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Comfort

visual, thermal, noise level, air quality

Energy Sewage
Storm water Pollution
Solid waste management

Water

Ecology and geology

Building materials

e n v i r o n m e n ta l building Guidelines
for Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority

An abridged manual on

Comfort visual, thermal, noise level, air quality) Energy Water Storm water Sewage Ecology and geology

Pollution
Solid waste management Building materials

e n v i r o n m e n ta l building Guidelines
for Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority

An abridged manual on

The Energy and Resources Institute, 2009

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of The Energy and Resources Institute, Terra Viridis Partnership Ltd, and Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority.

Published by T E R I Press The Energy and Resources Institute Tel. 24682100 or 41504900 Darbari Seth Block Fax 24682144 or 24682145 IHC Complex India +91 Delhi (0) 11 Lodhi Road E-mail teripress@teri.res.in New Delhi 110003, India Web www.teriin.org

Printed in India

CONTENTS
Messages v Project team viii Foreword ix Preface xi Abbreviation xiii Introduction xv Energy........................................................................ 1

Comfort. ...................................................................... 15 Water......................................................................... 21 Storm water................................................................. 27 Sewage....................................................................... 33 Solid waste management.................................................. 39 Pollution. ..................................................................... 45 Ecology and geology........................................................ 49 Building materials.......................................................... 53 Glossary ..................................................................... 55

CHIEF MINISTER

ANDHRA PRADESH

I am glad to know that the HyderabadMetropolitan Development Authority is releasing an educational booklet on Environment Building Guidelines for sustainable development of the historic city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad has become a global city, the best place to do business and to live. Our beautiful city is prospering and growing at an enormous rate. However we cannot continue to grow in the present manner without a detrimental impact on our environment. We no longer have abundant availability of water. We cannot generate limitless levels of energy. Ever changing weather patterns due to climate change are playing havoc in our daily lives. It is time we start preparing ourselves to face the consequences of climate changes on one hand while helping to reduce our contributions to it on the other. The solution is not to curtail development but to develop sustainably. The foresight of HMDA in developing Hyderabad specific building guidelines will ensure not only a higher quality of life for us but also for our children. Following these guidelines will be the gr t gift we can bestow upon our future generations.

r C V.S.K. SARMA,IAS
Principal Secretary to Government & Chairman, Hyderabad Metro Rail

Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department


Government of Andhra Pradesh L-Block, A.P.Secretariat Hyderabad - 500 022. (() : Off : + 91-40- 2345 2499 Tele/Fax: + 91 -40- 23450622 Res: + 91-40- 2355 0256 e-mail: prlsecy_maud@ap.gov.in

There is currently no end in sight to our daily power and municipal water shortages. There will be no respite from the flooding of our roads during the monsoon and the over flowing of garbage on to our streets. The air we breathe and the lakes we utilise are getting more and more polluted. The loss of Hyderabad's unique rock formations and corresponding biodiversity is accelerating. These problems will only get worse unless each one of us make a conscious effort to change the way the city operates, the buildings we build and our behavioural patterns within our own gamut, be it the government, corporate bodies, institutions or individuals. The set of environmental building guidelines developed specifically for Hyderabad by HMDA along with their consultants TERI and Terra Viridis will assist each of us to make a positive contribution. Written in a form that either a professional or layman can utilise, following these guidelines will help in correcting the problems that the rapid, haphazard development of Hyderabad has resulted in. Going green does not mean a reduced standard of living. Quite the opposite, it not only enhances your current quality of life but also ensures an enhanced quality of life for your children and the future generations.

Project team
TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) Pradeep Kumar, Mili Majumdar, Hina Zia, Minni Mehrotra, Priyanka Kochchar, Apoorv Vij, Rana Pratap Poddar, Sudipta Singh, Nitish Poornia, Tarun Garg, Siddharth Tampi, and Shraddha Mahore TVPL (Terra Viridis Pvt. Ltd) Swati Puchalapalli, Srikumar Sattaru, and Pallavi Damodaran TERI Press Richa Sharma, R Ajith Kumar, Chandni Sengupta, and T Radhakrishnan

FOREWORD
ndia heads for an economic growth of about 8 per cent with cities contributing a major portion to this growth. Meeting the infrastructure requirements of these cities is of fundamental importance to Indias economic growth aspirations and its efforts to raise the level of human development. Hyderabad Metropolitan Region (HMR), the capital city of Andhra Pradesh state is witnessing high economic growth especially in IT sector, biotechnology, entertainment industry, manufacturing and service sector. Building and real estate sector is likely to grow along with this economic growth. The existing status of various infrastructure facilities related to construction, operation and maintenance of buildings including water, energy, and waste management all demonstrate serious gaps at present, which are expected to increase in the future. However, the building sector holds a lot of potential to conserve and reduce the pressure on depleting resources like energy and water besides improving environmental quality in Hyderabad. Considering immense challenges on climate change and global warming, Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) initiated a study in the year 2007 on Environmental Building Regulations and Guidelines (EBRGs) for a sustainable development of Hyderabad Metropolitan Region. The broad vision behind the EBRG project is to assess the present and future environmental issues in the building industry, specifically with respect to urban development and propose guidelines for environmental sustainable building design, construction and operation to promote and integrate sustainable practices and provide an affordable and higher quality environment for the residents. This is an unique initiative and Hyderabad is one of first cities in India to take up this initiative, which forcefully reinstates HMDAs commitment towards sustainable development of Hyderabad Metropolitan Region. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi in association with Terra Viridis Partnership Limited (TVPL) are the consultants for the project.

During the study, the builders, planners, architects, engineers, resident welfare associations, GHMC, APPCB, APCPDCL, HMWS&SB, GoAP, academicians and various stakeholders in HMR were actively involved. The EBRGs proposed by the consultants were placed for further extensive stakeholders dialogues and finally a set of Environmental Building Guidelines (EBGs) were firmed up covering various aspects of urban development like energy, comfort, water and storm water, sewage, solid waste management, building materials, ecology and geology. The detailed guidelines and other information are provided at HMDA website <www.hmda.gov.in>. The website has easy to use tools, calculators and links to other resources. This booklet summarises the guidelines and can be used by one and all as a ready reckoner for both new and existing buildings. The EBGs can be followed by architects, engineers, developers, building owners and common man to enable design, construction and operation of environment friendly buildings and developments. A book of this magnitude and complexity could not have been brought out without help of all the stakeholders and their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. TERI and TVPL made a commendable work in providing the research content in simple and lucid manner with attractive illustrations for easy understanding. We encourage everyone to read and derive benefit of the knowledge resources that have been provided in this contents, practice and spread the spirit of green concepts.

Dr K S Jawahar Reddy, IAS Metropolitan Commissioner HMDA

PREFACE
he EBRG (Environmental Building Regulation Guideline) educational booklet is an attempt to create environmental awareness in the built environment available to all. The booklet is a concise version of the EBRGs developed for the HMDA (Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority). Due to rapid growth in the Greater Hyderabad region, HMDA decided to develop environmental building regulations, which can be used as guidelines for all future developments, keeping in mind the environmental impacts of construction. The EBRGs attempt to provide model parameters to adopt and follow in order to minimize the negative impacts of construction. This is to ensure that the pressure on infrastructural facilities like electricity, sewage disposal, and so on, for the upcoming sub-urban regions is minimized.

The EBRGs look at various aspects of buildings like energy consumption, water requirements, ecology and geology on site, building materials, sewage disposal, comfort, storm water management, solid waste management, and pollution control. The Guidelines look at these aspects at the neighbourhood level as well as the buildings level. The neighbourhood level interventions and the building level interventions together create a sustainable habitat. The booklet has one page description of various aspects of each Guideline along with tips and easy solutions for the users to understand and adopt the concepts easily. Various aspects of each Guideline, have been explained in the simplest possible way in order to ensure that even a nontechnical person is able to read and understand them.

ABBREVIATIONS
ASHRAE BEE BIS CPCB ECBC HMDA HVAC LED MoEF NBC RCC RO SEGR SHGC SUDS TDS VOC American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air conditioning Engineers Bureau of Energy Efficiency Bureau of Indian Standards Central Pollution Control Board Energy Conservation Building Code Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority Heating, ventilation and air conditioning Light-emitting diode Ministry of Environment and Forests National Building Code Reinforced cement concrete Reverse osmosis Specific Energy Generation Ratio Solar heat gain coefficient Sustainable urban drainage systems Total dissolved solids Volatile organic compounds

INTRODUCTION
rban centres across the world face major challenges in the form of increasing population and infrastructure pressures. As a result, major shortages of natural resources occur as demand increases alongside population, even while supplies decrease. Buildings alone are major contributors to energy and resource consumption and, therefore, provide many possibilities for reduction in resource consumption. Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradesh, is one such fast growing urban centre facing enormous population and infrastructure pressure with buildings contributing to the various environmental hazards in the area. Recognizing these concerns and challenges, the HMDA (Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority) is committed to put in place building regulations and guidelines to. P Assess present and future environmental issues in the building industry with a focus on urban development in Greater Hyderabad; P Provide an affordable and higher quality environment for habitants of Greater Hyderabad; P Promote and integrate sustainable building practices, as it benefits both current and future generations; P Formulate guidelines and regulations in building design, construction, and operation for a balanced and sustainable built environment; P Facilitate guidelines and regulations in building design, construction, and operation for a balanced and sustainable built environment; P Educate people in environmental building design and remove the false notion that environmental building design equates to higher building costs; and P Create awareness among public utility agencies, building professionals, and users in making decisions to introduce sustainable building features in design and construction.

for Hyderabad is a first move towards this direction. The current system of guidelines for buildings do not cover all the aspects such as energy efficiency, comfort conditions, on-site water and waste management, consideration of specific topography, site conditions, and other ecological issues. It is also observed that the connectivity, between individual buildings and its surroundings, is currently lacking in the existing system of guidelines. As a result, the area is fast growing into a concrete jungle with complete dismay to its rich heritage and natural bounty. It has, therefore, become essential to redraw our vision and frame guiding principles to drive Hyderabad towards a greener and healthier place in line with its beautiful past. The broad vision behind developing the new framework of guidelines is to assess the present and future environmental issues in the building industry, specifically with respect to urban development in the Hyderabad Development Area and propose guidelines for environmentally sustainable building design, construction, and operation in a wider context to promote and integrate sustainable practices and provide an affordable and higher quality environment for the residents.

Relevance of EBRGs for a green habitat


Environmental building regulations and guidelines encompass a wide range of issues both at the neighbourhood scale and at the individual buildings level. These guidelines try to build a greener habitat, by considering various environmental issues, at both these scales and attempts to incorporate the green buildings concept. Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency through which buildings use resources, viz., energy, water and materials, while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment during the buildings lifecycle, through planned design, construction, operation, maintenance, resource recycle, and reuse in a wider context of its locality. Green buildings are the ones, which encompass several environment-friendly products and features. They showcase concern for extending life span of natural resources; provide human comfort, safety, and productivity. This results in reduction of operation and maintenance costs, conservation of energy and water, health, social benefits, and other intangible benefits. These guidelines are, thus, designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by

Environmental building regulations and guidelines


The existing system of guidelines and building regulations were prepared with a piecemeal approach and a strong need was felt to improve the building guidelines in an integrated manner, keeping it at par with the best international practices. The HMDA has taken this initiative to draw a vision for a sustainable Hyderabad. The development of EBRGs (environmental building regulations and guidelines)

xvi
P P P

Introduction
Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution, and environmental degradation 9. Design energy-efficient lighting in all new residential and commercial buildings and retrofit external and common area lighting with efficient fixtures and apply lighting controls in existing residential complexes/ buildings 10. Design energy-efficient space conditioning in commercial buildings 11. Replace existing equipment by BEE labelled appliances /equipment and use BEE labelled appliances/equipment in all new buildings 12. Provide solar water heating systems to meet minimum 20% of service hot water requirement for new commercial and residential buildings 13. Perform mandatory energy audit for existing commercial buildings with connected load in cases of 500 kW or 600 kVA and reduce energy expenditure by 20% over previous year. Follow prescriptive/mandatory requirements of lighting, HVAC, electrical, and hot water systems as per the ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code) 2007 for all new commercial buildings, as stipulated by the ECBC 2007

They are designed to use the least amount of nonrenewable energy and natural resources, and to use these resources in the most efficient manner. Further, such buildings produce a minimum amount of pollution and cost less as compared to conventional buildings. In addition to these, such a habitat creates a healthy and comfortable place for people to live and work.

Scope of the booklet


This booklet is an attempt to give a concise summary of the aforementioned building guidelines and regulations to the common man in an easy-to-understand format. These guidelines will introduce the common people to the what and how of various issues pertaining to constructing a new building or retrofitting an existing building at neighbourhood scale, as well as the individual building level with the prime objective of living a healthier lifestyle. The booklet contains simple solutions and tips to improve the energy and resource performance of new and existing buildings residential and non-residential. Kindly visit the website of HMDA for further detailed information on any of the guidelines and the legal process to do so.

Comfort
14. Provide thermal comfort (for air conditioned and naturally/mechanically ventilated spaces) as per the NBC (National Building Code) for all new residential and commercial buildings 15. Provide adequate day lighting as per the NBC and the ECBC 16. Use internal finishes with no or low VOC (volatile organic compound) content 17. Indoor noise levels as per the NBC, 2005 18. Maintain indoor air quality standards

List of EBRGs
The developed guidelines have been classified under three broad sectors and sub-sectors within as follows. a) Energy and indoor comfort-energy, comfort b) Water and wastewaterwater, sewage, storm water c) Quality of built environment solid waste, pollution, ecology and geology, building materials Following gives a list of all these guidelines under the various sub-sectors:

Water
19. Water conserving fittings 20. Drinking water quality requirements 21. Water conserving landscaping 22. Water audits to assess water conservation potential in existing buildings

Energy
1. Layout and design as per solar geometry 2. Plan for environment-friendly transportation on site 3. Provide for energy-efficient site lighting and use renewable-energy-based (solar PV, biomass, wind, fuel cells) lighting system 4. Minimum local amenities to reduce use of private vehicles 5. Control light pollution 6. Solar passive design for new buildings 7. Provide roof treatment to cut heat gains 8. Window design for day lighting, solar control, and ventilation

Storm water
23. Adherence to neighbourhood catchment area and drainage pattern 24. An integrated approach for SUDS (sustainable urban drainage system) 25. Reducing storm water runoff and heat island effect through permeable paving and infiltration trenches 26. Rainwater harvesting and collection from roofs

Sewage
27. Dual plumbing systems and wastewater treatment 28. Decentralized STPs Operation and maintenance requirements

Introduction
29. Safe disposal of treated unused grey water and wastewater 30. Safe sludge disposal methods

xvii

Pollution
36. Control levels of air pollution during construction 37. Ensure ambient outdoor noise standards

Solid Waste Management


31. Waste management of municipal solid waste at neighbourhood level 32. Waste management of residential waste 33. Waste management for commercial buildings (also caters to e-waste) 34. Waste management of biomedical waste from hospitals/ health care facilities 35. Reduction in waste during construction and construction and demolition waste management plan

Ecology and geology


38. Conserving site vegetation through design and during construction 39. Soil conservation and erosion control during construction 40. Conserving site geology through design and during construction

Building materials
41. Use of sustainable building materials

ENERGY
he prime intent for developing energy-related EBRGs (Environmental Building Regulations and Guidelines) is to enable the reduction of energy consumed by buildings, through proper transport planning in large neighbourhoods, site planning, and adopting climate-responsive design for buildings, in addition to using efficient lighting and space cooling. Integration of renewable energy for water heating is also suggested in the regulations. There are also a number of existing buildings that need to be made energy efficient. An EBRG on conducting energy audit of existing buildings has also been included. The EBRGs have been divided into two sections. The first section comprises guidelines that specify the actions that need to be taken at the neighborhood and site levels during the planning stage. These include layout and planning as per the solar geometry, planning for eco-friendly transportation on-site, energy-efficient and solarbased site lighting, making available facilities within easily approachable distances, and controlling light pollution. The next set of EBRGs is tailored for building-level interventions for new and existing buildings. The basic approach towards developing EBRGs is based on three fundamental strategies adopted to optimize energy performance in a building. 1 Reducing energy demand 2 Maximizing system efficiency 3 Optimizing the usage of renewable energy

Guideline

Layout and design of buildings should be as per solar geometry


P Longer dimensions of buildings should face north and south (with a maximum deviation of 5 off north) and shorter dimensions should face east and west. In multistoried apartments, the sides having openings should face either north or south. P The southern sides of the plots should be shaded by deciduous trees. In case of high-rise structures, windows or faade should be shaded by in-built shading devices. P The east and west faades should be protected by using shading devices, vegetation or buffer spaces. P Courtyards should be oriented along eastwest axis to capture maximum wind. To create cooler microclimate conditions, water elements should be provided along the wind paths.

Orientation of buildings
P A building can be laid out and designed on the basis of sun path and wind direction. P A building designed according to solar path remains comparatively cool in summers and warm in winters, thus obviating the need for artificial heating or cooling. P If oriented properly, a building receives comparatively less radiation, which results in lesser heat gains. This reduces overall air conditioning requirement, which, in turn, saves energy. P Solar angle and altitude with respect to a particular surface vary with time, following a distinct geometry. This geometry can be followed while designing a building. P Proper layout and design of a building ensure that the building benefits the maximum from the wind so that there is no need for artificial ventilation and cooling. P Planned layout and design of a building make the building get just enough sunlight, without any glare. P Incorporation of shading devices can be planned in the initial stages of layout and design, which will lead to energy efficiency and add to the aesthetic appeal of the building. P As the sun moves from east to west and sun path is more inclined towards south, the north faades of the building do not receive direct radiation. P Solar angles are low in east and west, while high in south. P In efficient buildings, the longer faade faces north and south, while the smaller faade faces east and west. P The radiation can be cut-off by using shading devices. P Shading devices protect the building by obstructing the vertical shadow angle and horizontal shadow angle, which are calculated from sun path diagram.

Correct orientation and shading helps reduce energy consumption by almost 15%

Guideline

Eco-friendly transportation on-site


P Eco-friendly mode of transportation should be provided for intra-site transportation, with adequate provision for bicycle tracks and shaded footpaths for sites 50 acres or more in area. P Linear layouts leading to large vehicular lengths should be avoided. Cluster layouts should be preferred. P Battery charging facilities should be provided for projects of size 50 acres or aboveone for 50 parked cars. These charging points should be placed at convenient locations and should be spaced equally. P For basement parking, provision for minimum daylight and ventilation should be made for the first basement. To ensure a minimum of three air changes per hour, a minimum vertical opening area equivalent to 10% of floor area should be provided on the basement wall (on both windward and leeward sides).

Advantages of using eco-friendly modes of transportation


P Eco-friendly modes of transportation do not cause environmental pollution like conventional modes of transportation. P Using eco-friendly vehicles saves on the conventional fuel. P There is no carbon footprint when eco-friendly vehicles are used. P Walking and cycling are the healthiest modes of transportation. P Planting shady trees on footpaths and cycling tracks enhances the natural environment.

Guidelines for ensuring eco-friendly transportation


P Cluster layout Clusters reduce the long lengths of road and also the vehicular speed. Parking spaces in cluster development can be provided outside the cluster. P Facilities for cyclists and pedestrians Pedestrians and cyclists should be provided with amenities like drinking Trees shade walking paths and cycling tracks water fountains, benches, cycle parking, and so on. Cycling tracks and sidewalks should be planted with shady trees. P Landscaping Landscaping plan should be incorporated in road systems to enhance the aesthetics. Green belt should be maintained around roads. P Visibility Landscaping should be done in such a way that it does not obstruct the visibility and movement. P Public transportation Public mode of transportation should be encouraged to make travelling efficient and convenient. P Electric vehicle Electric vehicles are least polluting, so their use should be encouraged. Facilities should be provided for charging the batteries used for such vehicles.

