was

collected from the same time period, which eliminates the time series and stability of the

classification bias. This study reveals a number of factors about the accountant’s
8
http://ezinearticles.com/?Career-Choices---How-to-Choose-Your-Ideal-Career&id=996100

18
profession that can be helpful. Accountant makes decisions of their career in early college

years. This profession is also loosing a number of students because some choose their

career before entering college so there is a need of different programs for high school

students and their parents as well as teachers to be counseling. They are significantly

influenced by their aptitude toward the subject so these kinds of test should be taken in

schools. Earning is more important while job satisfaction is less important for the

accountants. This profession can fulfill its social duties if more students especially high

school junior and seniors and fresh men in colleges and their parents targeted in well

manner.

Auyeung and Sands (1997) investigates the relative influence of career-choice factors on

accounting students from different cultural backgrounds. A comparative study was done

on Australian students relative to Hong Kong and Taiwanese students. This study

examine the importance of factors which influence the comparative career choices of

Australian, Hong Kong and Taiwanese students, in selecting accountancy as a career.

Results indicate that the factors: parental influence, peer influence, teacher influence and

association with others in the field, have greater impact on career choices for Hong Kong

and Taiwanese students, whereas Australian students tended to be more influenced by

aptitude for subject matter. Materials entity factors (availability of employment, prestige

and social status, earning potential, cost of education and year of study) surprisingly

emerged as formative concerns for Hong Kong and Taiwanese students, more so than for

their Australian counterparts.

19
Conceptual Framework [Adopted from the conceptual framework as displayed in the
“Preservice Teachers’ Motivation and Leadership Behaviors Related to Career Choice”
by Breanne M. Harms and Neil A. Knobloch, Career and Technical Education Research,
30(2), pp. 101-124]

Dick and Rallis (1991) suggest that choosing career of engineering or science not depend

on the gender. Student’s intellectual abilities more contribute in the selection of career.

Encouragement and personal influence more contribute in the selection of career choice.

Pay was more important factor for men on the other side women choose science and

20
engineering because of the interest factor. The findings also indicate that parents affect

choice of career but teachers have significant impact on the selection of a career.

“Students make their career choices on the basis of their belief about themselves and
their abilities and their beliefs about the relative values of different careers. A career’s
perceived value is determined by intrinsic factors such as intellectual interest as well as
extrinsic factors such as salary expectations and the cost and length of future training”
(Dick and Rallis, 1991).

Kotrlik and Harrison (1989) found that parents have significant influence on student’s

career choice than students' counselors, teachers, friends and other relatives.

Mugonzibwa, Kikwilu, Rugarabamu, and Ntabaye (2000) identify factors that influenced

career choice among high school students in Tanzania. High school students were

21
studying in five randomly selected high schools completed a pre-tested questionnaire

containing twenty-four items addressing five factors. The majority of respondents

perceived image of a profession as an important factor in career choice. Work/profession

characteristics were ranked as the second most important factor, and course

characteristics were ranked third. Direct gains and advice from important persons were

perceived as least important in career choice.

A study that was organized in Taiwan supported that there is a positive relationship

between career courses, career beliefs, and career decision-making. This study shows that

taking a career course will influence students’ career decision making. Gender difference

and the college year status difference relate to the effect of career education on students

decision-making. But a semester long career education course may not change a career

belief while it is also true that career belief can change through a semester long career

course (Peng and Herr, 1999).

Werts (1967) found that students who have average level of grades have different career

choices at high school level. This study finds out that high school grades and fathers’

education is related to career choice. Usually students at social class level choose their

career depending on their academic abilities. Another study that was conducted on the

female career choice indicates that those females who choose non-traditional career have

highly educated fathers.

Women prefer those careers that are less competitive. For a competitive career they have

to sacrifice their home or personal life so they prefer to sacrifice at organizational level

Cook (1993). Usually more women want to choose such careers that give them inner

22
contentment and satisfaction from their career then the out put like pay and recognition

(Powell and Mainiero, 1992).

A report examined the career choice that student made is determined by the father’s

education and the high school grades. Data from 76,015 male and 51,110 female college

freshmen at 248 colleges and universities were analyzed to determine how father's

education and high school grades were related to career choice. Statistical tools were used

to determine father’s education and higher school grades have more effect on career

choice. The mean of the HSG and the FE-ED was remaining consistent. However the

mean HSG for a woman's career usually was much higher than the mean HSG for a

comparable man's career.

The comparison between men and women was difficult to interpret. It was found that

students at each high school grade average level tend to have different career choices

depending on their father's education. These finding also prove that controls for HSG

hardly affect FA-ED differences, and vice versa, indicates that neither HSG nor FA-ED

can explain differences in an important degree. Usually students at each class level have a

propensity of different career choices depending on their grading and abilities (Werts,

1967).

The research conducted by Fottler and Bin (1984) was based on the objective of

occupational choices that high school seniors made, the realism of their choices, factors

affecting their realism, and some possible implications of these choices for quality of

work life issues.

Occupational decisions made in the pre-work setting may have implications for job

satisfaction and the quality of work life later on. High school seniors were selected

23
because this is the age of realistic then the early age. High school seniors were studies to

come across the career choice they made in Alabama and also to find out the impact of

school characteristics affect realism. Fourteen high schools were selected for the research

purpose. Survey was completed in November 1978. First they were asked about the

occupation choice they have made and then asked about to list the occupational choice

they have made. Only 970 students were used as the sample of this research those who

point out their interest for a professional or technical occupation.

Results indicate that the aspiration levels of many students are unrealistic and also that

black has more unrealistic aspiration then white and that an adaptive process of

occupational decision-making is required later on. Research also shows that the decision

most individuals take based on incomplete information or inaccurate information. And

the attitude of an individual develops during his/her first job experience. During the

working life of an employee job specifications and attitude of employees’ changes so

there is a need to study the different career stages or working life of an employee to better

understand the career choice.

