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ENSC3003 Fluid Mechanics Assignment 2 Hydrostatics/Shell Momentum Balances Questions 3, 4 and 8 are to be submitted for marking Assignment Due

e : 4:00 pm on Monday, March 25th, 2013; The assignment must be submitted to LMS in pdf form

1.

A storage tank contains a slurry of mineral sands and water. The tank is 4.5 metres long, 4.5 metres wide, and 3.25 metres deep. The tank is filled to the brim. The tank has a roof, but it may be assumed that standard atmospheric pressure acts on the water surface. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) What is the density of the slurry, if it has a specific gravity of 1.35? If the slurry is 3 metres deep, what are the absolute and gauge pressures (in Pascals) at the bottom of the tank ? What is the pressure head (in metres of water) at the bottom of the tank? Calculate the force exerted by the water on the base of the tank. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the side of the tank. Calculate the depth of the centre of pressure on the side wall.

2.

In the two fluid manometer depicted below, the pressure of water flowing in a pipe (SG=1) is measured, with mercury (SG=13.85) used as the manometer fluid. The open end of the manometer is exposed to a vacuum (absolute pressure = 0). Determine the gauge pressure at the centre-line of the pipe for the manometer levels depicted below.

3.

An inclined wall bounding a body of water is depicted in the diagram below. The face of the wall is 6 metres long and 10 metres wide (in the direction into the page). The water body is full to the top of the wall and open to the atmosphere. Determine: (a) (b) (c) (d) The absolute and gauge pressures at the base of the wall (in Pascals) The pressure head at the base of the wall (in metres of water) The total force acting on the wall (in Newtons), and the direction that the force acts in. The position of the centre of pressure.

4.

A body of water is held back behind a 5 metre wide diamond shaped wall, as illustrated in the diagram below (the diamond is a square rotated to a 45 degree angle). The water surface is level with the top of the wall (and thus water lies only to the left of the centreline of the wall), and atmospheric pressure acts at the surface. Calculate the horizontal and vertical components of the pressure force (in Newtons) acting on the dam wall. Your answer must identify the direction in which each force component acts. You may use "shortcuts" in determining your answers, and assume that the density of water is 1000 kg/m3.

2 metres

5.

A crude canoe is made from a rectangular fibreglass box 3 feet wide, 3 feet deep, and 6 feet long. The canoe itself has a mass of 25 kilograms, and is paddled by a man weighing 90 kilograms. What is the maximum percentage of the canoe volume that can be filled with water while the canoe still floats? Assume the thickness of the canoe is negligible compared with its other dimensions. A Newtonian fluid is flowing a steady state in a vertical circular pipe 20 mm in diameter. The specific gravity of the fluid is 0.95, and the absolute viscosity of the fluid is 275 centipoise. (a) In the normal flow configuration, fluid flows downward. The head loss gradient in the direction of flow is 0.52 m (H2O)/metre. Assuming that the flow is laminar, determine the volume flow rate in the pipe. Determine the average flow velocity in the pipe, and the magnitude and location of the maximum flow velocity Determine whether the assumption of laminar flow in parts (a) and (b) is justified It is sought to triple the flow rate in the pipe by changing the pipe diameter. If the pressure gradient, viscosity and specific gravity are unchanged, determine the pipe diameter required to achieve this. An error in construction results in the pipe being oriented such that the fluid actually flows upward. How would you correct the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate the flow rate for this situation ?

6.

(b) (c) (d)

(e)

7.

Two immiscible fluids are flowing in laminar pressure-driven flow between two parallel plates. Is it possible that the velocity profiles would be of the form depicted below? Explain your answer.

A Newtonian fluid is in pressure driven laminar flow in a horizontal narrow slit formed by two parallel walls separated by a distance 2B, as illustrated below. The pressure at the entry to the section is PO, the pressure at the exit is PL. It may be assumed that 2B<<W (W is the width in the direction into the page), so that edge effects are unimportant. Gravity acts straight down, and the system is at steady state. Using the axes shown on the figure below, set up a differential momentum balance, and obtain expressions for (a) The shear stress (as a function of y). (b) The velocity distribution (as a function of y). (c) The volume flow rate. (d) Explain (using a meaningful sketch) why these equations would not be valid if B=W

9.

In a gas absorption experiment, a viscous film flows (in laminar flow) down the outside of a small circular tube at steady state, as illustrated below. Set up a momentum balance over a shell of thickness r in the film, and derive: (a) The expression for the velocity distribution in the film (as a function of radius) (b) An expression for the mass flow rate in the film. You may assume that the film thickness is constant in the axial (z) direction, that end effects may be neglected (ie consider a shell of fixed length L), and that gravity acts in the negative Z direction. The dashed line represents the centreline of the cylinder.