Guideline

Energy-efficient and renewable-energy-based external lighting


P Horizontal average illuminance should be equal to or more than that defined in IS:1944 (Parts I&II 1970, as per classification of road). P 50%100% of outdoor lighting should be based on solar photovoltaics alone or in combination with other renewable sources of energy like biomass, fuel cell, wind, and so on. P Luminous efficacy of external light sources used for outdoor lighting shall equal or exceed 60 lm/W in case of compact fluorescent lamps, 75 lm/W in case of fluorescent lamps, 50 lm/W in case of light-emitting diodes, and 90 lm/W in case of high-pressure sodium vapour lamp.

Efficient lighting
P Efficient lighting ensures visual comfort and utilizes energy optimally and efficiently. P The switches used for outdoor lighting generally do not take seasonal variation into account, which results in the wastage of energy. Therefore, a device or a timer should be used that is sensitive to seasonal variations and adjusts on the basis of actual length of day/night. P Microcontroller-based time switch has inputs like real time, date, month, year, and plus and minus offset. Due to its versatile concept of switching at sunset and sunrise timings throughout the year, it saves on electrical units, resulting in reduced electric bills. P Solar energy and other sources of renewable energy can be used for outdoor lighting, which requires minimum maintenance and operation cost.

Bollard

Criteria for choosing outdoor lighting


The choice of source for external lighting is guided by following considerations. P Luminous flux P Economy (determined by lumens/watt and life) P Colour characteristics

Types of outdoor lighting


P Up lights Used to highlight the ceiling. Installed in places like underfoliage or near bigger plants to create a glowing effect. P Path lights Used to light up walkways. P Ornamental lights Used to enhance landscape features. P Electric lamps v High pressure mercury vapour lamps Light is produced by passing an electric charge through gaseous mercury. Though the efficacy of mercury lamps is less compared to fluorescent lamps, they are very popular for outdoor lighting. v High pressure sodium vapour lamps Light is produced by passing an electric discharge through the combined vapours of mercury and sodium. They have a distinct yellow or golden yellow appearance. v Metal halide lamps Also known as metal arc lamps, these are mercury vapour lamps with metal compounds like halides. These are used in car parking areas and city centres. They have a relatively shorter life. P Solar energy-powered lights These lights do not require any wiring and are powered by a photovoltaic panel. This panel charges the inverter, which supplies power to lamps.

Solar PV panel powered outdoor lighting

Guideline

Providing basic amenities in order to reduce the use of private vehicles


Benefits
P Facilities like grocery stores, health care, community halls, ATMs, parks, and recreational facilities need to be located within a 500-metre radius from where the people live or residential complexes come up. P This will ensure that the people do not have to travel long distances in their private vehicles to procure things of daily use. P There would be minimal adverse impacts on the environment, as there would be limited emission of polluting greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide. P Provision of basic facilities in new and upcoming residential localities ensures that these localities develop into buzzing centres. P People are saved from the drudgery of going long distances and have more quality time to spend as they wish to. Various facilities for which guidelines have been provided are as follows. P Schools Ideally, there should be a pre-primary/nursery school for a population of 200 people, a primary school for a population of about 5000 people, and a senior secondary school for a population of 7500 people. This will ensure that children do not have to travel long distance. P Hospitals A clinic should be available for a population comprising 15 000 people, and a nursing home with child care facilities should be available for a population of 50 000 people. P Recreational facility People need community halls to organize various functions like marriages or to simply play or relax. There should be a community hall for 5000 people, and for a population of about 15 000 people, there should be a community hall and a library. P Petrol pump There should be at least one petrol pump for 150 hectares of gross residential areas. P Milk booths Milk booths offer various dairy products like milk, curd, buttermilk, and so on. There should be a milk booth for every 5000 people. P LPG (liquid petroleum gas) godowns LPG facilities should be made available for the residential areas. There should be a gas godown for 40 000 to 50 000 people. P Police post Any residential area needs to have a foolproof security system. There should be a police post for 40 00050 000 people and a police station for a population of 90 000. P Fire station There should be at least one fire station or a sub-fire station for a population of 200 000 people, within 13 kilometres. P Fruit and vegetable market Informal activities take place in a fruit and vegetable market. So such a market needs to be planned and designed keeping the specifications of the residential areas in mind.

Close proximity of various services to the building helps in reducing the need for transportation

Guideline

Reduction of outdoor light pollution


Source of light pollution
Light pollution can occur in one of the following ways. P Outdoor illumination There is excessive and wasteful scatter of light, which contributes to light pollution. This also leads to unwanted illuminance and glare. P Advertising display The attractive lights used by companies to promote their products also causes light pollution. They also distract motorists.

Impacts of light pollution


P Light reflected from buildings at night-time helps pedestrians, but excessive light can also cause discomfort and distract motorists. P Night-time sky visibility gets reduced due to excessive artificial lighting, which hampers the work of astronomers. P Light pollution also affects operations at airports, where pilots may face problems due to excessive artificial lighting. P Light pollution impacts the biological cycles of flora and fauna in the vicinity of artificial lights and also affects the ecosystems operational in the area. P Behaviourial patterns of animals and birds get affected due to artificial lighting. P Excessive spillage of light is a form of electricity wastage.

Zone classification

Full cut-off and semi cut-off luminaires used to control outdoor light pollution

The Commission Internationale de lEclairge has divided areas into four broad categories or zones and has set standards for the degree of light pollution permissible in these areas. Each zone has been given a certain lux level restriction, the maximum being 6 lux for a subject lighting in zone E4 during nighttime, while in zones like E1 and E2, a maximum of 1 lux is permitted for subject lighting. P E1 (intrinsically dark) This zone comprises areas such as national parks, where life thrives in every form. Artificial lighting may interfere with the natural activity of flora and fauna. Astronomical observatories also fall under this category. P E2 (low ambient brightness) This zone comprises rural and sub-urban areas, and road lighting in these areas is brighter than usual. P E3 (medium ambient brightness) This zone comprises areas where night-time activity is slightly more than E2 zone. So, here comparatively brighter light is permitted. P E4 (high ambient brightness) Brightest of all zones. Comprises urban downtown areas, where a lot of commercial activity takes place, especially at nights. So, high ambient brightness is permitted in this zone.

Reducing light pollution


P Care should be taken while designing external lighting so that the difference between lit and unlit areas is not very stark. P External lighting should be turned off when not required, so as to conserve energy. P For E1 and E2 zones, full cut-off luminaires should be used. For other zones, semi cut-off or non cut-off luminaires should be used. P Sensors should be used. P Renewable sources of energy like solar panels should be used. P Use of efficient lamps ensures energy saving.

Guideline

Solar passive design


P Buildings should minimize their dependence on conventional systems of heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting, which utilize electricity produced from non-renewable energy sources. P Solar passive buildings are designed to provide thermal and visual comfort by using natural energy sources and sinks like solar radiation, outside air, wet surfaces, vegetation, and so on.

Objectives of solar passive buildings


P Solar passive buildings aim at providing high quality thermal and Courtyard planning is a recommended passive visual comfort using natural elements. feature for hot and dry climate P These buildings save energy and do not pollute the environment. They provide a healthy atmosphere to live and work. P They have a potential to reduce energy demand by 5%20%. P These buildings can also function independent of mechanical systems, which mean that in case of power failure, they are well lit by natural daylight and are thermally comfortable.

Designing a solar passive building


Solar passive architecture design strategies
P Landscaping Micro climate of a place can be altered by growing trees and vegetation. Roof gardens also reduce heat load. P Waterbodies Water has a moderating effect on air temperature. It has a high thermal storage capacity. Water evaporation has a cooling effect on surroundings. P Orientation The amount of solar radiation falling on a surface varies with orientation. P Building form Building form affects solar access and wind exposure as well as the rate of heat gain and loss through the Landscaping for modifying the micro-climate external envelope. P Building materials and construction techniques The energy content of a building can be reduced by using building materials that use low energy in manufacturing. P Building envelope Building envelope components like walls, roof, windows, floor, and surface finishes are the key determinants of the amount of heat gain or loss and wind entering the building. P Thermal storage/thermal capacity The heat storing capacity of building materials helps to moderate fluctuation in the indoor temperature by providing a time delay. P Thermal insulation Insulation should be placed on the external side of wall and roof composition. Heat gain through roofs could be reduced by external insulation, green roof or use of high reflective material on roof top.

Advanced passive cooling techniques


P Evaporative cooling Waterbodies like ponds, lakes or fountains help reduce air temperature. P Radiative cooling Heat loss from the hotter element will occur until equilibrium is reached. P Ventilation It is the exchange of air between the inside of a building and outside, which can be attained by cross-ventilation and stack effect.

Cross-ventilation and stack effect

Guideline

Roof treatment to reduce heat gains


Roof is the largest source of heat gain, especially in low-rise buildings. Hence, proper treatment of roof is necessary to reduce heat gains during daytime.

Roof treatment: facts and benefits


Treatment of roofs provides comfort levels and reduces cooling loads inside a building. Thermally insulating the roof reduces the U-value (thermal conductivity) for the roof section. A dark-coloured roof absorbs more heat and sunlight, increasing the cooling demand of the building. A reflective roof absorbs less heat and reflects incident radiation. High albedo (or solar reflectance, which is a measure of a materials ability to reflect sunlight) roof coatings or paints can be applied to roofs. P An ideal exterior surface coating would have, on a scale 0 to 1, reflectance near 1 and absorptance near 0. White plaster very nearly achieves this. P By applying roof insulation in a 24-hour fully air-conditioned residential building, an annual energy savings of 14% is achieved. Payback period is almost six years. P P P P

Specifications recommended by the Energy Conservation Building Code of India, 2007


P All exposed roof shall have a maximum U-factor of 0.261 W/m2 C or a minimum R-value (the measure of its resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the more the material insulates. It is the reciprocal of U-factor) of 3.5 m2 C/W. P Roofs with slope less than 20 shall have an initial solar reflectance, on a scale of 0 to 1, of no less than 0.70 and an initial emittance (ability of a material to release absorbed heat) no less than 0.75 or shall have 100% shading by using solar water heating panels or solar photovoltaic panels or shall have green roof by integrating roof garden ventilation.

Roof insulation
Roof insulation protects the building against the inflow of heat during the day. In India, construction practices mainly involve using RCC (reinforced cement concrete) as a roofing element, which has a high thermal conductivity. Various insulation methods are discussed below. P Overdeck insulation In this system, a thermal barrier is provided over the RCC, so that the heat of the sun doesnt reach the RCC slab of the roof at all. Overdeck insulation is carried out by either preformed insulation materials, which are adhered to the roof with the help of a primer and an adhesive coat, or in Roof insulation for reducing heat gains situ applications, which are applied directly over the roof by spraying. P Conventional practices Examples are foam concrete, mud phuska, and brick bat coba. However, these are quite heavy and add dead load to the roof slab. These also have a tendency to develop cracks. P Using higher albedo materials/cool roof Higher albedo paints and coats can significantly reduce the heat island effect. These are highly efficient, energy saving, non-toxic, and environment friendly.

Guideline

Window design for daylighting, solar control, and ventilation


For air-conditioned buildings
P Window-to-wall ratio should be restricted to maximum 60% of the gross wall area. U-factor value and SHGC (solar heat gain coefficient) value should be less than that recommended by the ECBC. P Skylight area should be limited to a maximum of 5% of the gross roof area. U-factor value and SHGC value should be less than that recommended by the ECBC. P Windows should be designed to meet daylight requirements as per the BIS.

For naturally ventilated non-air-conditioned buildings

Light shelf-cum-window shade

P Windows should be designed to achieve maximum ventilation. Normally, window areas having 15%20% of floor area are ideal for both ventilation and daylight in hot and dry climate zones. P Windows should be completely shaded to avoid solar external heat gains through the openings. P While designing windows, daylight requirements of the BIS should be met.

Windows
P P P P Windows can achieve natural daylight and natural cooling through ventilation. Windows can be properly designed to cut down solar heat gains. Windows can be designed to provide glare-free diffuse natural daylight inside the building. Optimized window designs reduce the annual energy consumption for lighting and air conditioning.

Window design
Window size and placement
P The higher the window head, the deeper will be the penetration of daylight. P Strip windows provide more uniform daylight. P Big windows should not be placed close to work area, as they may cause thermal discomfort. P View and light windows should be separate. P Window-to-wall ratio should not be more than 60% of the gross wall area.

Glazing
Glass is the most common glazing material used, although recently, Shading projection factors polycarbonate sheets are being used for skylights. P Glass with higher light transmittance should be selected. P Reflective glazing reflects a large portion of solar radiation incident on it and thereby restrict heat gains from window. P Thermal transmittance, or U-value (affecting conduction heat gains), should be lower.

Frame
The type and quality of window frame affects a windows air infiltration and heat gain/heat loss characteristics. The most common types of framing materials used are metal, wood, and polymers.

Shading devices
P External shading It is the most effective, as it cuts off direct sunlight during summer and allows winter sunlight to enter inside the space. P Internal shading device By adjusting these properly, diffuse sunlight can be allowed to enter. However, they do not keep solar heat out.

10

Guideline

Design energy-efficient lighting in all new residential and commercial buildings and retrofit existing lighting systems with efficient ones
Norms and standards to be followed
P The illuminance levels on working plane should confirm to the levels recommended by the NBC (National Building Code), 2005. P The uniformity ratio (minimum illuminance divided by average illuminance levels) of an area, which is entirely being utilized as a workplace, should not be less than 0.7, as per the NBC, 2005. P Light power density (W/m2) of each space in the building and for the whole building should confirm to the ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code), 2007. P Lighting systems in the interior spaces of buildings and exterior building features like faade, roofs, entrances, exits, ground, and so on should comply with the provisions of the ECBC. Some of the exceptions are as follows. v Display or accent lighting used in galleries, museums, and so on. v Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures. v Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment. P Daylight control strategies, as per the ECBC, 2007, for perimeter areas should Efficient lamp and be integrated with access to daylighting. luminaire P Mandatory lighting controls as per the ECBC, 2007, should be applied.

Good lighting tips


P Lamps with high colour rendering index should be used. P For offices, semi-direct luminaries are recommended. P For corridors and staircases, direct type of luminaires with wide spread of light distribution are recommended. P For residential buildings, bare fluorescent tubes are recommended. P The NBC recommends a range of illumination levels for an activity, as conditions might be different for the same activity in different interiors. v Higher value of the range should be used when unusually low reflectance or contrasts are present in the task, errors are costly to rectify, accuracy or high productivity is needed, and visual work is critical. v Lower value of the range may be used when the reflectance or contrast is unusually high, speed and accuracy are not important, and the task is executed only occasionally. P Lighting in external and common area for existing residential complexes/buildings should be retrofit with efficient fixtures and lighting controls. P All the spaces should use efficient lighting equipment like lamps, luminaires, and control gears. P Lights should be dimmed or switched off when rooms are unoccupied or during daylit hours.

Benefits of efficient lighting


P Improved visibility Energy-efficient lighting design enhances the quality and efficiency of lighting. P Energy saving By reducing the connected load of the lighting system, energy savings are maximized. Efficient lighting controls reduce energy consumption by avoiding wastage. P Retrofit Retrofit options can be used in buildings for saving electricity.

LED lamps

11

Guideline

Design energy-efficient space conditioning in commercial buildings


HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) systems account for 60%80% of the energy used in commercial buildings. An efficient system design has the potential to save 20%30% energy over a conventional design. P Spaces that need air conditioning should be delineated. While designing functional layout of buildings, air-conditioned spaces should be reduced. Spaces that are not frequently occupied, like corridors, atrium, lobbies, toilets, stores, and so on, may not be air conditioned. P The inside and outside designs of buildings should be in accordance with the National Building Code, 2005. P Refrigerant used in air conditioners should be free of chlorofluorocarbons. P All heating and cooling equipment should meet the minimum efficiency requirements, as specified in the ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code), 2007. P The minimum fresh air required in a mechanically ventilated or air-conditioned spaces should be as recommended in the National Building Code, 2005. P Pipework and ductwork insulation as per the ECBC, 2007, to be followed.

Towards energy-efficient HVAC systems


P Reduce cooling load by controlling unwanted heat gain External heat gains can be avoided by architectural designs, light-coloured building surfaces, vegetation, and high performance glazing, while internal heat gains can be reduced by using efficient HVAC equipment and direct venting of spot heat sources. Load reduction saves energy and, thus, cost. P Expand the comfort envelope with reduced radiant heat load, increased air flow, less insulated furniture, and more appropriate dress These have the potential to save 20%30% of remaining loads. P Optimizing the delivery system Huge savings are possible from reducing the velocity, pressure, and friction losses in ducts and piping. P Apply non-vapour compression cooling techniques Examples include natural ventilation, ground-coupled cooling, night sky cooling, and evaporation cooling. They typically use 20%30% as much energy per unit cooling as conventional cooling equipment. P Serve the remaining load with high efficiency refrigerate cooling More efficient chillers, pumps, and fans, multiplexed chillers, low friction duct layout and sizing, low pressure drops in air handling and piping components, and overall optimization of the entire HVAC system will further help in making system more efficient. P Use of economizers/energy recovery wheel Economizers are mechanical devices that reduce energy consumption or perform other useful Chiller system in a central HVAC plant functions like preheating a fluid. In simple term, an economizer is a heat exchanger. It could be air-side or water-side. v Air-side economizer It can save energy in buildings by using cool outside air for cooling the indoor space. It also improves indoor air quality. v Water-side economizer It uses water cooled by a wet cooling tower to cool buildings, without operating a chiller. P Improve control Through better algorithms, sensors, signal delivery, user interface, simulators, and other measures. Use of variable frequency drives in fans and pumps can save significant amount of energy.

12

Guideline

Use BEE-labelled equipment and appliances in all new buildings and replace or retrofit the existing equipment with BEE-labelled equipment
Labelled appliance
P Energy consumption by products manufactured by various manufacturers varies. P Often, information on the energy consumption by a product is not easily available or is difficult to understand. P This gap in information may lead to excessive use of energy. P In case of confusion, it is always better to use a labelled appliance. P An appliance is generally rated based on its performance and energy consumption.

Advantages of using labelled products


P The energy rating label helps consumers compare energy efficiency of domestic appliances on a fair and equitable basis and make an informed decision. P Manufacturers, in turn, vie with each other to improve their products. P Labelled products perform better. P Labelled products are generally energy efficient. P Better performing and energy-efficient appliances with clean technology have minimal environmental impacts.

Star performance
BEE star label for appliances The rating of appliances in India is done by the BEE. Labelled appliances carry the symbol of stars. The higher the number of stars, the more efficient the product is. For example, a BEE 3-star rated 1.5-tonne window AC (air conditioner) would consume 2800 units of electricity in a year compared to an inefficient unrated AC of the same size, which would consume 3625 units in a year. P An efficient 3-star 1.5-tonne AC would cost about Rs 2100, while an unrated AC of the same size would cost Rs 1500. The price difference would vanish in a little over one year due to savings in the electricity bill.

P P P P

Efficient installation and usage of room ACs


Following points should be kept in mind while using an AC. P While installing an AC, it should be ensured that the exterior, or back, is not exposed to direct sunlight and is away from heat sources like chimney. P Appliances such as TVs, computers or lamps should be kept away from the AC. P The temperature (thermostat) of the AC should be set higher to reduce energy consumption. P Regular maintenance of ACs improves their efficiency.

Efficient refrigerators
P The cost of running a refrigerator is several times the initial purchase price. So, more efficient model should be bought. P Smaller models will obviously use less energy than larger models. P Models with top- or bottom-mounted freezers use, on an average, 12% less energy than side-by-side designs. P Features like through-the-door ice, chilled water or automatic ice-makers increase the energy consumption, purchase price, and energy use. P A 5-star rated refrigerator does cost more initially compared to, say, a 2-star refrigerator, but its cost of operation over the years is less due to better design and insulation.