The article “Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory: A Framework for Assessing Person-Job

Interaction” by Sims (1983) converts our attention toward Kolb's experiential learning

theory that is used for measuring the person and his job requirements in the same manner.

He has used the four-performance competency model for measuring generic skills of

individual and requirements of job, or behavioral performance competencies, adoptive

competencies and a match between person and environment. Competency circle

methodology was also presented to diagnose personal job interaction. When a worker

gets experiences on the job it helps him to determine his behavior and his interaction with

24
his environment. On the other hand, the changes that he undergoes in turn affect the form

of that environment. If an organization decides to fill its positions by matching the

characteristics of a person and the requirements of a job, organizational effectiveness

should increase as a result of a greater personal satisfaction and improved job

performance. In this model, growth climate is the variable that allows the person to

develop his relationship with his job to an optimal level of performance and satisfaction.

In addition, it suggests other valuable uses of Kolb's theory, such as increasing

understanding of person-job match or mismatch, identifying pivotal versus peripheral

skills in jobs, and determining whether mismatched (over- or under qualified) person-job

relationships result in different levels of performance or satisfaction.

A research conducted by Shipp (1999) gain insight into the factors that are most

important to African American college students in making a decision on a career course

and the attractiveness of teaching as a career choice. And highlight factors that are most

important while taking a decision for a career. The primary focus of the study was a

comparison of education and non-education majors and the attractiveness of teaching

profession. Survey responses from 263 students were gathered. Only those students who

identified themselves as African American had their surveys used as data collection.

Freshman was also excluded from the research because educational courses are not

usually taught at the freshman level. A two- part questionnaire was use and likert-type

scale was used to measure 10 factors. Explanation was also given to students so they can

easily understand the subject matters. Questionnaire was collected through face to face

and also through mail. 126 questionnaires were used for the purpose of analysis. Findings

indicated that non-education majors placed significantly more importance on salary, job

25
security, and advancement in their career choices than did education majors. Regarding a

career in teaching, both groups perceive salary and prestige as the least attractive aspects.

Education majors give a significant higher rating to the attractiveness, fringe benefits and

also advancement opportunities then non-education major. This article shows that the job

security is one of the important elements of any person. Research shows that there is a

significant difference between both groups in career choice and perception of teaching

field.

A study conducted by Jiang, Klein and Balloun (2000), the purpose of this study was to

examine the external opportunities to career satisfaction. Questionnaire was distributed to

three large software development organizations in southern US. 40 IS personnel in each

organization fill the questionnaire. Entry level position was selected as a sample. From

the total number of 120 questionnaires 101 questionnaires were returned and used in the

analysis. In this study a limited number of organizations were selected so study results

were compared to the previous studies in which a large number of organizations were

taken and Subject like career satisfaction, anchor and demographic content. Study was

conducted on a small number of organizations still there was no any significant threats to

external validity. Internal career anchor was measured through a 5-point likert scale and

the external career job design was measured by the job diagnostic survey that was

designed by Oldham the response range from 1 to 5. Career satisfaction was measured by

5 item scale. The result shows that there is a positive relationship between one’s internal

career anchor, external opportunities and the career satisfaction and also a cause of

motivation. This research also confirms that career satisfaction is a function of both

external career situation and internal career anchor. We can also say that if the desire for a

26
career is strong and also there are better opportunities from the organization a person can

get higher level of satisfaction.

A study conducted by lgbaria, Greenhaus and Parasuraman (1991) find out the

relationship between the employee’s current job and their career orientation. The authors

hypothesize if the job matches with their career orientation they are more satisfied and

committed to their organization and also they are less incline to leave the organization.

The study examines the allocation of different career orientations within the MIS field.

Examine the impact of a match between course and job setting on several career

outcomes. The study examines the person’s characteristics and the job requirements. A

questionnaire was distributed to 2,548 members of the Association for Computing

Machinery (ACM). Final sample was selected 4464 employees from the 517

questionnaires that were returned to the researcher. Career orientation was assessed with

the 41 item career inventory. Respondents were asked to indicate 21 items related to their

career and 20 items relating to career preferences. Eight career orientations were created

for each employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, intention to leave, perceived

job characteristics, and boundary spanning activities. Several steps were taken to examine

the impact of match between career orientation and job setting, job satisfaction and career

satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave. Those employees who

has technical oriented was on technical positions was considered to represent as a match

between career orientation and job. ANOVAs and chi-square test was conducted to

examine demographic differences. MANCOVA test was conducted to examine job

satisfaction, career satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to stay.

27
The results predicted that employees whose career orientations matched their job setting

would be more satisfied with their job and career, more committed to their organization,

and less inclined to leave their organization than employees who did not display such a

match. They are more commitment to their organization, and lower intentions to leave

their organization than employees who experienced a mismatch.

A study conducted by Green, Jegadeesh, and Tang (2007) find out the relationship

between career and performance of employee. The study is divided into two parts one

self-selection or preferences to a career and second part is about the discrimination in the

workplace and their impact on the job performance. This study examines the balance of

gender in sell-side stock analysts in investment banks and brokerages. Also focus on

whether employers either thoroughly discriminates based on gender, or employers tries to

create a balance of gender in the organizations. Usually mass of analysts are males, and it

is said that women face gender discrimination in such well paying jobs. The real meaning

of gender discrimination is that if there is a choice between equally qualified men and

women, employers favor to hire men. So those women who are selected have high profile

and perform out standing. But if affirmative action is taken as an important factor in

hiring decisions, then employers may set a lower standard for women to promote gender

balance. If affirmative action is taken then women will perform worse then men. The

results support the view that the low representation of women on Wall Street reflects

differences in preferences or family considerations relatively than discrimination by

investment banks. The study also finds out significant differences in coverage, accuracy,

and professional recognition across gender, the results also suggests neither gender-based

discrimination nor affirmative action have any solid impact on the performance of

28
women analysts employed by brokerage firms. To some extent lower female

representation reflects that they have family responsibilities and there is also a need to

improve in working conditions, such as greater flexibility in work loads and enhanced

childcare options will make it easy for women to choose such careers. And if more

attention given to the qualitative factors of job performance emphasized in the All-Star

surveys then employers will be able to grasp this gape.

