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INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II TEST 2

HYDROGEN 1.1 Chemistry of hydrogen is the reaction of proton. Show how proton exists in ammonia and water. NH4+ H3O+ 1.2 Hydrogen is prepared in the laboratory by the action of an acid on a metal. However, there are few exceptions. Describe the reasons for the following exceptions. 1.2.1 Lead is never used Lead form an insoluble salt layer on the metal surface. 1.2.2 Pure zinc is not used High activation energy slows the reaction 1.2.3 Nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid is not used They are oxidising acids. Hydrogen oxidised to water 1.3 What kind of elements can form ionic hydride? Strongly electropositive elements( group 1 and 2) 1.4 Describe the kind of elements forming covalent hydride and their stability. Covalent hydrides are formed by group IV to group VII elements. The stability of these hydrides decreases down the group. (4) (1) (2) (2) (2)

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1.5

Describe the structure of interstitial hydride. Interstitial hydrides are formed by transition elements. The metal lattice of these elements can accommodate hydrogen atom at random, without building a bond. No fixed chemical formula can be assigned these compounds.

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1.6

Hydrogen blow lamp is used in welding. How does this device work? Hydrogen atoms combine with the liberation of large quantity of heat energy. This recombination hydrogen atom can only be catalyzed by certain metals like platinum.

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GROUP 1 : ALKALI METALS 2.1 Unlike other Group 1 metals lithium is a poor reducing agent. Why? Lithium is a small atom. Electrons of lithium are strongly attached to its nucleus. Electrons of lithium atom are not readily available for reduction. 2.2 Lithium is a powerful reducing agent when dissolved in water. Give reason(s) for this behaviour. Lithium is strongly hydrated with release of sufficient energy to release electrons readily, for reduction. 2.3 Why is sodium not forming stable nitride like lithium? Sodium atom is large and three sodium atoms cannot fit around a small nitrogen atom. 2.4 Give two uses of mercury in Castner- Kellner process . Mercury prevents hydrogen from discharging. It also carry sodium out of the electrolytic cell. 2.5 Why carbon is selected as reducing agent for the reduction of potassium boromate in the production of potassium bromide? The oxidation product of carbon is carbon dioxide, a gas, which escapes leaving the solid potassium bromide free. (4) (2) (2)

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2.6

Carbonate, sulphide, of Group 1 metal shows basic reaction when dissolved in water. 2.6.1 Why this property is not shared by other groups of metals Only group 1 metals form soluble carbonates, sulphide. Insoluble salt cannot hydrolyze. 2.6.2 Show the reaction of carbonate in water solution CO32- + H2O HCO3- + OH(3) (2)

GROUP II : ALKALINE EARTH METALS 3.1 Most of beryllium compounds are covalent while the rest of the elements in the group form ionic compound. Explain this trend. Electrons of small beryllium atom are closely attached to the nucleus. These electrons are not transferred easily. 3.2 Why are beryllium containers used to carry nuclear fuel. Beryllium does not absorb neutrons. So no secondary radiation is produced from it. 3.3 How is oxidation of molten magnesium prevented in its extraction furnace? By covering the molten metal with town gas (CO and H2). 3.4 Why is it necessary to replace lime plaster every 10 years? Explain the process of its destruction. Calcium carbonate forms soluble calcium hydrogen carbonate when exposed to rain water or moisture mixed with carbon dioxide. Over the years the plaster weakens and erodes. 3.5 Describe the formation of hardness in water. Hardness of water is caused by the presence of soluble hydrogen carbonates of calcium and magnesium. When rain water runs over calcium and magnesium salts in the soil they form hydrogen carbonates and ends in water streams. 3.5 Following set of equations show a simplified order of manufacturing Portland cement. Fill the blanks and balance in the equations. CaSO4 + --- CaS+ --(3) (2)

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CaSO4 + 2C CaS+ 2CO2 CaS + CaSO4 -- + -CaS +3 CaSO4 4 CaO +4SO2 CaO + SiO2 -CaO + SiO2 CasiO3

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