13

Guideline

Solar water heating systems for domestic and commercial buildings


P Solar water heating systems should be provided for residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. P These water heating systems will be required to meet a minimum of 20% of water heating needs on an annual basis. P Insulation on pipelines should be provided as per norms. P To reduce water wastage, water recirculating pumps should be provided in high-rise buildings.

Solar water heating: some facts and figures


P A solar water heater uses the energy of the sun to heat water, which is used for various applications like bathing, washing, cooking, and other chores. P A domestic water heater with a capacity of 100 lpd (litres per day) caters to a family of four or five members. P It can easily replace a 2-kW electric geyser and can save up to 1500 units of Solar water heater electricity in a year. P It recovers its cost in three to five years, depending on the electricity tariff and hot water used in a year. P After this, water is available almost free of cost for the remaining lifespan of the system, which is 1520 years. P The cost of the water heater with a capacity of 100 lpd ranges between Rs 18 000 and Rs 25 000. P The overall potential of solar water heating in India is estimated to be 140 million m2. Of this, about 1 million m2 of solar collector area has been realized.

Components of a solar water heating system


A solar water heating system comprises of solar collectors, insulated hot water tank, back-up system, plumbing (galvanized iron pipes and fittings), and controls and instruments (valves, temperature gauge, thermostatic controller).

Types of solar water heating system


P Thermo siphon-type solar hot water system for capacities of up to 2000 lpd. P Forced flow solar hot water system for capacities higher than 2000 lpd.

Guidelines for design, installation, and use of solar water heating systems
P Solar collector should face true south for collecting Schematic diagram explaining the functioning of a SWH maximum solar radiation. P The tilt of the solar collector should be equal to the latitude of the place, which will ensure the collection of maximum annual energy. Tilt equal to +15 gives maximum energy collection in winter, while that equal to 15 gives maximum energy collection in summer. P The load-carrying capacity of the roof should be checked before installing the system.

Guidelines for system selection and use


P The hardness of the water to be used in solar heating systems should be checked to avoid blockage of small diameter pipes of the solar collector due to the deposition of salts. P The location and layout of the heating system should be finalized at the building design stage, which will reduce cost and heat loss due to long pipes. P Good quality pipes and insulation and a continuous supply of water should be ensured for efficient and trouble-free operations. P When not in use, solar collectors should be covered with opaque covers to avoid the overheating of the heating system.

14

Guideline

Perform mandatory energy audit for existing commercial buildings with connected load in cases of 500 kW or 600 kVA, and reduce energy expenditure over previous year
Benefits of energy audit
P It indicates the ways in which different forms of energy are being used and quantify energy use according to discrete functions. P It seeks to prioritize energy uses according to the greatest to least cost-effective opportunities for energy savings. P It helps in achieving reduction in the energy costs by proper utilization of the existing equipment and systems. P It gives a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance, and quality control programmes, which are vital for production and utility activities. P It leads to reduced adverse environmental impacts, as there will be reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases.

Auditing energy consumption in a building


Energy demand and consumption in a building can be identified using following steps. P Data collection On annual energy bills, fuel bills, total built up area (m2), and air conditioned area (m2). P Analysis Of establishing energy performance index (kWh/m2-year), which is a measuring tool to evaluate the performance of the building in terms of the total energy consumption (kWh) and the total built-up area (m2) and SEGR (specific energy generation ratio), which is a measuring tool to evaluate the performance of diesel generators. P Observations and recommendations On comments on the energy performance of the building, on diesel generator performance, and tariff rate. P Energy conservation measures Improving SEGR of diesel generators, analysing the scope of reducing the existing operating consumption (kWh) of the building by installing energy-efficient systems.

Auditing electrical system


Data collection On the main source of electricity for the building and its single line diagram. Measurement Of building load for two days and operating load of LT motors. Analysis Of motor loading (%), voltage, and power factor at transformer. Observation and recommendation On the power factor, motor loading percentage, transformer losses, and voltage imbalance among the three phases. P Energy conservation measures Maintaining power factor by installing capacitor banks, identifying motors on the basis of their loading rates and balancing loads. P P P P

Auditing lighting system


P P P P Data collection On lighting source. Measurement Of illumination level and lighting load (kW). Analysis Of lighting consumption (kWh) and lighting power density (W/m2). Observation and recommendation On maintained visual comfort and measured lighting power density (W/m2). P Energy conservation measures Selecting proper fixture and integrating daylighting with artificial lighting and using automatic lighting control devices.

COMFORT
he primary function of the building envelope is to protect the occupants of the building from the heat of the sun and rains, and provide a congenial environment for work and leisure. To achieve this, it is almost always essential to provide energy-consuming space-conditioning and lighting devices. To reduce energy demand, it is necessary that the design measures adopted should result in the reduction in space conditioning, lighting, and service water heating loads. The first step towards reducing energy demand is to integrate suitable bio-climatic design principles while designing the macroclimate and microclimate of the site. The climatic design varies from one climate zone to the other. India has six climatic zones representing varying climatic conditions, ranging from extreme cold conditions in the cold desert of Leh, Ladakh, to extreme hot and dry conditions in Rajasthan. A building designed for hot climate should have features to reduce solar gain, like smaller window size, shaded walls, minimum exposure to west and east directions, use of external wall and roof insulation, or design elements like solar chimneys, wind towers, and so on to maximize ventilation. Hyderabad is in a predominantly hot and dry climate, and hence, water-based features also aid in the cooling of spaces.

16

Guideline

Thermal comfort
Provide thermal comfort (for air-conditioned and naturally ventilated spaces) as per the National Building Code, 2005

Defining the term


ASHRAE defines thermal comfort in laymans term as the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment. More technically, it is that condition of the environment under which a person can maintain the body heat balance at normal body temperature, without sweating. It depends on various environmental and physiological factors, as listed below. Environmental factors P Dry bulb temperature P Mean radiant temperature P Relative humidity P Air movement Physiological factors P Metabolic rate P Clothing level

Thermal comfort in buildings

Exhaust of hot and stale air for better thermal comfort

In India, according to the National Building Code, 2005, thermal comfort of a person lies between 25 C and 30 C. Providing thermal comfort in this range to occupants is a challenge for building designers. Most buildings use air-conditioning systems to achieve thermal comfort, which consume a lot of energy. The green and energy-efficient buildings with tangible benefits use passive cooling and natural ventilation to achieve thermal comfort. Ventilation requirement could be met through natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, and mixed mode ventilation.

Some building design guidelines


Natural ventilation P Maximize wind-induced ventilation by orienting the longer faade of the building towards predominant wind direction. P Buildings should be sited where obstructions for summer winds are minimum. P Naturally ventilated buildings should have a narrow floor width. P Inlet openings should be located on the windward side at a low level, while outlet openings should be located on the leeward side at a higher level, to maximize stack effect. P Window openings should be operable by occupants. P To enhance airflow between the rooms, open interior doors should be designed. P To get rid of the stale air, clerestories, or vented skylights, can be used. Mechanical ventilation P Ceiling fans are used for inducing air motion for comfort. To optimize the power consumption and comfort, correct number and location of fans with respect to room size should be determined. P Exhaust fans are used in kitchens, bathrooms, stores to replace stale air with fresh air. Mixed mode ventilation P Mixed mode involves strategies combining natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation. In this approach, buildings can smoothly function as air-conditioned buildings as well as naturally ventilated buildings with passive concepts. Passive cooling techniques P Passive cooling techniques involve strategies or design features to achieve comfort with minimum or no usage of power. Wind-induced ventilation, passive downdraught cooling, evaporative cooling, and earth air tunnels can be used to cool buildings.

17

Guideline

Visual comfort through daylight


Glare-free daylight integration in buildings through proper planning of windows, with respect to position, area, and shape, to achieve daylight factor as recommended by BIS.

Advantages of daylight
P In a typical air-conditioned building, artificial lights account for approximately 30% of the total electricity demand. This demand can be reduced considerably by integrating natural daylight during the daytime. P Working in daylight will be easy on eyes and will increase productivity. Following factors help in accomplishing daylighting in a building.

Day lighted zone

Room characteristics
P Rooms facing north receive fairly constant, indirect daylight and rooms facing south receive bright, direct sunlight all the year. So, a room should be constructed in such a way that it is illuminated by both direct and indirect sunlight. P Rooms with windows on two sides get maximum daylight. P For good light penetration, the depth of rooms adjacent to the daylight source should be kept relatively small. P The internal and external finish of a building should be light in colour, as light-coloured surfaces reflect more light.

Window design
P The higher the window head, the deeper will be the penetration of daylight. P Strip windows provide more uniform daylight. P Big windows close to task areas should be avoided, as they may heat up the place. P Separate apertures for view and daylight should be used.

Glazing type
P Single glazing gives the best daylight, while double glazing gives 20% less sunlight. P Tinted glazing has low visibility, thus it cuts out daylight. P An ideal spectrally selective glazing admits only that part of the suns energy that is useful for daylighting. P A good glazing for daylighting with a relatively high visible transmittance will appear transparent from outside.
External shades help cut direct sunlight, reduce glare and heat gain

Shading devices
P External moving shading device is the most effective, as it cuts off direct sunlight during summer. P With proper adjustment, an internal shading device allows indirect sunlight to enter inside. However, it is not preferred, as it does not keep solar heat out.

Innovative daylighting system


P P P P

Light pipes should be used for better interior daylighting

Light shelves protect occupants from direct sunlight in summers and allow sufficient light in winter. Fixed and movable louvers are preferred options for integration of diffuse daylight. Skylight adds natural lighting to dull, dark, and deep rooms. Light pipes transport daylight through thick roof structures and attics.

18

Guideline

Use of low VOC paints/adhesives/sealants


Use internal finishes with zero or low VOC (volatile organic compound) content, less than the defined limits

Adverse impacts of VOCs


Building materials such as paints, sealants, and adhesives are used as finishing agents for the exterior and interior surfaces. However, they lead to poor air quality and can have adverse impacts on the health of the occupants and can also be odorous. A wide variety of volatiles are released by both solvent-based and water-based paints through oxidation. Sealants and adhesives contain toxic chemicals that are released during construction and occupancy. Effects on the environment P VOCs are divided into methane and non-methane compounds. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and contributes to global warming. This does not mean that non-methane compounds are safe. Even they are harmful pollutants, as they prolong the life of methane in the atmosphere. P Some VOCs react with nitrogen oxides in the air in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. Higher ozone concentration at ground level causes damage to crops and buildings, and other health hazards. P VOCs are responsible for deteriorating air quality inside a building, causing sick building syndrome. P VOCs also result in foul odour.
Low-VOC paints

Effects on health VOCs, especially formaldehydes and urethanes, contained within the building materials can be injurious to health. They can cause conjunctival irritation, nose and throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin reaction, and so on.

Guidelines on using paints/adhesives/sealants


P Water-based acrylics, rather than solvent-based oil paints, should be used. P All sealants and adhesives used should be water based rather than solvent based or should have low solvent content. P Most construction adhesives should be characterized by adequate bond strengths in water. P Acrylics, silicones, and siliconized acrylics are the safest sealants to use in the interiors and have the lowest solvent content. P Solvent-based products such as urethanes and butyls should preferably not be used indoors. P Adhesives usually have high VOC emission potential. Hence, adhesives such as acrylics or phenolic resins should be used, which have low or no VOC emission. Phenol formaldehyde can also be used indoors. P It should be ensured that composite wood products/agri-fibre products do not contain any added urea formaldehyde resin.

19

Guideline

Outdoor and indoor noise levels


P Outdoor and indoor noise levels should be maintained as recommended by the National Building Code, 2005. P Appropriate noise control measures should be taken for ensuring acceptable outdoor and indoor noise levels so as to enhance comfort. P Ambient standards of noise for different types of establishments should be adhered to. For example, daytime limit for noise in a residential area, an industrial area, and a silence zone (like hospitals, educational institutions, and so on) is 55 dB, 75 dB, and 50 dB, respectively.

Guidelines to attenuate noise


Various measures can be adopted indoors and outdoors to control noise levels.

Outdoor
P Zoning Town planning authorities can undertake zoning of different areas in a city, taking into account, besides other aspects, noise levels in different zones and establishments. Some buildings and establishments are particularly vulnerable to noise, like recording and radio studios, hospitals, and research laboratories. P Green belts and landscaping Thick belts of planting are of particular importance in combating noise pollution. Strong leafy trees should be planted. Shrubs or creepers may also be planted along with trees. Hard paving should be Dense vegetation helps reduce noise levels avoided, and plantation should be grown to effectively cut-off noise. P Highway noise barriers Barriers are often the most effective means of reducing traffic noise around residential areas. These barriers can be in the form of freestanding walls, artificial mounds, and so on. Even multi-storeyed dwellings and garages block noise.

Indoor
P Internal planning A building should be designed and oriented in such a way so as to reduce noise. The non-critical areas, such as corridors, elevators, and bathrooms, should be located on the noisy side, and the critical areas should be located on the quiet side. P Windows and doors Windows and doors should be built in such a way that they face away from the noisy side. Windows of noisy and quiet rooms should not open on the same side. For critical quiet spaces, insulated glazing units should be used. Reduction of insulation due to door opening between rooms and corridors should be borne in mind. Use of noise barriers P Walls and partitions Walls of appropriate thickness reduce the transmission of noise through them. P Sound absorbents Sound-absorbing materials can also be utilized to reduce the built-up or air-borne noise at the source.

20

Guideline

Indoor air quality


P In air-conditioned spaces, fresh air requirement as per the NBC (National Building Code), 2005, shall be achieved. v Fresh air supply maintains non-odorous atmosphere and dilutes the CO2 exhaled. v This quantity is usually quoted per person and is related to the occupant density and activity within the space. v The quantity and distribution of introduced fresh air should take into account the natural infiltration of the building. v The proportion of fresh air introduced into a building may be varied for economical operations. P In non-air-conditioned spaces, minimum air changes per hour, as recommended by the NBC, should be achieved. v Fresh air is required for thermal comfort, to provide oxygen, and to maintain CO2 concentration.

Advantages of maintaining good air quality


P Maintaining air quality in a building ensures that the building does not suffer from sick building syndrome, which is related to poor indoor air quality. P Enough fresh air in the building leads to good health of occupants, which increases their productivity.

Towards ensuring good air quality


The ventilation and air conditioning system installed in a building should clean and condition the air. Enough fresh air should be introduced to remove totally or dilute the odour, fumes, and so on. Local extract system should be used to remove contaminants or smell when air is recirculated. Air inlets and extracts to the system should be positioned carefully. Inlets should not be placed near any flue outlet, kitchen, extraction outlet, and so on. Inlet openings should be placed at high levels to get as much clean air as possible. P Particulate matter should be removed from air by using an efficient air filtration system. Air intake locations should be placed properly. P Fumes and smell may be removed from the air by physical or chemical processes. P Tobacco and smoke can be controlled by putting health strategies in place, such as prohibiting smoking in indoor areas or providing designated smoking zones with separate ventilation systems. P P P P

Indoor plants used to improve indoor air quality

Picture sources: http://www.buyflower.com.sg/main/images/BF0547E_Tall_Fortune.jpg http://www.evergrowing.com/tips/images/arecapalm.jpg http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/zippy_1020274113_63.jpg

WATER
ater is one of the basic requirements of any habitat. Hyderabad is endowed with a number of natural and artificial lakes and tanks. So, ideally, the state should be able to meet the increasing water demand to a great extent. However, the situation is just the opposite. The state is facing severe water crisis due to increasing demand as a result of rapidly increasing population and changing lifestyles. The existing lakes and tanks are not able to provide sufficient water, as encroachments into lake beds and catchment areas have reduced their storage capacity. To add to this problem of water scarcity, the water supply system has many drawbacks: the hours of water supply are limited; network coverage is partial and there are very few piped connections; per capita water supply is as low as 90 lpcd (litres per capita per day); meters are not functional; and water loss is very high. Adopting water conservation practices, increasing awareness on water conservation amongst city dwellers, using rainwater harvesting system, recycling water, and ensuring proper maintenance for removing leakages would eventually lead to a reduction in water demand. By using low-flow fixtures and adopting xeriscaping, water demand in buildings can be reduced by up to 40%. Rainwater harvesting can reduce the demand for potable drinking water by almost 80%. In order to implement such potential water conservation measures, water-related EBRGs have been developed as per the framework described below. P Reducing water demand in new buildings by reducing wastage and increasing efficiency internally and externally by adopting suitable design and ensuring optimal operation. P Reducing water demand in existing buildings by encouraging retrofitting. P Ensuring high standards of drinking water quality by recommending appropriate water treatment systems. P Suggesting alternative supply through rainwater harvesting and waste water recycling (these guidelines are under sewage and storm water sections).

22

Guideline

Water conserving fittings


The consumption of potable water in all new buildings has to be reduced by adopting following measures. P At least 25% reduction in water consumption should be achieved from all sources, including borewell, by using waterefficient fittings, as calculated using the water consumption calculator. P Uniform pressure, restricted to 2530 m head, or 200 kPA, should be maintained by using the following. v Separate distribution downtakes for each set of floors. v Orifice flanges or pressure reducing valves.

An illustration of the various areas of water conservation in a house

Benefits
P Water saving fittings can save up to 40% of potable water in a typical four-member household. P Savings with individual fittings can be as indicated below. v An old style single-flush toilet could use up to 12 litres of water per flush, while a standard dual-flush toilet uses just a quarter of this on a half-flush. v Use of electronic flushing system or magic eye sensor can further reduce the flow of water to 0.4 litre per flush, and waterless urinals use no water. v A standard showerhead may use up to 25 litres of water per minute, whereas water-efficient showerhead might use as little as 7 litres of water per minute, Water flow from which is less than a third of that consumed by standard showerhead. conventional showerheads v Showers with flow regulators or aerators can save up to 55% of water used could be 3 times higher than that of a water for showers. efficient showerhead v Aerators can result in flow rates as low as 2 litres per minute, which is adequate for hand wetting purpose. v Taps with flow regulators, IR sensors or aerators can save up to 63% of water used for washing. v A water-efficient washing machine may use only one-third of the water used by an inefficient model.

Water consumption calculator


The calculator can be used to calculate the following. P Water saving potential of efficient fittings P Water saving potential of native species and micro irrigation systems P Water saving potential of grey water or waste water treatment and reuse P Choosing grey water and waste water systems based on treated water usage P Water saving potential of rainwater collection and reuse P Tank sizing for rainwater collection tank

Various types of water conserving fittings

23

Guideline

Choose water filtration system based on the quality of the water from a source
P Water purification and filtration systems to achieve required drinking water quality have to be chosen based on the quality of supply water. P If groundwater is used for drinking, water quality testing has to be conducted. The water purification system will have to be designed based on the requirements of the specific site.

Importance of choosing the right water purification system

Ensure water meets drinking water standards before use

Maintaining the quality of drinking water helps to ensure safe drinking water to the consumer, and for this, both municipal and groundwater have to be treated.

Municipal water
P Requires treatment only for biological contamination to ensure safety. P As simpler and cheaper treatment systems are sufficient to treat biological contamination, advance treatment systems such as RO (reverse osmosis) and ion exchange systems are not only unnecessary for treating municipal water but also expensive to install and maintain.

Groundwater
P If groundwater in Hyderabad is used for drinking without proper treatment, it could lead to health risks, as shown in the detailed guideline (available on the website). P Hence, advance systems such as RO and ion exchange systems have to be installed to ensure safe drinking water. P However, these treatment systems should be used to treat the quantity of water required for drinking and cooking purposes only, in order to reduce wastage.