A study conducted by Raymond (1996) in a state agency located in United States. The

sample was consisting of 120 employees and their managers. In organization there were

four levels of technical and scientific jobs. Data was collected using surveys and

evaluations collected from both employees and their managers at two time periods,

separated by six months. This time interval was used to decrease the possibility of bias

from both employees and managers. And managers' evaluations of developmental

behavior at six-month intervals allowed an estimation of the firmness of the evaluations

over time. The survey and evaluations were mailed directly to the employees and their

managers. The first survey completed by employees included stuff assessing their

personal characteristics, use of career strategies, career exploration behavior, career goal

focus, and distance from career goal. The second survey, completed six months later,

included items designed to assess willingness to contribute in development activities and

perceptions regarding management support for development. The first evaluation

completed by managers was the ratings of developmental behavior.

Managers complete a separate evaluation for each employee they supervised ranging

from one to eight employees. Six months later, managers were asked to provide another

29
set of ratings of development behavior. Managers were also asked to provide an

evaluation of the employee's job performance.

A total of 72 employees completed both surveys. Forty managers provided developmental

behavior and job performance rating. The large majority of employees were male. Career

Exploration Survey developed by (Stumpf, et al, 1983) was used to measure the

employee’s behavior. Other different measures were also measured like career goal

characteristics, Career strategies, Personal characteristics, and Manager’s support for

development, Willingness to participate in development activities, Developmental

behavior and job performance. Job performance was measured by asking managers to

rate employees on four items. Means, standard deviations, Interco relations, and

regression analysis were used to evaluate results. The results show that Career

management was not significantly related to job performance.

30
CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

This thesis aims to explore impact of career choice and career satisfaction on employee’s

performance. It mainly focuses on the research theme and also explores the factors that

are most important in career choice. To provide further clarity, in this study career choice

and career satisfaction were independent variables and the employee’s performance was

dependent variables. This study is quantitative in nature.

The most suitable design for this study is the survey research method. As a research

technique in the social sciences, survey research has considerable credibility that is

demonstrated by its widespread acceptance and use in academic institutions. The ultimate

goal of survey research is to allow researchers to generalize about a large population by

studying only a small portion of the population (Rea and Parker, 1992).

3.1 HYPOTHESIS

To testify the overall relationship between career choice, career satisfaction and

employee’s performance following hypothesis were made:

H0: There is no relationship between career choice and employee’s performance.

H1: There is a relationship between career choice and employee’s performance.

H0: There is no relationship between career satisfaction and employee’s performance.

H2: There is a relationship between career satisfaction and employee’s performance.

31
3.2 Variables

Following are the independent and dependent variables of the present study.

3.2.1 Independent Variable

Independent variables are career choice and career satisfaction, which effects the

employee’s performance in different conditions.

3.2.2 Dependent Variable

Job performance is the dependent variable.

3.3 Description of Data Type

The data for this study was primary which was collected through questionnaires from the

employees and their supervisors.

3.4 Population and Sample Size

The proposed population of this study was 50 employees and their supervisors from Fauji

Fertilizer Company Limited office located in Rawalpindi region. Employees of FFC

which include managerial, technical and clerical staff were given questionnaires.

3.5 Data Collection Instruments

This study employed a survey questionnaire. The researcher believes that there are a

number of advantages of survey technique. These are as the following:

• Since there is no face-to-face contact with the participants, the chances of gaining

accurate and frank answers are better.

• In the start of the questionnaire (demographic questions), the researcher found her

free to choose the easiest way to formulate questions, to be answered and to be

measured. Two types of scales were applied: nominal and ratio.

• The questionnaire of this study allowed the researcher to collect the desired data.

32
3.6 Sampling Technique

Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used to collect the data; which

refers to the collection of information from members of the population who are

conveniently available to provide it. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed to the

employees and a total of 46 completed the survey. Due to missing and incomplete data

from the managers, performance rating was received for 42 employees and a sample size

of 40 was selected for analysis of results.

3.7 Data Collection

In this study quantitative data was collected through questionnaires by personal visit,

which also give additional opportunity of observing the environment. The sample was

assured to use the information provided by them for research purpose only and would be

kept confidential. The “drop-off” cover letter was used (Appendix-A).

3.7.1 Primary Data Collection

The study employed two survey questionnaires as a data collection instrument. One was

filled by the employees that include factors influenced the career choice and career

satisfaction of employees. The second was performance appraisal of employees that was

filled by their supervisors. The questionnaire is available in (Appendix-B). The

questionnaire was developed after the extensive study of the literature review.

The questionnaire filled by employees included two parts: the first part includes factors

that influence their career choice. Part I (1 to 24) of the research questionnaire was

developed on the basis of measure used by Newcomb (1992).

Part II: Q1 to Q12 and then Q16 to Q18 were consisting of the items taken from the 2005

Climate Survey. This questionnaire was designed to gather input from the employees for

33
the purpose of measuring Career Satisfaction and how much employees are satisfied with

their work environment and over their entire job. As researcher has made substantial

changes from previous climate surveys Q13, Q14 and Q15 Was developed by the

researcher herself to measure the level of authority that career offers, will employee

chose the same career for their siblings or children or ever thinking of quitting his/her

career. Demographics were also asked like age, job status, experience and gender of

employees.

The drop-off mode was applied to deliver questionnaire to the participants. In a drop-off

survey method, questionnaires must be delivered personally to members of the population

and then either collected or mailed back (Salant and Dillman, 1994).

The researcher administered the questionnaire directly and was available to provide

answers to any questions of employees might have had. All employees and staff were told

that the researcher is a graduate student of Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi

pursuing a Master’s degree in Business Administration.