Principles of water purification


P Sedimentation A process whereby suspended matter in water settles down, which can be separated by straining. P Filtration The water is passed through the beds of fine granular materials such as sand. Filtration helps in removing colour, odour, turbidity, and pathogenic bacteria. P Disinfection The treatment destroys harmful bacteria and protozoa by either killing them or making them inactive. Common methods used are boiling, chlorination, ozonation, solar disinfection, and so on. P Demineralization Ion exchange, deionization, activated carbon filtration, RO, and other treatment processes are employed for demineralization.
Water supplied by the utility is also prone to biological contamination

Water quality testing


P Water can be tested in laboratories to check for pH, conductivity, hardness, and so on by using sophisticated instruments like spectrophotometers, chromatographs, and so on. P Apart from these laboratory tests, test kits are also available in the market, which can be used anywhere in the field. P Only when the TDS (total dissolved solid) levels in water cross the mark of 500 mg/l, making the water taste brackish or khaara should you use an RO water purifier.

24

Guideline

Landscape water conservation


P If grey water recycling or waste water treatment is undertaken on the site, the total landscape water requirement per day should not exceed the total amount of treated water available per day. P If no grey water or waste water treatment is undertaken on the site, the total landscape water requirement per annum should not exceed the total amount of rainwater collected per annum. P If no grey water or waste water treatment or rainwater Sprinkler irrigation collection is undertaken on-site, following should be kept in mind. v No more than 25% of the total vegetated area should be covered by lawns and exotic or ornamental plants that require more water and high maintenance. v At least 50% of the total landscaped area in the site should use water conserving vegetation using native species. v Efficient irrigation management techniques should be used to achieve 40% water savings in all sites with vegetated area >50 m2. (All the above as calculated using the landscape water calculator)

Beneficial aspects
P Judicious and efficient irrigation practices (like using drip irrigations and sprinkler methods) and appropriate planting can reduce the use of irrigation water by 50%70%. P Planting native species and xeriscape vegetation ensures minimal maintenance and reduced water requirement, promotes ecological balance, and enhances water quality.

Towards ideal landscaping


P Reducing water demand Water demand in a landscape can be reduced by planting native and low water consuming plants. This is called xeriscape. P Xeriscape design Xeriscape landscaping incorporates seven basic principles, which help in water saving and conservation. v Planning and design A good design should be considered keeping existing structures, plants, budget, water requirement, and other factors in mind. v Soil analysis and preparation Before undertaking planting, soil of the area should be analysed. Organic matter should be added, if required. v Appropriate plant selection Native and drought-tolerant plants thrive the best in any given landscape. Growth rate and size of the plants, and light, water, and temperature needs should also be considered when designing the landscape. v Mulching A layer of non-living matter, or mulch, on the soil conserves water, reduces weed population, prevents soil compaction, and keeps soil temperature moderate. v Watering The greatest waste of water is applying too much too often.The key to watering lawns is to apply water infrequently, yet thoroughly. v Efficient irrigation system A combination of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods should be used for watering plants in a Xeriscape, native vegetation and effective landscape.
irrigation keys to water conservation in landscape

25

Guideline

Water audit for existing buildings


P All buildings/layout with water consumption >10 million litres per year should v undertake water audit by a certified water auditor and v show a water saving of at least 30%, when compared to water consumption identified in the audit or when compared to the NBC standards, whichever is lower. P A water audit report must broadly contain the following aspects. v Amount of municipal water available and total water utilized, including that from other sources. v Water losses and efficiency of the system along with reasons for losses. Typical division of water use for v Measures to check water losses and improve efficiency. various activities in a building v Water saving potential through rainwater collection and reuse. v Analysis of physical and economic feasibility of introducing a rainwater harvesting system. v Water saving potential through waste water/grey water recycling and reuse. v Physical and economic feasibility of introducing grey water/waste water recycling system. P All existing buildings can calculate their water consumption and water saving potential through efficient fittings, rainwater harvesting, and grey water recycling using a water calculation tool.

Overview of water audit


Water audit is an important initiative toward understanding a buildings water use and how it can be reduced. P It reviews water use from its point of entry into the building through its discharge into the sewer. P It identifies each point of water use within and around the building and estimates the quantity of water used at each of these areas. P It examines all the major aspects in which a building uses water, including sanitation, Every drop of water maintenance, mechanical systems, building processes, and landscaping. saved is money
saved

Advantages of water auditing


Water audit is the assessment of the quantity of water and involves calculating water use, identifying losses, and assessing methods for saving water. Conducting water audit leads to both tangible as well as non-tangible benefits, as listed below P Improves the knowledge and documentation of the distribution system and also the problems and risks associated with it. P Provides a better understanding of what is happening to the water after it leaves the source point. P Gives a detailed profile of the distribution system and water users, thereby facilitating easier and effective management of resources, with improved reliability. P Helps in the realistic understanding and assessment of the present performance level and efficiency of the service. P Saves money by reducing water bills or sewer bills. P Helps reduce water usage by about 30% by implementing simple conservation measures.

STORM WATER
torm water management, though an intrinsic component of the urban environmental management, is generally neglected in India. Storm water management in Hyderabad involves both natural and man-made drains and waterbodies. The entire surface run-off finally finds its way into the River Musi and many surrounding lakes. Storm water drains in Hyderabad are constructed and maintained by the municipal corporation and other urban local bodies. Normally, storm water management is carried out only when there is a need. Although fresh water resources are scarce in Hyderabad, it witnesses heavy floods during monsoons. The precipitation discharge system in Hyderabad is poor, covering only 30% of the area. The existing system is unable to carry the total precipitation to discharge points, as it is designed only for 12 mm/hour rainfall as against an average of 23 mm/hour of rainfall and a peak rainfall of 52 mm/hour that the state receives. The natural drainage has been affected due to various reasons, leading to frequent flooding of low-lying areas. The natural water courses have been illegally encroached upon. Land use planning is not concomitant with natural drainage patterns, which has led to the illegal encroachment of lakes. There are no regulations that mandate storm water management on site. Also, increased impervious and concrete areas have resulted in an increase in run-off, leading to flooding and, thus, unhygienic environs. Haphazard development is also responsible for the storm water drainage problems in the city, thus necessitating integrating management measures into the existent practices. The various measures for managing the storm water run-off are listed below. P Natural drainage and channel management P Catchment area management P Storm water run-off reduction on-site P Groundwater recharge A broad framework for developing the guideline on implementation measures has been drafted, as outlined below. P Adherence to site contours P Planning specifically to reduce the impact of storm water on lake catchments P On-site sustainable urban drainage systems P Rainwater harvesting Thus, the EBRGs for sustainable storm water drainage have been developed to guide the stakeholders towards improved drainage management.

28

Guideline

Adherence to natural site contours and lake catchment area conservation


This is applicable to projects having the following site development features. P Sites with area equal to or greater than 500 m2 for commercial, institutional or residential development. P Sites less than 500 m2 for developing a single residential unit, involving 100 m2 or more of gross area of disturbance. P Site disturbance includes disturbance for building as well as landscaping.

Lakes are fed by drainage contours in their catchments

Following regulations shall be applicable in such areas. P No disturbance, grading of land or stripping of vegetation shall be permitted on slopes of 25% or steeper. Any proposed disturbance for roadway crossings or utility construction shall require variance application and approval. Roads and driveways shall follow the natural topography to the greatest extent possible to minimize the cutting and grading of critical slope areas. P The maximum disturbance allowed in slope areas between 20.0% and 24.9% shall be 10%; in slope areas between 15.0% and 19.9%, 20%; and in slope areas between 0 and 14.9%, 25%. P Site design and grading on slopes greater than 15% shall preserve significant natural topographic features to the greatest extent possible, including ridgelines. P Except in cases where permission is sought from urban forestry departments of the HMDA/GHMC, no trees with a diameter at breast height of 10 inches or more shall be removed from the area with slopes greater than 15%.

Deterioration of lakes
Lakes in Hyderabad are in a decrepit state because of the following construction-induced reasons. P Human settlements, infrastructure development, encroachment, and effluent release have caused degradation of lakes. P Construction activity increases the imperviousness, which, in turn, increases run-off, thus leading to flash floods/waterlogging. P Interference with the natural drainage pattern of storm water leads to waterlogging during the short spells of rain in the catchment neighbourhoods. P Flow of silt from stored construction materials and quarrying rocks in the catchment areas reduces the water-holding capacity and infiltration rate of the lakes.

Benefits of preserving lakes


Prior to commissioning any construction project, the site and its contours, in the context of the local catchment area, need to be understood. The design of the structure should be in harmony with the natural topography, so that there are no major changes in the drainage pattern. This consideration will reap the following benefits. P The storm water run-off will not encounter any obstruction and will flow directly into the lake, drastically reducing waterlogging and flash floods during monsoons in the low-lying areas. P Adhering to norms recommending development only till a certain distance of lake will help in reviving lakes. P Water scarcity problems can be addressed by reviving lakes. P Habitat for the natural flora and fauna of the region will be restored.
Lakes - the regional storm water management instruments of Hyderabad are being encroached upon

29

Guideline

Integrated implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems, or SUDS


P Sustainable urban drainage systems, or SUDS, with an integrated approach shall be implemented to manage storm water on-site to achieve 40% reduction in volume generated after construction development. P Sites with areas less than 10 000 m2 shall implement rainwater harvesting and infiltration techniques, while larger sites (with area greater that 10 000 m2) shall implement other SUDS techniques in combination with smaller techniques. P Open sites, where construction development has not been planned, shall also implement SUDS/storm water drainage.

Filter strips and retention ponds work well in specific locations

Advantages of SUDS

Green roofs are instruments of SUDS

and indoor thermal comfort P SUDS manage storm water run-off on-site effectively by reducing the impacts of urbanization on drainage patterns and infrastructure. P SUDS enhance run-off water quality by reducing pollutant concentration in the storm water at the source. P SUDS lead to groundwater recharge and enhance the site aesthetics. They also reduce the problems that arise due to the storage of stagnant water.

An overview of SUDS
SUDS include water quantity, water quality, and amenity aspects to achieve efficient storm water management at the source of generation, that is, on-site. The aim of SUDS is to replicate, as closely as possible, the natural drainage mechanism of a site. P Planning and design It requires multidisciplinary approach involving considerations of many factors like landscaping and planning, ecology, groundwater, topography, geological profile, local climate, and so on. P Source control and prevention techniques These techniques are used to counter increased discharge from developed sites and reduce the volume of water discharged directly to a river. P Pavements Permeable pavement using gravel, grass pavers, grasscrete or concrete blocks is an alternative to conventional paving in which water permeates instead of draining off. P Green roofs Green roofs reduce the water running off the roof. Green roofs built with the most appropriate base and vegetation have the potential to absorb 15%90% of roof run-off. P Rainwater harvesting Rainwater can be stored and reused, which, in turn, reduces the site storm water run-off volume and rate. P Infiltration devices These comprise infiltration trenches and infiltration basins, which store storm water run-off until it gradually infiltrates through the soil. P Permeable conveyance systems These transport run-off water slowly towards a receiving watercourse, allowing storage, filtration, and some loss of run-off. P Passive treatment systems These use natural processes like filter strips, detention ponds, retention ponds, and wetlands to remove and break down pollutants present in surface water run-off.

Constraints
P Integrated SUDS require more space than conventional drainage systems to operate effectively. P Infiltration devices may not work efficiently where v soil is not permeable, v water table is shallow, and v there is land contamination.

30

Guideline

Permeable paving and heat island


P The total paved area of the site under parking, roads, paths or any oth er use should not exceed 25% of site area or net imperviousness of the unbuilt areas in the site should not go beyond the imperviousness factor as prescribed by the National Building Code of India, 2005, whichever is more stringent. P At least 50% of the paved area should be provided with pervious paving or should be planted with vegetation. P To reduce urban heat island effect, at least 50% of the paved area, including parking, should be shaded by a vegetated roof or pergola with planters or coated with white cement or white paint.

Disadvantages of hard paving


P Hard paving decreases infiltration of water during rains, increasing grass paving course storm water run-off and causing waterlogging in low-lying areas. P Hard paved surfaces are generally coated with asphalt and concrete, which absorb solar radiation and raise the temperature of the surroundings. This leads to heat-islands in built-up areas, increasing the use of air conditioners and power consumption in general.
Typical section showing layers of a

Alternatives
P Hard paving can be replaced with porous or permeable paving, which allows a portion of storm water to infiltrate through void surfaces, reducing the run-off volumes. P Alternatively, grass paving can be used, which provides greenery and reduces the ambient temperature of the surroundings. This would prevent the development of heat island effect on-site, indirectly reducing the consumption of energy. P Permeable paving and grass paving can be combined with planting trees and shrubs in the vicinity, which will further cool the environment and help in groundwater recharge.

Points to keep in mind while constructing permeable/grass pavements


P Permeable pavement construction should be preferably executed at the end of all the on-site construction works to prevent clogging from construction waste/run-off. P Adequate infiltration with temporary sub-surface storage for the storm water should be provided. P Construction techniques that would minimize the compaction of subsoil so that water flows through it easily should be applied. P Clogging agents like sediments, oils, and greases should be prevented from reaching the permeable pavement surface. P Deep-rooted grass species should be used in grass paving. P Permeable pavement is not suited for high-traffic areas. Similarly, grass pavers are not suitable for everyday, all day parking because the grass will get insufficient sunlight.

Maintenance measures
P Post signs identifying porous/permeable pavement areas. P Clean the surface regularly, preferably using vacuum sweeping machines. P Inspect the surface frequently for any deterioration of permeability. P Grass pavers may require periodic reseeding.

Various options of permeable paving

31

Guideline

Rainwater harvesting for recharge and reuse


Rooftop rainwater
P All new buildings with a potential to save 10% or more (to be calculated using the water consumption calculator) of their potable water demand through rainwater collection and reuse have to construct a rainwater collection system. P The rainwater harvesting system for collection and reuse should be constructed with adequate collection, filtration, storage, and disinfection systems in place. Refer to detailed guideline available on the website.

A typical rainwater collection tank fed from the roof

Un-built or open site area run-off


P If the saving potential is less than 10%, the rooftop rainwater collected should be diverted into a percolation pit. Rainwater collected in the open unbuilt site area should also be diverted to a percolation pit. P Percolation pit should be of appropriate dimensions and layered as per the guidance notes provided in the detailed guideline. P Percolation pits should be maintained in order to ensure that their percolation capacities do not diminish.

Benefits of rainwater harvesting


P 68 400 litres of rainwater can be collected from a roof area of 1000 square feet per annum in Hyderabad. This can cover the water requirements of a four-member household for 90 days in a year, reducing the dependence on municipal water by as much as 25%. P It is a cheap source of water, as the water is practically free. The only costs involved are those of constructing and maintaining collection system. P The water has zero hardness, which helps prevent scale on appliances, extending their use. Water softeners can, hence, be avoided. It is also a superior source for landscaping. P Rainwater is sodium-free, thus good for people on a low-sodium diet. Rainwater percolating into the ground through percolation pits has been known to improve groundwater levels. A rainwater harvesting pit P This increase in level lessens the energy required for pumping and also helps being installed recharge fresh water lakes. P Rainwater harvesting reduces the volume of storm water flowing on to roads and nallahs, thus reducing the flooding of the city during monsoons. This will also lessen road and soil erosion and water pollution, thus improving the quality of the environment to a great extent during monsoons.

From where to harvest rain


P Rooftops Buildings with impervious roofs are good collection points. Any roofing can be used for collecting rainwater for nondrinking purpose. For potable water, metal, clay, and cement roofs should be used. Lead and asbestos should not be used. P Storm water run-off Rainwater generally flows as run-off into rivers and seas. This water can be collected into a catchment area by constructing proper channels.
A RWH pit recharging the aquifer from a multi-storied building

SEWAGE
n efficient sewerage system is often an indicator of the good hygiene in an urban centre. Indian cities, in general, are characterized by an improper and inefficient sewerage system, and Hyderabad is no exception to this. The existing sewerage system for the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad was designed to serve an area of about 54 km2 and a population of only about 468 000. The implementing authorities are focusing on increasing the treatment capacity of the existing sewerage system by bringing more and more area under its ambit. Currently, a very small percentage of the sewage generated by the cities is reaching the STPs (sewage treatment plants). Since the sewage treatment facilities at present are inadequate, a large quantity of untreated sewage is discharged into waterbodies. Often, sewage drains also carry storm water along with sewage, thereby, getting flooded. Various measures can be taken up to manage the problem of sewage generation and treatment. Centralized STPs can be maintained and monitored better and have the advantage of economies of scale during operation. Although decentralized STPs are unable to treat the sewage generated by all the buildings in an area, they are required as a stop-gap arrangement, until the concerned authority implements its master plan. Recycling grey water, installing dual plumbing systems, and carrying out continuous O&M (operation and maintenance) enable efficient sewage management. O&M contracts will enable better maintenance of decentralized STPs and increase the reuse potential of treated waste water. A review of the Indian as well as international best practices in sewage management was undertaken to develop a suitable framework for EBRGs for managing sewage for Hyderabad as outlined below P Though centralized STPs are preferred, decentralized STPs should be used till such STPs are operationalized. P A waste water treatment system should be installed only where sewage network is not available, otherwise grey water recycling is recommended. P In all cases, a dual plumbing system for separating waste water and grey water and using recycled water has to be installed so that waste water treatment systems can also function as grey water treatment systems when required. P Continuous O&M safeguards should be in place to enable efficient waste water and sludge management. By adopting these initiatives, buildings and neighbourhood have the potential to efficiently manage the sewage generated.

34

Guideline

Dual plumbing and waste water treatment


P If a site does not have access to a public sewer line and discharges waste water, then v a waste water treatment system should be installed irrespective of the scale and type of construction and v at least 75% of the total treated water should be reused on-site. P If a site has access to a public sewer line, following are recommended. v Grey water reuse potential to be determined. If potential savings on potable water due to reuse of treated grey water exceeds 20% (as calculated using the water consumption calculator), a Grey water source and recycling technique grey water treatment system is recommended. v At least 80% of the total treated grey water should be reused on-site. P In all new buildings, dual plumbing systems should be installed irrespective of the type of waste water/ grey water system installed for separating grey water and black water and using treated waste water for non-potable purpose. P All large developments (>50 acres) must have zero discharge.

Benefits of dual plumbing system and grey water treatment


P Water from toilets is called black water (sewage), while water from laundry, kitchens, and baths is called grey water (sullage). P Grey water constitutes 70% of the waste water, which can be treated by using simple and cost-effective systems and can be reused for landscaping, external washing, and toilet flushing. Reusing grey water can reduce the dependence on Reuse potential of treated grey water municipal and bore water by up to 60%. P Dual plumbing system separates grey water and black water at the source of generation, following which specific treatment options either for grey or black water can be adopted. P Separating grey water and treating it onsite for reuse reduces the volume of the waste water to be collected and treated and, hence, reduces the stress on public sewage lines and centralized waste water treatment systems P It is a sustainable approach for collection, treatment, and safe disposal of waste water, where buildings are not connected to a public sewer line. P Local aquifers can also be recharged with excess treated water.

Selecting treatment options for grey water and waste water


P Treatment option has to be chosen based on reuse application. P The reuse applications for which treated water is to be used efficiently without wastage can be calculated using a water calculation tool. P Please refer to the detailed guideline on the website for further information on types of treatment options and their applicability for different building uses.

Applications of decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS)

35

Guideline

Operation and maintenance, or O&M, requirements for decentralized waste water systems
All decentralized waste water systems should be operated and maintained by qualified personnel. P One full-time trained employee should operate and conduct basic maintenance of the system. P A waste water installation and management company should check the system on a monthly basis, performing the following functions. v Checking water quality regularly to ensure that the treated water meets the required standards for reuse and disposal. v Ensuring smooth operation by regular maintenance checks. v Making water quality results known to public and authorities concerned by bringing out reports and other such means.