3.7.2 How to Measure

The questionnaire that was filled by the employees contains two parts. In the first part the

degree to which each of the person or factor that influenced the employee was determined

by the score he/she has given to each person or factor. Basically three types of rating scales

were used in the questionnaire Dichotomous scale, Category scale and Likert scale.

3.7.3 Job Performance Appraisal

A total of 40 questionnaires out of the possible 50 were returned back and used in the data

analysis. Job performance appraisal was filled by the supervisors only of those employees

those have completed the first questionnaire. The first four questions of job performance

34
appraisal composite were developed on the basis of the measure used by Colarelli, Dean

and Konstans (1987). Asking managers to rate employees on four items measured Job

performance appraisal. The next six questions were developed using the job performance

appraisal.9 The items were rated on a five point Likert scale.

3.8 Study Settings

This research is a field study in nature. This study is conducted in natural work

environment. The variables were neither controlled nor contrived.

3.9 Procedure

To collect the information two questionnaires were constructed. In this research mainly

quantitative technique was used for the data collected from the employees of FFC and

their supervisors. Questionnaires were kept comprehensive and a careful procedure was

taken to provide clear definition of the request. Questionnaires explained the purpose of

the study and also carried out full instruction highlighted secrecy and intended

contribution of the employees. Final data collection was carried out by sending 50

questionnaires.

3.10 Data Analysis

The data that was collected in 5 days was further analyzed by using statistical package for

social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 and Microsoft Excel. The data was first coded in

SPSS and then analyzed. The collected data was quantified first by using the descriptive

statistics and frequencies for every question was drawn and then using the inferential

statistics applyed correlation. Tables and charts were used to analyze the findings of the

data collected.

9
www.uhv.edu/forms/job_performance_appraisal.pd

35
CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

As stated earlier, the present study aims to investigate the impact of career choice on

employee’s performance. This study compares the career satisfaction to employee’s

performance and to find out the factors that influence individuals to choose a career. First,

the demographics of the sample will be presented.

The results are discussed in two phases. In the first phase all the questions are discussed

in relation to descriptive statistics, while in the second phase inferential statistics in the

form of bivariate correlation is used to verify the existence of relationship between career

choice and employees performance. Relationship was also checked between the career

satisfaction and employees performance.

4.1 Descriptive Statistics


Vital results of questionnaire are illustrated below:
a) Age

Table 4.1 Age

N=40 Frequency Percent


20-24 19 47.5
25-30 12 30.0
31-35 4 10.0
36-40 3 7.5
46 and above 2 5.0
Total 40 100.0
Source: Field Data

The above table shows that nearly 50 percent of employees that have responded are from

the age group of 20-24 and 30 percent are from the age group of 25-30. Graphical

representation of the above data has been shown in the figure D4.1 in Appendix-D.

36
b) Gender

Table 4.2 Gender

N=40 Frequency Percent


Male 28 70.0
Female 12 30.0
Total 40 100.0
Source: Field Data

The above table shows that more participants in this study were male. 70 percent of the

participants in this study were male. (Appendix-D figure D4.2)

d) Number of years work in the organization

Table 4.3 Number of years work in the organization


Frequency Percent
Less then 1 year 12 30.0
More then 1 and less then 2 years 5 12.5
2 to 5 years 15 37.5
5 to 10 years 5 12.5
More then 10 years 3 7.5
Total 40 100.0
Source: Field Data

The above table shows that most of the employees that have participated in this study

have job experience of less than one year to five years. (Appendix-D figure D4.3)

e) Your parents (Father/ Mother) have same career?

Table 4.4 Your parents (Father/ Mother) have same career?


Frequency Percent
Yes 15 37.5
No 25 62.5
Total 40 100.0
Source: Field Data

The above table shows that majority of employees do not select the career of their parents

because nearly 63 percent of employees respond in “No”. (Appendix-D figure D4.4)

37
f) You have made you career choice at (school level/ college level/ never made)?

Table 4.5 You have made you career choice at (school level/ college level/ never
made)?
Frequency Percent
School level 5 12.5
College level 25 62.5
Never made a career choice 10 25.0
Total 40 100.0
Source: Field Data

The results of the table show that most of the employees are of the view that they have

selected their career at college level. And 25 percent responded that they have never

made any career choice. (Appendix-D figure D4.5)

38
Part I.
4.2 Career Choice

Q1. Elder brother or sister

The figure D4.6 in Appendix-D shows that 21 out of 40 respondents support that they are

influenced by their elder brother or sister. While 5 are somewhat influenced and 8 are not

influenced by the elder brother or sister. Six employees supported the view that elder

sister brother have no role while choosing a career and they are not applicable. It means

that elder brother and sister influence the career choice to a greater extent. So, it was

found out that more than 50 percent of the employees are influenced by their sister

brother. (Appendix-D figure D4.6)

Q2. Family friend

The data in the figure D4.7 in Appendix-D shows that greater numbers of respondents are

of the view that family friends are not the source of inspiration while career choice only

20 percent supported this view that family friends influenced the choice of career.

(Appendix-D figure D4.7)

Q3. Obliged friend

The data in the figure D4.8 in Appendix-D shows that most employees believe that

obliged friends are also not a source of influence while making a career choice as family

friends. (Appendix-D figure D4.8)

Q4. Father

The data in figure D4.9 in Appendix-D reveals that father while making a career choice

influence a greater number of the individuals. (Appendix-D figure D4.9)

39
Q5. Classmates

The data in figure D4.10 in Appendix-D shows that more than 40 percent of individuals

are influenced by their classmates while making a career choice. It means a classmate

does not have strong influence on career choice. (Appendix-D figure D4.10)

Q6: Mother

About 50 percent of the employees disagreed with the opinion that mothers are an

inspiration for career choice. Only 37 percent agree that they influence the decision.