Dedicated service personnel are required for handling O&M requirement

What is O&M
P O&M (operation and management) refers to all activities required to operate and manage a treatment system. It does not include planning and construction of a new system and retrofitting the existing one. P Operation includes the planning and control of the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water. P Maintenance includes systematic routine actions and minor repairs and replacements to keep the system in good working condition. This is called preventive maintenance. P Reactive maintenance takes place as a result of serious damage to or malfunctioning or breakdown of equipment.

Benefits of an efficient O&M system


P P P P P P P P Consistency in the performance of the treatment system. 100% treatment efficiency. Providing good quality treated water consistently. Economical running of the system. Enhancement in the shelf life of the installed treatment system. Increased reuse and recycling potential of the treated discharge. Improvement in health and hygiene and enhanced quality of environment. No adverse impacts on the environment.

Ensure smooth operation by regular maintenance

Compliance checklists and components of the manual


Compliance checklist Components of the manual Background information Function, start-up, shutdown, and periodic maintenance procedures Appropriate option or system modification Monitoring programme for efficient process Constituents and schedule for inspections Periodic maintenance procedures Procedures for routine maintenance and inspection Listing of other environmental regulations

P Description of proposed waste water system P P Personnel responsibilities P P Operation of facility P Maintenance P P P Sampling and laboratory testing P Records and reporting P P Treatment works safety P P P Utilities management P

36

Guideline

Safe disposal of unused treated grey and waste water


The maximum permissible quantity of treated waste water that can be disposed outside the site limits is as follows. P 25%, where a waste water treatment system is installed. P 20%, where a grey water treatment system is installed.

Disposal of treated waste water


Treated waste water that is disposed of should meet the appropriate water quality requirements, as defined by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board). It should be disposed of in one of the following ways. Disposing treated wastewater P For groundwater recharge Treated waste water can be used to elevate onto drain field groundwater levels in areas that experience excessive groundwater withdrawal. P For irrigation Treated waste water can be used to water gardens, parks or other farmlands and agricultural areas, saving potable water for these purposes. P For construction activities If treated up to a required standard, the waste water can be effectively used for construction purposes. P For increasing the water levels of lakes, ponds or streams Recycled water can be used for increasing the water levels in the surface waterbodies. The nutrients present in the recycled water can be used by algae, water plants, and lower animals, which, in turn, form feed for fish.

Benefits
P Recycled water, if used efficiently, can reduce dependence on municipal and bore water by as much as 70%. P Application of treated wastewater on land for irrigation would help in enhancing plant growth and also groundwater recharge potential. P Disposal into waterbodies in the local vicinity increases the water levels, enhances the recharge potential, and provides nutrient for growth of aquatic flora and fauna. P Accumulation of waste water in low-lying areas is avoided, which otherwise becomes stagnated and breeding ground for vector-borne diseases.

Disposing via under turf sub-surface drip irrigation network

Water quality standards for using treated waste water for construction activities
The CPCB has set standards for disposing waste water on land, in waterbodies, and into public sewers. Parameters have also been defined by the Bureau of Indian Standards for using the treated waste water for construction activities, as listed below. Parameter On land for irrigation Into inland Into public surface water sewers Construction activity Not less than 6

pH 5.59.0 5.59.0 5.59.0 Suspended solids (mg/l) 200 100 600 Temperature (C) 40 45 Total dissolved solids (inorganic) (mg/l) 2100 2100 2100 Oil and grease (mg/l) 10 10 20 Chlorides (mg/l) 600 1000 1000 Sulphate (mg/l) 1000 1000 1000

3000 2000 (for PCC) 500 (for RCC) 400

37

Guideline

Sludge treatment and disposal


Decentralized waste water treatment plants must dispose of the residuals or sludge generated in a sustainable manner, as described below. P On-site sludge processing v By using effective micro-organisms, or EM, that degrade the sludge. v By drying and converting the sludge into organic manure. v By converting the sludge into gas by using a process called biomethanation. P By giving the responsibility of processing the sludge to a sludge disposal company that follows one of the above methods and the CPCB standards. Application of EMs leads degradation of sludge to organic manure P All large developments (>50 acre site area) must adhere to zero discharge of sludge outside their site limits. P CPCB/MoEF-prescribed permissible standards for the safe disposal of sludge and safe application of dried sludge in Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules, 2000, have to be followed.

Problems encountered while disposing of the sludge


P Sludge disposal poses problems due to the solids present in the sludge and the volume of the sludge. P The volume of the sludge can be reduced by digestion, while the solids are degraded or eaten by micro-organisms, dried or converted into gas. P Light industrial processes undertaken in urban areas such as dyeing, welding, and lathwork might introduce highly toxic heavy metals and other pollutants in the sludge. In these cases, sludge cannot be applied directly to land/landfill, as there is a risk of soil and groundwater contamination.

Benefits of sludge disposal


Effective sludge management comprises sludge digestion, drying, and disposal. Its benefits are listed below. P The volume of the sludge generated reduces on account of digestion, which is a cheap and an efficient process. P Sludge dewatering reduces the moisture content of the sludge to below 70%. P Micro-organisms used break down the solids, reduce the offensive odour of the sludge, and dewater the sludge. About 50% of the harmful volatile organic matter is removed by these microorganisms. v Micro-organisms decompose the organic matter present in the sludge by converting it into carbon dioxide and methane. Alternatively, they may utilize this organic matter for their growth and reproduction. v The micro-organisms used for sludge decomposition are a mixture of anaerobic and aerobic species. P Sludge can be converted to high-quality fertilizer, which can be Biomethanisation converts sludge into directly used in agriculture. gas for varied applications P The sludge can also be converted into biogas by bacterial degradation of organic matter in the absence of oxygen and light. P The entire process of sludge management is an environmentally sustainable process.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


he main aim of the EBRGs related to solid waste management is to close the waste cycle loop and follow a more systematic and integrated approach towards waste management. To overcome the various problems observed in the existing set-up of municipal solid waste management, an attempt has been made to manage and treat the waste in a decentralized way as far as possible, followed by final disposal. There have been various precedents of success stories in India, where such experiments have been successful. Based on these experiments and lessons learnt from other countries, separate EBRGs have been framed for the following categories: P Waste management at locality/ward level P Waste management in apartments and townships P Waste management for commercial buildings P Waste management of biomedical waste from health care facilities P Construction and demolition waste management There is a need to manage solid waste in a more scientific manner.

40

Guideline

Management of municipal solid waste at neighbourhood (locality) level


All residences (other than apartments) and small neighbourhood shops are required to segregate waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste and hand it over to waste collectors. Decentralized waste management is also promoted through this guideline.

Impacts of the existing system of management of neighbourhood-level municipal solid waste


P A holistic integrated approach of managing municipal solid waste is absent, leading to a lot of environmental and health impacts. P Source segregation of waste is almost absent. P A huge quantity of biodegradable waste finds its way to landfills, which are unscientifically managed. Treatment of such waste at low costs is almost absent. P Indiscriminate dumping of waste leads to greenhouse gas emissions and leachate generation, polluting the environment. P Arbitrary disposal of waste also poses a serious threat to human health.

Waste bin for bio-degradable waste

Advantages of managing waste holistically


P Environmental benefits This guideline emphasizes on closing the waste cycle as much as possible by diverting a major portion of the waste from going to landfills, preventing water and land contamination due to leachate generation, and reusing and recycling waste. P Health benefits Scientific management of waste minimizes health risks. P Economic benefits The component of the waste that can be reused and recycled is sold, thus bringing in revenue. This also reduces Passive aerated windrows pressure on the virgin material. P Manure The by-product of the treatment process is rich fertilizer or manure, which can be used in kitchen gardens or lawns.

Suggested measures
P Each locality should have a common place for further sorting of collected waste, where the biodegradable waste will be treated using any low-cost appropriate technology such as biosanitizer, vermicomposting, and so on, and the recyclables will be given to recyclers for reusing/recycling. P Individual residents and shop owners can also treat biodegradable waste on-site by using in-vessel composting or any other appropriate technology.

Technology for decentralized treatment of biodegradable waste


A number of technologies both aerobic and anaerobic are available for treating the biodegradable waste. However, for decentralized treatment of such waste (in smaller quantities), methods such as the use of OS1 (organic solutions effective micro-organisms), biosanitizer, composting, vermicomposting, and so on could be explored.

Publicprivate alliance
It is also proposed to encourage publicprivate alliances between local bodies, non-governmental organizations, resident welfare associations, and communitybased organizations to develop innovative models for managing solid waste at neighbourhood level.
Collection of waste at your doorstep

41

Guideline

Management of municipal solid waste in apartments and townships


All solid waste generated in apartments and townships (for 20 and more households) should be managed in a sustainable manner by storing segregated waste and treating the biodegradable part in the common treatment plant. The remaining waste shall be taken away by urban local bodies and recycling agencies.

Guidelines for sustainable management of waste

P Waste should be segregated into biodegradable, nonconstruction waste biodegradable, and hazardous waste at the source of generation. P All existing apartments and townships should have secondary storage space for storing segregated waste from each of the households. P For new buildings, appropriate space, both primary and secondary storage space, should be provided for storing waste in each household and at community level at the design stage itself. P All biodegradable waste should necessarily be treated using an appropriate cost-effective technology such as composting, bioculture, vermicomposting, biomethanation processes, and so on. P All recyclables should be sent to recycling companies. P All apartments and townships should get waste audit done at least once in a year to gauge the characteristics of waste stream and manage waste in an effective way.

Conventional method of disposal of

Treatment options for the biodegradable waste


P Decentralized system offers many benefits such as reduced load on the transport systems, lesser air pollution, increased life of landfill, income generation for NGOs and ragpickers, production of useful by-products, and so on. P Decentralized solutions, being modular in nature, can easily be implemented in stages, are manageable, result in better value creation, involve community, and create a sense of responsibility among people. P Various technology options are available for handling municipal waste. For small scale, use of simple technologies like vermicomposting, deep-burrow earth composting, and in-vessel composting are recommended, as these are very cost-effective. A number of biomethanation techniques are also available such as TEAM digester (developed by The Energy and Resources Institute), ASTRA digester, ARTI digester, Biotech, and so on. However, these are very expensive solutions and could be taken up depending on the financial viability of plants, land availability, and the quantum of feed going as input.

TEAM process, TERI

42

Guideline

Solid waste management for commercial buildings


P Provide arrangement for storage of segregated waste in all commercial buildings. P Treat (preferably in-house) biodegradable waste in all hotels and restaurants. P Arrange for recycling items such as paper and cardboards, toner cartridges, batteries, and mobile phones in all offices. E-waste should be given to registered e-waste handling agencies. P Treat the organic waste present in the market waste generated from fish market/slaughterhouses/ vegetable market/flower market, and so on on-site or close to site.

Types of waste generated


P Commercial waste comprises by-products and materials consumed during business activities and building management and maintenance. P During the operational use of a commercial building, the majority of waste generated comes from consumables associated with occupant business activities (e-waste, paper, cardboard, food waste, and so on). P Management and maintenance activities can release hazardous waste like chemicals, contaminated water or non-recyclable equipment.

Informal dismantling of e-waste

Annual waste audit


An annual waste audit is recommended for all commercial buildings. Following details could be covered in the audit.
Name of the commercial building Plot area and built up area (m2) Total quantity of waste generated (kg/day) Communal storage space details: Area (m2) or lit Quantity of waste received (kg/day) - Biodegradable - Recyclable - Inert and miscellaneous - Hazardous Type of treatment plant (for biodegradable in hotels and restaurants) - Area - Capacity -Quantity of by-products (kg/day) Quantity of waste going for recycling (kg/day) Quantity of waste given to municipal corporation (inert waste in kg/day)

E-waste recycling: some bitter facts


P India generates 150 000 tonnes of e-waste annually, mainly comprising of computers, faxes, mobile phones, and so on. Of this waste, approximately 78% is generated by the commercial sector. P More than 98% of the e-waste generated is handled by the informal sector, in an unorganized way. P No proper safety measures are taken during the handling and processing of this waste. P This unhealthy practice of handling e-waste poses health risk to handlers and adversely impacts the environment.

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Guideline

Management of health care waste/biomedical waste


All health care units (existing and new) should have provisions for storing segregated waste, treating infectious and biodegradable waste, and checking illegal recycling of hazardous waste.

Some hard facts about biomedical waste

P Though biomedical waste forms just 1% of the total waste generated, it assumes bio-medical waste great importance due to its toxic and infectious nature. If this waste gets mixed with the municipal waste, it poses risk to human health and the environment. P Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, was promulgated in the country in 1998. P While bigger health care units follow these rules to some extent, small- and medium-sized units and pathological laboratories do not comply with these regulations. P Most of the health care units outsource collection, transportation, and management of biomedical waste to service providers, without disinfecting it. P Small, unregistered health care units dump the biomedical waste along with the municipal waste.

Segregation of

Types of biomedical waste


There are 10 categories of biomedical waste, as defined under the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules. Some of these categories are human anatomical waste, animal waste, microbiology and biotechnology waste, incineration ash, and so on. All these wastes can be divided into three broad categories. P Infectious waste It comprises used sharps and items that could cause a cut or puncture, pathological waste, syringes, blood bags, and so on. P Hazardous waste It comprises discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs, chemicals used in the production of biologicals, disinfectants, and so on, ash from incineration of medical waste, and so on. P Non-infectious waste It constitutes 90% of the total waste generated and includes office waste and kitchen waste.

Management of biomedical waste


P Audit An annual waste audit is suggested for all health care units. P Institutional arrangements Biomedical waste management requires a systematic approach. v The management requires active participation of trained staff. v The waste needs to be segregated and stored in colour-coded containers. Segregation reduces the cost of treatment and does not cause any health hazard. v Infectious waste needs to be disinfected. v Hazardous and infectious waste should be given to authorized service providers for further disposal. v Non-infectious waste can be recycled or composted or taken by the respective municipal body for disposal. P Awareness and training Awareness needs to be generated on appropriate handling and disposal of biomedical waste so that everyone coming in contact with the waste, from health care providers to patients to waste handlers, are safe.

Benefits
P Health Proper management of biomedical waste ensures that the waste is disposed of in a holistic way so that it does not affect the health of health care providers, patients or waste handlers. P Environment Safe disposal of hazardous and toxic biomedical waste ensures that there are no adverse impacts on the environment.

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Guideline

Management of construction and demolition waste


P A waste management and recycling plan for construction and demolition projects for all new buildings and for refurbishments of the existing buildings is a necessity to minimize the waste generated and manage this waste in a sustainable manner. P Allocate a minimum of 4% of the total site area for storage of waste. P Reuse/recycle a minimum of 20% of the construction/demolition waste generated.

Construction and demolition waste


P Waste generated from construction, remodelling, and repairing of buildings is termed as construction waste. P Waste generated from razed buildings is termed as demolition waste. P The construction and demolition waste includes debris, concrete, steel and other metals, plastics, packaging and paper products, wood beams, and so on.

Impacts of solid waste generation


P Debris, waste plastic, and demolition waste destroy topsoil. P Polythene and plastic lead to choking of drains. P Hazardous waste like asbestos, tar, and oil not managed and disposed of properly adversely affect human health. P Huge quantity of construction and demolition waste generated puts immense pressure on landfill space.

Recommended measures to manage waste efficiently


P An important strategy for managing construction and demolition waste is minimizing, reducing, and recycling. Appropriate clauses should be introduced in the contract agreement. Architects/designers should try to avoid over-design and use of high embodied energy materials (embodied energy refers to the energy required to produce a product, including extraction of raw materials, their processing, and their transport). P Some tips for contractors v Purchase materials that have a high recycled content. v Ask suppliers to minimize packaging. v Have appropriate storage areas ready, which should be covered to protect against rain ingress. v Order in standard sizes to minimize on-site cutting and waste.

Some examples of reuse and recycling


P Excavation produces topsoil, clay, sand, and gravel. These may be reused as fillers at the same site or moved to some other place. P Bricks, stones, and masonry produced during demolition are generally mixed with cement, mortar, and lime. P Metals are recovered from pipes, conduits, wires, and sanitary fittings and sent for re-melting. P Timber recovered in good conditions from beams, window frames or doors can be reused.

POLLUTION
onstruction of buildings not only consumes Hyderabads already depleting resources but also leads to environmental pollution. Noise pollution and air pollution are caused due to the use of heavy machineries and vehicles during construction and demolition, operation of off-grid diesel generators for power, loading and unloading operations, concrete and plaster preparation, bore well digging, and so on. Pollution-related EBRGs have been designed to check and control pollution due to buildings in Hyderabad. These guidelines include measures to control air pollution levels during construction stages and noise pollution during and after construction. Rest of the pollution related measures are covered under other sections.

46

Guideline

Check air pollution during construction


P Ensure reduction in air pollution during construction by taking appropriate preventive measures. P Ensure reduction in air pollution while using diesel generator sets by ensuring minimum height of stack as per the Central Pollution Control Board norms.

Pollution caused by construction activities


P Activities at construction site, such as land clearing, operation of diesel engines, demolition, and burning contribute significantly to air pollution. Prevention of air pollution due to P Suspended particulate matter increases significantly during construction. construction activities P The dust generated from construction activities (from concrete, cement, wood, stone, silica) is classified as PM10, which is invisible to the naked eye. P Additionally, diesel engine exhaust comprises soot, sulphates and silicates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. P Noxious vapours from oils, glues, thinners, paints, plastics, cleaners, and so on used at construction sites also contribute to air pollution.

Impacts of air pollutants released during construction


P Research has shown that PM10 penetrates deeply into the lungs and lodges there, causing asthma, bronchitis, and even cancer. P Other air pollutants released during construction activities can also cause various health disorders. P Greenhouse gases released during construction activities cause global warming.

Best practices to minimize air pollution during construction


P Provide hoardings, at least 3-metre high, along the site boundary, next to a road or other public area. P Provide dust screens, sheeting or netting to scaffold along the perimeter of the building under construction. P Cover stockpile of dusty material with impervious sheeting. P Cover dusty load on vehicles with impervious sheeting before they leave the site. P Keep dry loose materials like bulk cement or dry pulverized fly ash inside a totally enclosed system. P Spray water, through a simple hose or a water truck, to keep dust under control. Misting systems and sprinklers can be used to control fine particulates. P Use low-sulphur diesel oil in all vehicle and equipment engines and incorporate the latest specifications of particulate filters and catalytic converters. P While using diesel generator, adhere to the following norms. v The diesel generator sets should be provided with integral acoustic enclosures at the manufacturing stage. v There must be sufficient space for the fuel tank inside the canopy and to house panel. v There must be a provision for air-intake and air-exhaust Water sprinkling to control dust silencers. v There must be a provision for additional screens and hoods for multi-medium noise suppression. v A minimum stack height should be provided with each generator. P Cutting, grinding, and sawing should ideally be undertaken off site. For on-site works, the following techniques should be used. v All equipment should be fitted with a water suppressant system. v Dust extraction techniques should always be used. v Areas used for undertaking cutting and grinding works should be screened.

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Guideline

Outdoor noise
Ensure that the outdoor and indoor noise levels conform to the ambient environmental standards of noise prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board and National Building Code, 2005. While using diesel generator sets during and after construction, ensure that the maximum permissible sound pressure level for new diesel generator sets with rated capacity upto 1000 kVA, manufactured on or after 1 July 2003, is 75 dB(A) at 1 m from the enclosure surface. Noise control measures should be incorporated during the design and installation of electrical devices, air conditioners, and ventilation devices, and the noise emitted from these devices should adhere to the recommended outdoor and indoor noise criteria as given in the National Building Code, 2005.