(Appendix-D figure D4.11)

Q7: Teacher

The majority of employees are of the opinion that they are somewhat influenced by their

teachers. This means more than 50 percent think that they are influenced or somewhat

influenced by their teachers. Means teachers are the source of inspiration for students to

choose a career. (Appendix-D figure D4.12)

Q8. Principal

A principal is not the source of inspiration for the students because more then 70 percent

response rate is negative. (Appendix-D figure D4.13)

Q9: Relatives (Aunts, uncles, grandparents, etc.)

The results shows that relatives are also not a source of inspiration while making a career

choice because more than 60 percent response that they are not influenced by their

relatives. (Appendix-D figure D4.14)

Q10. Visit from two-year vocational/ technical school recruiter.


The employees strongly refuse the views that visit to any two years vocational/ technical

school influences them for career choice. (Appendix-D figure D4.15)

40
Q11: Visit from four-year College

Visit to any four-year college also do not have a strong impact on career choice.

(Appendix-D figure D4.16)

Q12. Trip to four-year college/university

Visit to any four-year school or college do not influence students while making a career

choice. Because sixty percent employees response in favor. (Appendix-D figure D4.17)

Q13. Trip to 2-year vocational/technical school

A trip to two years vocational/technical schools also do not influence much because

nearly 80 percent response was negative. (Appendix-D figure D4.18)

Q14. Factory tour or trip to future job site

The figure above shows that the tour to future job site is also not influential because more

than 60 percent response in negative. Majority of 42 percent responded that it is not

applicable while making a career choice. (Appendix-D figure D4.19)

Q15. Location of job or college near family (Desire to stay near family)

Nearly 60 percent of the respondents’ stated that location of the job plays an important

role while making a career choice. Means there is a strong relationship between career

choice and the location of job. (Appendix-D figure D4.20)

Q16. Location of job or college away from family (desire to be out on your own)
Location of job away from family not influences to choose a career. More than 60 percent

respondent opposed this view. (Appendix-D figure D4.21)

Q17. Television show


The majority of employees are of the opinion that television shows are not a source of

influencing individuals to adopt a career. More than 70 percent results reveal opposed

opinion of respondents. (Appendix-D figure D4.22)

41
Q18: Newspaper advertisement

More than 60 percent agree with the opinion that newspaper advertisements influence

while making a career choice. Only 15 percent respond that newspaper advertisement do

not affect the career choice. (Appendix-D figure D4.23)

Q19: Magazine article

The results show that magazine articles are also not so influential while making a career

choice. Nearly 80 percent of the respondents’ response was opposing this view.

(Appendix-D figure D4.24)

Q20: Radio advertisement

More than 90 percent respondents think that radio has no influence on career choice. This

shows a very strong negative relationship. (Appendix-D figure D4.25)

Q21: Mailed recruitment material (Letters, broachers, etc)

Mailed recruitment material also has a negative relationship with career choice. It does

not affect the career choice of individuals. (Appendix-D figure D4.26)

Q22: Potential for high salary

More than 70 percent of individuals are influenced by those careers that pay them high.

Means there is a strong relationship between career choice and high paying careers.

(Appendix-D figure D4.27)

Q23: Challenges offered by career choice

More than 60 percent were influenced by those careers that offer challenging tasks.

Means individuals prefer those careers that offer them challenges and in which they can

show their skills and abilities and remain motivated. (Appendix-D figure D4.28)

42
Q24: Internet Information (World Wide Web)

Internet information is not a source of influence for individuals while making a career

choice. Because only 20-30 percent respondents response in favor. (Appendix-D figure

D4.29)

43
Part 2

4.3 Career Satisfaction

Q1: Overall, I know what is expected to me at work (behavior, general performance,

and critical job tasks).

The result shows that more than 80 percent of employees agree with the view that they

know what their duties, responsibilities and what is expected to them at the work place.

(Appendix-D figure D4.30)

Q2. I receive the job-specific training I need to do my job.

The result shows that more than 50 employees were agreed with the view that they have

received the job specific training. Means they are well aware how to perform their duties

and tasks. (Appendix-D figure D4.31)

Q3: My skills and abilities are a good fit for my position.

The result shows that more than 70 percent of employees are satisfied with their job

because they think that their skills and their abilities match to their duties and job.

(Appendix-D figure D4.32)

Q4: Considering my position (work and responsibility) I am paid fairly.

Employees are satisfied with their salary because nearly 70 percent of employees are

satisfied with their pay package. This also reflects that they are satisfied with their career.

As attractive salary package motivates employees to perform well. (Appendix-D figure

D4.33)

44
Q5: Overall, I am satisfied with my benefits package.

Employees are satisfied with their benefits package. It shows that only 23 percent of

employees rejected the statement that they are satisfied with their benefit package.

(Appendix-D figure D4.34)

Q6: Someone at work shows concern for my well-being.

The figure below reflects that employees’ feel that their organization concern for their

well-being and they are satisfied with it. Nearly 60 percent respondents believe that their

organization concern for their well being. (Appendix-D figure D4.35)

Q7: Overall, I have a positive relationship with my co-workers.

Majority of employees feel that they have positive relationship with their co-workers.

This shows that employees are quite satisfied with co-workers, which are appropriate for

healthy working environment. A small percentage showed neutral response which shows

they are neither agree nor disagree with the statement. (Appendix-D figure D4.36)

Q8: Employees at my workplace work together as a team

Sixty percent of the employees are satisfied with their co-workers because they work like

a team. (Appendix-D figure D4.37)

Q9: My workload is reasonable.

The result shows that more than 70 percent of employees think that their workload is

reasonable it means that they are satisfied with their workload. And can easily carry their

tasks. (Appendix-D figure D4.38)

Q10: The level of physical comfort (noise, lighting, cleanliness, temperature and

workspace) at my workplace is satisfactory.

45
The result shows that more than 70 percent of the employees agree that physical working

conditions like aesthetics, working space, lightening, interior is good. While very few

think that physical conditions are not supportive to achieve better output and needs some

improvements. These respondents might belong from accounts department, where

physical working conditions are not supportive of the tough and tiresome routine work.