Recommended measures to check noise pollution


P All noisy construction work activities such as piling, blasting, demolition, concreting works, borewell digging, and so on must be carried between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. P Typical noisy construction activities and recommended time of construction hours are as follows. Type of work Very noisy works like piling, blasting, demolition, concreting works, borewell digging 7a.m.7p.m. Yes 7p.m.10 p.m. No 10 p.m.7 a.m. No

Moderately noisy works like erection, dismantling Yes of framework, tying, fixing of steel bars, operation of cranes, loading/unloading of construction materials, and so on

Yes

No

Quiet works like housekeeping, brick-laying, Yes Yes Yes plastering, painting, and so on Equipment used for construction work must not make noise. During the construction of commercial and big residential buildings, install noise meters at 1 m from the affected building, and maintain the readings till the construction is over. These could be checked by the concerned authority in case of any complaint by affected parties.

Measuring noise
Noise can be measured with the help of noise meters. Based on their range of measurement, precision, cost, and so on, the noise meters can be classified as analog, digital, and calibrated.

Equipment to measure and monitor noise levels

ECOLOGY AND GEOLOGY


settlement is characterized by its individual and unique characteristics. Urban centres have to carefully preserve and conserve its flora and fauna, geological formations, and heritage zones and buildings, which become the identity of a settlement. Like many other cities in India, Hyderabad, once known as a city of gardens, is now left with only 0.50 m2 per capita of recreational space in the MCH (Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad) area, as against the national standard of 3 m2. Encroachment of open spaces and community parks for building purposes is exasperating the issue. Remote sensing studies reveal that the area under water bodies has reduced from 22.79 km2 in 1989 to 20.84 km2 in 1999 in the city and the surrounding municipalities. Plant species, being promoted for parks and private gardens, comprise of a lot of non-native species. The unique rock formations that are the identity of the city are being destroyed indiscriminately due to aggressive construction activities. As a result, Hyderabad is losing its ecological and geological identity and its biodiversity is being severely affected. The large number of migratory birds that used to be seen in the citys lakes are not seen anymore. With increasing population and economic activity, the situation in the core city will inevitably spread to the heritage and conservation zones and the water bodies located in the peripheral areas of the city. To avoid such a situation, solutions to conserve these resources are required, which will mean addressing the citys ecological and developmental patterns. While landscaping regulations at the building level exist at the national and local levels, they are insufficient to address these issues and are not being stringently enforced. Countries, such as the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, could provide us with some very good examples of regulated green cover both in parks and in specific building zones. The geological formations of Hyderabad have been declared by HMDA (Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority) as conservation and heritage precincts, making it the only city in India where rocks are protected as natural heritage. HMDA, GHMC (Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation), and APTD (Andhra Pradesh Tourism Department) have started developing rock gardens in the city, which is a laudable initiative. However, efforts have to be made at every site level to protect these unique features that are millions of years old. Hence, the guidelines on Ecological and Geological Conservation cover the following aspects. 1. Conservation of existing vegetation on a building site and improving the ecological value of the site through plantation of native species. 2. Soil conservation on build gin sites through top soil conservation, erosion control, and soil and runoff water pollution control 3. Conservation of rock formation on site through design measures and methods to stabilize them

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Guideline

Conserving ecological value of a site through design integration and conservation during construction
P Existing site vegetation and pockets of microhabitats should be integrated in site planning and landscape design. P Existing mature trees should be v protected wherever possible. Permission from municipal authorities should be obtained prior to felling a mature tree, as per the APWALTA Act, 2002. v transplanted where they cannot be protected, and Natural state of a site is of intrinsic v replanted if neither protection nor transplantation is possible, with ecological value following considerations. Three new tree saplings should be replanted for cutting every mature or fully grown tree. Native and/or non-invasive species should be used for replanting. P In all sites, the following minimum number of trees should be maintained. v 250 m2 and less two trees v More than 250 m2 but less than 750 m2 three trees v More than 750 m one tree for every 250 m2 v Vacant land 25 trees per hectare P Trees retained or identified for transplanting on-site should be protected from construction activities. P If the construction site is part of a larger site, the construction site has to be demarcated, and vegetation in surrounding areas should not be disturbed.

Benefits of ecological conservation


Conserving and maintaining vegetation in an area have the following advantages. P Maintaining vegetative cover helps in reducing flooding risk, erosion, and pollution of lakes and rivers by increasing groundwater recharge. P Maintaining tree cover also improves air quality. P Conserving and/or planting native species can save money as they require lesser maintenance and lesser water. P Native plants will also improve the aesthetic quality of gardens and terraces by attracting native fauna and migratory species, creating urban niches.

Maintaining pre-development ecological footprint has many advantages

Procedure for monitoring and protecting site vegetation


P An ecological survey of the site and an inventory of naturally occurring vegetation, topography, and slopes should be undertaken to identify plant species, their extent of coverage, and the natural drainage pattern, with the help of a landscape architect. P Based on the survey, microhabitats and trees that need to be left undisturbed should be identified. P The consequent landscape plan should indicate trees that have been preserved and also those that had to be transplanted or removed, clearly differentiating between these three categories.

Protecting site vegetation during construction


P When opening the site, care should be taken to keep vegetation clearing at a minimum. P Protection of existing vegetation, where possible, by preventing disturbance or damage to specified areas during Adequate protection and enhancement of site construction should be undertaken. vegetation is very important P The preserved vegetated area should be inspected by the landscape architect/architect/engineer-in-charge at regular intervals so that it remains undisturbed.

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Guideline

Soil conservation and erosion control during construction


Site demarcation and material storage
P The construction site and the area in the vicinity should be clearly demarcated from the undisturbed area. P Space for storage of construction material should be demarcated either on-site or in the closest space available (with permission) before the construction work begins. Roads, pavements or community parks should not be used for storage.

Controlling soil pollution


P Topsoil, other than black cotton soil, should be removed till a depth of 200 mm and preserved for reuse before construction starts on-site. P Adequate measures should be taken to control spillages of paints and other hazardous materials on the soil and to dispose of contaminated material and hazardous waste.

Top soil takes million of years to form and supports native vegetation

Controlling erosion and water pollution


P Temporary drainage channels should be constructed for collecting construction run-off water and storm water run-off water from the construction site. The pollutant-laden water should be diverted to an onsite treatment plant. P Temporary drainage channels and swales should be constructed on the periphery of the construction site for diverting storm water run-off from the surrounding areas away from the construction site. P Erosion control measures such as seeding, mulching, and effective planting should be undertaken during and after construction on-site.

Benefits envisaged
P Proper construction material storage will secure the building material from theft and reduce material wastage, and prevent traffic problems. P Erosion control and soil protection measures erosion due to storm water run-off and wind, siltation of drains, dust pollution during construction, and water pollution. They will improve the green cover and groundwater level.

Measures to protect soil


P Site demarcation and material storage The site that will be disturbed during construction should be demarcated. Space for storing sand and metal should be clearly shown on the site plan. This space should not be on the road or pavement or any other community space. P Controlling soil pollution The soil becomes loose due to the removal of stabilizing material. Hence, a topsoil preservation plan and a soil erosion and sedimentation control plan should be prepared prior to construction and should be followed diligently. P Controlling water pollution during construction v A separate drainage channel and sedimentation pit should be provided for the construction waste water so that it does not mix with sewage water or percolate into the soil. v Temporary storm water drainage swales should be constructed around the construction site to divert storm water run-off from the site. Swales and drainage channels P Controlling soil erosion during and after construction It is important to control soil erosion and pollution understand soil characteristics, climate, rainfall intensity and duration, and vegetation and topography to predict the extent and consequences of soil erosion. Plantation effectively prevent soil erosion. Mulches on slopes can help prevent run-off and erosion problems.

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Guideline

On-site geology conservation


P For a site with rocky substrata, basement construction that involves blasting or disturbing the rocky substrata will not be allowed. P Rock formations declared as heritage sites or important rock formations by the Society to Save Rocks should not be disturbed. P Rock formations located on and within 50 m of the site boundary have to be identified prior to construction. Geological features such as rocks, lakes, and so on on-site should be integrated into the building or landscape design. Prior permission from an accredited geologist has to be taken if any formation has to be disturbed. P While integrating rock formations into a building or landscape design, following rules should be followed. Natural stability of the rock formation should not be disturbed. Stabilizing rocks by artificial means should be as per the Pathar Dil one of the rocky wonders of Hyderabad recommendations of an accredited geologist. Native flora and fauna existing amidst rock clusters should be left undisturbed.

Importance of rock formations


P Rocks are ancient ecosystems of great geological, cultural, and aesthetic values, and play a fundamental role in preserving biodiversity. P Owing to their uniqueness, nine rock sites in Hyderabad have been declared as heritage precincts and 20 more formations are being considered to be included in this list. P These rock systems are also part of the hydrological regime of an area.

Aim of the guideline


P Conserving the rock sites that are considered the oldest geological formations. P Increasing awareness of the geological significance of the rocks among people so that they are proactive towards their conservation.. P Preventing destruction of rocks for construction purposes and encourage sustainable, eco-friendly integration of rocks in buildings. P Compelling construction industry professionals to integrate rock formations into the building and landscape design, leading to a new architectural style evolution.

Examples of rocks integrated in architecture


P Shilparamam, the crafts village located in the Jubilee Hills area, celebrates the symphony of rocks, enhancing their beauty by landscaping and bring focus to this marvel of nature by a sensitive use of space without disturbing the natural settings. P Over the years, the house of Narendra Luther, tucked away at Banjara Hills Road, has become a textbook example in incorporating a rock completely into a house. P Some of the rocks that have been declared as Heritage Precincts in Hyderabad are as follows. v Rock Park on Old Bombay Road near Dargah Hussain Shah Wali v Hillocks around Durgam Cheruvu Lake, Jubilee Hills v Bears Nose inside Shilparamam, Madhapur v Cliff Rock between Road No. 45 and 46, Jubilee Hills Rock in the drawing room exclusive v Mushroom Rock inside the University of Hyderabad Campus
identity of Mr Narendra Luthers house

BUILDING MATERIALS
he use of readily available, environment-friendly materials contributes towards a sustainable habitat. An environment-friendly material is made from recycled material that uses only renewable energy in its extraction, production, and transport, and can be reclaimed and recycled. On the one hand, the phenomenal growth of building industry results in unplanned and unchecked exploitation of natural resources, while on the other hand, growth catalyses the need for intensive efforts to standardize energy-efficient production processes, reuse production waste, and analyse a material in terms of its sustainable footprint. To meet the goal of finding a suitable material, there needs to be a frame of reference to select materials based on environmental concerns. Of the many available alternatives, the use of fly ash in concrete products such as flyash-based bricks, blocks, and pavers are some sustainable technologies being used in Hyderabad for the construction of buildings. Some of the key concerns in the building industry that uses various types of building materials are as follows. P Use of environment-unfriendly materials. P Increase in heat gain effect, as these materials are climatologically inappropriate, thereby effecting the indoor comfort levels P Moving away from traditional architecture. P Increasing natural resource extraction, leading to the depletion of fossil fuels. P Increase in transportation and other related costs due to the use of locally unavailable materials. The use of environment-friendly materials has following advantages. P Use of fly ash and its variants in building construction helps in reducing the use of cement, sand, and so on. P Use of recycled materials like material made from industrial wastes helps in environment conservation. P Use of naturally available stones enable in regaining the vernacular importance of buildings P Reuse of building materials from construction debris reduces the stress on the fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources In view of its immense potential, the framework of EBRGs for building materials have focused on use of materials which are P Locally available P Climatologically appropriate P Recycled or reused materials P Low embodied energy materials

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Guideline

Using building materials that are recycled/reused or have low embodied energy or are locally available
P 15% of fly ash should be used in RC (reinforced cement) using PCC (Portland pozzolona cement) containing fly ash. P For building blocks for walls, 25% of total masonry should comprise fly ash. P For plastering and masonry mortar, 15% of cement should comprise fly ash. P 20% of total masonry for structural and non-structural applications should comprise low-energy/recycled materials. P For the interior finishes and components, 50% of total masonry should comprise recycled materials. P Alternative building materials should be increasingly used in construction.

Fly ash bricks and blocks manufacturing unit

Benefits of using traditional/locally available building materials


P P P P P P P P Comprise renewable resources. Sensitive to ecology and environment friendly. Environment-friendly, as impacts are considered over the life of the material. Reduce maintenance/replacement costs over life of the building. Increase resource efficiency, energy efficiency, and conservation in buildings. Enhance occupant health and productivity. Reduce water consumption in buildings and conserve water in landscape areas. Climatologically appropriate and leave minimum environmental footprints during their life cycle. P Reduce cost by using locally available materials.

Alternative building materials


P Ready mix concrete or high-volume fly ash concrete or PPC concrete. P PPC Alternative to OPC (ordinary Portland cement), with an additional advantage Types of eco-friendly building of having mild sulphate resistance. materials and products P High-volume fly ash concrete. P Fly-ash-based building products Cellular light weight concrete blocks, fly-ash-based polymer composites, ready mix fly ash concrete, fly ash bricks/blocks, and clay fly ash bricks.

Low-energy materials (precast systems)


Stabilized compressed earth blocks Made up of mud stabilized with 5% cement lime and other materials. Precast stone blocks Manufactured using waste stone pieces of various sizes and lean cement concrete. Precast concrete blocks Use coarse and fine aggregate with cement. Precast hollow concrete blocks Manufactured using lean cement concrete mixes and need lesser cement mortar. P Composite ferrocement systems Made of rich mortar reinforced with chicken or welded wire mesh. P P P P

Recycled (low-energy) materials for interiors/finishes


P Composite wood products Examples are hardboards, black boards, lumbercore plywood, and so on. P Renewable materials/products Made from small diameter trees and fastgrowing low-utilized species harvested within a 10-year or shorter cycle, such as bamboo, rubber, eucrasia, poplar, and so on. P Products utilizing industrial waste Industrial waste includes wood waste, Use of low energy materials agricultural waste, and natural fibres. in buildings P Salvaged timber and reused wood products Example, furniture. P Low-embodied energy products Use recycled materials like glass, crushed stone, and other waste.

GLOSSARY
Energy
Air change per hour: The number of times per hour that the volume of a specific room or building is supplied or removed from that space by mechanical and natural ventilation. Air handler, or AHU (air handling unit) central unit consisting of a blower, heating and cooling elements, filter racks or chamber, dampers, humidifier, and other central equipment in direct contact with the airflow. This does not include the ductwork through the building. British thermal unit: Any of several units of energy (heat) in the HVAC industry, each slightly more than 1 kJ. One BTU (British thermal unit) is the energy required to raise one pound of water 1 Fahrenheit, but the many different types of BTU are based on different interpretations of this definition. In the United States the power of HVAC systems (the rate of cooling and dehumidifying or heating) is sometimes expressed in BTU/hour instead of watts. Chiller: A device that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This cooled liquid flows through pipes in a building and passes through coils in air handlers, fan-coil units or other systems, cooling and usually dehumidifying the air in the building. Chillers are of two typesair cooled or water cooled. Air-cooled chillers are usually outside and consist of condenser coils cooled by fan-driven air. Water-cooled chillers are usually inside a building and heat from these chillers is carried by re-circulating water to outdoor cooling towers. Coil: Equipment that performs heat transfer when mounted inside an air handling unit or ductwork. It is heated or cooled by electrical means or by circulating liquid or steam within it. Air flowing across it is heated or cooled. Condenser: A component in the basic refrigeration cycle that ejects or removes heat from the system. The condenser is the hot side of an air conditioner or heat pump. Condensers are heat exchangers and can transfer heat to air or to an intermediate fluid (such as water or an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol) to carry heat to a distant sink such as ground (earth sink), a body of water, or air (as with cooling towers). Constant air volume: A system designed to provide a CAV (constant air volume) per unit time. This term is applied to HVAC systems that have variable supply-air temperature but constant air flow rates. Most residential forced air systems are small CAV systems with on/off control. Controller: A device that controls the operation of part or all of a system. It may simply turn a device on and off or it may more subtly modulate burners, compressors, pumps, valves, fans, dampers, and the like. Most controllers are automatic but have user inputs such as temperature set points, for example a thermostat. Controls may be analog, or digital, or pneumatic or a combination of these. Damper: A plate or gate placed in a duct to control air flow by introducing a constriction in the duct. T T (delta T) is a reference to a temperature difference. It is used to describe the difference in temperature of a heating or cooling fluid as it enters and as it leaves a heat transfer device. This term is used in the calculation of coil efficiency. Ecotect: Ecotect analyses the 3D models within the actual context of design. It does surface mapping, spatial volumetric renderings or simple shadow animations. One can interact with data usually in real time to get visual feedback in Ecotect. Evaporator: A component in the basic refrigeration cycle that absorbs or adds heat to the system. Evaporators can be used to absorb heat from air (by reducing temperature and by removing water) or from a liquid. The evaporator is the cold side of an air conditioner or heat pump. Fan coil unit: A small terminal unit that is often composed of only a blower and a heating and/or cooling coil (heat exchanger), as is often used in hotels, condominiums, or apartments. One type of DCU (fan coil unit) is a unit ventilator. Fenestration: All areas (including the frames) in the building envelope that let in light including windows, plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, glass doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. Fresh air intake: An opening through which outside air is drawn into the building. This may be to replace air in the building that has been exhausted by the ventilation system or to provide fresh air for combustion of fuel. Furnace: A component of an HVAC system that adds heat to air or an intermediate fluid by burning fuel (natural gas, oil, propane, butane or other flammable substances) in a heat exchanger. Grille: A facing across a duct opening, usually rectangular is shape, containing multiple parallel slots through which

56
air may be delivered or withdrawn from a ventilated space. Heat load, heat loss or heat gain: Terms for the amount of heating (heat loss) or cooling (heat gain) needed to maintain desired temperatures and humidity in controlled air. Regardless of how well-insulated and sealed a building is, buildings gain heat from warm air or sunlight or lose heat due to cold air and radiation. Engineers use a heat load calculation to determine the HVAC needs of the space being cooled or heated. Hottest average day: The average temperature of this day is highest in the year. Louvers: Blades, sometimes adjustable, placed in ducts or duct entries to control the volume of air flow. The term may also refer to blades in a rectangular frame placed in doors or walls to permit the movement of air. Makeup air unit: An air handler that conditions 100% outside air. MAUs (makeup air unit) are typically used in industrial or commercial settings, or in once-through blower sections that only blow air one-way into the building), low flow (air handling systems that blow air at a low flow rate) or primary-secondary (air handling systems that have an air handler or rooftop unit connected to an add-on makeup unit or hood) commercial HVAC systems. Orientation: It is the direction an envelope element faces, that is, the direction of a vector perpendicular to and pointing away from the surface outside of the element. Packaged terminal air conditioner: An air conditioner and heater combined into a single, electrically-powered unit, typically installed through a wall and often found in hotels. Packaged unit or rooftop unit: An air-handling unit, defined as either recirculating or once-through design, made specifically for outdoor installation. They most often include, internally, their own heating and cooling devices. RTUs are very common in some regions, particularly in single-story commercial buildings (roof top unit). Reflectance: The fraction of radiant energy that is reflected from a surface. Solar heat gain coefficient: SHGC (Solar heat gain coefficient) is the fraction of external solar radiation that is admitted through a window or skylight, both directly transmitted, absorbed, and subsequently released inward. Thermal zone: A single or group of neighboring indoor spaces that the HVAC designer expects will have similar thermal loads. Building codes may require zoning to save energy in commercial buildings. Zones are defined in the building to reduce the number of HVAC subsystems, and thus initial cost. For example, for perimeter offices, rather than one zone for each office, all offices facing west can be combined into one zone. Small residences typically have only one conditioned thermal zone, plus unconditioned spaces such as unconditioned garages, attics, and crawlspaces, and unconditioned basements. Transmittance: The fraction of radiant energy that passes through a surface. U-factor: It measures the rate of heat transfer through a building element over a given area, under standardized conditions. The usual standard is at a temperature gradient of 24 C at 50% humidity with no wind. Variable air volume system: An HVAC system that has a stable supply-air temperature and varies the air flow rate to meet the temperature requirements. Compared to CAV systems, these systems waste less energy through unnecessarily high fan speeds. Most new commercial buildings have VAV (variable air volume) systems. Lighting power density: It is calculated by dividing the total lighting load in wattage with total area (m2). The units are W/m2. Energy performance Index: It is calculated as the ratio of total building energy consumption in a year to the total built up area. Chiller Performance: It is calculated based on the formula given below. The refrigeration TR is assessed as TR = Q Cp (Ti To) / 3024 Where Q is mass flow rate of coolant in kg/hr Cp is coolant specific heat in kCal /kg deg C Ti is inlet, temperature of coolant to evaporator (chiller) in C To is outlet temperature of coolant from evaporator (chiller) in C. The above TR is also called as chiller tonnage. The specific power consumption kW/TR is a useful indicator of the performance of refrigeration system. By measuring refrigeration duty performed in TR and the kilowatt inputs, kW/TR 128 Pump performance: Pump efficiency can be calculated based on the formula given below. Efficiency: hydraulic power/electrical input power Hydraulic power: Q (m3/s) Total head, (hd hs) (m) (kg/m3) g (m/s2) / 1000 Where hd discharge head, hs suction head, density of the fluid, g acceleration due to gravity Cooling tower performance: Cooling tower performance is calculated based on the formula given Efficiency: range/ (range + approach) Range: Difference between the cooling tower water inlet and outlet temperature. Approach: Difference between the cooling tower outlet cold water temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature Window wall ratio: It is the fraction of the cumulative window area to the wall area (including fenestration area) on the same facade.

Comfort
Air change rate: It is a measure of how quickly the air in an interior space is replace by outside (or conditioned) air by ventilation and infiltration. Air change rate is measured in appropriate units such as cubic meters per hour divided by the volume of air in the room.

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Dry bulb temperature: It is the temperature of air measured by a thermometer freely exposed to the air but shielded from radiation and moisture. Metabolic rate: The metabolic rate, expressed in met, is used as a measuring unit of human heat production. Day light factor: The ratio of interior illuminance at a given point on a given plane (usually the work plane) to the exterior illuminance (reference) under the same sky conditions. Decibel: The dB (decibel) is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level. Fenestration: All areas (including the frames) in the building envelope that let in light including windows, plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, glass doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. Illuminance: Illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface per unit area. Noise: Noise (in sound) is generally any unpleasant sound and, more technically, any unwanted sound that is unintentionally added to a desired sound. Orientation: It is the direction an envelope element faces, that is, the direction of a vector perpendicular to and pointing away from the surface outside of the element. Reflectance: The fraction of radiant energy that is reflected from a surface. Transmittance: The fraction of radiant energy that passes through a surface. Volatile organic compounds: VOCs (volatile organic compounds) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapor pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. Window wall ratio: It is the fraction of the cumulative window area to the wall area (including fenestration area) on the same facade. intensity. Sound power and intensity are not easy to measure. However, sound pressure is easily measured with a sound level meter. Sound pressure may also be expressed in dB since sound pressure squared is proportional to sound power or intensity. We use dB instead of the actual amplitude of the sound in units of pressure because its logarithmic value represents the way our ears interpret sound and because the numbers are more manageable for our calculations. Most sounds fall in the range of 0 to140 dB, which is equivalent to waves with pressures of 20 to 200000000 micropascals (or 2 10 10 to 2 10 2 atm). The approximate SPLs of some common sound sources are given in the following table. SPL of common sound sources Source Faintest audible sound Whisper Quiet residence Soft stereo in residence Speech range Cafeteria Pneumatic jackhammer Loud crowd noise Accelerating motorcycle Rock concert Jet engine (75 feet away) SPL(dDA) 0 20 30 40 5070 80 90 100 100 120 140

However, calculating the SPL of two sources together is


not as simple as adding their individual decibel levels. Two people speaking at 70 dBA each are not as loud as a jet engine at 140 dBA. To combine two decibel values, they must be converted back to pressure squared, summed, and converted back to decibel.

Solid waste management


Aerobic: A biochemical process or environmental condition occurring in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic: A biochemical process or environmental condition occurring in the absence of oxygen Biodegradable: A compound that can be shredded or converted to simpler compounds by microorganisms E-waste: It includes discarded materials from a range of electronic devices such as computers, refrigerators, televisions, air-conditioners, personal stereos, MP3 players, mobile phones, among others.

Water conservation
Activated carbon filtration: A water filtration process, which utilizes an activated carbon filtering medium to remove taste, odor, some organic compounds, and radon. Activated carbon is effective as a filter for organic chemicals because it is an excellent medium for both adsorption (where the chemical interacts with the surface of the carbon) and absorption (where the chemical is incorporated into the carbons surface structure). Aerator: Faucet aerators are small plug-in devices that can reduce home water consumption costs by as much as 50%. Faucet aerators replace the faucet head screen, lowering the flow by adding air to the spray. Biological contamination: Contamination arising due to presence, activity, and growth of any and all living organisms Borewell: A drilled bore in earth that is made deep into an impervious layer in order to reach a waterbearing stratum. The water reached could be either

Pollution
Decibels: The most common measure of a sounds level is SPL (sound pressure level) expressed in dB, abbreviated dB. Decibels are not typical units like meters or kilograms in that they do not linearly relate to a specific quantity. Instead, decibels are based on the logarithmic ratio of the sound power or intensity to a reference power or

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non-replenishable fossil water or replenishable by infiltration of surface water after flowing certain distances through porous geological formations. In this process, in proper conditions, the water gets (or used to get) mostly free from organic matter, including pathogenic organisms. Brackish water: Water containing dissolved solids in the range of 1000 to less than 15000 parts per million. Catchment area: It is the area drained by a stream or other water bodiesbody of water. The amount of water reaching the river, reservoir or lake from its catchment area depends on the size of the area, the amount of precipitation, and the loss through evaporation and through absorption by the earth or by vegetation. Conductivity: The property of a substance to conduct (carry) heat or electricity; the unit of measure is the Siemens. Deionization: The removal of all ionized minerals and salts (both organic and inorganic) from a solution by a twophase ion exchange procedure Demineralization: The act or process of removing minerals or mineral salts from a liquid such as water. Water is passed through a mixed-bed ion exchanger to remove soluble ionic impurities. Distribution downtakes: The pipelines/ duct work that distribute water from an overhead water-storage facility to the various water supply points in the building, that is, bathrooms, kitchens, wash areas, and so on. Drip irrigation: Drip irrigation can help use water efficiently in meeting the irrigation requirements of a landscape. An irrigation method involving small pipes placed at the base of plants delivering water slowly to the plant roots. A well-designed drip irrigation system loses practically no water to runoff, deep percolation or evaporation. Dual flush toilet: A dual-flush toilet is a variation of the flush toilet that uses two handles to flush different levels of water. The main feature of the toilet is that it has two buttons for releasing water. The smaller level is designed for liquid waste, and the larger is designed for solid waste. Ecological balance: A state of dynamic equilibrium within a community of organisms in which genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity remain relatively stable, subject to gradual changes through natural selection. Economic feasibility: Term used to understand whether expected cost savings; increased revenue, increased profits, and reductions in required investment exceed the costs of developing and operating a proposed system. Exotic/ornamental plants: The term is often used to describe plant species that have been, or are being, introduced in to parts of the world other than their historical or documented range by humans, often as ornamental plants. Flow rate: Flow rate is a parameter used to mark the efficiency of appliances using liquids. For water fixtures, flow rate gives the amount of water (in litres or gallons) that flows from a particular fixture in a given time (in minutes or seconds). Flow regulator: A device that controls the flow of water (in the present context) to the desired level, generally used to reduce the flow coming from faucets where conserving water is the aim. Habitat: The place where a population (for example, human, animal, plant or microorganism) lives, with its surroundings, both living and nonliving. Hardness: A common quality of water, which contains dissolved compounds of calcium and magnesium and, sometimes, other divalent and trivalent metallic elements. Hardness prevents soap from lathering by causing the development of an insoluble curdy precipitate in the water; hardness typically causes the buildup of hardness scale (such as seen in cooking pans). Dissolved calcium and magnesium salts are primarily responsible for most scaling in pipes and water heaters and cause numerous problems in laundry, kitchen, and bath. Household: A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Ion-exchange systems: An installation having a watersoftening method often found on a large scale at water purification plants; the treatment removes some organics and radium by adding calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide to increase the pH to a level at which the metals will precipitate out. IR sensors: It is an electronic device, which measures infrared light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are now being used in the construction of PIRbased motion detectors installed on taps that activate as soon as hands come within a few inches above, below or along the sides of the spout. KPA: KiloPascal is a unit of measuring pressure. Lake beds: Refers to the bottom of a lakethe depression forming the ground under a lake. Lakes: An inland body of usually fresh water, larger than a pool or pond, generally formed by some obstruction in the course of flowing water. This could be naturally occurring or man-made. Landscape: The art of arranging or modifying the existing features of (an area of land, a highway, and so on), to improve its appearance by planting trees, shrubs, or grass or altering the contours of the ground. Lawns: A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at a low, even height. Lawns are a standard feature of ornamental private and public gardens and landscapes in much of the world today. Leakage (water-related): Wastage of water from dysfunctionaldysfunctional water appliances/fixtures due to chinks, breaches or loosening of internal

59
mechanical parts leading to constant unintended dripping, seepage or outflow of water. Low-flow fixtures: Low-flow fixtures use high pressure and/or aeration to produce a comfortable, pleasing flow without using much water. There are two main types of low-flow faucets and showerheadsaerating (the most popular) and non-aerating. Aerating mixes air into the water stream. This maintains steady pressure so the flow has an even, full shower spray. Non-aerating adds a pulse to the water stream delivering a strong spray. Llpcd: Litres per capita per day. A unit that denotes the average daily water quantity usage/supply by a single person. Mm head: Metres head is a unit to measure pressure available to a shower head. The higher the metre head, the greater will be the pressure with which the shower head operates. Mg/l: Milligrams per litre is the unit used to measure the dissolved and suspended solids present in water. WHO recommends various TDS (total disolved solids) and TSS levels for water quality intended for various purposes. Micro-irrigation systems: Micro-irrigation refers to lowpressure irrigation systems that spray, mist, sprinkle or drip. The term micro-irrigation describes a family of irrigation systems that apply water through small devices. These devices deliver water onto the soil surface very near the plant or below the soil surface directly into the plant root zone. In urban landscapes, micro-irrigation is widely used with ornamental plantings. Municipal water: Purified and chlorinated water supplied by the local utility agency and delivered to various buildings. In Hyderabad, municipal water refers to water supplied by HMWSSB through piped water connections to individual buildings or PSPs (public stand posts. Native species: Any plant species that occurs and grows naturally in a specific region or locality. Native plant species do not require watering other than during the initial years of establishment. Network coverage: This refers to the extent of connectivity of a politico-geographical area to the utility provided pure drinking water supply, existing in the area. It is expressed as a percentage of the total area covered by the network of water supply connections given. Pathogenic: Capable of causing disease. Pathogens are mMicroorganisms that can cause disease in other organisms or in humans, other animals, and plants. They may be bacteria, viruses, or parasites and are found in sewage, in runoff from animal farms or rural areas populated with domestic or wild animals, and in water used for swimming. Physical feasibility: This term refers to the issue of considering feasibility of a proposed option with respect to its physical implementationavailability of physical components, external constraints, interaction and compatibility with existing and other systems, and so on. Piped connections: This refers to one type of water supply connections given by the corresponding utility in an Indian city. The purified and chlorinated water is supplied to valid connections via piped network running from the supply source to the supply destination, which is usually through valves/taps installed in the destination building. Potable water: Water that is safe for drinking and cooking. Rainwater collection and reuse: Collection and re-use or recycling of rainwater mainly from the building rooftop for the purpose of garden irrigation, car washing, toilet flushing, and so on. Infrastructure installation for water collection and storage, filtration and reuse to implement this system of harvesting rain water will be required. With an efficient filtration system in place, the collected rain water may even be used for potable purposes. Rainwater harvesting system: It is defined as an induced human activity involving collection and storage of rainwater in some natural or artificial container either for immediate use or use before the onset of the next monsoon. Recycled water: Water taken from any waste (effluent) stream and treated to a level suitable for further use, where it is used safely and sustainably for beneficial purposes. This is a general term that can incudedinclude reclaimed water. RO systems: An installation with a water treatment process used in small water systems by adding pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane, RO (reverse osmosis) removes most drinking water contaminants. It is also used in wastewater treatment. Large-scale RO plants are now being developed. Shower: A plumbing fixture with an overhead nozzle that sprays water down on the body with accelerated pressure. Sprinkler irrigation: Irrigation by pumping water under pressure through nozzles and spraying it over the land is called sprinkler irrigation. There are several types of portable sprinklers, and each type is best suited to certain lawn shapes and landscape configurations. TDS: It refer to disintegrated organic and inorganic material contained in water. Excessive amounts make water unfit for drinking or for use in industrial processes. Vegetated area: An area or part of any site that has plantation or greenery on it in any form, that is, grass, plants, trees, and so on. Water consumption calculator: A customized and userfriendly calculator has been designed for professional sand public to calculate their water consumption levels in various sectors, viz., wWater fixtures, waste water treatment, rainwater harvesting, landscape water requirement, and so on. It has been developed to aid in understanding the conventional consumption patterns and highlights areas where water conservation can be practiced and achieved, following implementation of the Guidelines.

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Water demand: The total amount of water required to satisfy/fulfill the various daily needs physical or industrial or commercial , of any community, which is the basis of volume determination of water supply requirements for inhabitants of a politico-geographical area, that is, village, town, city, and so on. Water treatment/ filtration/ purification systems: Various mechanical, electrical or other systems/installations employing different technologies to purify water to the desired quality, determined by the end use of the same. Various water treatment/purification systems are filtration, boiling, demineralization, activated carbon filtration, RO systems, ion-exchange systems, nano filtration systems, UV filtration systems, and so on. Water- efficient showerheads: They refer to low-flow showerheads that can reduce home water consumption costs by as much as 50%. Low-flow showerheads either draw in air, or have it forced into the water stream by using compressed air. The air-water mixture under pressure creates a high velocity spray, which makes it seem like more water is coming out than there actually is. Water- saving potential: It refers to the potential/ possibility of saving water by implementing various water conserving practices, and is expressed as a percentage of the total water volume that is required to operate the systems with conventional practices. Xeriscape: Landscaping designed specifically for areas that are susceptible to drought or where water conservation is practiced. It refers to gardening in ways that reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental irrigation. Derived from the Greek xeros meaning dry, the term xeriscape means literally dry landscape. height will remain undeformedunreformed without some form of support. Detention ponds: Depressed landscaped areas used to detain storm water runoff during heavy rainstorms. A detention pond is a low lying area that is designed to temporarily hold a set amount of water while slowly draining to another location. They are used for flood control when large amounts of rain could cause flash flooding if not dealt with properly. Drainage pattern: The configuration of a natural or artificial drainage network that drain a watershed Effluent: Wastewater treated or untreated that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial Filter strips: Filter strips are land areas of either planted or indigenous vegetation, situated between a potential, pollutant-source area, and a surface-water body that receives runoff. Flash floods: A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areaswashes, rivers, and streams. It is caused by heavy rain associated with a thunderstorm or tropical storm. Flora and Fauna: Plants considered as a group, especially the plants of a particular country, region, or time are termed as Flora and animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group are termed as Fauna. Fresh water resources: Sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans that include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational, and environmental activities. Fresh water resources are renewable and are contained as surface water (rivers, lakes, streams), ground water, and frozen water (glaciers and polar caps) on earth. Grading: The act or method of changing the natural or existing surface of ground level to a smooth horizontal or gently sloping surface to the desired level is called grading or leveling. Grass pavers: Cellular blocks with grass growing in the voids. These are mostly used for external paving viz., compounds of factories, office complex, gardens, and so on. They need extensive maintenance and have good infiltration capacity. Gravel: A loose mixture of pebbles and rock fragments coarser than sand, often mixed with clay, and so on. Green roofs: Green roofs are rooftops planted with vegetation. Intensive green roofs have thick layers of soil (6 to 12 inches or more) that can support a broad variety of plant or even tree species. Extensive roofs are simpler green roofs with a soil layer of 6 inches or less to support turf, grass, or other ground cover. Ground water recharge: The supply of fresh water found beneath the earths surface (usually in aquifers), is known as ground water. Any intervention that leads to increasing the ground water levels or aids the availability of ground water at shallower depths is understood to facilitate ground water recharge. Hard paving: Paving made with impervious, hard, and durable surface materials such as stone, ceramic tiles,

Stom water management


Amenity: A feature that adds value or perceived value to something. For example, a swimming pool is an important amenity of many apartment complexes.. Breast height: To allow measurements of tree trunk size to be compared, a standard point on the trunk is defined. It is important that this point is at a convenient height near the ground and that it can be reliably located (and relocated) by different measurers. This standard height is termed breast height. The diameter of the stem of a tree measured at breast height (4.5ft or 1.37m) from the ground. Catchment neighbourhoods: Communities, developments, areas that are developed for habitation around catchment areas of surface water bodies, viz., lakes. Channels: Trenches or grooves that carry water from one place to another; they could be natural drainage channels or man-made to satisfy any specific requirement. Clogging agent: A material that aids the obstruction or hinders the motion of any liquid passing through a surface Critical Slope area: The maximum angle with the horizontal at which a sloped bank of soil of a given

61
concrete, and so on. The construction joints are also sealed completely to make the surface long-lasting and strong. Hard paving contributes to increased runoff from building sites and also adds to increasing the Urbanurban heat Island effect. Illegal encroachment: Encroachment is the situation that exists when a structure is built in whole or in part on a property that is not legally owned by the owner. Impervious: A quality of a material that does not allow water to penetrate through it. Infiltration rate: The quantity of water that can enter the soil in a specified time interval Infiltration technique: The penetration of water through the ground surface into sub-surface soil is termed as iInfiltration and the various techniques that aid this phenomenon are called iInfiltration techniques. Infiltration trenches and basins: Two slightly altered techniques that use the infiltration method of controlling storm water runoff from site. Land contamination: Land contamination is a broad term used to describe situations where elevated levels of contaminants are present in land due to industrial use, waste disposal, accidents or spillages, aerial deposition or migration of contaminants from adjacent areas. Land use planning: The long-term development or conservation of an area and the establishment of a relationship between local objectives and regional goals is the main objective of Land use planning. Landuse planning is often guided by laws and regulations. The major instrument for current land-use planning is the establishment of zones that divide an area into districts, which are subject to specified regulations. Low-lying area: Area having little or no elevation above a surface or level, especially ground level or water level mm/hour: Millimetres per hour is the standard unit of measuring rainfall intensity. Natural drainage: The naturally occurring channelled flow formed by land contours and ridges and then streams and rivers, which removes water from the land surface. Natural site contours/topography: Naturally occurring elevations and surface features of a site. The study and recording of these features on a map is termed of topography. Natural water courses: Natural channel through which water flows to the receiving water bodies outfall; generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters. Percolation capacity: Percolation is the movement of water downward and radially through the subsurface soil layers, usually continuing downward to the groundwater. The capacity of a surface material or the soil itself to allow percolation into the sub-soil is percolation capacity. Percolation pit: One of the easiest and most effective forms of rain water harvesting are designed on the basis of expected runoff and filled with pebbles or brick jelly, and river sand and covered with perforated slabs wherever necessary Pergola: A framework of cross rafters or latticework on an open roof supported on posts or columns, usually with climbing vines Permeable/pervious pavements: Permeability is the rate at which liquids pass through soil or other materials in a specified direction. Permeable/pervious paving refers to a range of materials and techniques for paving roads, parking lots and walkways that allow the movement of water and air around the paving material. Planters: Containers hold saplings or plants that are used for vegetating any surrounding Pollutant concentration: A measure of the amount of a polluting substance in a given amount of water, soil, air, food or other medium. Precipitation: Any and all forms of water, whether liquid or solid, those fall from the atmosphere and reach the eEarths surface. A day with measurable precipitation/ rainfall is a day when the water equivalent of the precipitation is equal to or greater than 0.2 mm/hour. Quarrying: The process of extracting stone for commercial use from natural rock deposits is called quarrying. The extracted material is used for various purposes, including construction, ornamentation, road building, and as an industrial raw material. Receiving water course: A river, lake, ocean, stream, or other watercourse into which wastewater or stormwater run off goes to. Reseeding: To sow similar seed on the same surface or area again. Retention ponds: A retention pond is designed to hold a specific amount of water indefinitely. Usually the pond is designed to have drainage leading to another location when the water level gets above the pond capacity, but still maintains a certain capacity. Ridgelines: They are formed at the intersection of two slopes, dividing the drainage basins of separate water bodies. Their existence is critical because they form natural drainage channels that carry runoff into the receiving water bodies. Runoff volume and rate: The quantity of the total runoff emerging from a particular site during a rainfall event is termed as runoff volume and is expressed in cubic metres or thousand litres. The time taken by the total runoff to finally leave a particular site gives the runoff rate. Both runoff volume and rate are directly proportional to the imperviousness and built-up area onsite. Scale (on appliances): The whitish hard deposits left behind by dissolved calcium and magnesium salts in water are primarily responsible for most scaling in pipes and water heaters and cause numerous problems in laundry, kitchen, and bath. Sediment: Solid fragments of inorganic or organic material that come from the weathering of rock and are carried and deposited by wind or water. Silt: Fine particles of sand or rock that can be picked up by the air or water and deposited as sediment. Site disturbance: Any man-made activity that alters a sites natural contours, elevations, vegetation cover or