(Appendix-D figure D4.39)

Q11: My job is important to the success of the Department

The result below shows that 87 percent of the employees agree that their job is very

important for the success of the department. It means that they think there are playing an

important role for the department and are satisfied with their job. (Appendix-D figure

D4.40)

Q12: I'm proud to work for the Department.

The result shows that nearly 80 percent of the employees agree that they are proud to

work for the department. This means that they are contented. (Appendix-D figure D4.41)

Q13: This career gives me more authority for decisions making?

The result shows that 47 percent of the employees were agreed with this view that their

career gives them authority for decision-making. This means somehow the employees are

satisfied with their authority level. However 25 percent neither agreed nor disagreed the

above statement. (Appendix-D figure D4.42)

Q14: I will prefer this profession for my kids / siblings?

The result shows that only 30 percent of employees want that their children’s or siblings

join this profession. However 32 percent of the employees selected that they are neither

agree nor disagree with this statement. The reason of this may be that they want to set

46
free their kids or sibling to choose a career not because they are unsatisfied with their

present career. (Appendix-D figure D4.43)

Q15: There were many moments in my life when I think of quitting this profession?

The result revels that nearly 70 percent of employees rejected the statement that they ever

think of quitting this profession. This shows that majority of employees are satisfied with

their profession and they do not want to quit it. (Appendix-D figure D4.44)

Q16: Which of the following benefits would you most like to see improved (select

one)?

1. Annual leave

2. Sick Leave

3. Healthcare

4. Dental

5. Retirement benefits

6. Flexible work schedule (flextime, telecommute, etc.)

7. No improvements needed

Majority of employees want that there should be flexible work schedule and 22 percent

want that there should be improvement in health care services and 20 percent of

employees want retirement benefits. It shows that work schedule is a bit tough in the

organization. (Appendix-D figure D4.45)

Q17: How likely are you to seek any other profession within the next 12 months?

1. I am actively seeking

2. I occasionally seek

3. I may apply if I become aware of an opportunity.

47
4. I am not seeking

The result shows that 44 percent of the employees are satisfied with their current career

and they are not seeking any other profession. On the other side 30 percent of employees’

responded that might they apply if they can have better opportunities. Only 26 percent of

the employees marked that they are seeking any other profession. (Appendix-D figure

D4.46)

Q18: The main reason I am seeking any other profession is:

1. Better working conditions


2. More challenging position
3. More job security
4. Better advancement opportunities
5. Higher salary
6. Better relationship with co-workers
7. Better relationship with supervisor
8. Organizational culture
9. Higher level of responsibility
10. Lifestyle (move, career change, etc.)
Only 10 respondents seeking any other profession out of 40 means just 25%. 5 out of 10

who are seeking any other profession give the reason of high salary. And 2 for better

advancement opportunities and 2 for more job security. 88 percent of employees respond

that they are not seeking any other profession mean they are satisfied with their career.

(Appendix-D figure D4.47)

48
Results of Correlation Matrix

Career choice and career satisfaction was one by one correlated with the

employee’s performance to identify their relationship. The results of correlation matrix

are shown below:

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

career employees
satisfaction performance career choice
career satisfaction 1.000 .106 .124
employees performance .106 1.000 -.188
career choice .124 -.188 1.000

4.4.1 Career Choice

The relationship between career choice and employee performance was found to

be negative(r=-0.188). The hypothesis that there is a relationship between career choice

and employee performance has been rejected. The null hypothesis that there is no

relationship between career choice and employee performance has been accepted. The

reason is that when individual chooses his career under the influence of a person, event

and factor he tends to choose unrealistic career that do not match his skills, talent and

abilities. He chooses unrealistic career that does not match his own personality

characteristics and on the basis of this unrealistic career choice his performance remains

lower than expected action. One possible explanation is reference group theory

(Williams, 1972) that hypothesize that the aspirations of youth are based upon others as

their family and friends to which the youth aspires. May be he aspires with an individual

and particularly adopt his or her profession. Now a day’s mass media is also playing

important role and cause of students’ inspiration. There is some evidence that media

49
exposure of various occupations tend to be unrealistic (Fox and Renas, 1977). Moreover,

most occupations are never exposed at all since emphasis is on the more glamorous

occupations. Many students make unrealistic occupational choice as a result of

inadequate, incomplete, inaccurate and sometimes distorted occupational information

(Fottler and Bain, 1984). Many studies indicate that young people leaving an educational

system and entering a work organization experience reality shock in relating to the day to

day activities and problems of the work environment (Hall, 1976). That is also a reason

for inadequate performance of employees at work places. Career preference studies by

Schein (1975), Derr (1980) and Rynes et al (1988) also show that only a few people

prefer jobs and careers within their own technical functional areas of expertise or within

their occupational skills areas.

4.4.2 Career Satisfaction

The results of the correlation matrix revealed that there is a relationship between

career choice and employee performance. Career satisfaction is positively related

(r=0.106) to the perceived employee performance. This shows that the H2 has been

accepted that career satisfaction is positively related with employee performance. The

previous research done by Jiang et all (2000) provided us results that the stronger one’s

internal career desires and the better the external career opportunities provided by the

organization, the higher one’s career satisfaction. Another study done by Igbaria,

Greenhaus, Parasuraman (1991) suggested that employees whose career orientations

well-matched with their job setting reported higher career satisfaction. A study conducted

by Igbaria, Greenhaus and Parasuraman (1991) also found the importance of match

between career orientation and job setting. The findings resulted that internal career needs

50
and external career options can produce positive out comes among employees. If an

employee is to remain satisfied, there must be personal motivation (internal career

anchors) as well as a favorable perceived external (organizational) career situation (Jiang,

Klein and Balloun, 2000).

The results of correlation matrix affirmed somewhat weak relationship between

career choice and employee performance. As we already know that value of correlation

from 0 to 0.3 indicates weak relationship. The researcher found, employees are satisfied

with their organization because at FFC they are being paid well and contented with their

benefit packages. It was observed from the findings that supervisors are not much

contented with their performance. Its reason is, most of the employees that have taken

part in this research were less experienced and they were at learning stage. Another

reason could be their unmatched skills and abilities with their current tasks.

Overall, this study has concluded, employees are satisfied with their organization

and career. Performance of the employees satisfied with their career is comparatively

higher with their dissatisfied/unsatisfied employees. In nut shell researcher has concluded

that any individual will perform better if he/she is allowed to peruse career of his/her

choice.

51
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

This study provided a report about career choice for the managers, technical and clerical staff

of Fauji Fertilizers Company Limited. In addition, the relationships between career

satisfaction and employee performance was also discussed. The overall finding of this study

was that the career choice and employee performance are not related. As for the career

choice, the findings resulted; career choice that is made under the influence of a person, event

and factor is negatively related with the employee performance. The reason is individuals set

unrealistic goals and targets for themselves or just select a career under the influence of

someone or through mass media. Another reason is usually employee experience reality

shock after participating in day-to-day activities at work place. When the difference between

their original preferences and their present job was examined, significantly higher turnover

was found among young employees with career quite different from originally hoped

(Maizles, 1970). We also know that an individual’s needs and goals change at different points

in the career cycle so that what is satisfying at one career stage may not be at another (Fottler

and Bain, 1984).

According to this study’s finding, there is a positive relationship between career satisfaction

and employees performance. A study done by Vardi and Hammer (1977) found positive

correlation between career interest, career effort, career satisfaction and job satisfaction. It

shows if employees are satisfied with their current career choice they will produce quality out

put at workplaces. As Sims (1983) has suggested that to match the job and person, an

appropriate structure for assessing job demands and personal characteristics is needed. It

52
means, if job tasks match with the person who is performing he/she will be more satisfied

and will perform well.

5.2 Limitations

There are a number of limitations in this study that should be mentioned here for

consideration by those using this study’s findings or evaluating the results.

• A small sample from only one organization was used which may not be the true

representative. A second study with different organizations is necessary to

determine the robustness of the results.

• Because of the small sample size the power to determine strong relationship was

weak.

• Time and other resources were limited so a comprehensive study was not

conducted.

• Some employees were reluctant to share openly their views about career choice.

Some didn’t take it seriously as they thought researches are just carried out for

academic purpose and has nothing to do with improvements.

• The instrument used was questionnaire so other instruments like interviews and

group discussions can also prove helpful in this regard.

• To understand such concepts as career choice and career satisfaction, we need to

view the changing individual patterns of involvement and satisfaction over an

entire career.

• The complete domain of career strategies and performance outcome was not

investigated.

53
5.3 Recommendations

• There is a considerable evidence that young people develop unrealistic

information about career from mass media and these images cant be corrected

through counseling which is done in our educational institutions. Realistic

information could be provided through mass media such as computerized

occupational information system, radio, television, movies and students internship

programs.

• There should be more interaction between students and employers or employing

organizations other wise they will remain unrealistic.

• Career decision-making is a life long process occurring through out an

individual’s life, there is a more need to improve career development within the

organization.

• A manager or supervisor can provide aid in career development by judging

employee skills, talent and abilities while improving individual’s performance.

• Senior managers must receive adequate training and support to provide effective

vision and direction for the people management strategies.

• The working environment was found to be good. A further enhancement can be

made through improving physical arrangements of those departments which are

not satisfied.

54
REFERENCES

• Auyeung, P. and Sands J., (1997), ‘Factors Influencing Accounting Students'

Career Choice: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study’, Accounting Education, 6:11,

13-23.

• Blau, P. M., Gustad, J. W., Lessor, R., Parnes, H. S. and Wilcock, R. C. (1956),

'Occupational Choice: A Conceptual Framework', Industrial and Labor Relations

Review, 9, 531-543.

• Care, N.S., (1984), ‘Career Choice’, Ethics, 94: 2, 283-302.

• Chen, C.P. (1997), ‘Career Projection: Narrative in Context’, Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 54, 279-295.

• Colarelli, S. M., Dean, R. A. and Konstans, C. (1987), 'Comparative Effects of

Personal and Situational Influences on Job Outcomes of New Professionals',

Journal of' Applied Psychology, 72, 558-566.

• Cook, E. P. (1993), ‘The Gendered Context of Life: Implications for Women's and

Men's Career-life Plans’, Career Development Quarterly, 41, 227-237.

• Derr, C. B. (1980), 'More about career anchors'. In: Derr, C. B. (Ed.) Work,

Family and Career, Praeger, New York.

• Dick, T.P.and Rallis, S.F., (1991), ‘Factors and Influences on High School

Students' Career Choices’, Research in Mathematics Education, 22: 4, 281-292.

• Fottler; M.D. and Bain, T. (1984), ‘Realism of Occupational Choice Among High

School Seniors: Implications for Quality of Work Life’, Occupational Behaviour,

5: 4, 237-251.

55
• Fox, H. W. and Renas, J. R. (1977), 'Stereotypes of Women in the Media and their

Impact on Women's Career', Human Resources Management, 16, 28-31.

• Glinow, M.A., Driver, M.J., Brousseas, K and Prince, J.R. (1983), ‘The Design of

a Career Oriented Human Resource System’, The Academy of Management

Review, 8:1, 23-32.

• Hall, D. T. (1976), ‘Careers in Organizations’, Goodyear, Santa Monica,

California.

• Igbaria, M., Greenhaus, J.H. and Parasuraman, S. (1991), ‘Career Orientations of

MIS Employees: An Empirical Analysis’, MIS Quarterly, 15: 2, 151-169.

• Jeffrey G. Reitz, J.G., (1975),’ Undergraduate Aspirations and Career Choice:

Effects of College Selectivity’, Sociology of Education, 48: 3, 308-323.

• Jegadeesh, N., Green, T.C. and Tang, Y., (2007), ‘Gender and Job Performance:

Evidence from Wall Street’, Paper No. W12897.