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any other features can be termed as site disturbance. Softeners: Chemical agents or solutions that are used as additives to water to reduce the hardness, to render the water more utilitarian are called softeners. Soil erosion: Soil erosion is the wearing away of the land surface by physical forces such as rainfall, flowing water, wind, ice, temperature change, gravity or other natural or anthropogenic agents. Solar radiation: Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles Storm water drainage management: Stormwater is of concern for two main issuesone related to the volume and timing of runoff water (flood control and water supplies) and the other related to potential contaminants that the water is carrying, that is, water pollution. Storm water drainage management includes practices developed in an attempt to reduce the negative impacts of storm water on stream and watershed health. Storm water: Stormwater is a term used to describe water that originates during precipitation events. Stormwater that does not soak into the ground becomes surface runoff, which either flows directly into receiving water bodies or is channeled into storm water drains, which eventually discharge to surface waters. Sub-soil/sub strata: The layer of earth immediately below the top soil, consisting predominantly of minerals and leached materials such as iron and aluminium compounds. Sub-surface storage: Water that is stored below the surface of the earth where either a separate facility is constructed or its occupies space in soils or geologic strata. Surface runoff: That part of precipitation, snowmelt, or irrigation water that runs off the land into streams or other surface water; can carry pollutants from the air and land into the receiving waters. Sustainable urban drainage systems: Aim to reduce flooding by managing urban run off in the way most suited to the specific development. Examples of SUDS (sustainable urban drainage system) measures include: excavation of swales, basins, ponds and soak-aways; permeable paving or other pervious surfaces, and planting of reed beds/wetlands. Urban Heat Island Effect: The well-known phenomenon allusive to the atmospheric temperature rise experienced by any urbanized area. The heat island phenomenon has been commonly associated to cities, because their surfaces are characterized by low albedo, high impermeability and favourable thermal properties for the energy storage and heat release. Urbanization: Urbanization is an index of transformation from traditional rural agrarian economies to modern industrial ones. Vacuum sweeping machine: An appliance that cleans outdoor areas, mainly pavements, roads, parking areas, and so on, by suction so as to remove particulate matter and rid the surface of any clogging of the pores. Variance: A variance is an exception to a zoning/ rule/ order restriction, which allows use of the land outside the requirements of the zoning for that area. A variance application generally included the premise and degree of deviation from an established set of rules. Vegetated roof/ green roof: Roofs that are vegetated , and have plant life growing on them are also called green roofs. Green roofs last longer than conventional roofs, reduce energy costs with natural insulation, create peaceful retreats for people and animals, and absorb storm water, potentially lessening the need for complex and expensive drainage systems. Water logging: Water stagnating on ground, site or roads with no draining route or because of flooding. This generally occurs during flash floods in low lying areas where drainage channels are altered. Water pollution: The man-made or man-induced alteration of the physical, biological, and radiological integrity of water. Water scarcity: This is a relative concept describing the relationship between demand for water and its availability. It can be defined as a situation where there is insufficient water to satisfy normal requirements. Water-holding capacity: The ability of the soil to retain or store water. Generally, the term is applied to systems that act as infiltration instruments, for example, lakes. Wetlands: Constructed wetlands for the purpose of storm water management are a further enhancement of retention ponds, and incorporate shallow areas planted with marsh or wetland vegetation. These provide a much greater degree of filtering and removal of nutrients by algae and, to a lesser extent, by incorporation into plant material.

Sewage management
Aerobic: Life or processes that require, or are not destroyed by, the presence of oxygen Anaerobic: A life or process that occurs in, or is not destroyed by, the absence of oxygen Aquifer: An underground geological formation,, or group of formations, containing usable amounts of groundwater that can supply wells and springs Biomethanization: Production of methane gas from biodegradable material by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste is called Bio-methanization. Chlorides: Compounds of chlorine, which is a highly reactive halogen element, used most often in the form of a pungent gas to disinfect drinking water Compliance: The state of being in accordance with established guidelines, specifications or legislation or the process of becoming so Discharge: The releasing of any liquid, generally effluent from a treatment process or untreated wastewater into an intended or unplanned destination by connecting to the same Disposal: Final placement or destruction of toxic, radioactive or other wastes; surplus or banned pesticides or other chemicals; polluted soils. Disposal

63
may be accomplished through use of approved secure landfills, surface impoundments, land farming, deep well injection, ocean dumping or incineration. Dual plumbing: Separate piping systems installed for fresh water and recycled/treated grey or black water reuse within a facility, which could be water usage areas in the building or site like toilets, wash areas, landscaping, and so on. Effective microorganisms: EM (effective microorganism) technology as it is is trademarked now uses a laboratory cultured mixture of micro organisms, which coexist for the benefit of whichever environment they are introduced, and is being extensively used in sewage and solid waste treatment. Fertilizer: Materials such as nitrogen and phosphorus that provide nutrients for plants. Commercially sold fertilizers may contain other chemicals or may be in the form of processed sewage sludge. Grey water: Wastewater from clothes, washing machines, showers, bathtubs, hand washing and sinks, but not sewage Groundwater: The supply of fresh water found beneath the earths surface (usually in aquifers), which is often accessed through wells and springs Irrigation: Technique for applying water or wastewater to land areas to supply the water and nutrient needs of plants Land application: Discharge of wastewater onto the ground for treatment or reuse Landfill: Landfills are land disposal sites for non-hazardous solid wastes at which wastes are spread in layers, compacted to the smallest practical volume, and covered at the end of each operating day Manure: Material, especially organic refuse, often with discarded animal dung, used to fertilize soil On-site: The performance of any related activity, either during construction or operation and maintenance on the construction/ building site itself is termed as an on-site activity. Operation and maintenance: Actions taken after construction to ensure that facilities constructed to treat wastewater will be properly operated, maintained, and managed to achieve efficiency levels and prescribed effluent levels in an optimum manner Organic: Referring to or derived from living organisms. In chemistry, any compound containing carbon pH: A measure of both acidity and alkalinity on a scale of 014, with seven representing neutrality; numbers less than seven indicate increasing acidity and numbers greater than seven indicate increasing alkalinity. Acid rain can increase the pH level of the water in a lake, thereby, killing all life. Potable water: Water that is safe for drinking and cooking Recharge (groundwater): The addition of water to an aquifer by natural or induced measures, so as to increase it availability levels Recycle: The process of minimizing the generation of waste by recovering usable products that might otherwise become wastes Regulations: Principles, rules or laws designed to control or govern conduct aimed at achieving social wellbeing Residual: Amount of a pollutant remaining in the environment after a natural or technological process has taken place, for example, the sludge remaining after initial wastewater treatment, or particulates remaining in air after the air passes through a scrubbing or other pollutant removal process Retrofitting: The process of addition of new technology or features to older systems to enhance or optimize their performance Reuse: The additional use of a component, part, or product after it has been removed from a clearly defined service cycle. Reuse does not include reformation. However, cleaning, repair or refurbishing may be done between uses. Sewage: The waste and wastewater produced by residential and commercial establishments and discharged into sewers Sewer: A channel or conduit that carries wastewater and storm water runoff from the source to a treatment plant or receiving stream. Sanitary sewers carry household, industrial, and commercial wastes. Storm sewers carry runoff from rain or snow. Combined sewers are used for both purposes. Sludge: A semisolid residue from any of a number of air or water treatment processes. Sludge can be a hazardous waste. Suspended solids: Small particles of solid pollutants that float on the surface of or are suspended in sewage or other liquids. They resist removal by conventional means. Sustainable: Development that ensures that the use of resources and the environment today does not compromise their use in the future Temperature: The degree of hotness or coldness of a body or material. Volatile: Description of any substance that evaporates readily Waste water treatment: A facility containing a series of tanks, screens, filters, and other processes by which pollutants are removed from water Waste water: Water that carries wastes from homes, businesses, and industries. It is usually a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids.

Building material
Building materials: Refers to various materials used for constructing buildings Compressed earth blocks: CEB (compressed earth blocks), are construction blocks made with clay, sand, and a stabilizing ingredient such as lime or Portland cement. The earth mixture is poured into a hydraulic press machine. Since they are machine-made, compressed earth blocks are uniform in size and shape.

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Ecology: The relationship of living things to one another and their environment or the study of such relationships Embodied energy: Energy required to extract, process, package, transport, install, and recycle or dispose off materials that make up a buildings construction. Environmental footprint: The environmental impact that an entity makes as it performs any activity. A footprint is determined by how well raw materials or by-products are or are not absorbed by the surrounding environment. Ferro-cement systems: A thin shell of highly reinforced Portland cement mortar. Generally, ferroFerro cement shells range from 1/2 inch to 2 inches in thickness, and the reinforcement consists of layers of steel mesh, usually with steel reinforcing bars sandwiched midway between Fly ash: Non-combustible residual particles from the combustion process carried by flue gas Lumber: Wood or wood products used for construction Masonry: Construction achieved through the use of units of various natural or artificial mineral products, such as stone, brick or concrete. The term may be applied to the craft itself or to the finished product. Nowadays good quality fly ash is available from thermal power plants, which are processed and used in manufacturing of PPC (Portland pozzolana cement). Portland pozzolona cement: It is obtained by either intergrinding a pozzolanic material with clinker and gypsum or by blending ground pozzolana with Portland cement. Precast systems: Components which are cast and partly matured in a factory or on the site before being lifted into their final position on a structure. Precasting increases the strength and finish durability of the member and decreases time and construction costs. Ready mix concrete: Ready-mix concrete is a type of concrete that is manufactured in a factory or batching plant, according to a set recipe, and then delivered to a worksite, by truck mounted transit mixers. Reinforced cement: Poured concrete (a strong hard building material composed of sand, gravel, cement, and water) containing steel bars or metal netting to increase its tensile strength Renewable: Resources that have the capacity to be naturally replenished despite being harvested (for example, forests, fish). The supply of these resources can, in theory, never be exhausted, usually because it is continuously produced Salvaged timber: Second-hand timber; also called reclaimed timber. Timber available for harvest in connection with incidental development, geological or geo-physical exploration or acts of nature viability of developmental plans of a particular site Aesthetic quality: The visual and functional appeal of a natural or man-made asset that increases the perceived quality of the same Air quality: A measurement of the pollutants in the air; a description of healthiness and safety of the atmosphere Basement: One or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor. Basements are typically used as utility spaces where such items as car parking, air conditioning system, and electrical distribution systems are located. Biodiversity: The variety of different living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the variety of different ecosystems that they form. This includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems, and the genetic variability of each species. Black cotton soil: Soil type that is characterized by high clay content, absorb water heavily, swell, become soft, lose strength, easily compressible and is unsuitable for construction activities generally. Conservation zone: A designated area of local, national or global architectural, historic or ecological importance, the character and appearance of which is desirable to preserve or enhance Construction runoff/ waste water: Runoff that is generated due to water used in various construction related activities on a site, viz., curing, concrete and mortar mixing, etc. Due to the nature of the various chemicals used in manufacturing various building materials, construction runoff is highly polluted and laden with sediments. Contaminated material: Material that is polluted by hazardous or non-hazardous chemicals and cannot be accepted for its Demarcation: The setting or marking of boundaries or limits to delineate a specified area from a larger area Divert: The act of changing a natural course or intentionally creating a directional channel to allow material to be carried from one point to another. Dust pollution: Air pollution caused by dust particles Ecosystems: Natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms in an area functioning together with all the physical factors of the environment. It is a unit of inter-dependent organisms which share the same habitat. Effective planting: Planting vegetation that is most suitable for the soil characteristics and the local climate, and it also gives the additional benefit of preventing soil erosion and conserving the top soil Erosion control: The wearing away of land surface by wind, water, glaciers, chemicals, and exposure to the atmosphere. Erosion occurs naturally but can be intensified by land-clearing practices related to farming, residential or industrial development, road building or deforestation. Evolution: A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form

Ecology and geological conservation


Accredited geologist: A professionally qualified and certified scientist, who, by virtue of his/her education and experience is eligible to survey, analyse and advise appropriately regarding the geological suitability/

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Geology: Science that deals with the origin, history, and structure of the earth, including the study of rocks and minerals Hazardous: Any material/ substance that can pose a substantial or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed Heritage: A property, structure, culture or something that defines the unique identity of a place and comes or belongs to a community by virtue of birth or living in it. Hydrological regime: The natural behavioral pattern of water movement over the surface and below it, consisting of magnitude, flow direction and timing, and so on that that define the water resource scenario of a region. The geology, climate, and the ecological activities of the region have a high bearing to the formation of this regime. Inventory: An evaluation or a survey consisting of a detailed, itemized list, report or record of assets or resources making up a particular property Landscape architect: One whose profession is the decorative and functional alteration and planting of grounds, especially at or around a building site. Landscape architects are concerned with improving the ways in which people interact with the landscape, as well as with reducing the negative impacts that human use has upon sensitive landscapes. Mature tree: A tree that has reached a desired size or age for its intended use. Size, age or economic maturity varies depending on the species and intended use. It also refers to a tree that has a well-developed tree canopy (that is, mature canopy). Smaller trees are usually considered mature at 20 years and for larger trees, 25 years. Micro habitats: A small, localized habitat within a larger ecosystem, as a decomposing log in a forest, having conditions that sustain a limited range of animals and plants Migratory birds: Birds travelling from one place to another at regular times of the year, often over long distances. Mulch: Any loose material placed over the soil to control weeds and conserve soil moisture. Usually this is a coarse organic matter, such as leaves, clippings or bark, but plastic sheeting and other commercial products can also be used. If placed around plants, mulch provides additional benefits, including the diminution of erosion and water loss, and the regulation of soil temperature. Non-invasive: Species, which are able to proliferate and aggressively alter or displace indigenous biological communities. Non-native: Not indigenous or originating from a particular area Onsite treatment plant: A treatment facility set up on the very site that is generating the waste water/runoff, so that conveying the untreated water to a common facility or disposing without treatment can be avoided. Percolate: The property of a material/system that allows liquid to pass through or drain through small holes Peripheral areas: Areas on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary of a central location Preservation: The act or process of safeguarding any resource from injury, destruction or decay Rainfall intensity: The amount of rainfall occurring in a unit of time, usually expressed in inches or millimetres per hour Recreational space: A public space that is allocated and designed for recreational purposes. For example, parks, auditoria, galleries, river and lake fronts, and so on Regulated green zones: Earmarked or designated zones protected by law where specific human activities are restricted for want of protecting and enhancing the ecological value of the same Remote sensing: The use of satellites to gather data, images, and so, so as to study various phenomena on earth or other bodies of the solar system Replantation: To plant again or in a new place; refers to compensatory replantation in the event of unavoidable removal of a tree/ plant from a particular site Rock formations: Isolated, scenic or spectacular surface roof outcrops. These are usually the result of weathering and erosion sculpting the existing rock over millions of years. Rock gardens: Rock gardens really offer some of the most spectacular garden vistas. Along with extensive usage of rocks and stones the plants native to the rocky or alpine environments are featured in the rock gardens or rockeries. The rock garden is usually observed as a pile of rocks of different sizes that are aesthetically arranged with small gaps being introduced in between them for planting of flora. Rock stabilization: The application of various techniques to make an unstable rock slope or structure, stable, and safe Sapling: A young tree; specifically one that is not over four inches in diameter at breast height Sedimentation pit: A temporary pit, which is constructed to trap the sediments coming from construction runoff so that it is filtered before being disposed or further treated Seeding: To sprinkle with seed or sow seeds for developing any vegetation Settlement: A community of people living together, that is smaller than a town Site planning: The organizational stage of planning any site development. It includes outlining of all structures along with site improvements, such as driveways, parking lots, landscaping, and utility connections. Soil characteristics: The various physical, chemical, hydrological, and geological characteristics of soil types that collectively determine its suitability for supporting plant life and other site developments Soil pollution: Build-up of soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radio-active materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health

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Spillages: The accidental causing of falling or draining of liquids Stabilizing material: Material used to cover soil to give additional support or stability and prevent it from eroding away from slopes, in case of rainfall or other causes, and so on. Survey: The collection of data from a given population for the purpose of analysis of a particular issue. Data is often collected from only a sample of a population, which is known as a sample survey. Swales: Low tract of land, especially one that is moist and marshy. The term can refer to a natural landscape feature or a human-created one. When created specifically, this open drain system is usually designed to manage runoff. Top soil conservation: The activity or the process of removing and protecting the top soil from any construction or development site for reusing it onsite later on for developing a landscape; basically done to conserve the top soil that have high geological value. Transplantation: The process of digging up a plant/tree and moving it to another location Urban niches: Niche or specialized zones in urban areas that are assemblages of various native ecological factors (water, food, energy, land, climate, and so on) and ecological relationships (quality of life, interrelations with other life systems, and so on)

Others
Particulate: Fine liquid or solid particles, such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes or smog, found in air or emissions

Water Comfort Building materials Storm water Pollution Water


Solid waste management Ecology and geology Building materials
Like other cities, Hyderabad has been growing at an extremely fast rate. The ever-increasing population is exerting tremendous pressure on the existing resources and infrastructure facilities. This has led to negative impacts on the natural environment of Hyderabad. Given this backdrop, the HMDA (Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority) initiated the development of EBRGs (Environmental Building Regulation Guidelines) in association with TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) and Terraviridis Environmental Building Design Consultants, in order to promote the design, construction, and retrofit of habitats and buildings that are environmentally sustainable and help in minimizing their impacts on the environment in the Greater Hyderabad area. This booklet aims to provide a concise summary of the ERBGs in an easy-to-understand format. EBRGs cover various aspects of sustainable design at the building level, as well as the neighbourhood levels. These guidelines attempt to provide information and direction to various stakeholders in order to create an environment-friendly sustainable habitat. Divided into various sub-heads energy, comfort, water, storm water, sewage, solid waste management, pollution, ecology and geology, and materials the booklet contains simple solutions and tips to improve the energy and resource performance of the new as well as existing buildings.

Energy Sewage Ecology and geology

Comfort

visual, thermal, noise level, air quality

Comfort visual, thermal, noise level, air quality) Energy Water Building materials Sewage Ecology and geology

Comfort Pollution Water visual, thermal, noise level, air quality) Sewage

Storm water

Solid waste management