• Jiang, J.J., Klein, G. and Balloun, J.L., (2000), ‘The Joint Impact of Internal and

External Career Anchors on Entry-level IS Career Satisfaction’, Information &

Management, 39:2001, 31-39.

• Jordaan, J. (1963), ‘Exploratory behavior: The formation of Self and

Occupational Concepts’, 42-78.

• Kotrlik, J. W., & Harrison, B. C. (1989), ‘Career Decision Patterns of High

School Seniors in Louisiana.’ Journal of Vocational Education, 14, 47-65.

• Maanan, V.J. (1977), ‘Organizational Career. Some New Perspectives’, London:

Wiley

56
• Maanen, J.V. and Schein, E.H., (1977), ‘Career Development’ in: J.R. Hackman,

J.L. Shuttle (eds.), Improving Life at Work, Goodyears, Santa Monica, CA.

• Maizels, J. (1970). Adolescent Needs and the Transition from School to Work,

Athlene Press, London.

• Martin, D.C. and Kathryn M. Bartol, K.M., (2003), ‘Factors Influencing

Expatriate Performance Appraisal System Success: an Organizational

Perspective’.

• Mugonzibwa, E., Kikwilu, E., Rugarabamu, P. and Ntabaye, M., (2000), ‘Factors

Influencing Career Choice Among High School Students in Tanzania’, Journal of

Dental Education, 64: 6, 423-429.

• Newcomb, C. S. (1992), ‘ A Survey of Factors Influencing Career Choices of

Native American and Caucasian High School Students’, Unpublished Master’s

Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie.

• Noe, A.R. (1996), ‘Is Career Management Related to Employee Development and

Performance?’ Organizational Behavior, 17: 2, 119-133.

• Nosow, Sigmund and William H. Forms (eds.) 1962 Man, Work, and Society.

New York: Basic Books, Inc

• Olson, T. (1979), ’Career Concepts and Decision Styles’, Paper given at the

National Academy of Management Meeting, Atlanta.

• Paolillo, J.G.P. and Estes, R.W., (1982), ‘An Empirical Analysis of Career Choice

Factors among Accountants, Attorneys, Engineers, and Physicians’, The

Accounting Review, 57: 4, 785-793.

57
• Peng, H., Herr, E.L. (1999) ‘The Impact of Career Education Courses on Career

Beliefs and Career Decision Making Among Business College Students in

Taiwan, Career Development, 25:4

• Powell, G. N., & Mainiero, L. A. (1992), ‘Cross-currents in the River of Time:

Conceptualizing the Complexities of Women's Careers’, Journal of Management,

18, 215-237.

• Prince, B. (1979), ‘An Investigation of Career Concepts and Career Anchors’,

Paper given at the Western Academy of Management Meeting, Portland, Oregon,

• Raelin, J.A. (1980), ‘Building a Career: The Effect of Initial Job Experience and

related Work Attitude on Later Employment’, W.E. Upjohn Institute for

Employment Research, Kalamazoo, Michigan.

• Raymond A. N. (1996), ‘Is Career Management Related to Employee

Development and Performance?’ Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17: 2, 119 -

133

• Rea, L. M. and Parker, R A. (1992), ‘Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A

Comprehensive guide’, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

• Rynes, S. L., Tolbert, P. S. and Strausser, P. G. (1988), 'Aspirations to Manage: A

Comparison of Engineering Students and Working Engineers', Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 32,239-253.

• Salant, P., Dillman, D A., (1994), ‘How to Conduct your Own Survey’, New York,

NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

58
• Scarpello, V and Vandenberg, R.J. (1992), ‘Generalizing the Importance of

Occupational and Career Views to Job Satisfaction Attitudes’, Organizational

Behavior, 13: 2, 125-140.

• Schein, E. G. (1978), ‘Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational

Needs’, Addison-Wesley, and Reading, Mass.

• Schein, E. H. (1975), 'How "Career Anchors" Hold Executives to their Career

Paths', Personnel, May-June, 11-24.

• Schein, E.H., (1971), ‘The Individual, the Organization, and the Career: A

Conceptual Scheme’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7:4, 401 -426.

• Schein, E.H. (1975), ’How Career Anchors Hold Executives to Their Career

Paths’, Personnel, 52:3, 11-24.

• Schneier, C.E and Beatty, R.W. (1979), ‘Integrating Behaviorally Based

Effectiveness-Based Methods’, The Personnel Administrator, XXIV (), 66.

• Shipp, V.H. (1999), ‘Factors Influencing the Career Choices of African American

Collegians: Implications for Minority Teacher Recruitment’, The Journal of

Negro Education, 68:3, 343-351.

• Sims, R.R. (1983), ‘Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory: A Framework for

Assessing Person-Job Interaction’, The Academy of Management Review, 8:3,

501-508.

• Sterrett, E.A. (1999), ‘A Comparison of Women's and Men's Career Transitions’,

Career Development, 25:4

• Stumpf, S. A., Colarelli, S. M. and Hartman, K. (1983), 'Development of the

Career Exploration Survey (CES)', Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22, 191-226.

59
• Vardi, Y. and Hammer, T. (1977), 'Inter Organizational Mobility and Career

Perceptions among Rank and File Employees', Academy of Management Journal,

20, 622-634.

• Veronica H. Shipp, V.H. (1999), ‘Factors Influencing the Career Choices of

African American Collegians: Implications for Minority Teacher Recruitment’,

Negro Education, 68: 3, 343-351.

• Werts, C.E. (1967), ‘Career Choice Patterns’, Sociology of Education, 40: 4, 348-

358.

• Williams, T. H. (1972), 'Educational aspirations: Longitudinal evidence on their

development in Canadian youth', Sociology of Education, 45, 107-133.

WEB LINKS:

• www.dor.myflorida.com/dor/sls/climate_survey.pdf
• www.uhv.edu/forms/job_performance_appraisal.pdf
• www.jstore.org
• http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-performance-standard.html

60